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REMEDIAL LAW REVIEWER Part IV of IX APPEALS Mark de Leon, JD 2001 I. Civil Procedure A.

Appeals There are 7 modes of appeal under Civil Procedure .1 to the RTC from the MTC notice of appeal (Rule 40) . to the C! from .a the RTC in its ori"inal #urisdiction notice of appeal (Rule 41) .$ the RTC in its appellate #urisdiction petition for revie% (Rule 4 ) .c &uasi'#udicial a"encies petition for revie% (Rule 4() .( to the )C petition for revie% on certiorari (Rule 4*) .4 !nnulment of +ud"ments or ,inal -rders and Resolutions (Rule 47) .ote that /petition for revie%0 is separate and distinct from /petition for revie% on certiorari.0 1o%ever2 /appeal on certiorari0 is the same as /petition for revie% on certiorari.0 ,eria and Re"alado (p. *40)3 !ppeal of a pure &uestion of la% from a #ud"ment $4 the RTC in the e5ercise of its .1 ori"inal #urisdiction petition for revie% on certiorari to the )C (Rule 4*) . appellate #urisdiction petition for revie% to the C! (Rule 4 ) !l$ano (p. 4*0)3 6here onl4 &uetions of la% are raised2 the appeal should $e to the )C on petition for revie% on certiorari (Rule 4*). 1. !ppeal from MTC to the RTC a. Rule 40 Section 1. Where to appeal. An appeal fro! a "ud#!ent or final order of a Municipal $rial Court !a% &e ta'en to t(e Re#ional $rial Court e)ercisin# "urisdiction over t(e area to *(ic( t(e for!er pertains. $(e title of t(e case s(all re!ain as it *as in t(e court of ori#in+ &ut t(e part% appealin# t(e case s(all &e furt(er referred to as t(e appellant and t(e adverse part% as t(e appellee. ,nThe title of the case shall remain as it %as in the court of ori"in. Sec. .. When to appeal. An appeal !a% &e ta'en *it(in fifteen ,1/- da%s after notice to t(e appellant of t(e "ud#!ent or final order appealed fro!. W(ere a record on appeal is re0uired+ t(e appellant s(all file a notice of appeal and a record on appeal *it(in t(irt% ,12- da%s after notice of t(e "ud#!ent or final order. $(e period of appeal s(all &e interrupted &% a ti!el% !otion for ne* trial or reconsideration. 3o !otion for e)tension of ti!e to file a !otion for ne* trial or reconsideration s(all &e allo*ed. ,nPeriod to appeal interrupted $4 M.T or MfR

.1 $4 notice of appeal %ithin 1* da4s after notice to appellant of #ud"ment . $4 record on appeal %ithin (0 da4s after notice to appellant of #ud"ment .o e5tension of time to file MfR or M.T shall $e allo%ed. Sec. 1. How to appeal. $(e appeal is ta'en &% filin# a notice of appeal *it( t(e court t(at rendered t(e "ud#!ent or final order appealed fro!. $(e notice of appeal s(all indicate t(e parties to t(e appeal+ t(e "ud#!ent or final order or part t(ereof appealed fro!+ and state t(e !aterial dates s(o*in# t(e ti!eliness of t(e appeal. A record on appeal s(all &e re0uired onl% in special proceedin#s and in ot(er cases of !ultiple or separate appeals. $(e for! and contents of t(e record on appeal s(all &e as provided in section 4+ Rule 51. Copies of t(e notice of appeal+ and t(e record on appeal *(ere re0uired+ s(all &e served on t(e adverse part%. ,nContents of the notice of appeal from MTC .1 the parties to the appeal . the #ud"ment or final order or part thereof appealed from2 and .( the material dates sho%in" the timeliness of the appeal. .ote that in notice appeal from MTC2 the court to %hich the appeal is ta7en need not $e stated. 8n notice of appeal from the RTC2 the court to %hich the appeal is ta7en is re&uired to $e stated. ! record on appeal shall $e re&uired onl4 in .1 in special proceedin"s and . other cases of multiple or separate appeals. Contents of the record on appeal (same as in appeals from RTC) .1 full names of all the parties stated in the caption . include the #ud"ment or final order from %hich the appeal is ta7en .( in chronolo"ical order2 copies of onl4 such related pleadin"s2 petitions2 motions and all interlocutor4 orders .4 such data as %ill sho% that the appeal %as perfected on time. .* 8f an issue of fact is to $e raised on appeal2 the record on appeal shall include $4 reference all the related evidence2 testimonial and documentar4 .9 )u$#ect inde5 %hen the record on appeal e5ceeds 0 pa"es 8n e#ectment #ud"ments2 e5ecution is sta4ed onl4 if an appeal is made to the RTC2 supersedeas $ond is filed and rentals continue to $e paid pendin" appeal. ,ailure to pa4 rentals means e5ecution ensues. The amount of supersedeas $ond should $e the amount of $ac7 rentals. :ut further appeal from the RTC to the C!2 e5ecution can no lon"er $e sta4ed. Cases that "o to the )C are $4 petition for revie% on certiorari. The onl4 instance %hen a case can "o to the )C on notice of appeal is in criminal cases %here the penalt4 imposed is reclusion perpetua2 or life imprisonment.
Remedial Law Reviewer, Part IV of IX, Last printed 11/20/2002 01:00:00 AM Mark de Leon, JD 2001 -2-

,rom &uasi'#udicial a"encies to the C!2 the appeal is $4 petition for revie%. !ppeal $4 itself does not sta4 e5ecution of the decision. 8t is sta4ed onl4 if the C! issues a preliminar4 in#unction. -n pure &uestions of la% decided $4 RTC in its ori"inal #urisdiction2 the appeal is directl4 to the )C $4 petition for revie% on certiorari. Pure &uestions of la% decided $4 RTC in its appellate #urisdiction2 the appeal is still to the C!. ;<= Sec. 5. Perfection of appeal; effect thereof. $(e perfection of t(e appeal and t(e effect t(ereof s(all &e #overned &% t(e provisions of section 6+ Rule 51. ,n)ec. >. Perfection of appeal; effect thereof. ? ! part4@s appeal $4 notice of appeal is deemed perfected as to him upon the filin" of the notice of appeal in due time. ! part4@s appeal $4 record on appeal is deemed perfected as to him %ith respect to the su$#ect matter thereof upon the approval of the record on appeal filed in due time. 8n appeals $4 notice of appeal2 the court loses "urisdiction over t(e case upon the perfection of the appeals filed in due time and the e5piration of the time to appeal of the other parties. 8n appeals $4 record on appeal2 the court loses "urisdiction onl% over t(e su&"ect !atter thereof upon the approval of the records on appeal filed in due time and the e5piration of the time to appeal of the other parties. In eit(er case+ prior to t(e trans!ittal of t(e ori#inal record or t(e record on appeal 2 the court ma4 issue orders for the protection and preservation of the ri"hts of the parties %hich do not involve an4 matter liti"ated $4 the appeal2 approve compromises2 permit appeals of indi"ent liti"ants2 order e5ecution pendin" appeal in accordance %ith section of Rule (>2 and allo% %ithdra%al of the appeal. (>a) de Aeon3 There are ( concepts to $e learned under this section (applies to appeals from RTC and MTC) .1 Perfection of appeal .a :4 notice of appeal as to appellant2 upon filin" of the notice of appeal .$ :4 record on appeal as to appellant2 upon approval of the record on appeal . Court loses #urisdiction upon perfection of appeal and e5piration of time to appeal of other parties .( Po%er to issue orders2 approve compromises2 permit indi"ent appeals2 order e5ecution pendin" appeal2 allo% %ithdra%al of appeal prior to transmittal of the ori"inal record2 or the record on appeal .otice of appeal sta4s e5ecution. Sec. /. Appellate court docket and other lawful fees. Wit(in t(e period for ta'in# an appeal+ t(e appellant s(all pa% to t(e cler' of t(e court *(ic( rendered t(e "ud#!ent or final order appealed fro! t(e full a!ount of t(e appellate court doc'et and ot(er la*ful fees. Proof of pa%!ent t(ereof s(all &e trans!itted to t(e appellate court to#et(er *it( t(e ori#inal record or t(e record on appeal+ as t(e case !a% &e. ,nSec. 4. Duty of the clerk of court. Wit(in fifteen ,1/- da%s fro! t(e perfection of t(e appeal+ t(e cler' of court or t(e &ranc( cler' of court of t(e lo*er court s(all trans!it t(e ori#inal record or t(e record on appeal+ to#et(er *it( t(e transcripts and e)(i&its+ *(ic( (e s(all certif% as co!plete+ to t(e proper Re#ional $rial Court. A cop% of (is letter of trans!ittal of t(e records to t(e appellate court s(all &e furnis(ed t(e parties. ,nRemedial Law Reviewer, Part IV of IX, Last printed 11/20/2002 01:00:00 AM Mark de Leon, JD 2001 -3-

Sec. 7. Procedure in the Regional Trial Court. ,a- upon receipt of t(e co!plete record or t(e record on appeal+ t(e cler' of court of t(e Re#ional $rial Court s(all notif% t(e parties of suc( fact. ,&- Wit(in fifteen ,1/- da%s fro! suc( notice+ it s(all &e t(e dut% of t(e appellant to su&!it a !e!orandu! *(ic( s(all &riefl% discuss t(e errors i!puted to t(e lo*er court+ a cop% of *(ic( s(all &e furnis(ed &% (i! to t(e adverse part%. Wit(in fifteen ,1/- da%s fro! receipt of t(e appellant8s !e!orandu!+ t(e appellee !a% file (is !e!orandu!. 9ailure of t(e appellant to file a !e!orandu! s(all &e a #round for dis!issal of t(e appeal. ,c- :pon t(e filin# of t(e !e!orandu! of t(e appellee+ or t(e e)piration of t(e period to do so+ t(e case s(all &e considered su&!itted for decision. $(e Re#ional $rial Court s(all decide t(e case on t(e &asis of t(e entire record of t(e proceedin#s (ad in t(e court of ori#in and suc( !e!oranda as are filed. ,n,ailure to file appellant@s memorandum is a "round for dismissal of the appeal. Sec. ;. Appeal from orders dismissing case without trial; lack of urisdiction. If an appeal is ta'en fro! an order of t(e lo*er court dis!issin# t(e case *it(out a trial on t(e !erits+ t(e Re#ional $rial Court !a% affir! or reverse it+ as t(e case !a% &e. In case of affir!ance and t(e #round of dis!issal is lac' of "urisdiction over t(e su&"ect !atter+ t(e Re#ional $rial Court+ if it (as "urisdiction t(ereover+ s(all tr% t(e case on t(e !erits as if t(e case *as ori#inall% filed *it( it. In case of reversal+ t(e case s(all &e re!anded for furt(er proceedin#s. If t(e case *as tried on t(e !erits &% t(e lo*er court *it(out "urisdiction over t(e su&"ect !atter+ t(e Re#ional $rial Court on appeal s(all not dis!iss t(e case if it (as ori#inal "urisdiction t(ereof+ &ut s(all decide t(e case in accordance *it( t(e precedin# section+ *it(out pre"udice to t(e ad!ission of a!ended pleadin#s and additional evidence in t(e interest of "ustice. ,n!ppeals to RTC from MTC re"ardin" #urisdiction .1 dismissin" the case on lac7 of #urisdiction .a 8n fact had #urisdiction remand to MTC .$ Bid not have #urisdiction hold trial de novo in the RTC . decidin" a case outside its #urisdiction hold trial de novo in the RTC Sec. 6. Applica!ility of Rule "#. $(e ot(er provisions of Rule 51 s(all appl% to appeals provided for (erein insofar as t(e% are not inconsistent *it( or !a% serve to supple!ent t(e provisions of t(is Rule. ,n$. Cases

Casolita $. CA+ .7/ SCRA ,1667,ailure to serve notice of appeal on the adverse part4 prevents the appeal from $ein" perfected and is "round for dismissal of the appeal.

%ao $. CA+ .7/ SCRA ,1667The MTC has #urisdiction to resolve the issue of o%nership onl4 de facto2 not de #ure. 8f it decides o%nership de #ure2 then it has lost #urisdiction. -n appeal to the RTC2 the RTC should .-T dismiss the case2 $ut instead tr4 the case on the merits.
Remedial Law Reviewer, Part IV of IX, Last printed 11/20/2002 01:00:00 AM Mark de Leon, JD 2001 -4-

&rancisco $. Permskul+ 171 SCRA 1.5 ,16;66here the decision of the appellate court actuall4 reproduces the findin"s of fact or the conclusions of la% of the court $elo%2 it is not a memorandum decision. The distinctive features of the memorandum decision are2 first2 it is rendered $4 an appellate court2 and second2 it incorporates $4 reference the findin"s of fact or the conclusions of la% contained in the decision2 order or rulin" under revie%. The la% allo%in" memorandum decisions is constitutional. The RTC ma4 adopt in toto either e5pressl4 or impliedl4 the findin"s and conclusions of the inferior court2 and such adoption %ould amount to a su$stantial compliance %ith the constitutional mandate. 1o%ever2 %here the specific ar"uments presented a"ainst the decision of the inferior court are of such nature that a $lan7et affirmance of said decision does not in fact ade&uatel4 dispose of the strictures a"ainst it2 it is $ut proper2 if onl4 to facilitate the action to $e ta7en $4 the appellate court on the petition for revie%2 that the concrete $ases of the impu"ned decision should appear on its face2 instead of the appellate court havin" to di" into the records to find out ho% the inferior court resolved the issues of the case. This pro$lem does not e5ist in the case at $ar $ecause the decision of the C! e5tensivel4 &uoted from the decision of the MTC. !lthou"h onl4 incorporated $4 reference in the memorandum decision of the RTC the decision %as nevertheless availa$le to the C!. 8t is this circumstance2 or even happenstance2 if 4ou %ill2 that has validated the memorandum decision challen"ed in this case and spared it from constitutional infirmit4. The memorandum decision2 to $e valid2 cannot incorporate the findin"s of fact and the conclusions of la% of the lo%er court onl4 $4 remote reference2 %hich is to sa4 that the challen"ed decision is not easil4 and immediatel4 availa$le to the person readin" the memorandum decision. ,or the incorporation $4 reference to $e allo%ed2 it must provide for direct access to the facts and the la% $ein" adopted2 %hich must $e contained in a statement attached to the said decision. The memorandum decision should actuall4 em$od4 the findin"s of fact and conclusions of la% of the lo%er court in an anne5 attached to and made an indispensa$le part of the decision. The pro5imit4 at least of the anne5ed statement should su""est that such an e5amination has $een underta7en. The memorandum decision ma4 $e resorted to onl4 in cases %here the facts are in the main accepted $4 $oth parties or easil4 determina$le $4 the #ud"e and there are no doctrinal complications involved that %ill re&uire an e5tended discussion of the la%s involved. The memorandum decision ma4 $e emplo4ed in simple liti"ations onl42 such as ordinar4 collection cases2 %here the appeal is o$viousl4 "roundless and deserves no more than the time needed to dismiss it. The memorandum decision should $e sparin"l4 used lest it $ecome an addictive e5cuse for #udicial sloth. .. Appeal fro! t(e R$C ,Rule 51a. Rule 51 Section 1. 'u! ect of appeal. An appeal !a% &e ta'en fro! a "ud#!ent or final order t(at co!pletel% disposes of t(e case+ or of a particular !atter t(erein *(en declared &% t(ese Rules to &e appeala&le. 3o appeal !a% &e ta'en fro!< ,a- An order den%in# a !otion for ne* trial or reconsideration= ,&- An order den%in# a petition for relief or an% si!ilar !otion see'in# relief fro! "ud#!ent= ,c- An interlocutor% order= ,d- An order disallo*in# or dis!issin# an appeal=
Remedial Law Reviewer, Part IV of IX, Last printed 11/20/2002 01:00:00 AM Mark de Leon, JD 2001 -5-

