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Design of Air cooled evaporator manually

Air cooling evaporators for cold rooms, blast freezers, air-conditioning, etc., will have finned pipe coils in all but very small coolers, there will be fans to blow the air over the coil. Construction materials will be the same as for air-cooled condensers. Aluminum fins on copper tube are the most common for the halocarbons, with stainless steel or aluminum tube for ammonia. Frost or condensed water will form on the fin surface and must be drained away. To permit this, fins will be vertical and the air flow horizontal, with a drain tray provided under. The size of the tube will be such that the velocity of the boiling fluid within it will cause turbulence to promote heat transfer. Tube diameters will vary from 9 mm to 32 mm, according to the size of coil. Fin spacing will be a compromise between compactness (and cost) and the tendency for the spaces to block with condensed moisture or frost. Spacings will vary from 2 mm on a compact air-conditioner to 12 mm on a low-temperature cold-room coil. We will design manually and by Techinsolve software

Evaporator Design: From the psychrometric chart: Inlet condition: ha in=114.15kj/kg & Wa 1=0.01585 kgw/kga TDP=21.2 0c Outlet condition: ha out=90 kj/kg Cooling load: Qc = a ha in ha out) 123 = a (114.15 90) a=5.02kg/sec. Coil design: For Tube side (ref.): dbta in=380c & wbta in=330c

C.S.H.F=0.40 & RH=100%

( ) ( )

For air side:

[ * +

( )
R=0.75 kj/kg.k

Ts1

Ts1 =30.56 0c Ts1 TDP wet surface

Ts2

Ts2 =25.45 0c Trm=

= 20.9 0c

Ai= =
Ao=Ai*(18.5)=

= 3 m2
m2

Nr=6
ref = 0.898= Nc 26 ( ) ( )

NC=
H =26*0.0254 = 0.66 m

Aface=
=1.731 m2 Aface=H*LL = 2.62 m

Tube length: L= Fin calculations


Assume

Nt = 24 tubes

From chart

Assume w=15cm

Technisolve Software for Evaporator coil design Manufacturing design procedure:

1st Step:

2nd Step:

3rd Step (Run Calculation from F9 button or


Coil Manufacturing Report Recoil (5/8 inch - 38.1x50.8) 1016 x 1264 4r 6f 40c DX 15938 / 20 / 04 / 6.00 / 1264 Cu/GI (40) Areas and Volumes Ao = 86.919 m Ao' = 16.921 m/face m-rows Ai = 5.389 m Vi = 20.9 Litre Pipe Connections Size = 67 mm Heat Transfer ho = 44.102 W/mC Ui = 3.780 kW/mC Uo = 36.800 W/mC Ntu = 0.434 Cr = 0.000 Qt = e x Qmax = 0.352 x 350.216 = 123.242 kW Air Side Duty Qt = ma (hao - hai) = 3.504 (87.49 - 122.66) = -123.242 kW Qs = ma x Cpa (dbo - dbi) = 3.504 x 1.066 (28.3 - 38.0) = -36.308 kW Rate = 39.156 kW/cms Psychrometrics Bypass factor = 0.358 Apparatus Dew Point = 22.8 C Refrigerant (R134a) Duty Superheat = 7.5 C Mass flow = 0.790 kg/s (approx) Mass flux = 101.7 kg/sqm.s (approx) Velocity = 0.080 m/s Qt = mr x dh = 0.790 x 156 = 123.26 kW Dimensions Height Length Depth Rows Fins Weight

button):

1016.0 1264.0 152.4 4 6.00 135.4

mm mm mm fpi kg

Circuiting Tubes High Tube Count Circuits Circuit Basis Tubes/Circuits Unlinked tubes Serpentine Eq Length Connections

20 80 40 Tubes high 2 0 2 3.8 m Same end

Tube (Staggered Pattern) ID 15.723 OD 16.586 Sx 38.100 Sy 50.800 Fin Thickness Area factor Material Fin Tube Casing

mm mm mm mm

0.200 1.000

mm mm

Cu Cu GI

Psychrometric Chart :

Condenser
Condenser is an important component of any air conditioning system. In a typical refrigerant condenser, the refrigerant enters the condenser in a superheated state. It is first de-superheated and then condensed by rejecting heat to an external medium. The refrigerant may leave the condenser as a saturated or a sub-cooled liquid, depending upon the temperature of the external medium and design of the condenser. Classification of condensers (Based on the external fluid) :
Air cooled condensers (will be used in our case study so we will concentrate on it). Water cooled condensers (discussed before in chapter 2). Evaporative condensers (discussed before in chapter 2).

