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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 21

Linear Programming

21
1. (a)

(b)

x<3

y = 2x
y=x+1

0
x=3

(b)

4. (a) y  3, x  2 and y  2x

y = 2x 4

(b) y  1, y  x and x + y  6

y  2x 4
x

(c) Equation of OA is y = 2x
1
Equation of OB is y = x
2
Equation of CD is x + y = 6
1
Therefore, y  2x, y  x and x + y  6.
2

(c)

31
(d) Equation of AB is y 3 = (x 2)
24
y 3 = x + 2
y = x + 5

y > x + 5
5

x
5

21
Equation of BC is y = x + 2
04
1x+2
y=
4
Therefore, y x 1  0, y  x + 5 and
1 x + 2.
y
4

y = x + 5

2. (a) y  2x + 3
(b) y  x + 2
3. (a)

x
5
y = x + 5

5. (a) y  x

y=x

(b) y  2x

y=1

(c) y x  5

x
0

(d) y  x 2

x=3

(e) y  2x
(f) y  3x
(g) y  2x
(h) x + 2y  10

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 21

(i) 2x y  8

(b) Total number of fruits = x + y

x 
3
(j)
y
4
4x  3y

(c) (i)

(k) y  3x

(ii) The range of number of oranges


= {y : 0  y  26, y w}

(l) y  4x 1

(iii) The range of number of apples


= {x : 8  x  40, x w}

x 
2
(m)
y
5
5x  2y

(iv) Cost = 0.5x + 0.4y


The total cost spent = 0.5(20) + 0.4(25)
= 10 + 10
= RM20.00

(n) (2x + 3y) (x + y)  4


x + 2y  4
6. (a) (i)

Maximum number of fruits bought


= 16 + 30
= 46

Maximum x = 4

(ii) Minimum y = 2
(iii) 2  y  4
(iv) The maximum value of x + 2y = 4 + 2(4)
= 12
The minimum value of x + 2y = 2 + 2(2)
=6
(b) (i)

1. (a) I: 30x + 30y  540


3x + 3y  54
II: 40x + 30y  480
4x + 3y  48

Maximum x = 3

x 
1
III:
y
2
2x  y

(ii) Minimum y = 0
(iii) 1  y  5
(iv) The maximum value of x + 2y = 2 + 2(5)
= 12
The minimum value of x + 2y = 0 + 2(0)
=0
(c) (i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

(b)
y
18
16

Maximum x = 4
Minimum y = 2
None
The maximum value of x + 2y = 3 + 2(4)
= 11
The minimum value of x + 2y = 4 + 2(2)
=8

y = 2x

14
12
10

3x + 3y = 54

7. (a) x  8, y  2x, 0.5x + 0.4y  20


5x + 4y  200

y
50

x=8

y = 2x

4x + 3y = 48

2
2x + y = 2

40
0

10

12

14

16

18

(16, 30)

30

(c) (i)
20

5x + 4y = 200

x + y = 10
x
10

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20

30

Maximum number of cake A produced is


8

(ii) Profit = 2x + y
Minimum profit = 2(5) + 10
= RM20.00

10

x
6

40

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 21

2. (a) x + y  100, y  2x, y + 3x  240


(b)

(c) (i)

y
y = 2x

If the number of students for subject


P is 20, then the range for subject C is
10  y  60.

(ii) Fees = 40x + 20y


The maximum total fees per month
= 40(45) + 20(35)
= 1800 + 700
= RM2500

100

80
R
60

y + 3x = 240

4. (a) Let x and y represent the number of science and


mathematics reference books respectively.
I: x + y  80
II: y  2x
III: y x  10
(b)

40
x + y = 100

20
120x + 140y = 1680

(c) (i)

20

40

60

80

100

90

When y = 45, the maximum value of x = 65


and the minimum value of x = 55

80
y = 2x
y x = 10

60
50

3. (a) x + y  80, x  3y, x y  10

40

(b)

30

y
80

20

70

x + y = 80

10

x y = 10

60

10
20
4x + 2y = 40

50

(c) (i)

40

30

30

40

50

60

70

80

The maximum number of mathematics


books that can be bought is 53.

(ii) Cost = 4x + 2y

x = 3y

Let 4x + 2y = 40

20

At point (10, 20), the total cost is


minimum.

10
0

x + y = 80

70

(ii) Charges = 120x + 140y


The maximum charges paid
= 120(48) + 140(96)
= RM19 200

Total minimum cost


= 4(10) + 2(20)
= 40 + 40
= RM80

x
10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

40x + 20y = 400

1. (a) x  80, y  60, x + y  30

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 21

(b)

(b)
y

y
60

y = 60

y = 8x

200

50
40

5x + 2y = 100

150

R
x = 80

30

100
20
10
0

x + y = 30

50

x + y = 200

x
10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

x + 5y = 100

20x + 10y = 200

(c) (i)

50

100

150

200

100x + 50y = 2500

Cost for a piece of alloy = 20x + 10y


The minimum cost of production
= 20(1) + 10(30)
= RM320

160  y  180

(c) (i)

(ii) Profit = 100x + 50y


The maximum profit = 100(22) + 50(178)
= RM11 100

(ii) Profit = 5x + 2y
Maximum profit = 5(80) + 2(60)
= RM520
2. (a) x  45, y  40, x + y  90
1. (a)

(b)

y
90

D(2, 8)

80
70

R
A(0, 2)

60
50

30
x + y = 90

20
10

x
20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

(c) (i) 50 ways


(ii) 10 ways

Therefore, the three inequalities are y  1,


y  3x + 2, 2y + 7x  30.

3. (a) x + y  200,
x 
1 , that is, 8x  y

y
8
100x + 500y  10 000, that is, x + 5y  100

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Equation of CD is
81
y 1 = (x 4)
24
7
y 1 = (x 4)
2
2y + 2 = 7x 28
2y = 7x 30
2y = 7x + 30

x = 45
10

Equation of AD is
82
y = x + 2
20
y = 3x + 2

y = 40

40

C(4, 1)

B(0, 1)
0

(b) {(0, 2), (1, 5), (2, 8)}

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 21

x
1
4. (a) x + y  40, 50x + 100y  3000,
y 
2
x + 2y  60
2x  y
(b)

2. Equation of line DEFG is


21
y 1 = (x 3)
43
y 1= x 3
y= x 2

Equation of line ABCD is


43
y = x + 4
01
y = x + 4

40

30

Therefore, the three inequalities are y  4, y  x 2,


y  x + 4.

40

x+

20x +

80y =

2y
=

640

60

10

20

30

40

50

60

(c) (i)

From the graph, the minimum number of


adults = 24 people
(ii) Profit = 20x + 80y
Minimum profit = 20(12) + 80(24)
= 240 + 1920
= RM2160

y
x = 10
60
50

5. (a) x  40, x + y  50, y  2x,


50x + 100y  5000
x + 2y  100
(b)

40
30
x=

2y

80

20x

70

+1

+
y = 2x

y
=

0y

60

60

00

=2

10

3. (a) x + y  60, x  10, x  2y


(b)

10

2x = y
+

20

Maximum value = 4(x + y)


= 4(6 + 4)
= 40

20

10

x
20

30

40

50

x = 40

50

60
40

(c) Transportation collection = 20x + 10y


30

Maximum transportation collection


= 20(40) + 10(20)
= 800 + 200
= RM1000

x+

20
10
0

2y
=

100

x + y = 50
x
10

(c) (i)

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

From the graph,


when x = 30, 20  y  35

(ii) From the graph,


if x = y, 25  x  33 and 25  y  33
(iii) From the graph, the maximum number of
commodity B is 40.

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