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Impact Factors in Measurements of Ion-Current Density Produced by High-Voltage DC Wires Corona


Chao Fang, Xiang Cui, Senior Member, IEEE, Xiangxian Zhou, Student Member, IEEE, Tiebing Lu, Yongzan Zhen, and Xuebao Li
Recently, the ion-current density measurement system based on Wilson plates [5] has commonly been employed to measure and evaluate the ion-current density under the HVDC transmission lines [6][9], but few studies referred to the indoor ioncurrent density measurements under the reduced-scale model. Since the height of HVDC transmission lines is much larger than the size of the Wilson plate, the fringing effects of the Wilson plate may be negligible in the measurements. However, different from the measurements under HVDC transmission lines, the fringing effects of the Wilson plate must be considered in the measurements of the reduced-scale model. The fringing effects though may be eliminated by locating the Wilson plate ush with the ground [5], which is not exible and convenient in laboratory when multipoint measurements or some special measurements are needed . So, in general, Wilson plates are directly put on the ground plane to measure the ion-current density in the laboratory. Since the height of the reduced-scale model is not much larger than the size of the Wilson plate, the fringing effects of the Wilson plate may result in measurement error that has to further be appropriately corrected for. In this paper, experimental and numerical simulation methods are used to analyze the fringing effects of the Wilson plate under the reduced-scale model in the laboratory. Suitable parameters of the Wilson plate are proposed in this paper to meet the measurement requirements during the measurements. II. MEASUREMENT SYSTEM OF ION-CURRENT DENSITY Since HVDC transmission lines generally allow operation with slight corona discharge above onset voltage, considerable positive and negative ions are generated around the lines, which ow between the conductors and toward the ground. To estimate the ion-current density on the ground, a collecting plate usually called a Wilson plate is used to intercept the ions which migrate from the lines to the ground [5]. The value of the ion-current or its density can be measured and then recorded by an automatic data-acquisition (DAQ) system. A. Wilson Plate
Manuscript received March 14, 2012; revised July 13, 2012, November 18, 2012, and January 12, 2013; accepted February 14, 2013. Date of publication April 02, 2013; date of current version June 20, 2013. This work was supported in part by the Key Program of National Nature Science Foundation of China (51037001) and in part by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (51177041). Paper no. TPWRD-00268-2012. The authors are with the State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, China (e-mail: fangchao0610@126.com; x.cui@ncepu. edu.cn; zhouxiangxian04@126.com). Color versions of one or more of the gures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identier 10.1109/TPWRD.2013.2252203

AbstractThe reduced-scale model of HVDC transmission lines in the laboratory is widely used to investigate the ionized elds. This paper is aimed at analyzing impact factors of the ion-current density measurement system based on Wilson plates in the laboratory. Both experimental and numerical simulation methods are used to obtain the characteristics of the measurement system. The results show that measurement data can be calibrated with different Wilson plates, and suitable parameters are proposed in this paper to meet the requirement of measurements. The measurement system described in this paper can be used in other similar applications. Index TermsHVDC power transmission lines, ion-current density, reduced-scale model, Wilson plate.

I. INTRODUCTION IGH-VOLTAGE direct-current (HVDC) systems have their special advantages on the high-voltage, bulk power, long distance transmission, the link between two ac power systems stability, and so on. Due to the progress of HVDC technology and its excellent performance, two 800-kV UHVDC transmission systems have been running since 2010 in China. Much more HVDC transmission projects will be planned in the future in China. The corona discharge on HVDC transmission lines causes corona loss and secondary effects, that is, ionized elds, ion-current density, radio interference, audible noise, etc. These phenomena have to be evaluated and controlled. To research the corona discharges effects, experimental and numerical simulation methods are used. For the experimental methods, besides the full-scale HVDC test models, including the lines and the corona cage, the reduced-scale model of HVDC transmission lines is widely used in the laboratory to obtain the characteristic of the corona discharge, evaluate performance of the measurement system, and check validity of the numerical simulation methods [1][4].

