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# Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 20

20

Motion along a
Straight Line

1. (a) Distance OA = 5 m
Distance OB = 2 m

(c)

## (b) Displacement of A from O = 5 m

Displacement of B from O = 2 m

s0
t2 4t  0
t(t 4)  0
s

= 52 + 3(5)
= 40 m

## (b) Distance travelled in the first 4 seconds

= s4 s0
= [42 + 3(4)] (0)
= 28 m

## 0  t  4 is the time when the particle is on the

left of O.
(d) s  0
Based on diagram in (c),
t  4 is the time when the particle is on the right
of O.

(c) s5 s3
= [52 + 3(5)] [32 + 3(3)]
= 22 m
(d) Distance travelled during the 3rd second
= s3 s2
= [32 + 3(3)] [22 + 3(2)]
=8m

4. (a) s = t(t 4)
= t2 4t

3. (a) s = t2 4t
When s = 0,
t2 4t = 0
t(t 4) = 0
t = 0, 4
After 4 seconds, the particle returns to O.

s
5

(b) When s = 4,
4 = t2 4t
t2 4t + 4 = 0
(t 2)2 = 0
t=2
After 2 seconds, the particle is at 4 m on the left
of O.

t
2

4 5

(b) (i)

O.

=24+5
= 13 m

## Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 20

(c) When t = 1,
v = 2(1) + 6
=8
Therefore, the particle is moving towards right.

## (iii) The displacement after 5 seconds is 5 m on

the right of O.
(iv) The time when the particle passes through
O again is 4 s.
t  4 is the time interval when the particle
is on the right-hand side of O.

(v)

ds
v =
dt
= 6t 12

5. (a) s = t2 9
t=0
A

## (b) Initial velocity = 6(0) 12

= 12 m s1
Its direction of motion is towards left.

When t = 0, s = 9
OA = 9 m
(b)

(c)

s
t2 9
(t + 3)(t 3)
t

(c) When v = 0,
6t 12 = 0
t= 2

=0
=0
=0
= 3, t = 3 is ignored

s = 3(2)2 12(2)
= 12 m

s0
t2 9  0
(t + 3)(t 3)  0

## When the particle is instantaneous at rest, the time

is 2 s and the displacement is 12 m on the left of
O.

(d)
t

## 0  t  3 is the time interval when the particle

is on the left-hand side of O.

v 0
6t 12  0
t 2
The time interval is 0  t  2 when the particle
is moving towards left.

8. (a) v = t(t 4)

(d) s = 42 9
=7m

(e) s4 s3
= (42 9) (32 9)
=7m

(f) s = t2 9
s
4
7

(b) (i)
0

t
3

## (ii) The time interval when the particle moves

towards left is 0  t  4.

(iii)

v dt =

(t2 4t) dt

t3 2t2 4
=
0
3
3
4
= 2(4)2 (0)
3
2 m
= 10
3

6. (a) v = 2t + 6
Initial velocity = 2(0) + 6
= 6 m s1
(b) When v = 10,
10 = 2t + 6
2t = 4
t=2
After 2 seconds passing through O, its velocity is
10 m s1.
Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

2 m.
4 seconds is 10
3
2

## Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 20

(f) v = 3t2 + 8t

9. (a) v = 3t2 + 8t

= (3t + 8t) dt

s = v dt

1
5
3

= t3 + 4t2 + c

When t = 0, s = 0
c=0
s = t3 + 4t2

1
5
3

(b) When v = 0,
3t2 + 8t = 0
t(3t + 8) = 0
8
t = 0,
3

8 3

10. (a) v = t3 4t
When v = 0,
t3 4t = 0
t(t2 4) = 0
t = 0, t2 = 4
t = 2, t = 2 is ignored
After 2 seconds, the particle stops instantaneously.

