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Name __________________________________ Chapter 11 - Energy Metabolism: Respiration Review Questions

Section __________

Date_______________

1. Most plants store excess energy from photosynthesis. Name some times when recovery of stored energy may occur. Does energy recovery occur in the same sites where photosynthetic capture occurred?

2. When a storage organ becomes active after dormancy and mobilizes its reserves, the starch is usually converted to sucrose for transport. Why is starch not transported?

3. The oxidation of NADPH to NAD+ requires transferring electrons from it onto something else. What are the characteristics the ideal recipient would have? What is the recipient actually used? What does it turn into as electrons are added to it?

4. Cellular respiration falls into two categories. What are the two categories? When is each one used?

5. Define obligate aerobe, obligate anaerobe, and facultative aerobe. Name some type of organism that is an example of each.

6. Under what conditions does a plant tissue experience lack of oxygen? How is ATP generated from glucose without oxygen?

7. Glycolysis can proceed only if ________________ is available. If it cannot be regenerated from NADH, the organism will starve, despite having glucose available. 8. The reduction of NAD+ and NADH during glycolysis is a problem. Why is this less of a problem if roots absorb nitrates and sulfates or of the plant is synthesizing fatty acids?

9. Anaerobic and aerobic forms of respiration differ in the ultimate electron acceptors for each process. What is the electron acceptor in each? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each?

10. With oxygen present, not only can NAD+ be regenerated, allowing glycolysis to continue, but even more ______________ is formed in the regeneration process. 11. During anaerobic respiration in animals, the electron acceptor is pyruvate. What is the acid (or the anion of which acid) that is formed? During hard, fast exercise, your own muscles probably synthesize this acid. What is the sensation you feel?

12. Plants do not make the acid mentioned in Question 11. What do plants make instead during anaerobic respiration? Pyruvate is converted to _______________, and then NADH reacts with that, forming _______________. 13. Considering the negative aspects of anaerobic respiration, how could natural selection have produced something so inefficient?

14. What are the three basic parts of aerobic respiration? Which steps occur in mitochondria and which in cytosol?

15. Are the initial steps if aerobic and anaerobic respiration similar or dissimilar? 16. For the citric acid cycle to occur, pyruvate must be transported from ________________ where glycolysis occurs, across the _________________ to the ___________________. It is transported as a two-carbon fragment called acetyl. What is the name of the carrier molecule that transports it? 17. The text mentions that the benefit in the citric acid cycle is the generation if more ATP, yet at only one step is ATP produced. How is the citric acid cycle involved in more ATP production than just that? (Hint: what is the fate of NADH and FADH)?

18. Examine Figure 11-13. Where are the electron carriers of mitochondrial electron transport located----in the matrix, the membrane, or in the crista lumen? As they carry electrons, some of them also deposit protons (H). Are the protons deposited in the matrix or in the crista lumen?

19. What is the chemiosmotic potential in the mitochondria? 20. The flow of protons from the crista lumen to the mitochondrial matrix can be used to synthesize ATP. Describe how this occurs.

21. During glycolysis, is all of the energy of glucose converted to energy in ATP? Why do compost piles become warm?

22. Some plants generate large amounts if heat. Name two examples. How is the generation of heat beneficial to each of these plants? What is the name of heat-generating respiration?

23. The intermediates of all respiratory pathways can be used in ______________ _________________ to make various compounds. It is not _________________ that they will be completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. 24. The pentose phosphate pathway has some intermediates that are pentoses. What is a pentose? Name the one that is shunted into nucleic acid metabolism.

25. The four-carbon sugar erythrose-4-phosphate is the starting material in the synthesis of any compounds. Name two important examples. 26. Consider a meristematic cell preparing for mitosis and a young xylem cell differentiating into a fiber or a tracheary element; each uses the pentose phosphate pathway, but for different products. Explain why.

27. In most tissues, if the temperature is increased by 10C, how much is the rate of respiration increased?

28. The total energy yield of respiration relates the number of ATP molecules synthesized per glucose molecule respired. What is the yield for anaerobic respiration? For aerobic respiration? For heat-generating respiration?

29. What is the definition of the respiratory quotient (RQ)? The complete aerobic respiration of glucose consumes six molecules of oxygen and produces six of carbon dioxide. What is the RQ for this process? If you measured the RQ of a plant and found that RQ = 0.7, would you suspect that the plant was respiring lipids or citric acid?