,e- An order den%in# a !otion to set aside a "ud#!ent &% consent+ confession or co!pro!ise on t(e #round of fraud+ !ista'e or duress+ or an% ot(er #round vitiatin# consent= ,f- An order of e)ecution= ,#- A "ud#!ent or final order for or a#ainst one or !ore of several parties or in separate clai!s+ counterclai!s+ cross>clai!s and t(ird>part% co!plaints+ *(ile t(e !ain case is pendin#+ unless t(e court allo*s an appeal t(erefro!= and ,(- An order dis!issin# an action *it(out pre"udice. In all t(e a&ove instances *(ere t(e "ud#!ent or final order is not appeala&le+ t(e a##rieved part% !a% file an appropriate special civil action under Rule 4/. ,n!n appeal ma4 $e ta7en from .1 a #ud"ment or final order that completel4 disposes of the case2 or . of a particular matter therein %hen declared $4 these Rules to $e appeala$le. .o appeal ma4 $e ta7en from (re!ed% is special civil action certiorari+ pro(i&ition or !anda!us) .1 Benial of a motion for ne% trial or reconsiderationC . Benial of a petition for relief or an4 similar motion see7in" relief from #ud"mentC .( interlocutor4 orderC .4 order disallo%in" or dismissin" an appealC .* denial of a motion to set aside a #ud"ment $4 consent2 confession or compromise on the "round of vitiation of consentC .9 order of e5ecutionC .7 #ud"ment or final order for or a"ainst one or more of several parties or in separate claims2 counterclaims2 cross'claims and third'part4 complaints2 %hile the main case is pendin"2 unless the court allo%s an appeal therefromC and .D order dismissin" an action %ithout pre#udice. Sec. .. (odes of appeal. ,a- )rdinary appeal. $(e appeal to t(e Court of Appeals in cases decided &% t(e Re#ional $rial Court in t(e e)ercise of its ori#inal "urisdiction s(all &e ta'en &% filin# a notice of appeal *it( t(e court *(ic( rendered t(e "ud#!ent or final order appealed fro! and servin# a cop% t(ereof upon t(e adverse part%. 3o record on appeal s(all &e re0uired e)cept in special proceedin#s and ot(er cases of !ultiple or separate appeals *(ere t(e la* or t(ese Rules so re0uire. In suc( cases+ t(e record on appeal s(all &e filed and served in li'e !anner. ,&- Petition for re$iew. $(e appeal to t(e Court of Appeals in cases decided &% t(e Re#ional $rial Court in t(e e)ercise of its appellate "urisdiction s(all &e &% petition for revie* in accordance *it( Rule 5.. ,c- Appeal !y certiorari. In all cases *(ere onl% 0uestions of la* are raised or involved+ t(e appeal s(all &e to t(e Supre!e Court &% petition for revie* on certiorari in accordance *it( Rule 5/. ,nModes of appeal
Remedial Law Reviewer, Part IV of IX, Last printed 11/20/2002 01:00:00 AM Mark de Leon, JD 2001 -6-

.1 -rdinar4 appeal . Petition for revie% .( !ppeal $4 certiorari -rdinar4 appeal .1 appeal to the C! . in cases decided $4 the RTC in the e5ercise of its ori"inal #urisdiction .a filin" a notice of appeal %ith the court %hich rendered the #ud"ment or final order appealed from and .$ servin" a cop4 thereof upon the adverse part4 .4 .o record on appeal shall $e re&uired e5cept (in such cases2 the record on appeal shall $e filed and served) .a special proceedin"s and .$ other cases of multiple or separate appeals %here the la% or these Rules so re&uire Petition for revie% .1 appeal to the C! . in cases decided $4 the RTC in the e5ercise of its appellate #urisdiction .( $4 petition for revie% (Rule 4 ) !ppeal $4 certiorari .1 8n all cases %here onl4 &uestions of la% are raised or involved . appeal shall $e to the )C .( $4 petition for revie% on certiorari (Rule 4*) !fter filin" a notice of appeal2 appellant@s $rief follo%s. This is a matter of ri"ht. ! petition for revie% is merel4 discretionar42 not a matter of ri"ht. Sec. 1. Period of ordinary appeal. $(e appeal s(all &e ta'en *it(in fifteen ,1/- da%s fro! notice of t(e "ud#!ent or final order appealed fro!. W(ere a record on appeal is re0uired+ t(e appellant s(all file a notice of appeal and a record on appeal *it(in t(irt% ,12- da%s fro! notice of t(e "ud#!ent or final order. $(e period of appeal s(all &e interrupted &% a ti!el% !otion for ne* trial or reconsideration. 3o !otion for e)tension of ti!e to file a !otion for ne* trial or reconsideration s(all &e allo*ed. ,nPeriod of ordinar4 appeal .1 %ithin 1* da4s from notice of the #ud"ment or final order appealed from . %here a record on appeal is re&uired2 %ithin (0 da4s from notice of the #ud"ment or final order. The period of appeal shall $e interrupted $4 a timel4 motion for ne% trial or reconsideration. .o motion for e5tension of time to file a motion for ne% trial or reconsideration shall $e allo%ed.
Remedial Law Reviewer, Part IV of IX, Last printed 11/20/2002 01:00:00 AM Mark de Leon, JD 2001 -7-

.( ta7en $4

Sec. 5. Appellate court docket and other lawful fees. Wit(in t(e period for ta'in# an appeal+ t(e appellant s(all pa% to t(e cler' of t(e court *(ic( rendered t(e "ud#!ent or final order appealed fro!+ t(e full a!ount of t(e appellate court doc'et and ot(er la*ful fees. Proof of pa%!ent of said fees s(all &e trans!itted to t(e appellate court to#et(er *it( t(e ori#inal record or t(e record on appeal. ,nSec. /. *otice of appeal. $(e notice of appeal s(all indicate t(e parties to t(e appeal+ specif% t(e "ud#!ent or final order or part t(ereof appealed fro!+ specif% t(e court to *(ic( t(e appeal is &ein# ta'en+ and state t(e !aterial dates s(o*in# t(e ti!eliness of t(e appeal. ,5aContents of a notice of appeal .1 the parties to the appeal . the #ud"ment or final order or part thereof appealed from .( the court to %hich the appeal is $ein" ta7en2 and .4 the material dates sho%in" the timeliness of the appeal. .ote that in notice of appeal from the MTC2 there is no need to indicate the court to %hich the appeal is directed. 8n notice of appeal from the RTC2 there it is re&uired to indicate the court to %hich the appeal is directed. Sec. 4. Record on appeal; form and contents thereof. $(e full na!es of all t(e parties to t(e proceedin#s s(all &e stated in t(e caption of t(e record on appeal and it s(all include t(e "ud#!ent or final order fro! *(ic( t(e appeal is ta'en and+ in c(ronolo#ical order+ copies of onl% suc( pleadin#s+ petitions+ !otions and all interlocutor% orders as are related to t(e appealed "ud#!ent or final order for t(e proper understandin# of t(e issue involved+ to#et(er *it( suc( data as *ill s(o* t(at t(e appeal *as perfected on ti!e. If an issue of fact is to &e raised on appeal+ t(e record on appeal s(all include &% reference all t(e evidence+ testi!onial and docu!entar%+ ta'en upon t(e issue involved. $(e reference s(all specif% t(e docu!entar% evidence &% t(e e)(i&it nu!&ers or letters &% *(ic( it *as identified *(en ad!itted or offered at t(e (earin#+ and t(e testi!onial evidence &% t(e na!es of t(e correspondin# *itnesses. If t(e *(ole testi!onial and docu!entar% evidence in t(e case is to &e included+ a state!ent to t(at effect *ill &e sufficient *it(out !entionin# t(e na!es of t(e *itnesses or t(e nu!&ers or letters of e)(i&its. Ever% record on appeal e)ceedin# t*ent% ,.2- pa#es !ust contain a su&"ect inde). ,4aContents of record on appeal from the RTC (same as contents of record on appeal from the MTC) .1 The full names of all the parties to the proceedin"s stated in the caption . the #ud"ment or final order from %hich the appeal is ta7en .( in chronolo"ical order2 copies of pleadin"s2 petitions2 motions and all interlocutor4 orders related to the appealed #ud"ment or final order .4 data as %ill sho% that the appeal %as perfected on time .* 8f an issue of fact is to $e raised on appeal2 the record on appeal shall include $4 reference all the evidence2 testimonial and documentar42 ta7en upon the issue involved. The reference shall specif4 .a the documentar4 evidence $4 the e5hi$it num$ers or letters $4 %hich it %as identified %hen admitted or offered at the hearin"2 and .$ the testimonial evidence $4 the names of the correspondin" %itnesses.
Remedial Law Reviewer, Part IV of IX, Last printed 11/20/2002 01:00:00 AM Mark de Leon, JD 2001 -8-

.9 8f the %hole testimonial and documentar4 evidence in the case is to $e included2 a statement to that effect %ill $e sufficient %ithout mentionin" the names of the %itnesses or the num$ers or letters of e5hi$its. .7 Ever4 record on appeal e5ceedin" 0 pa"es must contain a su$#ect inde5 Sec. 7. Appro$al of record on appeal. :pon t(e filin# of t(e record on appeal for approval and if no o&"ection is filed &% t(e appellee *it(in five ,/- da%s fro! receipt of a cop% t(ereof+ t(e trial court !a% approve it as presented or upon its o*n !otion or at t(e instance of t(e appellee+ !a% direct its a!end!ent &% t(e inclusion of an% o!itted !atters *(ic( are dee!ed essential to t(e deter!ination of t(e issue of la* or fact involved in t(e appeal. If t(e trial court orders t(e a!end!ent of t(e record+ t(e appellant+ *it(in t(e ti!e li!ited in t(e order+ or suc( e)tension t(ereof as !a% &e #ranted+ or if no ti!e is fi)ed &% t(e order *it(in ten ,12- da%s fro! receipt t(ereof+ s(all redraft t(e record &% includin# t(erein+ in t(eir proper c(ronolo#ical se0uence+ suc( additional !atters as t(e court !a% (ave directed (i! to incorporate+ and s(all t(ereupon su&!it t(e redrafted record for approval+ upon notice to t(e appellee+ in li'e !anner as t(e ori#inal draft. ,7aFpon the filin" of the record on appeal for approval and if no o$#ection is filed $4 the appellee %ithin * da4s from receipt of a cop4 thereof2 the trial court ma4 .1 approve it as presented or . ma4 direct its amendment $4 the inclusion of an4 omitted matters %hich are deemed essential to the determination of the issue of la% or fact involved in the appeal. .a upon its o%n motion or .$ at the instance of the appellee 8f the trial court orders the amendment of the record .1 the appellant %ithin .a the time limited in the order2 or .$ such e5tension thereof as ma4 $e "ranted2 or .c if no time is fi5ed $4 the order %ithin 10 da4s from receipt . shall .a redraft the record $4 includin" therein2 in their proper chronolo"ical se&uence2 such additional matters as the court ma4 have directed him to incorporate2 and .$ su$mit the redrafted record for approval2 upon notice to the appellee2 in li7e manner as the ori"inal draft. Sec. ;. +oint record on appeal. W(ere &ot( parties are appellants+ t(e% !a% file a "oint record on appeal *it(in t(e ti!e fi)ed &% section 1 of t(is Rule+ or t(at fi)ed &% t(e court. ,;a6here $oth parties are appellants2 the4 ma4 file a #oint record on appeal %ithin .1 (0 da4s from notice of the #ud"ment or final order2 or . a period fi5ed $4 the court. Sec. 6. Perfection of appeal; effect thereof. A part%8s appeal &% notice of appeal is dee!ed perfected as to (i! upon t(e filin# of t(e notice of appeal in due ti!e.
Remedial Law Reviewer, Part IV of IX, Last printed 11/20/2002 01:00:00 AM Mark de Leon, JD 2001 -9-

A part%8s appeal &% record on appeal is dee!ed perfected as to (i! *it( respect to t(e su&"ect !atter t(ereof upon t(e approval of t(e record on appeal filed in due ti!e. In appeals &% notice of appeal+ t(e court loses "urisdiction over t(e case upon t(e perfection of t(e appeals filed in due ti!e and t(e e)piration of t(e ti!e to appeal of t(e ot(er parties. In appeals &% record on appeal+ t(e court loses "urisdiction onl% over t(e su&"ect !atter t(ereof upon t(e approval of t(e records on appeal filed in due ti!e and t(e e)piration of t(e ti!e to appeal of t(e ot(er parties. In eit(er case+ prior to t(e trans!ittal of t(e ori#inal record or t(e record on appeal+ t(e court !a% issue orders for t(e protection and preservation of t(e ri#(ts of t(e parties *(ic( do not involve an% !atter liti#ated &% t(e appeal+ approve co!pro!ises+ per!it appeals of indi#ent liti#ants+ order e)ecution pendin# appeal in accordance *it( section . of Rule 16+ and allo* *it(dra*al of t(e appeal. ,6ade Aeon3 The concepts of perfection of appeal2 loss of #urisdiction2 and po%er to issue orders are the same in appeals from the MTC and RTC. Sec. 12. Duty of clerk of court of the lower court upon perfection of appeal. Wit(in t(irt% ,12da%s after perfection of all t(e appeals in accordance *it( t(e precedin# section+ it s(all &e t(e dut% of t(e cler' of court of t(e lo*er court< ,a- $o verif% t(e correctness of t(e ori#inal record or t(e record on appeal+ as t(e case !a% &e+ and to !a'e a certification of its correctness= ,&- $o verif% t(e co!pleteness of t(e records t(at *ill &e trans!itted to t(e appellate court= ,c- If found to &e inco!plete+ to ta'e suc( !easures as !a% &e re0uired to co!plete t(e records+ availin# of t(e aut(orit% t(at (e or t(e court !a% e)ercise for t(is purpose= and ,d- $o trans!it t(e records to t(e appellate court. If t(e efforts to co!plete t(e records fail+ (e s(all indicate in (is letter of trans!ittal t(e e)(i&its or transcripts not included in t(e records &ein# trans!itted to t(e appellate court+ t(e reasons for t(eir non>trans!ittal+ and t(e steps ta'en or t(at could &e ta'en to (ave t(e! availa&le. $(e cler' of court s(all furnis( t(e parties *it( copies of (is letter of trans!ittal of t(e records to t(e appellate court. ,12aSec. 11. Transcript. :pon t(e perfection of t(e appeal+ t(e cler' s(all i!!ediatel% direct t(e steno#rap(ers concerned to attac( to t(e record of t(e case five ,/- copies of t(e transcripts of t(e testi!onial evidence referred to in t(e record on appeal. $(e steno#rap(ers concerned s(all transcri&e suc( testi!onial evidence and s(all prepare and affi) to t(eir transcripts an inde) containin# t(e na!es of t(e *itnesses and t(e pa#es *(erein t(eir testi!onies are found+ and a list of t(e e)(i&its and t(e pa#es *(erein eac( of t(e! appears to (ave &een offered and ad!itted or re"ected &% t(e trial court. $(e transcripts s(all &e trans!itted to t(e cler' of t(e trial court *(o s(all t(ereupon arran#e t(e sa!e in t(e order in *(ic( t(e *itnesses testified at t(e trial+ and s(all cause t(e pa#es to &e nu!&ered consecutivel%. ,1.aSec. 1.. Transmittal. $(e cler' of t(e trial court s(all trans!it to t(e appellate court t(e ori#inal record or t(e approved record on appeal *it(in t(irt% ,12- da%s fro! t(e perfection of t(e appeal+ to#et(er *it( t(e proof of pa%!ent of t(e appellate court doc'et and ot(er la*ful fees+ a certified true cop% of t(e !inutes of t(e proceedin#s+ t(e order of approval+ t(e certificate of correctness+ t(e ori#inal docu!entar% evidence referred to t(erein+ and t(e ori#inal and t(ree ,1Remedial Law Reviewer, Part IV of IX, Last printed 11/20/2002 01:00:00 AM Mark de Leon, JD 2001 - 10 -

copies of t(e transcripts. Copies of t(e transcripts and certified true copies of t(e docu!entar% evidence s(all re!ain in t(e lo*er court for t(e e)a!ination of t(e parties. ,11a6ithin (0 da4s after perfection of all the appeals2 it shall $e the dut4 of the cler7 of court of court a &uo .1 direct the steno"raphers concerned to attach to the record of the case * copies of the transcripts of the testimonial evidence referred to in the record on appeal . To verif4 the correctness of the ori"inal record or the record on appeal2 and to ma7e a certification of its correctness .a 8f found to $e incomplete2 to ta7e such measures as ma4 $e re&uired to complete the records2 availin" of the authorit4 that he or the court ma4 e5ercise for this purposeC and .$ 8f the efforts to complete the records fail2 he shall indicate in his letter of transmittal )1 ) )( the e5hi$its or transcripts not transmitted to the appellate court the reasons for their non'transmittal2 and the steps ta7en or that could $e ta7en to have them availa$le.