## The time when the particle stops instantaneously

8 s.
for the second time is
3
(c)

v 0
3t2 + 8t  0
t(3t + 8)  0
v

=

3
8

(3t2 + 8t) dt
0

(0)
2

(t3 4t) dt

t 4 2t2
v dt =
4

3
2

1
= 4 + 6
4
1 m
= 10
4

## (e) The maximum distance of the particle is when

8.
v = 0, that is, t =
3
Maximum distance = t3 + 4t2

v dt

= t3 + 4t2 3

(c)

8 3+4
8
=
3
3
13
= 9 m
27

3 4 2(3)2
2 4 2(2)2
=
4
4
1
= 6 m
4

v dt =

t 4 2t2
=
4
0
4
2
= 2(2)2 (0)
4
= 4

v dt

8 3+4
8
=
3
3
13
= 9 m
27

v dt +

## Time interval when the particle travelled in the

8.
right direction is 0  t 
3
(d) Distance travelled =

v 0
t3 4t  0
t(t2 4)  0
From the graph,
0  t  2 is the time interval when the particle
is moving towards left.

(d) When t = 5,
Velocity, v = 53 4(5)
= 105 m s1

## 11. (a) s = t3 2t2 + t

ds
Velocity, v =
dt
= 3t2 4t + 1
dv
(b) Acceleration, a =
dt
= 6t 4

(c) When v = 0,
3t2 4t + 1 = 0
(3t 1)(t 1) = 0
1,1
t=
3
The acceleration of the particle when it stops at
second time
= 6(1) 4
= 2 m s2

(h) a = 6t 4
t

a
8

(d) When a = 8,
6t 4 = 8
t=2
The displacement when a = 8
= 23 2(2)2 + 2
= 2 m on the right of O

=

## (e) Minimum velocity is when a = 0.

6t 4 = 0
4
t=
6
2
=
3
Minimum velocity
= 3t2 4t + 1

v dt +

v dt

v
1

2 24
2 +1
=3
3
3
1
1
=ms
3

v dt =

(3t2 4t + 1) dt

0
1

= t3 2t2 + t 3
0

(f) s = t3 2t2 + t

13

4 m
=
27

v dt = t3 2t2 + t 1
3

= [13 2(1)2 + 1]

4
= 0
27
4 m
=
27

t
1

(g) v = 3t2 4t + 1
= (3t 1)(t 1)
t

1 (0)
1 2+
2
3
3

13

4
4 +
=
27
27
8 m
=
27

1
1 2+
2
3
3

## Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 20

13. (a) v = 6t 10
dv
a =
dt
a=6

12. (a) a = 6t

= 6t dt

v = a dt

= 3t2 + c

s = (6t 10) dt

(b) s = v dt

Given t = 0, v = 12,
c = 12
v = 3t2 + 12

s = 3t2 10t + c
Given t = 0, s = 0, c = 0
s = 3t2 10t

= (3t + 12) dt

(b) s = v dt

(c)

= t3 + 12t + c

s0
3t2 10t  0
t(3t 10)  0

Given t = 0, s = 0,
c=0
s = t3 + 12t
(c) (i)

Displacement = 13 + 12(1)
= 13 m on the right of O

= 15 m s1

## Therefore, the time interval for the particle on the

10 .
left of O is 0  t 
3
(d)
v0
6t 10  0
10
t 
6
5
t
3
Therefore, the time interval when the particle is
5.
moving towards direction of left is 0  t 
3

(iii) Acceleration = 6t
= 6(1)
= 6 m s2
(d) When v = 24,
3t2 + 12 = 24
3t2 = 12
t2 = 4
t = 2, t = 2 is ignored
Acceleration when v = 24
=62
= 12 m s2
(e) (i)

t
10

## (e) v = 0 when s is the maximum

6t 10 = 0
5
t=
3
Maximum displacement on the left

s = t3 + 12t
Distance travelled after 2 seconds
= 23 + 12(2)
= 32 m

5 2 10
5
=3
3
3
25
50
=
3
3
25 m
=
3

(ii) s2 = 32 m
s1 = 13 + 12(1)
= 13 m
Distance travelled during the second
second
= s2 s1
= 32 13
= 19 m

## (f) Distance travelled from t = 3 to t = 5

5
v dt
=

(iii) s = t + 12t
= 43 + 12(4)
= 112 m

(6t 10) dt

= 3t2 10t

5
3

= 25 (3)
= 28 m

## Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 20

(g) (i)

