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E 1417 -99 Standard Practice for Liquid Penetrant Examination Scope Referred documents Terminology Linear indication: penetrant

t indications with atleast three to one length to width ratio Rounded indication: penetrant indications whose length to width ratio is less than three to one Reprocessing: repeat, after cleaning, the penetrant Application and appropriate processing of Penetrant, emulsifier (as required) and developer as Required Classification : Type : Type I and II Methods : A, B, C and D Sensitivity Levels: , 1, 2, 3 and 4 (only for type I) Forms: a, b, c and d and e and f Classes : Class 1, Class 2 and Class 3 Viewing area and intensity requirements Type II: 100 fc (1000 lux) at the examination surface Type I : 1000 W/cm2 at the surface of examination Ambient white light background 2 fc (20 lux) Drying

Oven temperature should not exceed 71 deg. C Part temp. should not exceed the specified temp.52o C Surface coatings: all need be removed. In service Anodized layer need not be removed Material and process limitation: Forms a & b not with Type II Type II not prior to I- not applicable if surfaces are
removed Type II not for final acceptance of aerospace components Type I, C or D for overhaul and maintenance inspection of Turbine blades

Specific Practice Surface preparation Solvent cleaning includes vapour degreasing, Ultrasonic cleaning Solvent soak Aqueous based Chemical cleaning-scale, paint, conversion coatings etc Mechanical cleaning- not removed by 1 and 2 - etching - fine abrasive -150 grit or finer only detergent cleaning no etching necessary Penetrant application

Temperature of the process -4 52 deg. C Beyond this establish Dwell time- min.10 mts More than 2 hrs reapply the penetrant

Penetrant removal A method: Manual or automated water spray, manual wipe air agitated immersion wash Nature of water supply coarse water supply - pressure 40 psi (280 kPa) - distance 12 - spray nozzle 25 psi ( 172 kPa) - temp.10-38 deg. C B method : after emulsification, rinsing same as above Application of emulsifier immersion or Flowing only Brushing and spraying X Emulsification time - 3 min. Type I 30 secs. Type II C method: Solvent removal D methodprerinse allowed leading to reduction in cost Application immersion, flowing &spraying

Immersion slight agitation Concentrations recommended Emulsification max 2 mts Developing : Form a dry and apply,10 min 4 hr Form d dry and apply 10 min 1 hr Form b - not allowed with Type II penetrants Type I, Method A Form b & c apply and dry 10 min- 1 hr C - agitated before use Inspection : Dark room adaptation time 1 min and more No indication or flase indication accept Relevant indication evaluate as per acceptance criteria Indication verification- if allowed , wiping the Indications with solvent Dampened cloth and Redeveloping No indication original- false Discontinuity removal : sanding, grinding etc After removal, cleaned , etched reexaminedsame sensitivity Sizing: Quality control provisions Material checks in use: Pentrant contamination daily appearancerejected Water content Method A only 5 % and above reject

Water content Lipophilic emulsifier- -----Developer condition- dry Developer contamination aqueous wettability and Fluorescenc Concentration - hygrometer Emulsifier concentration hydrophilic 0refractometer System Performance KDS System checks Pentrant brightness- unused and used used 90% Pentrant removability Method A only noticeably less Emulsifier removability- used emulsifier and unused penetrant against unused emulsifier and unused penetrant Equipment checks black light intensity Cleanliness and integrity