.( To verif4 the completeness of the records that %ill $e transmitted to the appellate courtC

.4 To transmit the records to the appellate court. .* furnish the parties %ith copies of his letter of transmittal of the records to the appellate court The steno"raphers concerned shall .1 transcri$e such testimonial evidence and . prepare and affi5 to their transcripts .a an inde5 containin" the names of the %itnesses and the pa"es %herein their testimonies are found2 and .$ a list of the e5hi$its and the pa"es %herein each of them appears to have $een offered and admitted or re#ected $4 the trial court. .( transmit the transcripts to the cler7 of the trial court %ho shall thereupon .a arran"e the same in the order in %hich the %itnesses testified at the trial2 and .$ cause the pa"es to $e num$ered consecutivel4. The cler7 of the trial court shall2 %ithin (0 da4s from the perfection of the appeal2 transmit to the appellate court .1 the ori"inal record or the approved record on appeal . proof of pa4ment of the appellate court doc7et and other la%ful fees .( a certified true cop4 of the minutes of the proceedin"s .4 the order of approval .* the certificate of correctness .9 the ori"inal documentar4 evidence referred to therein2 and .7 the ori"inal and ( copies of the transcripts.
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Copies of the transcripts and certified true copies of the documentar4 evidence shall remain in the lo%er court for the e5amination of the parties. Sec. 11. Dismissal of appeal.> Prior to t(e trans!ittal of t(e ori#inal record or t(e record on appeal to t(e appellate court+ t(e trial court !a%+ !otu proprio or on !otion+ dis!iss t(e appeal for (avin# &een ta'en out of ti!e or non>pa%!ent of t(e doc'et and ot(er la*ful fees *it(in t(e re#le!entar% period.,11aPrior to the transmittal of the ori"inal record or the record on appeal to the appellate court2 the trial court ma42 motu proprio or on motion2 dismiss the appeal .1 for havin" $een ta7en out of time or . non'pa4ment of the doc7et and other la%ful fees %ithin the re"lementar4 period &. Cases

Municipalit% of ?i@an v. Aarcia+ 11; or 1;2 SCRA /74 ,16;6!ppeals in special proceedin"s and other cases %herein multiple appeals are allo%ed (e.". eminent domain2 partition)2 the period of appeal shall $e (0 (not 1*) da4s from notice of the order appealed from2 a record of appeal $ein" re&uired. ,amador3 do not state /lac7 of cause of action0 in a MtB. Gou should use /failure to state a cause of action0. /lac7 of cause of action0 can $e properl4 stated in a Bemurrer.

,lepante $. (anayag+ 164 SCRA 166 ,16618n computin" the period to appeal the date on %hich the appellant is notified of the decision is not counted and the period starts to run the follo%in" da4 unless the same $4 a )unda4 or le"al holida4 in %hich case the period of appeal is to $e considered from the succeedin" da4. To perfect an appeal2 a notice of appeal is re&uired to $e filed %ith the Cler7 of Court or +ud"e %ho rendered the #ud"ment. ,urthermore2 appeal in ha$eas corpus from the decision of the RTC shall $e ta7en to the C! %here it involves factual &uestions2 or directl4 to the )C on pure &uestions of la%. The decision of the +ud"e to %hom the %rit is made returna$le2 either for the release of the detainee or for sustainin" his detention2 if not appealed on time2 can $ecome final #ust li7e an ordinar4 case.

(eneses $. CA+ .17 SCRA 5;5 ,16659acts3 Meneses filed %ith the RTC a complaint for dama"es a"ainst PHI for an accident that occurred inside PHI@s soap plant. 8nstead of filin" an ans%er2 PHI moved to dismiss the complaint on "rounds of laches and of lac7 of #urisdiction of the trial court over the nature and su$#ect matter of the suit2 the same $ein" %ithin the e5clusive and ori"inal #urisdiction of the Aa$or !r$iters. TC dismissed the complaint in the "round of lac7 of #urisdiction. 8nstead of filin" a notice of appeal2 Meneses filed %ithin the period to appeal a petition for certiorari under Rule 4* $ut %ith the C!. C! dismissed the petition for revie% on the "round that Meneses should have filed a petition for revie% on certiorari %ith the )C. Beld3 The provisions prescri$in" a common mode of appeal to the C! and to the )C2 and a common method of passin" on and resolvin" an appeal2 are no lon"er in force and effect. There is no lon"er an4 #ustification for allo%in" transfers of erroneous appeals from one court to the other. 8f an appeal is essa4ed to either court $4 the %ron" procedure2 the onl4 course of action open is to dismiss the appeal. !t present2 e5cept in criminal cases %here the penalt4 imposed is life imprisonment or reclusion perpetua2 there is no %a4 $4 %hich #ud"ments of RTC ma4 $e appealed to the )C e5cept $4 petition for revie% on

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certiorari in accordance %ith Rule 4*. ,urthermore2 it is not possi$le to ta7e an appeal $4 certiorari to the C!. !ppeals to the C! from the RTC are perfected $4 ordinar4 appeal2 or $4 petition for revie%. 1o%ever2 if an appeal $4 notice of appeal is ta7en from the RTC to the C! and in the C!2 the appellant raises nau"ht $ut issues of la%2 the appeal should $e dismissed for lac7 of #urisdiction. 8n the instant case the trial courtJs order of * +une 1>> dismissin" Meneses@ complaint %as a final order $ecause it had put an end to the particular matter resolved2 or settled definitel4 the matter therein disposed of and left nothin" more to $e done $4 the trial court e5cept the e5ecution of the order. 8t is a firml4 settled rule that the remed4 a"ainst such order is appeal and not certiorari. That appeal ma4 $e solel4 on &uestions of la%2 in %hich case it ma4 $e ta7en onl4 to the )CC or on &uestions of fact and la%2 in %hich case the appeal should $e $rou"ht to the C!. 8f Meneses had chosen to appeal from the dismissal order of the RTC solel4 on &uestions of la%2 then he should have filed a petition for revie% on certiorari %ith the )C. 8f he %anted to raise in his appeal $oth &uestions of la% and of fact2 then he should have pursued the remed4 of an ordinar4 appeal to the C! and not $4 %a4 of a petition for revie% under Rule 4*.

'es!re-o $. CA+ .52 SCRA 424 ,166/(memoriKe the )C@s definition of &uestion of la%) &uestion of la% a &uestion %hich e5ists %hen the dou$t or difference arises as to %hat the la% is on certain state of facts &uestion of fact %hen the dou$t or difference arises as to the truth or the falsehood of alle"ed factsC %hen the &uer4 necessaril4 invites cali$ration of the %hole evidence2 considerin" mainl4 the credi$ilit4 of %itnesses2 e5istence and relevanc4 of specific surroundin" circumstances2 their relation to each other and to the %hole and the pro$a$ilities of the situation. 1. Petition for Revie* fro! t(e R$C to t(e CA ,Rule 5.Section 1. How appeal taken; time for filing. A part% desirin# to appeal fro! a decision of t(e Re#ional $rial Court rendered in t(e e)ercise of its appellate "urisdiction !a% file a verified petition for revie* *it( t(e Court of Appeals+ pa%in# at t(e sa!e ti!e to t(e cler' of said court t(e correspondin# doc'et and ot(er la*ful fees+ depositin# t(e a!ount of P/22.22 for costs+ and furnis(in# t(e Re#ional $rial Court and t(e adverse part% *it( a cop% of t(e petition. $(e petition s(all &e filed and served *it(in fifteen ,1/- da%s fro! notice of t(e decision sou#(t to &e revie*ed or of t(e denial of petitioner8s !otion for ne* trial or reconsideration filed in due ti!e after "ud#!ent. :pon proper !otion and t(e pa%!ent of t(e full a!ount of t(e doc'et and ot(er la*ful fees and t(e deposit for costs &efore t(e e)piration of t(e re#le!entar% period+ t(e Court of Appeals !a% #rant an additional period of fifteen ,1/- da%s onl% *it(in *(ic( to file t(e petition for revie*. 3o furt(er e)tension s(all &e #ranted e)cept for t(e !ost co!pellin# reason and in no case to e)ceed fifteen ,1/- da%s. ,nPeriod to file and serve petition for revie% from RTC to C! 1* da4s from notice of the decision sou"ht to $e revie%ed or of the denial of petitioner@s M.T or MfRC e5tendi$le $4 another 1* da4sC further e5tension of 1* da4s onl4 %ith compellin" reason ! part4 has a fresh 1* da4s to file a petition for revie% from denial of the M,R or M.T2 $ut onl4 the remainin" period to file a notice of appeal. The period to file a petition for revie% ma4 $e e5tended $4 the appellate court2 $ut the period to file a notice of appeal ma4 not $e e5tended $4 the court a &uo.

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de Aeon3 The period to file M.T or MfR is al%a4s non'e5tendi$le. The period to file a notice of appeal is also not e5tendi$le.;Habaluyas v. Jabson2 1(D )CR! 49 (1>D*)= 1o%ever2 a period to file a petition for revie% ma4 $e e5tended $4 1* da4s2 and for the most compellin" reason2 another 1* da4s. Sec. .. &orm and contents. $(e petition s(all &e filed in seven ,7- le#i&le copies+ *it( t(e ori#inal cop% intended for t(e court &ein# indicated as suc( &% t(e petitioner+ and s(all ,a- state t(e full na!es of t(e parties to t(e case+ *it(out i!pleadin# t(e lo*er courts or "ud#es t(ereof eit(er as petitioners or respondents= ,&- indicate t(e specific !aterial dates s(o*in# t(at it *as filed on ti!e= ,c- set fort( concisel% a state!ent of t(e !atters involved+ t(e issues raised+ t(e specification of errors of fact or la*+ or &ot(+ alle#edl% co!!itted &% t(e Re#ional $rial Court+ and t(e reasons or ar#u!ents relied upon for t(e allo*ance of t(e appeal= ,d- &e acco!panied &% clearl% le#i&le duplicate ori#inals or true copies of t(e "ud#!ents or final orders of &ot( lo*er courts+ certified correct &% t(e cler' of court of t(e Re#ional $rial Court+ t(e re0uisite nu!&er of plain copies t(ereof and of t(e pleadin#s and ot(er !aterial portions of t(e record as *ould support t(e alle#ations of t(e petition. $(e petitioner s(all also su&!it to#et(er *it( t(e petition a certification under oat( t(at (e (as not t(eretofore co!!enced an% ot(er action involvin# t(e sa!e issues in t(e Supre!e Court+ t(e Court of Appeals or different divisions t(ereof+ or an% ot(er tri&unal or a#enc%= if t(ere is suc( ot(er action or proceedin#+ (e !ust state t(e status of t(e sa!e= and if (e s(ould t(ereafter learn t(at a si!ilar action or proceedin# (as &een filed or is pendin# &efore t(e Supre!e Court+ t(e Court of Appeals+ or different divisions t(ereof+ or an% ot(er tri&unal or a#enc%+ (e underta'es to pro!ptl% infor! t(e aforesaid courts and ot(er tri&unal or a#enc% t(ereof *it(in five ,/- da%s t(erefro!. ,nContents of petition for revie% .1 full names of the parties2 %ithout impleadin" the lo%er courts or #ud"es . specific material dates sho%in" that it %as filed on time .a matters involved .$ issues raised .c specification of errors of fact or la%2 or $oth2 alle"edl4 committed $4 the Re"ional Trial Court2 and .d the reasons or ar"uments relied upon for the allo%ance of the appeal .4 clearl4 le"i$le duplicate ori"inals or true copies of the #ud"ments or final orders of $oth lo%er courts2 certified correct $4 the cler7 of the RTC2 the re&uisite num$er of plain copies thereof and of the pleadin"s and other material portions of the record as %ould support the alle"ations of the petition. .ote that a certification of non'forum shoppin" is re&uired in petition for revie%. This is not so in ordinar4 appeal. Sec. 1. ,ffect of failure to comply with re.uirements. $(e failure of t(e petitioner to co!pl% *it( an% of t(e fore#oin# re0uire!ents re#ardin# t(e pa%!ent of t(e doc'et and ot(er la*ful fees+ t(e deposit for costs+ proof of service of t(e petition+ and t(e contents of and t(e docu!ents *(ic( s(ould acco!pan% t(e petition s(all &e sufficient #round for t(e dis!issal t(ereof. ,nSec. 5. Action on the petition. $(e Court of Appeals !a% re0uire t(e respondent to file a co!!ent on t(e petition+ not a !otion to dis!iss+ *it(in ten ,12- da%s fro! notice+ or dis!iss t(e
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.( statement of the

petition if it finds t(e sa!e to &e patentl% *it(out !erit+ prosecuted !anifestl% for dela%+ or t(at t(e 0uestions raised t(erein are too unsu&stantial to re0uire consideration. ,nIrounds for motu propio dismissal of the petition for revie% .1 patentl4 %ithout merit . prosecuted manifestl4 for dela42 or .( the &uestions raised therein are too unsu$stantial to re&uire consideration Sec. /. Contents of comment. $(e co!!ent of t(e respondent s(all &e filed in seven ,7- le#i&le copies+ acco!panied &% certified true copies of suc( !aterial portions of t(e record referred to t(erein to#et(er *it( ot(er supportin# papers and s(all ,a- state *(et(er or not (e accepts t(e state!ent of !atters involved in t(e petition= ,&- point out suc( insufficiencies or inaccuracies as (e &elieves e)ist in petitioner8s state!ent of !atters involved &ut *it(out repetition= and ,c- state t(e reasons *(% t(e petition s(ould not &e #iven due course. A cop% t(ereof s(all &e served on t(e petitioner. ,nSec. 4. Due course. If upon t(e filin# of t(e co!!ent or suc( ot(er pleadin#s as t(e court !a% allo* or re0uire+ or after t(e e)piration of t(e period for t(e filin# t(ereof *it(out suc( co!!ent or pleadin# (avin# &een su&!itted+ t(e Court of Appeals finds pri!a facie t(at t(e lo*er court (as co!!itted an error of fact or la* t(at *ill *arrant a reversal or !odification of t(e appealed decision+ it !a% accordin#l% #ive due course to t(e petition. ,nSec. 7. ,le$ation of record. W(enever t(e Court of Appeals dee!s it necessar%+ it !a% order t(e cler' of court of t(e Re#ional $rial Court to elevate t(e ori#inal record of t(e case includin# t(e oral and docu!entar% evidence *it(in fifteen ,1/- da%s fro! notice. ,nSec. ;. Perfection of appeal; effect thereof. ,a- :pon t(e ti!el% filin# of a petition for revie* and t(e pa%!ent of t(e correspondin# doc'et and ot(er la*ful fees+ t(e appeal is dee!ed perfected as to t(e petitioner. $(e Re#ional $rial Court loses "urisdiction over t(e case upon t(e perfection of t(e appeals filed in due ti!e and t(e e)piration of t(e ti!e to appeal of t(e ot(er parties. Bo*ever+ &efore t(e Court of Appeals #ives due course to t(e petition+ t(e Re#ional $rial Court !a% issue orders for t(e protection and preservation of t(e ri#(ts of t(e parties *(ic( do not involve an% !atter liti#ated &% t(e appeal+ approve co!pro!ises+ per!it appeals of indi#ent liti#ants+ order e)ecution pendin# appeal in accordance *it( section . of Rule 16+ and allo* *it(dra*al of t(e appeal. ,6a+ R51,&- E)cept in civil cases decided under t(e Rule on Su!!ar% Procedure+ t(e appeal s(all sta% t(e "ud#!ent or final order unless t(e Court of Appeals+ t(e la*+ or t(ese Rules s(all provide ot(er*ise. ,n:nder petition for revie* .1 perfection of appeal as to petitioner2 upon filin" of petition for revie% %ith pa4ment of fees . loss of #urisdiction upon perfection of appeal and e5piration of period to appeal of other parties .( po%er to issue orders2 etc. until C! "ives due course (unli7e transmittal of records in ordinar4 appeal) IR3 Petition for revie% sta4s e5ecution.
Remedial Law Reviewer, Part IV of IX, Last printed 11/20/2002 01:00:00 AM Mark de Leon, JD 2001 - 15 -