(b) v = t2 8t 20, 0  t  10

v = 6t 10
v

v
(4, 14)
t

10

B
t

0
10

20

seconds

5 + 1 14
7
1 10
=

3
3
2
2
25
49
= +
3
3
74
=
3

=
=

10

v dt

0
10

(t2 8t 20) dt

1 t3 4t2 20t
=
3

10
0

## 10 4(10)2 20(10) (0)

=
3
2 m
= 266
3
Distance travelled in the first 10 seconds is
2 m.
266
3

74

3
Average speed =
4
1
= 6 m s1
6
Total displacement
(ii) Average velocity =
Time
8
=
4
= 2 m s1

2. (a) v = t2 + 3t + 4
At the point R, v
t2 + 3t + 4
t2 3t 4
(t 4)(t + 1)
t=4

=0
=0
=0
=0

to point R.

1. (a) (i)

dv
(b) a =
dt
= 2t + 3

2t 8 = 0
t=4

= 2(4) + 3
= 5 m s2

= (2t 8) dt

v = a dt

## (c) For maximum velocity,

a= 0
2t + 3 = 0
3
t=
2
Maximum velocity

= t2 8t + c

Given t = 0, v = 20
c = 20
v = t2 8t 20

3 2+3
3 +4
=
2
2
1
1
= 6 m s
4

## Minimum velocity = 42 8(4) 20

= 36 m s1
(ii) v = t2 8t 20
when t = n, v = 0
n2 8n 20 = 0
(n 10)(n + 2) = 0
n = 10, n = 2 is ignored since
n is time

## Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 20

3. (a) v = t2 + 8t 7
(i) Initial velocity
= (0)2 + 8(0) 7
= 7 m s1
v0
t2 + 8t 7  0
(t + 1)(t 7)  0

(ii)

t
1

4. (a)

t3 + 4t2 7t 7
v dt =
3
1
73 + 4(7)2 7(7)
1 +47
=
3
3
= 36 m

dvQ
= 0,
vQ is minimum when
dt
4t 4 = 0
t=1

0
0
 8
4

= 2(1)2 4(1) 16
= 18 m s1

## Therefore, the time interval during which

the acceleration is negative is t  4.

## (b) Particle Q stops at C,

vQ = 0
2t2 4t 16 = 0
t2 2t 8 = 0
(t 4)(t + 2) = 0
t = 4, t = 2 is ignored

(b) v = t2 + 8t 7
= (t + 7)(t 1)
t

vQ = 2t2 4t 16
dvQ
= 4t 4

dt

## Therefore, the time interval during which the

particle moves towards right is 1  t  7.
a
2t + 8
2t
t

1 + 36
Total distance travelled = 3
3
1 m
= 39
3

(iii)

1 + 4 7 (0)
=
3
1
= 3 m
3

vQ = 2t2 4t 16
v

sQ = (2t2 4t 16) dt
2 t3 2t2 16t + c
=
3
Given t = 0, SQ = 0, c = 0
2 t3 2t2 16t
sQ =
3

0 1

When t = 4,
2 (4)3 2(4)2 16(4)
BC =
3
1 m
= 53
3

7 seconds
=

v dt +

v dt =

v dt

1
AC = 60 53
3
2
= 6 m
3

(t2 + 8t 7) dt

t3 + 4t2 7t
=
3

1
0

## (e) When s = 15,

3t2 12t = 15
3t2 12t 15 = 0
t2 4t 5 = 0
(t + 1)(t 5) = 0
t = 5, t = 1 is ignored

(c) When Q at C, t = 4
Displacement of P = 4 3
= 12 m
Difference in distance between P and Q
2
= 12 6
3
1 m
= 5
3

## The velocity = 6(5) 12

= 18 m s1
2. (a)

1. (a) s = 3t 12t
Displacement = s1 s0
= [3(1)2 12(1)] (0)
= 9 m
The distance travelled in the first second is 9 m.
(b)

B
sQ = t 2 8t

sp = 52 + 4(5)
= 45 m

## The two particles meet after 5 seconds they pass

through A and B respectively and it is at 45 m on
the right of A.

t
4

2t 8 = 0
t=4

## Therefore, the time interval for the particle to be

on the left of O is 0  t  4.