Measurements of the vertical component of the ion-current density in the vicinity of dc power lines are performed with a at collecting plate electrometer combination. The at plate, historically referred to as a Wilson plate, is located ush with the ground plane or on the ground plane. The 1 1-m Wilson plates have commonly been employed for ion-current density measurements under dc power lines. However, these measurement systems are too large to be applied under the reduced-scale model in the laboratory. It is necessary to minimize the size of the measurement system of the ion-current density as much

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Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of the measurement system.

Fig. 1. Schematic view of one miniature Wilson plate.

as possible. In this case, the miniature Wilson plates may be more convenient for indoor measurements. However, since the sensing surface is minimized, the accuracy of the measurement system should be guaranteed. In this paper, nine different minimized Wilson plates are used to measure the ion-current density. These Wilson plates are constructed with 0.1-cm-thick copper-clad laminate. The center part of the copper-clad laminate, called the ion-current sensing electrode, is isolated from the guard band by a narrow insulated slot of about 0.5 mm. The area of each ion-current sensing electrode is 20 20 cm, the width of each insulated slot is small enough that it can be neglected, and the width of guard band is 0, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 5, 6.5, and 7.5 cm, respectively. Fig. 1 shows one of the miniature Wilson plates in the experiments. B. DAQ System An automatic DAQ system is used to record the voltage across a resistor through a coaxial cable shown in Fig. 1. The inner wire and the outer shield of the coaxial cable are connected with the sensing electrode and the grounded guard band, respectively. A NI USB-6210 and a computer are applied in the automatic DAQ system used for data processing, storage, and display. In the experiments, the sampling rate of NI USB-6210 is 10 ksamples/s and the value of ion-current density is given by (1) where is the value of ion-current density, is the average voltage across the resistor, is the area of the sensing electrode, and is the resistor connected between the sensing electrode and the guard band. The DAQ system starts to record data when the value of ion-current density is stable, and the computer shows the results according to (1). C. Implementation of Measurements One unipolar dc wire with 0.9 mm in radius and 64.8 cm in height is built as shown in Fig. 2. Positive polar dc voltage is applied to the test wire under the experiments. The miniature Wilson plate is put on the ground under the center of the test wire. To analyze the impact factors of the ion-current density measurement system in the reduced-scale model of the HVDC

Fig. 3. Vertical section of the diagram.

transmission line, applied dc voltage on the test wire, parameters of the Wilson plate, and value of the resistor are changed during the experiments. III. NUMERICAL SIMULATION METHOD The ionized elds around the Wilson plate and the test wire in this research is 3-D elds when considering the inuence of the Wilson plate, wire sag, length of dc wire etc. The size of the miniature Wilson plate is small enough that the distribution of the ion-current on the Wilson plate is approximately uniform. To simplify the analysis of the ionized eld, the analysis of aforementioned 3-D eld is converted into the analysis of a 2-D eld. Fig. 3 shows a central cross-section of the reduced-scale model and the Wilson plate. In this paper, the following three interrelated parameters of the ionized elds are analyzed. These parameters are: ionized eld in V/m, ion-current density in , and space. Assuming the absence of the winds charge density in effect, the ionized eld, space-charge density, and ion-current density are governed by (2) (3) (4) where is the ion mobility, is permittivity in the air. Equation (2) is Poissons equation; and (3) and (4) are equations of current continuity. To solve (2)(4), the following assumptions are used.