E5ceptions3 .1 summar4 procedure . provided other%ise $4 .a the C! .$ la% .c RoC 8n e#ectment #ud"ments2 e5ecution is sta4ed onl4 if an appeal is made to the RTC2 supersedeas $ond is filed and rentals continue to $e paid pendin" appeal. ,ailure to pa4 rentals means e5ecution ensues. The amount of supersedeas $ond should $e the amount of $ac7 rentals. :ut further appeal from the RTC to the C!2 e5ecution can no lon"er $e sta4ed (li7e other summar4 procedures). Sec. 6. 'u!mission for decision. If t(e petition is #iven due course+ t(e Court of Appeals !a% set t(e case for oral ar#u!ent or re0uire t(e parties to su&!it !e!oranda *it(in a period of fifteen ,1/- da%s fro! notice. $(e case s(all &e dee!ed su&!itted for decision upon t(e filin# of t(e last pleadin# or !e!orandu! re0uired &% t(ese Rules or &% t(e court itself. ,n-

5. Appeals fro! t(e Court of $a) Appeals and Cuasi>Dudicial A#encies to t(e CA ,Rule 51Section 1. 'cope. $(is Rule s(all appl% to appeals fro! "ud#!ents or final orders of t(e Court of $a) Appeals and fro! a*ards+ "ud#!ents+ final orders or resolutions of or aut(oriEed &% an% 0uasi>"udicial a#enc% in t(e e)ercise of its 0uasi>"udicial functions. A!on# t(ese a#encies are t(e Civil Service Co!!ission+ Central ?oard of Assess!ent Appeals+ Securities and E)c(an#e Co!!ission+ Fffice of t(e President+ Land Re#istration Aut(orit%+ Social Securit% Co!!ission+ Civil Aeronautics ?oard+ ?ureau of Patents+ $rade!ar's and $ec(nolo#% $ransfer+ 3ational Electrification Ad!inistration+ Ener#% Re#ulator% ?oard+ 3ational $eleco!!unications Co!!ission+ Depart!ent of A#rarian Refor! under Repu&lic Act 3o. 44/7+ Aovern!ent Service Insurance S%ste!+ E!plo%ees Co!pensation Co!!ission+ A#ricultural Inventions ?oard+ Insurance Co!!ission+ P(ilippine Ato!ic Ener#% Co!!ission+ ?oard of Invest!ents+ Construction Industr% Ar&itration Co!!ission+ and voluntar% ar&itrators aut(oriEed &% la*. ,ncf ne% )ecurities Re"ulations Code Sec. .. Cases not co$ered. $(is Rule s(all not appl% to "ud#!ents or final orders issued under t(e La&or Code of t(e P(ilippines. ,n-

St. Martin 9uneral Bo!es v. 3LRC+ .6/ SCRA 565 ,166;-<


Becisions of the .ARC are no% appeala$le to the C! $4 special civil actions for certiorari under Rule 9*. ,rom the C! decision2 appeal to the )C is $4 petition for revie% on certiorari under Rule 4*. Sec. 1. Where to appeal. An appeal under t(is Rule !a% &e ta'en to t(e Court of Appeals *it(in t(e period and in t(e !anner (erein provided+ *(et(er t(e appeal involves 0uestions of fact+ of la*+ or !i)ed 0uestions of fact and la*. ,n!ppeals from &uasi'#udicial a"encies2 even on purel4 &uestions of la%2 are to the C!. Fnli7e appeals from RTCs on pure &uestions of la% %hich should $e to the )C.

Remedial Law Reviewer, Part IV of IX, Last printed 11/20/2002 01:00:00 AM

Mark de Leon, JD 2001

- 16 -

Sec. 5. Period of appeal. $(e appeal s(all &e ta'en *it(in fifteen ,1/- da%s fro! notice of t(e a*ard+ "ud#!ent+ final order or resolution+ or fro! t(e date of its last pu&lication+ if pu&lication is re0uired &% la* for its effectivit%+ or of t(e denial of petitioner8s !otion for ne* trial or reconsideration dul% filed in accordance *it( t(e #overnin# la* of t(e court or a#enc% a 0uo. Fnl% one ,1- !otion for reconsideration s(all &e allo*ed. :pon proper !otion and t(e pa%!ent of t(e full a!ount of t(e doc'et fee &efore t(e e)piration of t(e re#le!entar% period+ t(e Court of Appeals !a% #rant an additional period of fifteen ,1/- da%s onl% *it(in *(ic( to file t(e petition for revie*. 3o furt(er e)tension s(all &e #ranted e)cept for t(e !ost co!pellin# reason and in no case to e)ceed fifteen ,1/- da%s. ,nSec. /. How appeal taken. Appeal s(all &e ta'en &% filin# a verified petition for revie* in seven ,7- le#i&le copies *it( t(e Court of Appeals+ *it( proof of service of a cop% t(ereof on t(e adverse part% and on t(e court or a#enc% a 0uo. $(e ori#inal cop% of t(e petition intended for t(e Court of Appeals s(all &e indicated as suc( &% t(e petitioner. :pon t(e filin# of t(e petition+ t(e petitioner s(all pa% to t(e cler' of court of t(e Court of Appeals t(e doc'etin# and ot(er la*ful fees and deposit t(e su! of P/22.22 for costs. E)e!ption fro! pa%!ent of doc'etin# and ot(er la*ful fees and t(e deposit for costs !a% &e #ranted &% t(e Court of Appeals upon a verified !otion settin# fort( valid #rounds t(erefor. If t(e Court of Appeals denies t(e !otion+ t(e petitioner s(all pa% t(e doc'etin# and ot(er la*ful fees and deposit for costs *it(in fifteen ,1/- da%s fro! notice of t(e denial. ,nSec. 4. Contents of the petition. $(e petition for revie* s(all ,a- state t(e full na!es of t(e parties to t(e case+ *it(out i!pleadin# t(e court or a#encies eit(er as petitioners or respondents= ,&- contain a concise state!ent of t(e facts and issues involved and t(e #rounds relied upon for t(e revie*= ,c- &e acco!panied &% a clearl% le#i&le duplicate ori#inal or a certified true cop% of t(e a*ard+ "ud#!ent+ final order or resolution appealed fro!+ to#et(er *it( certified true copies of suc( !aterial portions of t(e record referred to t(erein and ot(er supportin# papers= and ,dcontain a s*orn certification a#ainst foru! s(oppin# as provided in t(e last para#rap( of section .+ Rule 5.. $(e petition s(all state t(e specific !aterial dates s(o*in# t(at it *as filed *it(in t(e period fi)ed (erein. ,.aPET8T8-.) ,-R REL8E62 61ET1ER ,R-M MF!)8'+FB8C8!A !IE.C8E) -R ,R-M T1E RTC Petitioner has fresh 1* da4s from notice of denial of M.T or MfR to petition for revie% Period ma4 $e e5tended Re&uires certificate of non'forum shoppin" C! ma4 dismiss motu propio -RB8.!RG !PPE!A) Petitioner has onl4 the remainder of the ori"inal 1* da4s from notice of denial of M.T or MfR to appeal .on'e5tendi$le Boes not re&uire certificate of non'forum shoppin" C! has to entertain the appeal

Sec. 7. ,ffect of failure to comply with re.uirements. $(e failure of t(e petitioner to co!pl% *it( an% of t(e fore#oin# re0uire!ents re#ardin# t(e pa%!ent of t(e doc'et and ot(er la*ful fees+ t(e deposit for costs+ proof of service of t(e petition+ and t(e contents of and t(e docu!ents *(ic( s(ould acco!pan% t(e petition s(all &e sufficient #round for t(e dis!issal t(ereof. ,nRemedial Law Reviewer, Part IV of IX, Last printed 11/20/2002 01:00:00 AM Mark de Leon, JD 2001 - 17 -

Sec. ;. Action on the petition. $(e Court of Appeals !a% re0uire t(e respondent to file a co!!ent on t(e petition+ not a !otion to dis!iss+ *it(in ten ,12- da%s fro! notice+ or dis!iss t(e petition if it finds t(e sa!e to &e patentl% *it(out !erit+ prosecuted !anifestl% for dela%+ or t(at t(e 0uestions raised t(erein are too unsu&stantial to re0uire consideration. ,4aThe "rounds for the C! to dismiss a petition for revie% of &uasi'#udicial a"enc4 decision is the same as that in petition for revie% of RTC decision. Sec. 6. Contents of comment. $(e co!!ent s(all &e filed *it(in ten ,12- da%s fro! notice in seven ,7- le#i&le copies and acco!panied &% clearl% le#i&le certified true copies of suc( !aterial portions of t(e record referred to t(erein to#et(er *it( ot(er supportin# papers. $(e co!!ent s(all ,a- point out insufficiencies or inaccuracies in petitioner8s state!ent of facts and issues= and ,&- state t(e reasons *(% t(e petition s(ould &e denied or dis!issed. A cop% t(ereof s(all &e served on t(e petitioner+ and proof of suc( service s(all &e filed *it( t(e Court of Appeals. ,6aSec. 12. Due course. If upon t(e filin# of t(e co!!ent or suc( ot(er pleadin#s or docu!ents as !a% &e re0uired or allo*ed &% t(e Court of Appeals or upon t(e e)piration of t(e period for t(e filin# t(ereof+ and on t(e &asis of t(e petition or t(e records t(e Court of Appeals finds pri!a facie t(at t(e court or a#enc% concerned (as co!!itted errors of fact or la* t(at *ould *arrant reversal or !odification of t(e a*ard+ "ud#!ent+ final order or resolution sou#(t to &e revie*ed+ it !a% #ive due course to t(e petition= ot(er*ise+ it s(all dis!iss t(e sa!e. $(e findin#s of fact of t(e court or a#enc% concerned+ *(en supported &% su&stantial evidence+ s(all &e &indin# on t(e Court of Appeals. ,nSec. 11. Transmittal of record. Wit(in fifteen ,1/- da%s fro! notice t(at t(e petition (as &een #iven due course+ t(e Court of Appeals !a% re0uire t(e court or a#enc% concerned to trans!it t(e ori#inal or a le#i&le certified true cop% of t(e entire record of t(e proceedin# under revie*. $(e record to &e trans!itted !a% &e a&rid#ed &% a#ree!ent of all parties to t(e proceedin#. $(e Court of Appeals !a% re0uire or per!it su&se0uent correction of or addition to t(e record. ,;aSec. 1.. ,ffect of appeal. $(e appeal s(all not sta% t(e a*ard+ "ud#!ent+ final order or resolution sou#(t to &e revie*ed unless t(e Court of Appeals s(all direct ot(er*ise upon suc( ter!s as it !a% dee! "ust. ,12a.ote that in petitions for revie% from the RTC and ordinar4 appeals2 appeal sta4s e5ecution. 8n petitions for revie% from &uasi'#udicial a"encies2 appeal "enerall4 does .-T sta4 e5ecution. Sec. 11. 'u!mission for decision. If t(e petition is #iven due course+ t(e Court of Appeals !a% set t(e case for oral ar#u!ent or re0uire t(e parties to su&!it !e!oranda *it(in a period of fifteen ,1/- da%s fro! notice. $(e case s(all &e dee!ed su&!itted for decision upon t(e filin# of t(e last pleadin# or !e!orandu! re0uired &% t(ese Rules or &% t(e Court of Appeals. ,n?. Procedure in t(e Court of Appeals ,Rule 55>//1. Frdinar% Appealed Cases a. Rule 55 Section 1. Title of cases. In all cases appealed to t(e Court of Appeals under Rule 51+ t(e title of t(e case s(all re!ain as it *as in t(e court of ori#in+ &ut t(e part% appealin# t(e case s(all &e furt(er referred to as t(e appellant and t(e adverse part% as t(e appellee. ,1a+ R54Remedial Law Reviewer, Part IV of IX, Last printed 11/20/2002 01:00:00 AM Mark de Leon, JD 2001 - 18 -

Sec. .. Counsel and guardians. $(e counsel and #uardians ad lite! of t(e parties in t(e court of ori#in s(all &e respectivel% considered as t(eir counsel and #uardians ad lite! in t(e Court of Appeals. W(en ot(ers appear or are appointed+ notice t(ereof s(all &e served i!!ediatel% on t(e adverse part% and filed *it( t(e court. ,.a+ R54Sec. 1. )rder of transmittal of record. If t(e ori#inal record or t(e record on appeal is not trans!itted to t(e Court of Appeals *it(in t(irt% ,12- da%s after t(e perfection of t(e appeal+ eit(er part% !a% file a !otion *it( t(e trial court+ *it( notice to t(e ot(er+ for t(e trans!ittal of suc( record or record on appeal. ,1a+ R54Sec. 5. Docketing of case. :pon receivin# t(e ori#inal record or t(e record on appeal and t(e acco!pan%in# docu!ents and e)(i&its trans!itted &% t(e lo*er court+ as *ell as t(e proof of pa%!ent of t(e doc'et and ot(er la*ful fees+ t(e cler' of court of t(e Court of Appeals s(all doc'et t(e case and notif% t(e parties t(ereof. ,5a+ R54Wit(in ten ,12- da%s fro! receipt of said notice+ t(e appellant+ in appeals &% record on appeal+ s(all file *it( t(e cler' of court seven ,7- clearl% le#i&le copies of t(e approved record on appeal+ to#et(er *it( t(e proof of service of t*o ,.- copies t(ereof upon t(e appellee. An% unaut(oriEed alteration+ o!ission or addition in t(e approved record on appeal s(all &e a #round for dis!issal of t(e appeal. ,nSec. /. Completion of record. W(ere t(e record of t(e doc'eted case is inco!plete+ t(e cler' of court of t(e Court of Appeals s(all so infor! said court and reco!!end to it !easures necessar% to co!plete t(e record. It s(all &e t(e dut% of said court to ta'e appropriate action to*ards t(e co!pletion of t(e record *it(in t(e s(ortest possi&le ti!e. ,nSec. 4. Dispensing with complete record. W(ere t(e co!pletion of t(e record could not &e acco!plis(ed *it(in a sufficient period allotted for said purpose due to insupera&le or e)tre!el% difficult causes+ t(e court+ on its o*n !otion or on !otion of an% of t(e parties+ !a% declare t(at t(e record and its acco!pan%in# transcripts and e)(i&its so far availa&le are sufficient to decide t(e issues raised in t(e appeal+ and s(all issue an order e)plainin# t(e reasons for suc( declaration. ,nSec. 7. Appellant/s !rief. It s(all &e t(e dut% of t(e appellant to file *it( t(e court+ *it(in fort%>five ,5/- da%s fro! receipt of t(e notice of t(e cler' t(at all t(e evidence+ oral and docu!entar% are attac(ed to t(e record+ seven ,7- copies of (is le#i&l% t%pe*ritten+ !i!eo#rap(ed or printed &rief+ *it( proof of service of t*o ,.- copies t(ereof upon t(e appellee. ,12a+ R54Sec. ;. Appellee/s !rief. Wit(in fort%>five ,5/- da%s fro! receipt of t(e appellant8s &rief+ t(e appellee s(all file *it( t(e court seven ,7- copies of (is le#i&l% t%pe*ritten+ !i!eo#rap(ed or printed &rief+ *it( proof of service of t*o ,.- copies t(ereof upon t(e appellant. ,11a+ R54Sec. 6. Appellant/s reply !rief. Wit(in t*ent% ,.2- da%s fro! receipt of t(e appellee8s &rief+ t(e appellant !a% file a repl% &rief ans*erin# points in t(e appellee8s &rief not covered in (is !ain &rief. ,1.+ R54Sec. 12. Time for filing memoranda in special cases. In certiorari+ pro(i&ition+ !anda!us+ 0uo *arranto and (a&eas corpus cases+ t(e parties s(all file+ in lieu of &riefs+ t(eir respective !e!oranda *it(in a non>e)tendi&le period of t(irt% ,12- da%s fro! receipt of t(e notice issued &% t(e cler' t(at all t(e evidence+ oral and docu!entar%+ is alread% attac(ed to t(e record. ,11a+ R54$(e failure of t(e appellant to file (is !e!orandu! *it(in t(e period t(erefor !a% &e a #round for dis!issal of t(e appeal. ,nRemedial Law Reviewer, Part IV of IX, Last printed 11/20/2002 01:00:00 AM Mark de Leon, JD 2001 - 19 -