## Substitute t = 4 into sQ = t2 8t,

sQ = 42 8(4)
= 16 m
After 4 seconds particle Q passes through B, it
reverses its direction at a distance of 16 m on the
left of B.

## (c) When the particle passes through O again, s = 0

3t2 12t = 0
3t(t 4) = 0
t = 4, t = 0 is ignored
ds
v =
dt
= 6t 12

When t = 4,
vP = 2(4) + 4
= 12 m s1

again
= 6(4) 12
= 12 m s1

(d) sQ = t2 8t

6t 12 = 0
t= 2

10

20

= 12 m

12 m.

20

## Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

60 m

sP = t2 + 4t, sQ = t2 8t
Assume P and Q meet at C after k seconds.
Distance travelled by P + Distance travelled by
Q = 60
(k2 + 4k) + (8k k2) = 60
12k = 60
k=5

s0
3t2 12t  0
3t(t 4)  0

sP = t 2 + 4t ,

t
8 10

(e)

vQ  0

2t 8  0
t4

v dt +

## 0  t  4 is the time interval for object Q moves

in the direction of left.

v dt =

v dt

(4t 3t2) dt

= 2t2 t3 3

v = 4t 3t2

(0)

4 2
4
= 2
3
3
5
= 1 m
27

## When the particle reverses, v = 0

4t 3t2 = 0
t(4 3t) = 0
4 , t = 0 is ignored
t=
3
Given v = 4t 3t2,
a = 4 6t

v dt = 2t2 t34
2

4 2
4
= [2(2)2 23] 2
3
3
5 m
= 1
27

4,
At t =
3

4
a=46
3
= 4 m s2

= 2t2 t3 + c
Given t = 0, s = 0, c = 0
s = 2t2 t3

Displacement
=
Time

## When t = 1, s = 2(1)2 (1)3

=1m

When t = 2, s = 2(2)2 23
=0

1 m.

5 2
= 1
27
10 m
= 2
27

## (b) s = (4t 3t2) dt

4. (a) v = t2 6t k
0

Given v = 0, when t = 3
0 = 32 6(3) k
k = 9
(b) v = t2 6t + 9
When t = 0, v = 9 m s1
The velocity at O is 9 m s1.

0

t
4

v dt

(t2 6t + 9) dt

t3 3t2 + 9t
=
3

3 3(3)2 + 9(3)
23 3(2)2 + 9(2)
=
3
3
1
=m
3

## Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 20

5. (a) (i)

= (2t 3) dt

v = a dt

= t2 3t + c

Given t = 0, v = 10, c = 10
v = t2 3t 10

5 + 3
5
Total distance travelled = 45
6
6
2
= 49 m
3
6. (a) a = 10 m s2
v=

10

1
12
4

10 dt

v = 10t + c
Given t = 2, v = 15, c = 35
v = 10t 35
(i)

At point O, t = 0,
Its velocity = 10(0) 35
= 35 m s1

## (ii) s = (10t 35) dt

s = 5t2 35t + c
Given t = 0, s = 0, c = 0
s = 5t2 35t

v
8

When v = 25,
10t 35 = 25
t =6

## The displacement of the object

= 5(6)2 35(6)
= 30 m
= 30 m on the left of O

10
3 12
1
,
2
4

5
=
v dt

= (t 3t 10) dt
0

3 t2 10t
t3
=
2
3

v = t 3t 10
= (t 5)(t + 2)

3 (5)2 10(5)
53

2
3
5
= 3 m
6

3 (6)2 10(6)
63
=
2
3

## The range of time for particle to decelerate

3.
is 0  t 
2
(b) (i)

v dt

3 23
3 10
=
2
2
9
9
= 10
2
4
1
= 12 m s1
4

a0
2t 3  0
3
t
2

3 t2 10t
t3
=
2
3

Minimum velocity = t2 3t 10

## For minimum velocity, a = 0

2t 3 = 0
3
t=
2

(ii)