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1) The space-charge affects only the magnitude but not the direction of the electric eld which is called Deutschs assumption [10]. The expression is given by (5) is the space-charge-free electric-eld intensity where generated only by charges on the transmission lines when the space charges are not taken into consideration, and is a scalar function dependent on position in the space. 2) There are only positive ions beneath the positive transmission lines and only negative ions beneath the negative transmission lines. 3) The mobility of ions is constant, which is independent of the eld intensity, and the diffusion of ions is neglected. 4) The surface electric-eld intensity on the conductor remains constant at the onset value after the corona having been stable and the thickness of the ionized layer around the conductors is neglected. In this paper, the formula of the onset electric-eld strength of the corona discharge is given by (6) where the estimated value of is 0.9 in the experiment because is 33.7 kV/cm, the surface of dc wire is smooth, the value of the value of is 1, and the value of is 0.24. The onset electriceld strength can be obtained by (6). A. Calculation of Space-Charge-Free Field The calculation of the space-charge-free eld is the basis of the calculation of the ionized eld. In this paper, the space-charge-free eld computation has been carried out by the conventional charge simulation method [11]. The distributed charges on the surface of dc wire and the Wilson plate are replaced by a number of ctious line charges. The positions of these line charges are predetermined but their magnitudes are unknown. The boundary condition gives rise to a set of linear equations and the number of such equations is equal to the number of ctitious charges. The set of these equations is expressed as follows: (7) is the voltage on the surface of dc test wire or the where is the associated potential coefcient, and Wilson plate, is the discrete charge. The ctitious charges are calculated from (7) and it must be checked whether the calculated charges t the boundary conditions. If the boundary conditions are sufciently accurate, the space-charge-free eld at any point can be calculated analytically by superposition.

Fig. 4. Ion-current density with different resistance.

B. Governing Equations Based on the Deutschs assumption, the scalar function and space-charge density can be calculated along the ux lines according to the following equations [12][14]:

(8) (9)

(10)

where and are the values of A and space-charge density on the surface of the conductor, respectively; and and are potentials of the start point of the ux line and applied voltage on the conductor, respectively. For the given values of applied voltage and onset voltage on the conductor, the distribution of the space-charge-free eld (8)(10) can obtain the distributions of and along any ux line of the space-charge-free eld. The resulting current distribution can be calculated subsequently from (3) [14]. IV. VERIFICATION OF RESULTS A. Effect of Different Resistors The space charges produced by corona discharge of the dc test wire result in the ion-current density on the ground. Theoretically, the value of the ion-current density remains a constant for a given position on the ground when the corona discharge of the dc test wire is stable. In the experiments, 0.3, 1, 10, and 20 M , four different resistors are used to measure the ion-current density. Fig. 4 shows the measured results of the ion-current density for a same position on the ground. The values of the ion-current density only have very little change with the values of the resistor altered. These results indicate that the value of the resistor does not greatly affect the measurements of the ion-current density in the reduced-scale model. Therefore, the effect of different resistors

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TABLE I COMPARISON BETWEEN MEASUREMENTS AND CALCULATIONS

can be neglect in the experiments of the reduced-scale model and one 1-M resistor is used in subsequent experiments. B. Comparison With Numerical Simulation Results To verify the validity of the aforementioned measurement, the ion-current density is calculated by the proposed numerical simulation method [14]. Table I shows that the measured and calculated results for the case of the height of the Wilson plate are 0.1 and 1.52 cm, respectively. The calculation results by the numerical method are in close agreement with the experimental results, which means the aforementioned measurement method of the ion-current density used in the experiments is feasible, and the measured data may be used for further theoretical analysis. V. IMPACT FACTORS OF THE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM Since the space charges (i.e., ions) produced during the corona discharge of the dc test wire ow along the electric-eld lines, any fringing effects would bring an enhancement of the ionized elds that affect the measurement results of the ion-current density. Fig. 5 shows the distribution of the space-charge-free eld when the height of the Wilson plate is 2.94 cm and the width of the guard band is 0 cm. There is a signicant enhancement of the space-charge-free eld around the Wilson plate. So it is necessary to analyze the impact factors of the measurement system of the ion-current density and nd some appropriate parameters of the Wilson plate to measure the ion-current density correctly under the reduced-scale model in the laboratory. In the following sections, the height of the Wilson plate, the width of the guard band, and the applied dc voltage of the test wire are altered to observe different effects of the measured results. A. Change of Height of the Wilson Plate The height of the Wilson plate is altered while the width of the guard band is kept at 7.5 cm during the experiments. The experiments are also made by varying the applied dc voltage of the test wire with 50, 70, and 90 kV, respectively. Fig. 6 shows the measured results. When applied dc voltage on the test wire keeps a constant, the ion-current density increases as the height of the Wilson plate is heightened, and the ion-current density seems to be linear with the height of the Wilson plate. Moreover, for a xed height of the Wilson plate, the rise rate of the ion-current density is larger at higher applied dc voltage than at lower applied dc voltage. Therefore, the height of the Wilson plate, as well as the applied dc voltage of the test wire, should be noticed when using the Wilson plate.
Fig. 5. Schematic view of the distribution of the space-charge-free eld.