Sec. 11. 'e$eral appellants or appellees or se$eral counsel for each party. W(ere t(ere are several appellants or appellees+ eac( counsel representin# one or !ore &ut not all of t(e! s(all &e served *it( onl% one cop% of t(e &riefs. W(en several counsel represent one appellant or appellee+ copies of t(e &rief !a% &e served upon an% of t(e!. ,15a+ R54Sec. 1.. ,0tension of time for filing !riefs. E)tension of ti!e for t(e filin# of &riefs *ill not &e allo*ed+ e)cept for #ood and sufficient cause+ and onl% if t(e !otion for e)tension is filed &efore t(e e)piration of t(e ti!e sou#(t to &e e)tended. ,1/+ R54Sec. 11. Contents of appellant/s !rief. indicated+ t(e follo*in#< $(e appellant8s &rief s(all contain+ in t(e order (erein

,a- A su&"ect inde) of t(e !atter in t(e &rief *it( a di#est of t(e ar#u!ents and pa#e references+ and a ta&le of cases alp(a&eticall% arran#ed+ te)t&oo's and statutes cited *it( references to t(e pa#es *(ere t(e% are cited= ,&- An assi#n!ent of errors intended to &e ur#ed+ *(ic( errors s(all &e separatel%+ distinctl% and concisel% stated *it(out repetition and nu!&ered consecutivel%= ,c- :nder t(e (eadin# GState!ent of t(e Case+G a clear and concise state!ent of t(e nature of t(e action+ a su!!ar% of t(e proceedin#s+ t(e appealed rulin#s and orders of t(e court+ t(e nature of t(e "ud#!ent and an% ot(er !atters necessar% to an understandin# of t(e nature of t(e controvers%+ *it( pa#e references to t(e record= ,d- :nder t(e (eadin# GState!ent of 9acts+G a clear and concise state!ent in a narrative for! of t(e facts ad!itted &% &ot( parties and of t(ose in controvers%+ to#et(er *it( t(e su&stance of t(e proof relatin# t(ereto in sufficient detail to !a'e it clearl% intelli#i&le+ *it( pa#e references to t(e record= ,e- A clear and concise state!ent of t(e issues of fact or la* to &e su&!itted to t(e court for its "ud#!ent= ,f- :nder t(e (eadin# GAr#u!ent+G t(e appellant8s ar#u!ents on eac( assi#n!ent of error *it( pa#e references to t(e record. $(e aut(orities relied upon s(all &e cited &% t(e pa#e of t(e report at *(ic( t(e case &e#ins and t(e pa#e of t(e report on *(ic( t(e citation is found= ,#- :nder t(e (eadin# GRelief+G a specification of t(e order or "ud#!ent *(ic( t(e appellant see's= and ,(- In cases not &rou#(t up &% record on appeal+ t(e appellant8s &rief s(all contain+ as an appendi)+ a cop% of t(e "ud#!ent or final order appealed fro!. ,14a+ R54Sec. 15. Contents of appellee/s !rief. indicated+ t(e follo*in#< $(e appellee8s &rief s(all contain+ in t(e order (erein

,a- A su&"ect inde) of t(e !atter in t(e &rief *it( a di#est of t(e ar#u!ents and pa#e references+ and a ta&le of cases alp(a&eticall% arran#ed+ te)t&oo's and statutes cited *it( references to t(e pa#es *(ere t(e% are cited= ,&- :nder t(e (eadin# GState!ent of 9acts+G t(e appellee s(all state t(at (e accepts t(e state!ent of facts in t(e appellant8s &rief+ or under t(e (eadin# GCounter>State!ent of 9acts+G (e s(all point out suc( insufficiencies or inaccuracies as (e &elieves e)ist in t(e appellant8s state!ent of facts *it( references to t(e pa#es of t(e record in support t(ereof+ &ut *it(out repetition of !atters in t(e appellant8s state!ent of facts= and

Remedial Law Reviewer, Part IV of IX, Last printed 11/20/2002 01:00:00 AM

Mark de Leon, JD 2001

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,c- :nder t(e (eadin# GAr#u!ent+G t(e appellee s(all set fort( (is ar#u!ents in t(e case on eac( assi#n!ent of error *it( pa#e references to t(e record. $(e aut(orities relied on s(all &e cited &% t(e pa#e of t(e report at *(ic( t(e case &e#ins and t(e pa#e of t(e report on *(ic( t(e citation is found. ,17a+ R54Sec. 1/. 1uestions that may !e raised on appeal. W(et(er or not t(e appellant (as filed a !otion for ne* trial in t(e court &elo*+ (e !a% include in (is assi#n!ent of errors an% 0uestion of la* or fact t(at (as &een raised in t(e court &elo* and *(ic( is *it(in t(e issues fra!ed &% t(e parties. ,1;+ R54&. Cases

2ucad $. CA+ .14 SCRA 5.1 ,166.!n appeal ma4 $e dismissed $4 the C! on its o%n motion or on that of the appellees on the "round of %ant of specific assi"nment of errors in the appellantJs $rief2 or of pa"e references to the record. This re&uirement is deemed complied %ith %here the assi"nment of errors are em$odied in the ar"uments2 and the clear discussion of the points in issue have accomplished the tas7 of informin" the Court %hich part of the appealed decision is sou"ht to $e revie%ed.

Lian#a Lu!&er v. Lian#a $i!&er+ 74 SCRA 167 ,1677- H


! part4 ma4 not chan"e on appeal his theor4 tried and decided upon $4 the lo%er court. !s a "eneral rule2 &uestions not raised in the lo%er court cannot $e raised for the first time on appeal.

2aclayon $. CA+ 1;. SCRA 741 ,1662-nce a decsion has $ecome final and e5ecutor42 the onl4 #urisdiction left %ith the trial court is to order its e5ecution. 8t can not $e re&uired to conduct a hearin" supplementar4 to e5ecution (e.". receive evidence of the amount of reim$ursement that the defendant is entitled as a $uilder in "ood faith).

del Rosario $. CA+ .51 SCRA /16 ,166/The po%er of the C! to receive evidence is limited to cases fallin" %ithin its appellate #urisdiction %here a M.T $ased on the "round of ne%l4 discovered evidence is "ranted $4 it. 8t can not conduct a trial de novo. (cf 1>>7 Rules on Civil Procedure) .. Appeal &% Certiorari to t(e Supre!e Court a. Rule 5/ Section 1. &iling of petition with 'upreme Court. A part% desirin# to appeal &% certiorari fro! a "ud#!ent or final order or resolution of t(e Court of Appeals+ t(e Sandi#an&a%an+ t(e Re#ional $rial Court or ot(er courts *(enever aut(oriEed &% la*+ !a% file *it( t(e Supre!e Court a verified petition for revie* on certiorari. $(e petition s(all raise onl% 0uestions of la* *(ic( !ust &e distinctl% set fort(. ,1a+ .aSec. .. Time for filing; e0tension. $(e petition s(all &e filed *it(in fifteen ,1/- da%s fro! notice of t(e "ud#!ent or final order or resolution appealed fro!+ or of t(e denial of t(e petitioner8s !otion for ne* trial or reconsideration filed in due ti!e after notice of t(e "ud#!ent. Fn !otion dul% filed and served+ *it( full pa%!ent of t(e doc'et and ot(er la*ful fees and t(e deposit for costs &efore t(e e)piration of t(e re#le!entar% period+ t(e Supre!e Court !a% for "ustifia&le reasons #rant an e)tension of t(irt% ,12- da%s onl% *it(in *(ic( to file t(e petition. ,1a+ /aRemedial Law Reviewer, Part IV of IX, Last printed 11/20/2002 01:00:00 AM Mark de Leon, JD 2001 - 21 -

Petition for revie% on certiorari to the )C should $e filed %ithin 1* da4s from notice of #ud"ment or denial of M.T or MfR2 li7e petitions for revie% to the C!. 8t ma4 $e e5tended for (0 da4s2 unli7e petitions for revie% to the C! %hich ma4 $e e5tended for 1* da4s at a time. -rdinar4 appeals should $e filed %ithin a non'e5tendi$le 1* da4s from notice of #ud"ment. M.T or MfR onl4 tolls the prescriptive period. Sec. 1. Docket and other lawful fees; proof of ser$ice of petition. :nless (e (as t(eretofore done so+ t(e petitioner s(all pa% t(e correspondin# doc'et and ot(er la*ful fees to t(e cler' of court of t(e Supre!e Court and deposit t(e a!ount of P/22.22 for costs at t(e ti!e of t(e filin# of t(e petition. Proof of service of a cop% t(ereof on t(e lo*er court concerned and on t(e adverse part% s(all &e su&!itted to#et(er *it( t(e petition. ,1aSec. 5. Contents of petition. $(e petition s(all &e filed in ei#(teen ,1;- copies+ *it( t(e ori#inal cop% intended for t(e court &ein# indicated as suc( &% t(e petitioner+ and s(all ,a- state t(e full na!e of t(e appealin# part% as t(e petitioner and t(e adverse part% as respondent+ *it(out i!pleadin# t(e lo*er courts or "ud#es t(ereof eit(er as petitioners or respondents= ,&- indicate t(e !aterial dates s(o*in# *(en notice of t(e "ud#!ent or final order or resolution su&"ect t(ereof *as received+ *(en a !otion for ne* trial or reconsideration+ if an%+ *as filed and *(en notice of t(e denial t(ereof *as received= ,c- set fort( concisel% a state!ent of t(e !atters involved+ and t(e reasons or ar#u!ents relied on for t(e allo*ance of t(e petition= ,d- &e acco!panied &% a clearl% le#i&le duplicate ori#inal+ or a certified true cop% of t(e "ud#!ent or final order or resolution certified &% t(e cler' of court of t(e court a 0uo and t(e re0uisite nu!&er of plain copies t(ereof+ and suc( !aterial portions of t(e record as *ould support t(e petition= and ,e- contain a s*orn certification a#ainst foru! s(oppin# as provided in t(e last para#rap( of section .+ Rule 5.. ,.aPetitions for revie% on certiorari to the )C2 li7e petitions for revie% to the C!2 must $e %ith certification of non'forum shoppin". -rdinar4 appeals need not have such certification. Sec. /. Dismissal or denial of petition. $(e failure of t(e petitioner to co!pl% *it( an% of t(e fore#oin# re0uire!ents re#ardin# t(e pa%!ent of t(e doc'et and ot(er la*ful fees+ deposit for costs+ proof of service of t(e petition+ and t(e contents of and t(e docu!ents *(ic( s(ould acco!pan% t(e petition s(all &e sufficient #round for t(e dis!issal t(ereof. $(e Supre!e Court !a% on its o*n initiative den% t(e petition on t(e #round t(at t(e appeal is *it(out !erit+ or is prosecuted !anifestl% for dela%+ or t(at t(e 0uestions raised t(erein are too unsu&stantial to re0uire consideration. ,1aThe "rounds for the )C to dismiss a petition for revie% on certiorari is the same as the C!@s "rounds to dismiss a petition for revie%. Sec. 4. Re$iew discretionary. A revie* is not a !atter of ri#(t+ &ut of sound "udicial discretion+ and *ill &e #ranted onl% *(en t(ere are special and i!portant reasons t(erefor. $(e follo*in#+ *(ile neit(er controllin# nor full% !easurin# t(e court8s discretion+ indicate t(e c(aracter of t(e reasons *(ic( *ill &e considered< ,a- W(en t(e court a 0uo (as decided a 0uestion of su&stance+ not t(eretofore deter!ined &% t(e Supre!e Court+ or (as decided it in a *a% pro&a&l% not in accord *it( la* or *it( t(e applica&le decisions of t(e Supre!e Court= or ,&- W(en t(e court a 0uo (as so far departed fro! t(e accepted and usual course of "udicial proceedin#s+ or so far sanctioned suc( departure &% a lo*er court+ as to call for an e)ercise of t(e po*er of supervision. ,5aRemedial Law Reviewer, Part IV of IX, Last printed 11/20/2002 01:00:00 AM Mark de Leon, JD 2001 - 22 -

Sec. 7. Pleadings and documents that may !e re.uired; sanctions. 9or purposes of deter!inin# *(et(er t(e petition s(ould &e dis!issed or denied pursuant to section / of t(is Rule+ or *(ere t(e petition is #iven due course under section ; (ereof+ t(e Supre!e Court !a% re0uire or allo* t(e filin# of suc( pleadin#s+ &riefs+ !e!oranda or docu!ents as it !a% dee! necessar% *it(in suc( periods and under suc( conditions as it !a% consider appropriate+ and i!pose t(e correspondin# sanctions in case of non>filin# or unaut(oriEed filin# of suc( pleadin#s and docu!ents or non> co!pliance *it( t(e conditions t(erefor. ,nSec. ;. Due course; ele$ation of records. If t(e petition is #iven due course+ t(e Supre!e Court !a% re0uire t(e elevation of t(e co!plete record of t(e case or specified parts t(ereof *it(in fifteen ,1/- da%s fro! notice. ,.aSec. 6. Rule applica!le to !oth ci$il and criminal cases. $(e !ode of appeal prescri&ed in t(is Rule s(all &e applica&le to &ot( civil and cri!inal cases+ e)cept in cri!inal cases *(ere t(e penalt% i!posed is deat(+ reclusion perpetua or life i!prison!ent. ,n&. Cases

(urillo $. Consul+ 1;1 SCRA )i ,1662- H


E5cept in criminal cases %here the penalt4 imposed is life imprisonment or reclusion perpetua2 #ud"ments of RTC ma4 $e appealed to the )C onl4 $4 petition for revie% on certiorari under Rule 4*. !ppeals to the C! from RTCs are perfected in %a4s3 1) ordinar4 appeal2 and ) petition for revie%. !n appeal erroneous as to mode or forum shall not $e transferred2 $ut shall $e dismissed. .otice of appeal from RTC decisions on pure &uestions of la% can not $e entertained $e either C! or )C and should $e dismissed. The remed4 is to file a petition for revie% on certiorari %ith the )C2 or file a notice of appeal on &uestions of $oth la% and fact2 to $e decided $4 the C!. de Aeon3 Modes of appeal from a decision of the C! on .1 ordinar4 appeal petition for revie% on certiorari to the )C . petition for revie% same

3ho $. Camacho+ .25 SCRA 1/1 ,16619AC$S< .arciso Nho issued in favor of !tt4 Manuel Camacho 9 Manila :an7 PBC total P*72(4> in pa4ment of att4@s fees. -ne of the chec7s P10T %as lost $4 Camacho %ho promptl4 notified Nho. The other * chec7s %ere ne"otiated %ith Phil. !manah :an7 $ut %ere returned uncleared $ecause Manila :an7 had $een ordered closed $4 the Central :an7. Nho refused to replace the Manila :an7 chec7s or pa4 his o$li so Camacho filed an action of collection for sum of mone4 %ith the MC RTC. Nho@s ans%er alle"ed that he %as under no o$li to replace the lost chec7 ar"uin" that Camacho should have e5ecuted a s%orn statement that he lost the chec7 and furnished $oth the dra%er and the $an7 %ith said statement so that the $an7 could place on the chec7 /under alarm02 instead of merel4 informin" petitioner. Nho also refused to issue ne% chec7s maintainin" that the closure of Manila :an7 %as $e4ond his control and therefore he %as in no financial position to pa4 Camacho unless and until his mone4 in Manila :an7 %as released. Camacho moved for a #ud"ment on the pleadin"s %hich %as "ranted $4 respondent +ud"e Aeviste. +ud"e Aeviste also directed Nho to pa4 Camacho P472(4> %ith interest and att4@s fees. Nho filed a notice of appeal %hich %as "ranted $4 +ud"e Aeviste.
Remedial Law Reviewer, Part IV of IX, Last printed 11/20/2002 01:00:00 AM Mark de Leon, JD 2001 - 23 -