53
3 (5)2 10(5) (0)
=
3
2
5
= 45 m
6
Distance from t = 5 to t = 6

a = 2t 3

5
0

10

## Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 20

2. (a) s = t3 + pt2 + qt
Given s = 0, t = 3

## (b) When the object reverses its direction, v = 0

10t 35 = 0
35
t =
10
7
t=
2

0 = 33 + p(3)2 + q(3)
9p + 3q + 27 = 0
3p + q + 9 = 0.......................... 
s = t3 + pt2 + qt
Given s = 6 when t = 1

s = 5t2 35t

7 2 35
7
=5
2
2
1 m
= 61
4

6 = 1 + p(1) + q(1)
p + q + 7 = 0 ............................... 
 , 2p + 2 = 0
p = 1

1 m.
The distance travelled is 61
4

Substitute p = 1 into ,
1 + q + 7 = 0
q = 6

(c) At O, s = 0
5t2 35t = 0
5t(t 7) = 0
t = 0, 7

Therefore, p = 1, q = 6
(b) s = t3 t2 6t
v = 3t2 2t 6
a = 6t 2

## Velocity when the object at O again

= 10(7) 35
= 35 m s1

When a = 0,
6t 2 = 0
1
t=
3

1. (a) For sA = t t2
When t = 4, sA = 0
0 = 4 16
= 4

1 2
1
Velocity = 3 2 6
3
3
1
2
=6
3
3
19
=
3
1
= 6 m s1
3

(b) sA = 4t t2 ................................... 
sB = t ............................................ 
When A and B meet,
sA = sB
4t t2 = t
t2 4t + t = 0
t2 3t = 0
t(t 3) = 0
t = 3, t = 0 is ignored as it is the starting
time
(c) sA = 4t t2
vA = 4 2t

3. (a) (i)

v = pt qt2
When t = 4, v = 0
0 = 4p 16q
p = 4q .................................. 
a = p 2qt
Given a = 4 when t = 4
4 = p 2q(4)
4 = p 8q ........................ 

For sA to be maximum, vA = 0
4 2t = 0
t= 2

Substitute  into ,
4 = 4q 8q
4 = 4q
q=1

Maximum displacement of A
= 4(2) 22
=4m

Substitute q = 1 into ,
p=4
Therefore, p = 4, q = 1

11

## Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 20

(ii) v = 4t t2
1 t3 + c
s = 2t2
3
When t = 0, s = 0
c=0
1 t3
s = 2t2
3
When at O again, s = 0
1 t3 = 0
2t2
3
1t =0
t2 2
3
1 t = 0, t = 0 is ignored
2
3
t= 6

When s = 0,
1 t3 =
2t2
3
1
2
t 2 t =
3
1t=
2
3
t=

0
0
6

For maximum s, v = 0
v = 4t t2
0 = 4t t2
t(4 t) = 0
t=4

(iii)

When t = 4,
1 (4)3
s = 2(4)2
3
32
=
3

6
32

## Distance travelled from t = 0 to t = 4

1 (4)3 0
= 2(4)2
3
2 m
= 10
3
Distance travelled from t = 4 to t = 6

1 (6)3 2(4)2
1 (4)3
= 2(6)2
3
3
2
= 0 10
3
2
= 10
3
2 m
= 10
3

4. (a) When t = 0, vB = 02 4
= 4 cm s1

## (b) vA = 0 for A turning back

4 + 6t 4t2 = 0
4t2 6t 4 = 0
2t2 3t 2 = 0
(2t + 1)(t 2) = 0
t2=0
1 is ignored
t = 2 s, t =
2

## Total distance travelled in the first

6 seconds
2
= 2 10
3
32
= 2
3
64
=
3
1 m
= 21
3

(c) vA = 4 + 6t 4t2
4 t3 + c
sA = 4t + 3t2
3
When t = 0, sA = 0
c=0
4 t3
sA = 4t + 3t2
3
When t = 2,
4 (2)3
sA = 4(2) + 3(2)2
3
1 cm
= 9
3

1 t3
(b) s = 2t2
3
When t = 0, s = 0

t
4

12

## Distance travelled from t = 2 to t = 3,

4 t3
v dt = 4t + 3t2
3

(b)

