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Building Material & Construction

STONE is a naturally available building material, which has been form the early age of civilization. It is available in from in the form of rock,which is cut to the required size and shape and used as building block. Stone hasbeen used to build small residential building to large places and temples. Stones shouldpossess fine grained texture. It should be free from soft patches, flows and cracks The strength of stone should be ascertained if it is to be subjected to any excessive or unusual stresses.Shade of thestone should be uniform and pleasing. Freshlybroken surface should be bright and cracks The stoneshould be strong, hard and durable. the hardness of stone is often of importance, especially ifit is to be subjected to a considerable amount of wear and friction, as inpavements. The specificgravity should not be less than 2.5 It should possess good resistance to weathering It should beeasily workable before seasoning.theappearance of stone is often a matter of importance, especially in the facework of conspicuous buildings.In order that the appearance may be preserved, agood weathering stone should of course be selected, free from flaws, clayholes,etc. It shouldhave good resistance to smoke, fire and acidic atmosphere It should not absorb more than 5% of water byweight, when kept immersed in water for 24 hrs. In attrition test, the stone should not show wear of more 2% The weight of a stone for building has occasionally to beconsidered. In marine engineering works it is often advisable to use heavystones to resist the force of the sea. A light stone would be best adapted forarches, while heavy stones would add to the stability of retaining walls. It should become hard after seasoning. This seasoning gets rid of the moisture, sometimes called quarry sap, which is to be found in all stone when freshly quarried. Toughness index should be more than 19

Characteristics Of Building Stone. Part 2


Facility For Working
The readiness with which stone can be converted by the mason into the various shapes in which it is required for different kinds of work is of importance from an economical point of view. The characteristics of a stone in this respect will depend in some cases upon its hardness, but will also be influenced by the soundness of its texture; by its freedom from flaws, shakes, vents; etc.; and also by its natural cleavage and other peculiarities. A soft stone of even grain and without distinct beds would naturally be selected for carved work, while a hard stone in thin layers, easily separated, would be well adapted for building good and economical rubble masonry. (See Part I.)

Hardness
The hardness of stone is often of importance, especially if it is to be subjected to a considerable amount of wear and friction, as in pavements. It is, moreover, important when the stone is to be used for quoins, dressings, and other positions where it is required to preserve a sharp angle or "arris." Hardness combined with toughness is also essential in good road metalling, which should not, however, be liable to splinter or to grind readily into dust. It does not follow because a stone is hard that it will weather well; many hard stones are more liable to atmospheric influence than those of a softer texture, whose chemical composition is of a more durable nature. Stone used for work exposed to the action of water should be hard running or dripping water soon wears away the surface. The blocks of stone in marine works are subject to serious injury not only from the impact of the waves themselves, but from the sand and stones thrown against them by the force of the sea.

Strength
The strength of stone should be ascertained if it is to be subjected to any excessive or unusual stresses. Stones in ordinary building or engineering works are generally, under compression, occasionally subject to cross strain, but never to direct tension. It is generally laid down that the compression to which a stone should be subjected in a structure should not exceed 1/10 of the crushing weight as found by experiment. Practically, however, the compression that comes upon a stone in any ordinary building is never sufficient to cause any danger of crushing.

The greatest stress that comes upon any part of the masonry in St. Paul's Cathedral is hardly 14 tons per square foot. In St. Peter's, Rome, it is about 151/2 tons per square foot. By a reference to page 81 it will be seen that these stresses would be safely borne even by the softer descriptions of stone. The weakest sandstones that exist will bear a compression of 120 tons per foot, while the resistance of ordinary building stones ranges from 140 to 500 tons per square foot, and in the case of granites and traps rises as high as 700 or 800 tons per square foot. It is possible, however, in some forms of arches, in retaining walls, and in other structures, that a considerable pressure may be concentrated upon certain points, which are liable to be crushed.

Weight
The weight of a stone for building has occasionally to be considered. In marine engineering works it is often advisable to use heavy stones to resist the force of the sea. A light stone would be best adapted for arches, while heavy stones would add to the stability of retaining walls.

Appearance
The appearance of stone is often a matter of importance, especially in the face work of conspicuous buildings. In order that the appearance may be preserved, a good weathering stone should of course be selected, free from flaws, clayholes, etc. All varieties containing much iron should be rejected, or they will be liable to disfigurement from unsightly rust stains caused by the oxidation of the iron under the influence of the atmosphere. Stones of blotched or mottled colour should be regarded with suspicion. There is probably a want of uniformity in their chemical composition, which may lead to unequal weathering (see p. 5).

Stone is extensively used in construction industry. Not every stone can give great results because it depends upon various factors which assign different properties to stone. Main Characteristics of a Good Building stone are following.

Appearance & color Uniform color, darker shades are preferred. Should be free from clay holes, bands or spots. Structure Not dull in appearance, crystalline homogenous, close and fine grained is good. Stratification should not be visible. Weight Heavier are compact, less porous and are good for hydraulic structures. Strength Generally compressive strength is needed. Igneous rock stones are stronger. Hardness Resistance to abrasion, friction and wear. Its measured on Mohs Hardness scale. Toughness Withstands impact, vibrations, moving and dead loads. Dressing Uniform texture and softness for fine surface finish. Important for face work of public buildings. Porosity and Absorption Exposed surface absorbs rain water which forms acids causing crumbling action. Less porous stones absorb less fluid hence are more durable. Seasoning Hardening and weathering affect due to evaporation of quarry sap and formation of crystalline film. 6 to 12 months for proper seasoning is essential to make the stone worth using in construction applications. Weathering Should withstand rains, frost, wind and all other extremities in weather. Resistance to fire If free from calcium carbonate or oxides of iron, it will show considerable resistance to fire. Durability Compact stones are more durable. Cost Should have minimum cost in quarrying, transportation, dressing and installation.