Camacho filed a motionOmanifestation pra4in" that petitioner@s notice of appeal $e stric7en off the record as a mere scrap of paper. +ud"e Aeviste issued another order settin" aside the previousl4 approved notice of appeal and adoptin" Camacho@s vie% that the proper remed4 from a #ud"ment on the pleadin"s %as a petition for certiorari to the )C. BELD< The &uestion of %hether an appeal involves onl4 &uestions of la% or $oth &uestions of fact and la% should $e left for the determination of an appellate court and not $4 the court a &uo. de Aeon3 Therefore if an appellant files a notice of appeal to the RTC on pure &uestion of la%2 the RTC should approve it2 then the C! should dismiss the appeal. 1. Fri#inal Cases a. Rule 54 Section 1. Title of cases. In all cases ori#inall% filed in t(e Court of Appeals+ t(e part% institutin# t(e action s(all &e called t(e petitioner and t(e opposin# part% t(e respondent. ,1aSec. .. To what actions applica!le. $(is Rule s(all appl% to ori#inal actions for certiorari+ pro(i&ition+ !anda!us and 0uo *arranto. E)cept as ot(er*ise provided+ t(e actions for annul!ent of "ud#!ent s(all &e #overned &% Rule 57+ for certiorari+ pro(i&ition and !anda!us &% Rule 4/+ and for 0uo *arranto &% Rule 44. ,nSec. 1. Contents and filing of petition; effect of non4compliance with re.uirements. > $(e petition s(all contain t(e full na!es and actual addresses of all t(e petitioners and respondents+ a concise state!ent of t(e !atters involved+ t(e factual &ac'#round of t(e case+ and t(e #rounds relied upon for t(e relief pra%ed for. In actions filed under Rule 4/+ t(e petition s(all furt(er indicate t(e !aterial dates s(o*in# *(en notice of t(e "ud#!ent or final order or resolution su&"ect t(ereof *as received+ *(en a !otion for ne* trial or reconsideration+ if an%+ *as filed and *(en notice of t(e denial t(ereof *as received. It s(all &e filed in seven ,7- clearl% le#i&le copies to#et(er *it( proof of service t(ereof on t(e respondent *it( t(e ori#inal cop% intended for t(e court indicated as suc( &% t(e petitioner+ and s(all &e acco!panied &% a clearl% le#i&le duplicate ori#inal or certified true cop% of t(e "ud#!ent+ order+ resolution+ or rulin# su&"ect t(ereof+ suc( !aterial portions of t(e record as are referred to t(erein+ and ot(er docu!ents relevant or pertinent t(ereto. $(e certification s(all &e acco!plis(ed &% t(e proper cler' of court or &% (is dul% aut(oriEed representative+ or &% t(e proper officer of t(e court+ tri&unal+ a#enc% or office involved or &% (is dul% aut(oriEed representative. $(e ot(er re0uisite nu!&er of copies of t(e petition s(all &e acco!panied &% clearl% le#i&le plain copies of all docu!ents attac(ed to t(e ori#inal. $(e petitioner s(all also su&!it to#et(er *it( t(e petition a s*orn certification t(at (e (as not t(eretofore co!!enced an% ot(er action involvin# t(e sa!e issues in t(e Supre!e Court+ t(e Court of Appeals or different divisions t(ereof+ or an% ot(er tri&unal or a#enc%= if t(ere is suc( ot(er action or proceedin#+ (e !ust state t(e status of t(e sa!e= and if (e s(ould t(ereafter learn t(at a si!ilar action or proceedin# (as &een filed or is pendin# &efore t(e Supre!e Court+ t(e Court of Appeals+ or different divisions t(ereof+ or an% ot(er tri&unal or a#enc%+ (e underta'es to pro!ptl% infor! t(e aforesaid courts and ot(er tri&unal or a#enc% t(ereof *it(in five ,/- da%s t(erefro!.

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Mark de Leon, JD 2001

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$(e petitioner s(all pa% t(e correspondin# doc'et and ot(er la*ful fees to t(e cler' of court and deposit t(e a!ount of P/22.22 for costs at t(e ti!e of t(e filin# of t(e petition. $(e failure of t(e petitioner to co!pl% *it( an% of t(e fore#oin# re0uire!ents s(all &e sufficient #round for t(e dis!issal of t(e petition.,n-ri"inal actions $efore the C! should have a certification a"ainst forum'shoppin"2 li7e petitions for revie% to the C! and petitions for revie% on certiorari to the )C. Sec. 5. +urisdiction o$er person of respondent5 how ac.uired. $(e court s(all ac0uire "urisdiction over t(e person of t(e respondent &% t(e service on (i! of its order or resolution indicatin# its initial action on t(e petition or &% (is voluntar% su&!ission to suc( "urisdiction. ,nSec. /. Action !y the court. $(e court !a% dis!iss t(e petition outri#(t *it( specific reasons for suc( dis!issal or re0uire t(e respondent to file a co!!ent on t(e sa!e *it(in ten ,12- da%s fro! notice. Fnl% pleadin#s re0uired &% t(e court s(all &e allo*ed. All ot(er pleadin#s and papers !a% &e filed onl% *it( leave of court. ,nSec. 4. Determination of factual issues. W(enever necessar% to resolve factual issues+ t(e court itself !a% conduct (earin#s t(ereon or dele#ate t(e reception of t(e evidence on suc( issues to an% of its !e!&ers or to an appropriate court+ a#enc% or office. ,nSec. 7. ,ffect of failure to file comment. W(en no co!!ent is filed &% an% of t(e respondents+ t(e case !a% &e decided on t(e &asis of t(e record+ *it(out pre"udice to an% disciplinar% action *(ic( t(e court !a% ta'e a#ainst t(e diso&edient part%. ,n&. Cases

6ital47o8on $. CA+ .1. SCRA .1/ ,166.9AC$S< Br !le#andro de la ,uente %as the Chief of Clinics of the .at@l Children@s 1ospital. 1e received notice from the B-1 that he %ould $e re'appointed /Medical )pecialist 880. Considerin" this a demotion2 he filed a protest %ith the B-1 Reor"aniKation :oard. 6hen his protest %as i"nored2 he $rou"ht hi case to the C)C. C)C declares the demotion as null and void and orders that dela ,uente $e retained or considered as never havin" relin&uished his position. Bela ,uente sent letters to Br Lital'IoKon (Medical Center Chief of the .at@l Children@s 1ospital) demandin" implementation of the C)C@s decision. (months elapsed %ithout indication that the C)C order %as o$e4ed2 so dela ,uente %ent to the C)C and as7ed it to enforce BELD< 8n ori"inal actions for mandamus filed $efore the C!2 the C! is authoriKed to a%ard dama"es. 5. Annul!ent of Dud#!ents or 9inal Frders and Resolutions ,Rule 57Section 1. Co$erage. $(is Rule s(all #overn t(e annul!ent &% t(e Court of Appeals of "ud#!ents or final orders and resolutions in civil actions of Re#ional $rial Courts for *(ic( t(e ordinar% re!edies of ne* trial+ appeal+ petition for relief or ot(er appropriate re!edies are no lon#er availa&le t(rou#( no fault of t(e petitioner. ,nSec. .. 7rounds for annulment. fraud and lac' of "urisdiction. $(e annul!ent !a% &e &ased onl% on t(e #rounds of e)trinsic

E)trinsic fraud s(all not &e a valid #round if it *as availed of+ or could (ave &een availed of+ in a !otion for ne* trial or petition for relief. ,nRemedial Law Reviewer, Part IV of IX, Last printed 11/20/2002 01:00:00 AM Mark de Leon, JD 2001 - 25 -

Sec. 1. Period for filing action. If &ased on e)trinsic fraud+ t(e action !ust &e filed *it(in four ,5- %ears fro! its discover%= and if &ased on lac' of "urisdiction+ &efore it is &arred &% lac(es or estoppel. ,nSec. 5. &iling and contents of petition. $(e action s(all &e co!!enced &% filin# a verified petition alle#in# t(erein *it( particularit% t(e facts and t(e la* relied upon for annul!ent+ as *ell as t(ose supportin# t(e petitioner8s #ood and su&stantial cause of action or defense+ as t(e case !a% &e. $(e petition s(all &e filed in seven ,7- clearl% le#i&le copies+ to#et(er *it( sufficient copies correspondin# to t(e nu!&er of respondents. A certified true cop% of t(e "ud#!ent or final order or resolution s(all &e attac(ed to t(e ori#inal cop% of t(e petition intended for t(e court and indicated as suc( &% t(e petitioner. $(e petitioner s(all also su&!it to#et(er *it( t(e petition affidavits of *itnesses or docu!ents supportin# t(e cause of action or defense and a s*orn certification t(at (e (as not t(eretofore co!!enced an% ot(er action involvin# t(e sa!e issues in t(e Supre!e Court+ t(e Court of Appeals or different divisions t(ereof+ or an% ot(er tri&unal or a#enc%= if t(ere is suc( ot(er action or proceedin#+ (e !ust state t(e status of t(e sa!e+ and if (e s(ould t(ereafter learn t(at a si!ilar action or proceedin# (as &een filed or is pendin# &efore t(e Supre!e Court+ t(e Court of Appeals+ or different divisions t(ereof+ or an% ot(er tri&unal or a#enc%+ (e underta'es to pro!ptl% infor! t(e aforesaid courts and ot(er tri&unal or a#enc% t(ereof *it(in five ,/- da%s t(erefro!. ,nRe&uisites for annulment $4 the C! of civil #ud"ments of the RTC .1 remedies of ne% trial2 appeal2 petition for relief or other appropriate remedies are no lon"er availa$le throu"h no fault of the petitioner. . either .a e5trinsic fraud or .$ lac7 of #urisdiction. .( filed %ithin .a 4 4ears from discover4 if $ased on e5trinsic fraud .$ $efore $arred $4 laches or estoppel if $ased on lac7 of #urisdiction .4 petition should alle"e2 and $e accompanied $4 supportin" evidence of 2 the petitioner@s "ood and su$stantial cause of action or defense. .* Certification a"ainst forum shoppin" E5trinsic fraud shall not $e a valid "round if it %as availed of2 or could have $een availed of2 in a M.T or petition for relief. Sec. /. Action !y the court. S(ould t(e court find no su&stantial !erit in t(e petition+ t(e sa!e !a% &e dis!issed outri#(t *it( specific reasons for suc( dis!issal. S(ould pri!a facie !erit &e found in t(e petition+ t(e sa!e s(all &e #iven due course and su!!ons s(all &e served on t(e respondent. ,nThe C! can motu priopio dismiss a petition for annulment of an RTC decision. This does not appl4 in case of annulment of MTC #ud"ment filed $efore the RTC.
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Sec. 4. Procedure. $(e procedure in ordinar% civil cases s(all &e o&served. S(ould a trial &e necessar%+ t(e reception of t(e evidence !a% &e referred to a !e!&er of t(e court or a "ud#e of a Re#ional $rial Court. ,nThis does not appl4 in case of annulment of MTC #ud"ment filed $efore the RTC. Sec. 7. ,ffect of udgment. A "ud#!ent of annul!ent s(all set aside t(e 0uestioned "ud#!ent or final order or resolution and render t(e sa!e null and void+ *it(out pre"udice to t(e ori#inal action &ein# refiled in t(e proper court. Bo*ever+ *(ere t(e "ud#!ent or final order or resolution is set aside on t(e #round of e)trinsic fraud+ t(e court !a% on !otion order t(e trial court to tr% t(e case as if a ti!el% !otion for ne* trial (ad &een #ranted t(erein. ,n8f petition is "ranted on the "round of .1 lac7 of #urisdiction .a #ud"ment is annulled .$ plaintiff ma4 refile in the proper court . e5trinsic fraud #ud"ment is annulled2 %ithout pre#udice to the ori"inal action $ein" refiled in the proper courtC the court ma4 on motion order the trial court to tr4 the case as if a timel4 motion for ne% trial had $een "ranted therein

Sec. ;. 'uspension of prescripti$e period. $(e prescriptive period for t(e refilin# of t(e aforesaid ori#inal action s(all &e dee!ed suspended fro! t(e filin# of suc( ori#inal action until t(e finalit% of t(e "ud#!ent of annul!ent. Bo*ever+ t(e prescriptive period s(all not &e suspended *(ere t(e e)trinsic fraud is attri&uta&le to t(e plaintiff in t(e ori#inal action. ,nIR3 The prescriptive period for the refilin" shall $e deemed suspended from the filin" of such ori"inal action until the finalit4 of the #ud"ment of annulment. E5cepion3 The prescriptive period shall not $e suspended %here the e5trinsic fraud is attri$uta$le to the plaintiff in the ori"inal action. Sec. 6. Relief a$aila!le. $(e "ud#!ent of annul!ent !a% include t(e a*ard of da!a#es+ attorne%8s fees and ot(er relief. If t(e 0uestioned "ud#!ent or final order or resolution (ad alread% &een e)ecuted+ t(e court !a% issue suc( orders of restitution or ot(er relief as "ustice and e0uit% !a% *arrant under t(e circu!stances. ,nThe #ud"ment of annulment ma4 include the a%ard of dama"es2 attorne4@s fees and other relief. 8f the annulled #ud"ment had alread4 $een e5ecuted2 the court ma4 issue such orders of restitution or other relief. Sec. 12. Annulment of udgments or final orders of (unicipal Trial Courts. An action to annul a "ud#!ent or final order of a Municipal $rial Court s(all &e filed in t(e Re#ional $rial Court (avin# "urisdiction over t(e for!er. It s(all &e treated as an ordinar% civil action and sections .+ 1+ 5+ 7+ ; and 6 of t(is Rule s(all &e applica&le t(ereto. ,n!n action to annul a #ud"ment or final order of a MTC shall $e filed in the RTC havin" #urisdiction over the former.

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/. Preli!inar% Conference ,Rule 5;Section 1. Preliminary conference. At an% ti!e durin# t(e pendenc% of a case+ t(e court !a% call t(e parties and t(eir counsel to a preli!inar% conference< ,a- $o consider t(e possi&ilit% of an a!ica&le settle!ent+ e)cept *(en t(e case is not allo*ed &% la* to &e co!pro!ised= ,&- $o define+ si!plif% and clarif% t(e issues for deter!ination= ,c- $o for!ulate stipulations of facts and ad!issions of docu!entar% e)(i&its+ li!it t(e nu!&er of *itnesses to &e presented in cases fallin# *it(in t(e ori#inal "urisdiction of t(e court+ or t(ose *it(in its appellate "urisdiction *(ere a !otion for ne* trial is #ranted on t(e #round of ne*l% discovered evidence= and ,d- $o ta'e up suc( ot(er !atters *(ic( !a% aid t(e court in t(e pro!pt disposition of t(e case. ,Rule 7+ CA Internal Rules- ,nSec. .. Record of the conference. $(e proceedin#s at suc( conference s(all &e recorded and+ upon t(e conclusion t(ereof+ a resolution s(all &e issued e!&od%in# all t(e actions ta'en t(erein+ t(e stipulations and ad!issions !ade+ and t(e issues defined. ,nSec. 1. 2inding effect of the results of the conference. Su&"ect to suc( !odifications *(ic( !a% &e !ade to prevent !anifest in"ustice+ t(e resolution in t(e precedin# section s(all control t(e su&se0uent proceedin#s in t(e case unless+ *it(in five ,/- da%s fro! notice t(ereof+ an% part% s(all satisfactoril% s(o* valid cause *(% t(e sa!e s(ould not &e follo*ed. ,n-

4. Fral Ar#u!ent ,Rule 56Section 1. When allowed. At its o*n instance or upon !otion of a part%+ t(e court !a% (ear t(e parties in oral ar#u!ent on t(e !erits of a case+ or on an% !aterial incident in connection t(ere*it(. ,n$(e oral ar#u!ent s(all &e li!ited to suc( !atters as t(e court !a% specif% in its order or resolution. ,1a+ R5;Sec. .. Conduct of oral argument. :nless aut(oriEed &% t(e court+ onl% one counsel !a% ar#ue for a part%. $(e duration allo*ed for eac( part%+ t(e se0uence of t(e ar#u!entation+ and all ot(er related !atters s(all &e as directed &% t(e court. ,nSec. 1. *o hearing or oral argument for motions. Motions s(all not &e set for (earin# and+ unless t(e court ot(er*ise directs+ no (earin# or oral ar#u!ent s(all &e allo*ed in support t(ereof. $(e adverse part% !a% file o&"ections to t(e !otion *it(in five ,/- da%s fro! service+ upon t(e e)piration of *(ic( suc( !otion s(all &e dee!ed su&!itted for resolution. ,.a+ R567. Dis!issal of Appeal ,Rule /2Remedial Law Reviewer, Part IV of IX, Last printed 11/20/2002 01:00:00 AM Mark de Leon, JD 2001 - 28 -