Fig. 6. Effect of the height of the Wilson plate.

Calculated results of numerical methods are used in the following text to explain the aforementioned phenomena. From (3), the ion-current density is mostly dependent on the spacecharge density and the ionized eld. On the premise of that, it is feasible to analyze how the height of the Wilson plate affects the ionized eld and the space-charge density. Keep the width of the guard band at 7.5 cm, and alter the height of the Wilson plate during numerical simulation. The calculated results are shown in Figs. 7 and 8. Fig. 7 shows the relation between the ionized eld and the height of the Wilson plate when the applied dc voltage is 70 kV and 90 kV, respectively. Fig. 8 shows the relation between the space-charge density and the height of the Wilson plate. It can be seen that there is a linear relationship between two variables in Figs. 7 and 8. So the relations shown in Figs. 7 and 8 can be described by the following linear equations: (11) (12) and are where is the height of the Wilson plate, both coefcients, and and are the ionized eld and the space-charge density without the Wilson plate on the ground. Combined with (3), the relationship between the ion-current density and the height of the Wilson plate can be expressed by (13)

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Fig. 9. Ion-current density calculated at different voltages. Fig. 7. Effect on ionized elds.

Fig. 10. Effect of the guard band by measurements.

Fig. 8. Effect on space-charge density.

where , , and are the coefcients. Since the height of the Wilson plate is far less than 1 m, can, therefore, be neglected compared to . And (13) may be given by (14) As (14) shows, the ion-current density is approximately linear with the height of the Wilson plate. Fig. 9 shows the ion-current density calculated under different applied dc voltages of the test wire. These results are in good agreement with the measured ones. Due to the linear relationship between the ion-current density and the height of the Wilson plate, the ion-current density may be corrected by using data obtained from different Wilson plates with different heights. B. Change of Width of the Guard Band Fig. 10 shows the measured results when the applied dc voltage of the test wire is 70 kV and the height of the Wilson plate is 2.94 cm by changing the width of the guard band. The value of ion-current density changes very little as the width

of the guard band increases when the height of the Wilson plate is 0.1 cm. It is because the fringing effects caused by the Wilson plate can be negligible in these aforementioned situations. So the measured results with a 0.1-cm-high Wilson plate can be considered as the real result on the ground surface. On the other hand, if the height of the Wilson plate cannot be negligible compared to the height of the dc wire, such as the height of the Wilson plate being 1.52 and 2.94 cm in Fig. 10, the ion-current density decreases as the width of the guard band increases and tends to be stable after the width of the guard band reaches a certain value. This means that the guard band can reduce the fringing effects but also has a saturation effect. These aforementioned phenomena can be explained as follows. The Wilson plate on the ground causes fringing effects and a signicant enhancement of ionized elds mainly occurs in the edge of the Wilson plate. Therefore, the distribution of ion current may be affected when the width of the guard band is small. As the width of the guard band increases, the ion current on the surface of sensing electrode could become uniform gradually. And the ion-current density will remain a certain value as shown in Fig. 10. In addition, the value of ion-current density has an obvious difference for different heights of the Wilson plates. This can be explained as follows: the Wilson plate can be considered to be a ground plane when the width of the guard band is innite,

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Fig. 11. Combined effects of the guard band and sensing electrode.

