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*A check valve, clack valve, non-return valve or one-way valve is a mechanical device, a valve, which normally allows fluid

(liquid or gas) to flow through it in only one direction. Check valves are two-port valves, meaning they have two openings in the body, one for fluid to enter and the other for fluid to leave. There are various types of check valves used in a wide variety of applications. Check valves are often part of common household items. Although they are available in a wide range of sizes and costs, many check valves are very small, simple, and/or cheap. Check valves work automatically and most are not controlled by a person or any external control; accordingly, most do not have any valve handle or stem. The bodies (external shells) of most check valves are made of plastic or metal.

An important concept in check valves is the cracking pressure which is the minimum upstream pressure at which the valve will operate. Typically the check valve is designed for and can therefore be specified for a specific cracking pressure. *A gate valve, also known as a sluice valve, is a valve that opens by lifting a round or rectangular gate/wedge out of the path of the fluid. The distinct feature of a gate valve is the sealing surfaces between the gate and seats are planar. The gate faces can form a wedge shape or they can be parallel. Gate valves are sometimes used for regulating flow, but many are not suited for that purpose, having been designed to be fully opened or closed. When fully open, the typical gate valve has no obstruction in the flow path, resulting in very low friction loss.

Gate valves are characterized as having either a rising or a non rising stem. Rising stems provide a visual indication of valve position. Non-rising stems are used where vertical space is limited or underground.

*Foot valve: a check valve on the foot of a suction line to prevent back-flow. A suction valve or check valve at the lower end of a pipe; esp., such a valve in a steam-engine condenser opening to the air pump. -A foot valve is nothing more than a swing check valve operating in the vertical position at the the liquid entry to the vertical suction line of a sump pump or another type of pump that has a negative suction lift due to gravity - i.e., the pump is usually located above the liquid level of the suction vessel or container. If there is any logic in this description it is that the check valve is located at the "foot" of the vertical pipe run. But it has to be understood that we are talking about a check valve - not another type of valve. The function of a foot valve is to contain the liquid inventory within the pump casing and the suction line in the event the pump is shut down or stopped. This action preserves the liquid priming of the pump and allows for a successful, instant liquid pumping start up during the next, subsequent pump start-up. This is especially useful when the pump is started from an isolated location and there is no one around to manually prime the pump with liquid prior to start up.

*A ball valve is a valve that opens by turning a handle attached to a ball inside the valve. The ball has a

hole, or port, through the middle so that when the port is in line with both ends of the valve, flow will occur. When the valve is closed, the hole is perpendicular to the ends of the valve, and flow is blocked. The handle or lever will be inline with the port position letting you "see" the valve's position. The ball valve, along with the butterfly valve and plug valve, are part of the family of quarter turn valves.

Ball valves are durable and usually work to achieve perfect shutoff even after years of disuse. They are therefore an excellent choice for shutoff applications (and are often preferred to globe valves and gate valves for this purpose). They do not offer the fine control that may be necessary in throttling applications but are sometimes used for this purpose.

Ball valves are used extensively in industry because they are very versatile, pressures up to 10,000 psi, temperatures up to 200 Deg C. Sizes from 1/4" to 12" are readily available They are easy to repair, operate manually or by actuators.

*Three-way valves have three ports. They are commonly made such that flow coming in at one port can be directed to either the second port in one position or the third port in another position or in an intermediate position so all flow is stopped. Often such 3-way valves are ball or rotor valves. Many faucets are made so that incoming cold and hot water can be regulated in varying degrees to give out coming water at a desired temperature. Other kinds of 3-port valves can be designed for other possible flow-directing schemes and positions.

The "motor valve" on a domestic heating system is an example of a 3-way valve. Depending on demand the motor head rotates the spindle to control the proportion of the flow that goes to the two outlet pipes: One to radiators, one to hot water system.