Section 1. 7rounds for dismissal of appeal. An appeal !a% &e dis!issed &% t(e Court of Appeals+ on its o*n !otion or on t(at of t(e appellee+ on t(e follo*in# #rounds< ,a- 9ailure of t(e record on appeal to s(o* on its face t(at t(e appeal *as ta'en *it(in t(e period fi)ed &% t(ese Rules= ,&- 9ailure to file t(e notice of appeal or t(e record on appeal *it(in t(e period prescri&ed &% t(ese Rules= ,c- 9ailure of t(e appellant to pa% t(e doc'et and ot(er la*ful fees as provided in section 5 of Rule 51= ,d- :naut(oriEed alterations+ o!issions or additions in t(e approved record on appeal as provided in section 5 of Rule 55= ,e- 9ailure of t(e appellant to serve and file t(e re0uired nu!&er of copies of (is &rief or !e!orandu! *it(in t(e ti!e provided &% t(ese Rules= ,f- A&sence of specific assi#n!ent of errors in t(e appellant8s &rief+ or of pa#e references to t(e record as re0uired in section 11+ para#rap(s ,a-+ ,c-+ ,d- and ,f- of Rule 55= ,#- 9ailure of t(e appellant to ta'e t(e necessar% steps for t(e correction or co!pletion of t(e record *it(in t(e ti!e li!ited &% t(e court in its order= ,(- 9ailure of t(e appellant to appear at t(e preli!inar% conference under Rule 5; or to co!pl% *it( orders+ circulars+ or directives of t(e court *it(out "ustifia&le cause= and ,i- $(e fact t(at t(e order or "ud#!ent appealed fro! is not appeala&le. ,1aIrounds for dismissal of appeal $4 the C! .1 ,ailure of the record on appeal to sho% on its face that the appeal %as ta7en on time . ,ailure to file the notice of appeal or the record on appeal on time .( ,ailure of the appellant to pa4 the doc7et and other la%ful fees .4 FnauthoriKed alterations2 omissions or additions in the approved record on appeal .* ,ailure of the appellant to serve and file the re&uired num$er of copies of his $rief or memorandum on time .9 !$sence of specific assi"nment of errors in the appellant@s $rief2 or of pa"e references to the record .7 ,ailure of the appellant to ta7e the necessar4 steps for the correction or completion of the record on time .D ,ailure of the appellant to appear at the preliminar4 conference .> the fact that the order or #ud"ment appealed from is not appeala$le Sec. .. Dismissal of improper appeal to the Court of Appeals. An appeal under Rule 51 ta'en fro! t(e Re#ional $rial Court to t(e Court of Appeals raisin# onl% 0uestions of la* s(all &e dis!issed+ issues purel% of la* not &ein# revie*a&le &% said court. Si!ilarl%+ an appeal &% notice of appeal instead of &% petition for revie* fro! t(e appellate "ud#!ent of a Re#ional $rial Court s(all &e dis!issed. ,nAn appeal erroneousl% ta'en to t(e Court of Appeals s(all not &e transferred to t(e appropriate court &ut s(all &e dis!issed outri#(t. ,1aRemedial Law Reviewer, Part IV of IX, Last printed 11/20/2002 01:00:00 AM Mark de Leon, JD 2001 - 29 -

!n appeal erroneousl4 ta7en to the C! or throu"h the improper mode shall not $e transferred to the appropriate court $ut shall $e dismissed outri"ht. Sec. 1. Withdrawal of appeal. An appeal !a% &e *it(dra*n as of ri#(t at an% ti!e &efore t(e filin# of t(e appellee8s &rief. $(ereafter+ t(e *it(dra*al !a% &e allo*ed in t(e discretion of t(e court. ,5a6ithdra%al of appeal .1 $efore the filin" of the appellee@s $rief an4 time as a matter of ri"ht . after filin" of the the appellee@s $rief %ith leave of court ;. Dud#!ent a. Rule /1 Section 1. When case deemed su!mitted for udgment. "ud#!ent< A. 9n ordinary appeals.> 1- W(ere no (earin# on t(e !erits of t(e !ain case is (eld+ upon t(e filin# of t(e last pleadin#+ &rief+ or !e!orandu! re0uired &% t(e Rules or &% t(e court itself+ or t(e e)piration of t(e period for its filin#. .- W(ere suc( a (earin# is (eld+ upon its ter!ination or upon t(e filin# of t(e last pleadin# or !e!orandu! as !a% &e re0uired or per!itted to &e filed &% t(e court+ or t(e e)piration of t(e period for its filin#. ?. 9n original actions and petitions for re$iew.> 1- W(ere no co!!ent is filed+ upon t(e e)piration of t(e period to co!!ent. .- W(ere no (earin# is (eld+ upon t(e filin# of t(e last pleadin# re0uired or per!itted to &e filed &% t(e court+ or t(e e)piration of t(e period for its filin#. 1- W(ere a (earin# on t(e !erits of t(e !ain case is (eld+ upon its ter!ination or upon t(e filin# of t(e last pleadin# or !e!orandu! as !a% &e re0uired or per!itted to &e filed &% t(e court+ or t(e e)piration of t(e period for its filin#. ,nSec. .. 2y whom rendered. $(e "ud#!ent s(all &e rendered &% t(e !e!&ers of t(e court *(o participated in t(e deli&eration on t(e !erits of t(e case &efore its assi#n!ent to a !e!&er for t(e *ritin# of t(e decision. ,nSec. 1. 1uorum and $oting in the court. $(e participation of all t(ree Dustices of a division s(all &e necessar% at t(e deli&eration and t(e unani!ous vote of t(e t(ree Dustices s(all &e re0uired for t(e pronounce!ent of a "ud#!ent or final resolution. If t(e t(ree Dustices do not reac( a unani!ous vote+ t(e cler' s(all enter t(e votes of t(e dissentin# Dustices in t(e record. $(ereafter+ t(e C(air!an of t(e division s(all refer t(e case+ to#et(er *it( t(e !inutes of t(e deli&eration+ to t(e Presidin# Dustice *(o s(all desi#nate t*o Dustices c(osen &% raffle fro! a!on# all t(e ot(er !e!&ers of t(e court to sit te!poraril% *it( t(e!+ for!in# a special division of five Dustices. $(e participation of all t(e five !e!&ers of t(e special division s(all &e necessar% for t(e deli&eration re0uired in section . of t(is Rule and t(e concurrence of a !a"orit% of suc( division s(all &e re0uired for t(e pronounce!ent of a "ud#!ent or final resolution. ,.aRemedial Law Reviewer, Part IV of IX, Last printed 11/20/2002 01:00:00 AM Mark de Leon, JD 2001 - 30 -

A case s(all &e dee!ed su&!itted for

Sec. 5. Disposition of a case. $(e Court of Appeals+ in t(e e)ercise of its appellate "urisdiction+ !a% affir!+ reverse+ or !odif% t(e "ud#!ent or final order appealed fro!+ and !a% direct a ne* trial or furt(er proceedin#s to &e (ad. ,1aSec. /. &orm of decision. Ever% decision or final resolution of t(e court in appealed cases s(all clearl% and distinctl% state t(e findin#s of fact and t(e conclusions of la* on *(ic( it is &ased+ *(ic( !a% &e contained in t(e decision or final resolution itself+ or adopted fro! t(ose set fort( in t(e decision+ order+ or resolution appealed fro!. ,Sec. 52+ ?P ?l#. 1.6- ,nSec. 4. Harmless error. 3o error in eit(er t(e ad!ission or t(e e)clusion of evidence and no error or defect in an% rulin# or order or in an%t(in# done or o!itted &% t(e trial court or &% an% of t(e parties is #round for #rantin# a ne* trial or for settin# aside+ !odif%in#+ or ot(er*ise distur&in# a "ud#!ent or order+ unless refusal to ta'e suc( action appears to t(e court inconsistent *it( su&stantial "ustice. $(e court at ever% sta#e of t(e proceedin# !ust disre#ard an% error or defect *(ic( does not affect t(e su&stantial ri#(ts of t(e parties. ,/aSec. 7. +udgment where there are se$eral parties. In all actions or proceedin#s+ an appealed "ud#!ent !a% &e affir!ed as to so!e of t(e appellants+ and reversed as to ot(ers+ and t(e case s(all t(ereafter &e proceeded *it(+ so far as necessar%+ as if separate actions (ad &een &e#un and prosecuted= and e)ecution of t(e "ud#!ent of affir!ance !a% &e (ad accordin#l%+ and costs !a% &e ad"ud#ed in suc( cases+ as t(e court s(all dee! proper. ,4Sec. ;. 1uestions that may !e decided. 3o error *(ic( does not affect t(e "urisdiction over t(e su&"ect !atter or t(e validit% of t(e "ud#!ent appealed fro! or t(e proceedin#s t(erein *ill &e considered unless stated in t(e assi#n!ent of errors+ or closel% related to or dependent on an assi#ned error and properl% ar#ued in t(e &rief+ save as t(e court !a% pass upon plain errors and clerical errors. ,7aSec. 6. Promulgation and notice of udgment. After t(e "ud#!ent or final resolution and dissentin# or separate opinions+ if an%+ are si#ned &% t(e Dustices ta'in# part+ t(e% s(all &e delivered for filin# to t(e cler' *(o s(all indicate t(ereon t(e date of pro!ul#ation and cause true copies t(ereof to &e served upon t(e parties or t(eir counsel. ,nSec. 12. ,ntry of udgments and final resolutions. If no appeal or !otion for ne* trial or reconsideration is filed *it(in t(e ti!e provided in t(ese Rules+ t(e "ud#!ent or final resolution s(all fort(*it( &e entered &% t(e cler' in t(e &oo' of entries of "ud#!ents. $(e date *(en t(e "ud#!ent or final resolution &eco!es e)ecutor% s(all &e dee!ed as t(e date of its entr%. $(e record s(all contain t(e dispositive part of t(e "ud#!ent or final resolution and s(all &e si#ned &% t(e cler'+ *it( a certificate t(at suc( "ud#!ent or final resolution (as &eco!e final and e)ecutor%. ,.a+ R14Sec. 11. ,0ecution of udgment. E)cept *(ere t(e "ud#!ent or final order or resolution+ or a portion t(ereof+ is ordered to &e i!!ediatel% e)ecutor%+ t(e !otion for its e)ecution !a% onl% &e filed in t(e proper court after its entr%. In ori#inal actions in t(e Court of Appeals+ its *rit of e)ecution s(all &e acco!panied &% a certified true cop% of t(e entr% of "ud#!ent or final resolution and addressed to an% appropriate officer for its enforce!ent. In appealed cases+ *(ere t(e !otion for e)ecution pendin# appeal is filed in t(e Court of Appeals at a ti!e t(at it is in possession of t(e ori#inal record or t(e record on appeal+ t(e resolution #rantin# suc( !otion s(all &e trans!itted to t(e lo*er court fro! *(ic( t(e case
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ori#inated+ to#et(er *it( a certified true cop% of t(e "ud#!ent or final order to &e e)ecuted+ *it( a directive for suc( court of ori#in to issue t(e proper *rit for its enforce!ent. ,n&. Cases

Caya!a $. CA+ .16 SCRA /71 ,1661IR3 Reversal of a #ud"ment on appeal is $indn" on the parties to the suit $ut does not inure to the $enefit of parties %ho did not #oin in the appeal. E5ception3 %hen their ri"hts and lia$ilities and those of the parties appealin" are so inter%oven and dependent so as to $e insepara$le (e.". one derives title from the other)2 in %hich case a reversal as to one operates as a reversal to all.

7o $. CA+ 122 SCRA /56 ,16;26here onl4 the plaintiff of the dismissed complaint appealed2 the appellate court2 in reversin" the decision2 can not render #ud"ment on (rd part4 defendants %here the (rd part4 complainant did not appeal.

9rancisco vs Pe@a 171 SCRAH


6. Motion 9or Reconsideration ,Rule /.Section 1. Period for filing. A part% !a% file a !otion for reconsideration of a "ud#!ent or final resolution *it(in fifteen ,1/- da%s fro! notice t(ereof+ *it( proof of service on t(e adverse part%. ,nSec. .. 'econd motion for reconsideration. 3o second !otion for reconsideration of a "ud#!ent or final resolution &% t(e sa!e part% s(all &e entertained. ,nSec. 1. Resolution of motion. In t(e Court of Appeals+ a !otion for reconsideration s(all &e resolved *it(in ninet% ,62- da%s fro! t(e date *(en t(e court declares it su&!itted for resolution. ,nSec. 5. 'tay of e0ecution. $(e pendenc% of a !otion for reconsideration filed on ti!e and &% t(e proper part% s(all sta% t(e e)ecution of t(e "ud#!ent or final resolution sou#(t to &e reconsidered unless t(e court+ for #ood reasons+ s(all ot(er*ise direct. ,n! MfR $efore the C! sta4s e5ecution of its #ud"ment2 unless for "ood reasons2 the C! directs other%ise. 12. 3e* $rial a. Rule /1 Section 1. Period for filing; ground. At an% ti!e after t(e appeal fro! t(e lo*er court (as &een perfected and &efore t(e Court of Appeals loses "urisdiction over t(e case+ a part% !a% file a !otion for a ne* trial on t(e #round of ne*l% discovered evidence *(ic( could not (ave &een discovered prior to t(e trial in t(e court &elo* &% t(e e)ercise of due dili#ence and *(ic( is of suc( a c(aracter as *ould pro&a&l% c(an#e t(e result. $(e !otion s(all &e acco!panied &% affidavits s(o*in# t(e facts constitutin# t(e #rounds t(erefor and t(e ne*l% discovered evidence. ,1aRe&uisites for M.T $efore the C! .1 filed after appeal has $een perfected and $efore the C! loses #urisdiction. . Iround is ne%l4 discovered evidence %hich .a could not have $een discovered prior to the trial in the court $elo% $4 the e5ercise of due dili"ence and
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.$ is of such a character as %ould pro$a$l4 chan"e the result. .( accompanied $4 affidavits sho%in" .a the facts constitutin" the "rounds therefor and .$ the ne%l4 discovered evidence. .ote that ,!ME is not a "round for M.T $efore the C! unli7e $efore the lo%er courts. Sec. .. Hearing and order. $(e Court of Appeals s(all consider t(e ne* evidence to#et(er *it( t(at adduced at t(e trial &elo*+ and !a% #rant or refuse a ne* trial+ or !a% !a'e suc( order+ *it( notice to &ot( parties+ as to t(e ta'in# of furt(er testi!on%+ eit(er orall% in court+ or &% depositions+ or render suc( ot(er "ud#!ent as ou#(t to &e rendered upon suc( ter!s as it !a% dee! "ust. ,.aSec. 1. Resolution of motion. In t(e Court of Appeals+ a !otion for ne* trial s(all &e resolved *it(in ninet% ,62- da%s fro! t(e date *(en t(e court declares it su&!itted for resolution. ,nSec. 5. Procedure in new trial. :nless t(e court ot(er*ise directs+ t(e procedure in t(e ne* trial s(all &e t(e sa!e as t(at #ranted &% a Re#ional $rial Court. ,1a&. Cases

Beirs of Montinola>Sanson v. CA+ 1/; SCRA .57 ,16;;9AC$S< private respondent !tt4 Eduardo 1ernandeK filed a petition %ith the Manila C,8 see7in" the pro$ate of the holo"raphic %ill of 1erminia Montinola. 1ernandeK %ho %as named e5ecutor in the %ill filed an ur"ent motion for appointment of special administrator. The C,8 appointed 1ernandeK as )pecial !dministrator of the testate estate of the deceased. Matilde Montinola')anson (petitioner)2 the onl4 survivin" sister of the deceased $ut %ho %as not named in the %ill2 filed her -pposition to Pro$ate of 6ill. )he alle"ed inter alia3 that the %ill %as not entirel4 %ritten2 dated2 and si"ned $4 1erminiaC that the %ill %as antedatedC that 1erminia %as not in full possession of her mental faculties to ma7e testamentar4 dispositionsC that undue influence %as e5erted upon the person and mind of 1erminia $4 the $eneficiaries named in the %illC that the %ill failed to institute a residual heir to the remainder of the estate. !fter a hearin" on the merits2 pro$ate court allo%ed the pro$ate of the %ill. Petitioner appealed the decision to the C! %hich affirmed in toto the decision. Petitioner filed %ith the C! a motion for ne% trial. !ttached to her motion %as the !ffidavit of Merit of Ire"orio Montinola )anson2 petitioner@s son2 alle"in" that %itnesses have $een located %hose testimonies could shed li"ht as to the ill health of as %ell as undue influence e5erted on 1erminia. C! denied the M.T on the ff "rounds3 (1) the !ffidavit of Merit attached to the motion alle"ed that efforts %ere e5erted to locate unnamed %itnesses onl4 after the court@s decision %as handed do%n2 and ( ) the unnamed %itnesses %ould alle"edl4 shed li"ht on the fact of "rave illness of 1erminia as %ell as the undue influence e5erted on her %hich are merel4 corro$orative or cumulative since these facts %ere $rou"ht to li"ht durin" trial. MfR of petitioner %as li7e%ise denied on the "round that the affidavit of one Patricia Bel"ado su$mitted %ithin the motion constitutes cumulative evidence and the motion $ein" in realit4 a second MfR %hich is

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prescri$ed $4 la%. 1ence this petition for revie% on certiorari. 8n the meantime2 petitioner passed a%a4 and %as su$stituted $4 her heirs. BELD< The affidavits accompan4in" a M.T $efore the C! must state facts constitutin" the "rounds for M.T and the ne%l4 discovered evidence2 not #ust mere conclusions or opinions (e.". /undue influence %as e5erted0). The ne% %itnesses must $e named and there must $e some de"ree of certaint4 as to their appearance $efore the court to testif4. Corro$orative and cumulative evidence "enerall4 not "rounds for ne% trial. de Aeon3 8n fact2 the ne% %itnesses must not onl4 $e named2 $ut their affidavits must $e attached to the M.T.