Fig. 12. Combined effects of the guard band and height of the Wilson plate by calculations when the width of the sensing electrode is 10 cm.

but the distance between the dc test wire and the ground plane decreases that may cause the increase of the ionized eld, the space-charge density, and the ion-current density, which means that the guard band cannot completely offset the fringing effects. Thus, the guard band only can reduce the fringing effects but cannot eliminate the measured error caused by the height of the Wilson plate. C. Optimized Design of Parameters of the Wilson Plate Miniature Wilson plates could be more convenient for measurements in the laboratory and provide great spatial resolution than the 1 m device commonly used near dc power lines [5]. On the other hand, the fringing effects of miniature Wilson plates may be more serious when the Wilson plate is on the ground. As previously mentioned, with the height of the Wilson plate increasing, the fringing effects cannot be neglected. And a guard band surrounding the sensing electrode of the Wilson plate may decrease the fringing effects but also has a saturation effect. Therefore, it is better to choose a set of optimal miniature Wilson plates which can reduce the fringing effects and provide great spatial resolution. Actually, the relation between the side length of the sensing electrode and the width of the guard band as well as the relation between the height of the Wilson plate and the width of the guard band will be useful to choose the optimal parameters of Wilson plates. Fig. 11 shows the ion-current density calculated with different widths of the guard band under 70 kV when the height of the Wilson plate is 1.52 cm and the side length of the sensing electrode is 10 and 20 cm, respectively. It can be seen that the fringing effects caused by the smaller sensing electrode seem to be more serious. Therefore, it is necessary to expand the width of the guard band when the size of the sensing electrode is smaller. Fig. 12 shows the calculated results about the relation between the ion-current density and the ratio of the width of the guard band to the height of the Wilson plate under 70 kV when the width of the sensing electrode is 10 cm. In that case, it is appropriate to measure the ion-current density when the ratio of the width of the guard band to the height of the Wilson

Fig. 13. Combined effects of the guard band and height of the Wilson plate by measurements.

plate is larger than 5. Since the fringing effects of a smaller sensing electrode are more serious compared to a larger one, the aforementioned results can also be applied to the larger size of a sensing electrode. Fig. 13 shows the measured results based on Fig. 10. According to this gure, the value of ion-current density will obviously remain stable if the ratio of the guard band width to the height of the Wilson plate is larger than 5. Actually, the height of dc wire also has an effect on the fringing effects caused by the Wilson plates. The fringing effects will mitigate as the height of dc wire increases. Fig. 14 shows the relation between the ion-current density and the ratio of the width of the guard band to the height of the Wilson plate under 70 kV when the height of dc wire is 0.5 m and the side length of the sensing electrode is 10 cm. It can be seen that it is also appropriate to measure the ion-current density when the ratio of the width of the guard band to the height of the Wilson plate is larger than 5. So the optimized parameters given in the text can be applied to other similar situations when the height of

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Fig. 17. Corona cage for the measurements of ion current around bundle conductors. (a) Side view. (b) Connection between the Wilson plates and the cage.

Fig. 14. Combined effects of the guard band and height of the Wilson plate by calculations when the height of the dc wire is 50 cm.

Fig. 15. Ion-current density measurement system under a reduced-scale model of bipolar dc wire.

Fig. 18. Calculated and measured ion-current density of the single conductor experiments. (a) Negative polarity. (b) Positive polarity.