3
2

4 (3)3 9
1
= 4(3) + 3(3)
3
3
1
= 6 cm
3
1 + 6
1
Total distance travelled = 9
3
3
2
= 15 cm
3
2

aA = aB
4 = 10 + 6t
6t = 6
t= 1 s

## (c) sA = (30 4t) dt

= 30t 2t2 + c
When t = 0, sA = 0
c=0
sA = 30t 2t2
aB = 10 + 6t
vB = 10t + 3t2 + c

(d) vA = 4 + 6t 4t2
a = 6 8t

When t = 0, vB = 20
c = 20
vB = 10t + 3t2 + 20

## For maximum vA, a = 0

6 8t = 0
6
t=
8
3
t= s
4

sB = 5t2 + t3 + 20t + d
When t = 0, sB = 0
d=0
sB = 5t2 + t3 + 20t

(e) vB = t2 4
When vB = 0,
t2 4 = 0
t= 2

## When A and B meet

sA = sB
30t 2t2 = 5t2 + t3 + 20t
t3 3t2 10t = 0
t(t2 3t 10) = 0
t(t 5)(t + 2) = 0
t = 5 s, t = 0 and t = 2 are ignored

sB = (t2 4) dt
1 t3 4t + c
=
3
When sB = 10, t = 0
c = 10
1 t3 4t + 10
sB =
3
When t = 2,
1 (2)3 4(2) + 10
sB =
3
2 cm
= 4
3
When t = 2,
1 cm
sA = 9
3
The distance between A and B
1 4
2
= 9
3
3
2
= 4 cm
3

## (d) When A at rest, vA= 0

30 4t = 0
30
t =
4
15
t =
2

15 2
15
sA = 30
2
2
= 112.5 m
6. (a)

v = 6 2t
v 0
6 2t  0
2t  6
t 3
Therefore, 0  t  3 is the range of time during
which the particle is moving towards B.

5. vA = 30 4t
aB = 10 + 6t
(a) Initial velocity of A
= 30 4(0)
= 30 m s1

13

## Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 20

7. (a) a = k

(b) s = (6 2t) dt

v = k dt

= 6t t2 + c

= kt + c

When t = 0, s = 0
c=0
s = 6t t2
10 = 6t t2
t2 6t + 10 = 0
b2 4ac = ( 6)2 4(1)(10)
= 36 40
= 4  0

When t = 1, v = 8
8 = k + c ............................... 
When t = 3, v = 18
18 = 3k + c ........................... 
 ,
10 = 2k
k=5

## (b) From (a), substitute k = 5 into ,

8=5+c
c=3
v = 5t + 3

(c) When s = 0,
6t t2 = 0
t(6 t) = 0
t= 6 s
Therefore, t = 6 s is the time when the particle is
at A again.

8. (a) a = 10
v = 10t + c

(d) When v = 0,
6 2t = 0
t= 3

When t = 0, v = 30
c = 30
v = 10t + 30

## (b) For maximum height, v = 0

10t + 30 = 0
t= 3

When t = 5,
v = 6 2(5)
= 4

s = (10t + 30) dt

s = 5t2 + 30t + c

When t = 0, s = 35
c = 35
s = 5t2 + 30t + 35

## Maximum height = 5(3)2 + 30(3) + 35

= 45 + 90 + 35
= 80 m
(c) When s = 0,
5t2 + 30t + 35 = 0
t2 6t 7 = 0
(t 7)(t + 1) = 0
t = 7, t = 1 is ignored

1 36+
1 24
=
2
2
= 13 m
(e) s = 6t t2
t

v = 10(7) + 30
= 40 m s1

sp

## Therefore, the velocity just before it hits the

ground is 40 m s1.

t
3

14

## Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 20

9. (a) h = kt2 + pt
v = 2kt + p

(b) v = 2(4)t + 10
v = 8t + 10
For maximum height, v = 0
8t + 10 = 0
10
t =
8
5
=s
4

When t = 0, v = 10
10 = p
v = 2kt + 10
a = 2k
Given a = 8
8 = 2k
k = 4

## (c) h = 4t2 + 10t

At the surface of the sea,
h = q when t = 4

Therefore, p = 10, k = 4

q = 4(4)2 + 10(4)
= 64 + 40
= 24
q = 24

15