*a$arra $. CA+ .25 SCRA ;/2 ,16619AC$S< spouses +or"e .avarra H Carmelita :ernardo2 to"ether %ith Ru$en :ernardo H Cresencia Lillanueva2 and their famil4 corpo2 the RRRC Bevelopment Corp.2 e5ecuted a real estate mort"a"e in favor of private respondent Planters Bevelopment :an7 over * parcels of re"istered land to secure the pa4ment of a P1. M loan. Petitioners failed to pa4 their o$li"ation. Planters caused the e5tra#udicial foreclosure of the mort"a"e. Pu$lic auction %as heldC the sheriff issued a certificate of sale in favor of Planters as the hi"hest $idder. -ne'4ear period to e5ercise the ri"ht of redemption e5pired thus o%nership of the * lots %as transferred to Planters. Planters sent a letter of demand to the petitioners to vacate the premises2 $ut the demand %as re#ected. Planters then filed a petition for the issuance of a %rit of possession $efore the Ma7ati RTC :r1(7. 6hen the petition %as set for hearin"2 no oppositor appeared nor %as a %ritten opposition filed. Fpon motion2 Planters %as allo%ed to present its evidence e5 parte. (>da4s later2 ho%ever2 the spouses .avarra and the RRRC Bev@t Corp. filed their %ritten opposition2 alle"in" inter alia that the4 %ere the plaintiffs in a complaint for specific performance pendin" $efore Ma7ati RTC :r14* to compel Planters to e5ecute in their favor a deed of sale coverin" the * lotsC that the4 %ere the o%ners of the properties %hich the4 ac&uired $4 virtue of a contract of saleC and that Planters had alread4 $een declared in default in the said civil case. !ctin" upon the %ritten opposition2 the RTC set the hearin" to ena$le the oppositors to present their evidence. Petitioners filed a %ritten manifestation statin" that the4 %ere not presentin" evidence and ar"ued that the petition for a %rit of possession should $e dismissed $ecause it %as filed after the one'4ear redemption period. RTC "ranted Planter@s decision and issued the %rit of possession. Petitioners@ MfR %as denied. Petitioners filed %ith the C! a special civil action for certiorari alle"in" that the RTC committed "rave a$use of discretion amountin" to lac7 of #urisdiction. C! dismissed the petition and denied MfR. Petitioner %ent to )C for relief under Rule4*. BELD< 6here the evidence %as not 4et e5istin" at the time the C! rendered its decision2 such evidence is not ne%l4'discovered evidence that %ould $e "round for a M.T. M.T can never $e filed %ith the )C.

Cuenca $. CA+ ./2 SCRA 5;/ ,166/The rule that the )C can not "rant M.T has $een a$andoned. The )C can no% "rant M.T2 more so if there is no opposition from the adverse part4.

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Mark de Leon, JD 2001

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11. Internal ?usiness ,Rule /5Section 1. Distri!ution of cases among di$isions. All t(e cases of t(e Court of Appeals s(all &e allotted a!on# t(e different divisions t(ereof for (earin# and decision. $(e Court of Appeals+ sittin# en &anc+ s(all !a'e proper orders or rules to #overn t(e allot!ent of cases a!on# t(e different divisions+ t(e constitution of suc( divisions+ t(e re#ular rotation of Dustices a!on# t(e!+ t(e fillin# of vacancies occurrin# t(erein+ and ot(er !atters relatin# to t(e &usiness of t(e court= and suc( rules s(all continue in force until repealed or altered &% it or &% t(e Supe!e Court. ,1aSec. .. 1uorum of the Court. A !a"orit% of t(e actual !e!&ers of t(e court s(all constitute a 0uoru! for its session en &anc. $(ree !e!&ers s(all constitute a 0uoru! for its sessions of a division. $(e affir!ative votes of t(e !a"orit% of t(e !e!&ers present s(all &e necessar% to pass a resolution of t(e court en &anc. $(e affir!ative votes of t(ree !e!&ers of a division s(all &e necessar% for t(e pronounce!ent of a "ud#!ent or final resolution+ *(ic( s(all &e reac(ed in consultation &efore t(e *ritin# of t(e opinion &% an% !e!&er of t(e division. ,Sec. 11+ first par. of ?P ?l#. 1.6+ as a!ended &% Sec. 4 of EF 11-. ,1a1.. Pu&lication of Dud#!ents and 9inal Resolution ,Rule //Section 1. Pu!lication. $(e "ud#!ents and final resolutions of t(e court s(all &e pu&lis(ed in t(e Ffficial AaEette and in t(e Reports officiall% aut(oriEed &% t(e court in t(e lan#ua#e in *(ic( t(e% (ave &een ori#inall% *ritten+ to#et(er *it( t(e s%lla&i t(erefor prepared &% t(e reporter in consultation *it( t(e *riters t(ereof. Me!oranda of all ot(er "ud#!ents and final resolutions not so pu&lis(ed s(all &e !ade &% t(e reporter and pu&lis(ed in t(e Ffficial AaEette and t(e aut(oriEed reports. ,1aSec. .. Preparation of opinions for pu!lication. $(e reporter s(all prepare and pu&lis( *it( eac( reported "ud#!ent and final resolution a concise s%nopsis of t(e facts necessar% for a clear understandin# of t(e case+ t(e na!es of counsel+ t(e !aterial and controverted points involved+ t(e aut(orities cited t(erein+ an a s%lla&us *(ic( s(all &e confined to points of la*. ,Sec. ..a. R.A. 3o. .64-. ,nSec. 1. 7eneral make4up of $olumes. $(e pu&lis(ed decisions and final resolutions of t(e Supre!e Court s(all &e called GP(ilippine Reports+G *(ile t(ose of t(e Court of Appeals s(all &e 'no*n as t(e GCourt of Appeals Reports.G Eac( volu!e t(ereof s(all contain a ta&le of t(e cases reported and t(e cases cited in t(e opinions+ *it( a co!plete alp(a&etical inde) of t(e su&"ect !atters of t(e volu!e. It s(all consist of not less t(an seven (undred pa#es printed upon #ood paper+ *ell &ound and nu!&ered consecutivel% in t(e order of t(e volu!e pu&lis(ed. ,Sec. .1a+ R.A. 3o. .64- ,nC. Procedure in t(e Supre!e Court ,Rule /41. Fri#inal Cases Section 1. )riginal cases cogni8a!le. Fnl% petitions for certiorari+ pro(i&ition+ !anda!us+ 0uo *arranto+ (a&eas corpus+ disciplinar% proceedin# a#ainst !e!&ers of t(e "udiciar% and attorne%s+ and cases affectin# a!&assadors+ ot(er pu&lic !inisters and consuls !a% &e filed ori#inall% in t(e Supre!e Court. ,n-ri"inal cases co"niKa$le $efore the )C .1 petitions for
Remedial Law Reviewer, Part IV of IX, Last printed 11/20/2002 01:00:00 AM Mark de Leon, JD 2001 - 35 -

.a certiorari .$ prohi$ition .c mandamus . &uo %arranto .( ha$eas corpus .4 disciplinar4 proceedin" a"ainst mem$ers of the #udiciar4 and attorne4s2 and .* cases affectin" am$assadors2 other pu$lic ministers and consuls Sec. .. Rules applica!le. $(e procedure in ori#inal cases for certiorari+ pro(i&ition+ !anda!us+ 0uo *arranto and (a&eas corpus s(all &e in accordance *it( t(e applica&le provisions of t(e Constitution+ la*s+ and Rules 54 ,ori#inal cases-+ 5; ,preli!inar% conference-+ 56 ,oral ar#u!ent-+ /1 ,"ud#!ent-+ /. ,!otion for reconsideration- and t(is Rule+ su&"ect to t(e follo*in# provisions< a- All references in said Rules to t(e Court of Appeals s(all &e understood to also appl% to t(e Supre!e Court= &- $(e portions of said Rules dealin# strictl% *it( and specificall% intended for appealed cases in t(e Court of Appeals s(all not &e applica&le= and c- Ei#(teen ,1;- clearl% le#i&le copies of t(e petition s(all &e filed+ to#et(er *it( proof of service on all adverse parties. $(e proceedin#s for disciplinar% action a#ainst !e!&ers of t(e "udiciar% s(all &e #overned &% t(e la*s and Rules prescri&ed t(erefor+ and t(ose a#ainst attorne%s &% Rule 116>?+ as a!ended. ,n.ote that the provisions on C! procedure in ordinar4 appealed cases (Rule 44)2 annulment of #ud"ments or final orders and resolutions (Rule 47)2 dismissal of appeal (Rule *0)2 ne% trial (Rule *()2 internal $usiness (Rule *4)2 and pu$lication of #ud"ments and final resolution (Rule **) are not e5pressl4 applica$le in cases $efore the )C. .. Appealed Cases Sec. 1. (ode of appeal. An appeal to t(e Supre!e Court !a% &e ta'en onl% &% a petition for revie* on certiorari+ e)cept in cri!inal cases *(ere t(e penalt% i!posed is deat(+ reclusion perpetua or life i!prison!ent. ,n!n appeal to the )upreme Court ma4 $e ta7en onl4 $4 a petition for revie% on certiorari2 e5cept in criminal cases ($4 notice of appeal) %here the penalt4 imposed is death2 reclusion perpetua or life imprisonment. 1ence for an4 civil decision $4 the C! to "o to the )C2 it must $e $4 pettion for revie% on certiorari. Sec. 5. Procedure. $(e appeal s(all &e #overned &% and disposed of in accordance *it( t(e applica&le provisions of t(e constitution+ la*s+ Rules 5/ ,appeal &% certiorari to t(e Supre!e Court-+ 5; ,preli!inar% conference-+ sections 1+ .+ and / to 11 of Rule /1 ,"ud#!ent-+ /. ,!otion for reconsideration- and t(is Rule. ,nSec. /. 7rounds for dismissal of appeal. $(e appeal !a% &e dis!issed !otu proprio or on !otion of t(e respondent on t(e follo*in# #rounds< ,a- 9ailure to ta'e t(e appeal *it(in t(e re#le!entar% period= ,&- Lac' of !erit in t(e petition=
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,c- 9ailure to pa% t(e re0uisite doc'et fee and ot(er la*ful fees or to !a'e a deposit for costs= ,d- 9ailure to co!pl% *it( t(e re0uire!ents re#ardin# proof of service and contents of and t(e docu!ents *(ic( s(ould acco!pan% t(e petition= ,e- 9ailure to co!pl% *it( an% circular+ directive or order of t(e Supre!e Court *it(out "ustifia&le cause= ,f- Error in t(e c(oice or !ode of appeal= and ,#- $(e fact t(at t(e case is not appeala&le to t(e Supre!e court. ,nIrounds for dismissal of appeal $efore the )C .1 ,ailure to ta7e the appeal %ithin the re"lementar4 periodC . Aac7 of merit in the petitionC .( ,ailure to pa4 the re&uisite doc7et fee and other la%ful fees or to ma7e a deposit for costsC .4 ,ailure to compl4 %ith the reauirements re"ardin" proof of service and contents of and the documents %hich should accompan4 the petitionC .* ,ailure to compl4 %ith an4 circular2 directive or order of the )upreme Court %ithout #ustifia$le causeC .9 Error in the choice or mode of appealC and .7 The fact that the case is not appeala$le to the )upreme court. Sec. 4. Disposition of improper appeal. E)cept as provided in section 1+ Rule 1.. re#ardin# appeals in cri!inal cases *(ere t(e penalt% i!posed is deat(+ reclusion perpetua or life i!prison!ent+ an appeal ta'en to t(e Supre!e Court &% notice of appeal s(all &e dis!issed. An appeal &% certiorari ta'en to t(e Supre!e Court fro! t(e Re#ional $rial Court su&!ittin# issues of fact !a% &e referred to t(e Court of Appeals for decision or appropriate action. $(e deter!ination of t(e Supre!e Court on *(et(er or not issues of fact are involved s(all &e final. ,n.ote that the C! can not refer cases to the )C2 $ut the )C can refer cases to the C!. The determination of the )C on %hether or not issues of fact are involved shall $e final. Sec. 7. Procedure if opinion is e.ually di$ided. W(ere t(e court en &anc is e0uall% divided in opinion+ or t(e necessar% !a"orit% cannot &e (ad+ t(e case s(all a#ain &e deli&erated on+ and if after suc( deli&eration no decision is reac(ed+ t(e ori#inal action co!!enced in t(e court s(all &e dis!issed= in appealed cases+ t(e "ud#!ent or order appealed fro! s(all stand affir!ed= and on all incidental !atters+ t(e petition or !otion s(all &e denied. ,11a(. 8nte"ration E5ceptions to "eneral Rules on appeals .1 Period to appeal is the remainin" period from denial M.T or MfR .a Petition for revie% from RTC to C! .$ Petition for revie% from &uasi'#udicial a"encies to C! .c Petition for revie% on certiorari to the )C .d )pecial civil action for certiorari
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.o e5tension of time to appeal allo%ed .a Petition for revie% from RTC to C! .$ Petition for revie% from &uasi'#udicial a"encies to C! .c Petition for revie% on certiorari to the )C

.( Certificate of non'forum shoppin" not re&uired .a Petition for revie% from RTC to C! .$ Petition for revie% from &uasi'#udicial a"encies to C! .c Petition for revie% on certiorari to the )C .d !nnulment of #ud"ment .e )pecial civil action for certiorari .4 appeal sta4s e5ecution .a MTC #ud"ment on e#ectment (sta4ed $4 $ond and periodic deposit of rentals) .$ Petition for revie% of summar4 procedures from RTC to C! .c Petition for revie% from &uasi'#udicial a"encies to C! .d )pecial civil action for certiorari .* loss of po%er of court a &uo to issue orders is upon transmittal of records .a Petition for revie% from RTC to C!

Remedial Law Reviewer, Part IV of IX, Last printed 11/20/2002 01:00:00 AM

Mark de Leon, JD 2001

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