Fig. 16. Measured and calculated results of the ion-current density.

dc wire is higher than 50 cm and the side length of the sensing electrode is larger than 10 cm. VI. APPLICATION The measurement system of the ion-current density presented in this paper can be applied to some similar situations. Fig. 15 shows the multipoint measurements of the ion-current density for reduced-scale bipolar HVDC transmission lines. The area

of the sensing electrode is 18 48 cm, the height of the Wilson plate is 0.1 cm and the width of the guard band is 6 cm, the ratio of the width of the guard band to the height of the Wilson plate is 50, which is much larger than 5. The heights of bipolar dc test wires are 1 m, the distance between two test wires is 1.26 m, and the radiuses of two test wires are 0.9 mm. The height of the Wilson plates may be neglected compared to the height of the test wires. So the measurement system satises the requirement of the research. Fig. 16 shows the measured and calculated results of the ion-current density in the experiments when the voltages of dc test wires are 70 kV, respectively. It can be seen that the measured results are close to the calculated results. Another application is presented as follows. Fig. 17 shows a cylindrical corona cage with 24 Wilson plates distributed inside [15]. The length and the width of the Wilson plate are 0.5 m and 0.1 m, respectively. The length of the outer cage is 1 m, and the

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diameter of the cage is 0.8 m. The resistor in Fig. 17(b) is connected between each Wilson plate and the cage, which converts the ion current into the voltage signal, and the signal is transmitted to the DAQ through a shield cable. The spatial distribution of ion current around bundle conductors is measured in the experiments. The calculated and measurement ion-current density are shown in Fig. 18 [15]. In the experiments, the applied voltage on a single dc test wire increases from 40 to 100 kV. The results show good agreement between the calculated and measured ion-current density. That is to say, the ion-current density measurement system can also be applied to this situation.

VII. CONCLUSION In this paper, the experimental and numerical simulation methods are used to analyze the impact factors of the ion-current density measurement system based on the Wilson plate under the reduced-scale model of the HVDC transmission lines. Conclusions are obtained as follows. 1) Use of the Wilson plates in the reduced-scale models should be noticed when the height of the Wilson plate cannot be neglected. The measured results of the ion-current density are approximately linear with the height of the Wilson plate. Thus, the measured results may be corrected by using Wilson plates with different heights. 2) The guard band can reduce the fringing effects of the Wilson plate but it has a saturation effect. It cannot eliminate the measured error caused by the height of the Wilson plate. And it may be feasible to measure the ion-current density when the ratio of the width of the guard band to the height of the Wilson plate is larger than 5. 3) The measurement system of the ion-current density in this paper can also be applied to other similar situations.

[8] T. D. Bracken, A. S. Capon, and D. V. Montgomery, Ground level electric elds and ion current on the Celilo-Sylmar 400 kV DC intertie during fair weather, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-97, no. 2, pp. 370378, Mar. 1978. [9] M. G. Comber, R. Kotter, and R. McKnight, Experimental evaluation of instruments for measuring DC transmission line electric elds and ion current, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-102, no. 11, pp. 35493557, Nov. 1983. [10] W. Deutsch, ber die dichtverteilung unipolarer ionenstrme, Ann. Physik, vol. 5, pp. 589613, 1933. [11] H. Singer, H. Steinbigler, and P. Weiss, A charge simulation method for the calculation of high voltage elds, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-93, no. 5, pp. 16601668, Sep. 1974. [12] N. Zhao, X. Cui, and W. Zhang, Calculation of the 3-D ionized eld under UHVDC transmission line, IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 10461049, May 2011. [13] Y. Yang, J. Lu, and Y. Lei., A calculation method for the electric eld under double-circuit HVDC transmission lines, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 17361742, Oct. 2008. [14] M. P. Sarma and W. Janischewskyj, Analysis of corona losses on DC transmission lines: I-Unipolar lines, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-88, no. 5, pt. 1, pp. 718731, May 1969. [15] X. X. Zhou, X. Cui, T. B. Lu, C. Fang, and Y. Z. Zhen, Spatial distribution of ion current around HVDC bundle conductors, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 380390, Jan. 2012. Chao Fang was born in Zhejiang Province, China, in 1989. She received the B.Sc. degree in electrical engineering from North China Electric Power University, Beijing, China, in 2011, where she is currently pursuing the M.Sc. degree. Her main research interest is electromagnetic compatibility in power systems.