Air cooled condensers:


The circulation of air over the condenser surface is maintained by using a fan or a blower. These condensers normally use fins on air-side for good heat transfer. The fins can be either plate type or annular type. This type of condensers is commonly used in window air conditioners, water coolers and packaged air conditioning plants. The face velocity is usually around 2m/s to 3.5 m/s to limit the pressure drop due to frictional resistance. The coils of the tube in the flow direction are called rows. A condenser may have two to eight rows of the tubes carrying the refrigerant. The moist air flows over the fins while the refrigerant flows inside the tubes. The fins are usually of aluminum and tubes are made of copper. Holes of diameter slightly less than the tube diameter are punched in the plates and plates are slid over the tube bank. Then the copper tubes are pressurized which expands the tubes and makes a good thermal contact between the tube and fins. Air Cooled Condenser design : We will design the Air cooled condenser by Software and manually To design the Air cooled condenser by Software, we will use ( Technisolve air cooled condenser software)

Input values to Technisolve air cooled condenser software: Barometer Pressure (101.325 kpa) Type of Refrigerant (R134a) On Coil Temperature (dpt,wbt) (38 0C,34 0C) Condensing temperature (54.5 0C) Air Volume (9.582 m3/s ) Air Velocity (3 m/s) Fin Height (1118 mm) Target duty (150 Kw) Number of Rows deep (6) Fin density (12 fpi) Finned Length (2858 mm) Tube size (5/8 inch-38.1 50.8)

Technisolve Condenser coil Manufacturing design procedure:

1st Step:

2nd Step:

3rd Step (Run Calculation from F9 button or


Model Recoil (5/8 inch - 38.1x50.8) 1118 x 2858 6r 12f 11c CD 15938 / 22 / 06 / 12.00 / 2858 Cu/GI (11) Areas and Volumes Ao = 628.104 m Ao' = 32.762 m/face m-rows Ai = 19.285 m Vi = 75.3 Litre Pipe Connections Size = 35 mm Heat Transfer ho = 71.064 W/mC Ui = 1.616 kW/mC Uo = 29.092 W/mC Ntu = 1.607 Cr = 0.000 Qt = e x Qmax = 0.799 x 187.671 = 150.029 kW Air Side Duty Qt = ma (hao - hai) = 10.672 (136.72 - 122.66) = 150.018 kW Qs = ma x Cpa (dbo - dbi) = 10.672 x 1.066 (51.2 - 38.0) = 150.029 kW Rate = 15.651 kW/cms Psychrometrics Bypass factor = 0.020 Apparatus Dew Point = 33.1 C Refrigerant (R134a) Duty Sub-cooling = 5.0 C Mass flow = 0.827 kg/s (approx) Mass flux = 1951.5 kg/sqm.s (approx) Velocity = 1.809 m/s Qt = mr x dh = 0.827 x 181 = 150.029 kW Dimensions Height Length Depth Rows Fins Weight 1118.0 2858.0 228.6 6 12.00 775.7 mm mm mm fpi kg

button):

Circuiting Tubes High Tube Count Circuits Circuit Basis Tubes/Circuits Unlinked tubes Serpentine Eq Length Connections

22 132 11 Tubes high 12 0 1/2 41.8 m Same end

Tube (Staggered Pattern) ID 15.723 mm OD 16.586 mm Sx 38.100 mm Sy 50.800 mm Fin Thickness Area factor Material Fin Tube Casing

0.200 1.000

mm mm

Cu Cu GI

Psychrometric Chart:

14.1.

Design of Air cooled condenser manually:


Given Data (1) (2) (3) (4) * (5) (6)

Where

{ }

Assume

Afrontal = L H = 3 1 = 3 Assume 2.54

Check on

Tube side (ref.)

( ) ( )

For air side


From tables By using induced draught far

[ [ ]

Fin calculations
Assume

) ( )

From chart

Assume w=15cm