REFERENCES
[1] K. Y. Shin, J. S. Lim, Y. H. Kim, and D. I. Lee, Test on the environmental characteristics of HVDC overhead transmission line using reduced-scale mode, Proc. Int. Council Elect. Eng., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 2127, 2011. [2] A. J. Otto and H. C. Reader, HVDC corona space charge modeling and measurement, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 26302637, Oct. 2011. [3] T. Zhao, J. Illan, J. M. Cohol, R. D. Hinton, and S. A. Sebo, Design, construction and utilization of a new reduced-scale model for the study of hybrid (AC and DC) line corona, in Proc. IEEE Power Eng. Soc., Apr. 1015, 1994, pp. 239245. [4] S. A. Sebo, D. G. Kasten, T. Zhao, L. E. Zaffanella, B. A. Clairmont, and S. Zelinher, Development of reduced-scale line modeling for the study of hybrid corona, in Proc. IEEE Conf. Elect. Insul. Dielectr. Phenomena, 1993, pp. 538543, IEEE Publ. 93 CH 3269-8. [5] IEEE Guide for the Measurement of DC Electric-Field Strength and Ion Rrelated Quantities, IEEE Standard 1227-1990, R2001. [6] P. S. Maruvada, Electric eld and ion current environment of HV dc transmission lines: Comparison of calculations and measurements, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 401410, Jan. 2012. [7] P. S. Maruvada, R. D. Dallaire, O. C. Norris-Elye, C. V. Thio, and J. S. Goodman, Environmental effects of the Nelson river HVDC transmission LinesRI, AN, electric eld, induced voltage, and ion current distribution tests, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-101, no. 4, pp. 951959, Apr. 1982.

Xiang Cui (M97SM98) was born in Baoding, Hebei Province, China, in 1960. He received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in electrical engineering from North China Electric Power University, Baoding, in 1982 and 1984, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in accelerator physics from China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing, in 1988. He is currently a Professor and the Head of the Electromagnetic Fields and Electromagnetic Compatibility Laboratory, North China Electric Power University. His research interests include computational electromagnetics, electromagnetic environment and electromagnetic compatibility in power systems, insulation, and magnetic problems in high-voltage apparatus. Prof. Cui is a Standing Council Member of the China Electrotechnical Society, a Fellow of Institution of Engineering and Technology, a member of CIGRE C4.02.01 Working Group (electromagnetic compatibility in power systems). He is also an Associate Editor of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY and a member of the Editorial Advisory Board of the International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering.

Xiangxian Zhou (S12) was born in Anhui Province, China, in 1987. He received B.Sc. degree in electrical engineering from North China Electric Power University, Beijing, China, in 2008, where he is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering. His main research interests are corona discharge on HVDC and HVAC transmission lines and lightning protection of the transmission lines.

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Tiebing Lu was born in Hebei Province, China, in 1970. He received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in electronic engineering from Xian Jiaotong University, Xian, Shanxi province, China, in 1991 and 1994, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from North China Electric Power University, Baoding, China, in 2002. He is currently a Professor in the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, North China Electric Power University. His research interests are electromagnetic compatibility in power systems and the numerical methods of the electromagnetic elds.

Xuebao Li was born in Tianjin, China, in 1988. He received the B.Sc. degree in electrical engineering from North China Electric Power University, Beijing, China, in 2011, where he is currently pursuing the M.Sc. degree. His main research interest is electromagnetic compatibility in power systems.

Yongzan Zhen was born in Hebei Province, China, in 1985. He received the B Sc. degree in electrical engineering from North China Electric Power University, Beijing, China, in 2007, where he is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree. His main research interest is 2-D and 3-D modeling of ionized elds from HVDC transmission lines.