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ACC is an extension of conventional cruise control system. An ACC system is a driver convenience system which automatically adjusts the vehicle speed and distance to that of a target vehicle. ACC uses a long range RADAR/LIDAR sensor to detect a target vehicle up to 200 meters in front and automatically adjusts the ACC vehicle speed and gap accordingly. ACC automatically decelerates or accelerates the vehicle according to the desired speed and distance settings established by the driver. The RADAR/LIDAR sensors are located under or behind the front bumper or behind the grille.

A typical conventional cruise control system is basically a speed control system of a vehicle. It controls the vehicle speed by adjusting throttle position to maintain a speed set by the driver. A control unit compares the actual vehicle speed and the desired set speed. If there is a difference between these two values, a signal is sent to a throttle position actuator to adjust the throttle position to bring the vehicle to the set speed. Depending on the vehicle make and model, throttle position is achieved using vacuum powered or electronically controlled actuators.



ACC off state- direct access to the ACC active state is disabled. ACC standby state- system is ready for activation by the driver. ACC active state- the ACC system is in active control of the vehicles speed. ACC speed control state- its an ACC active state in which no forward vehicles are present such that the ACC system is controlling vehicle speed to the set speed as is typical with conventional cruise control systems. ACC time gap control state- its an ACC active state in which time gap or headway between the ACC vehicle and the target vehicle is being controlled.

ACC States and Transitions

Maintains a safe, comfortable distance between vehicles without driver interventions. Maintains a consistent performance in poor visibility conditions. Maintains a continuous performance during road turns and elevation changes. Alerts drivers by way of automatic braking.

The driver interface for the ACC system is very similar to a conventional cruise control system. The driver operates the system via a set of switches on the steering wheel. The switches are the same as for a conventional cruise control system except for the addition of two

switches to control the time gap between the ACC vehicle and the target vehicle. In addition there are a series of text messages that can be displayed on the instrument cluster to inform the driver of the state of the ACC system and to provide any necessary warnings. The driver engages the ACC system by first pressing the ON switch which places the system into the 'ACC standby' state. The driver then presses the Set switch to enter the 'ACC active' state at which point the ACC system attempts to control the vehicle to the driver's set speed dependent upon the traffic environment. When there is no other vehicle in front, the vehicle keeps moving at the pre set speed. Once the target vehicle is detected in front by the distance sensor, the ACC equipped vehicle slows down and maintains a safe distance between itself and the target vehicle. Now the ACC equipped vehicle keep moving at the set distance between the vehicles. Once the target vehicle moves out of the radar range, the ACC equipped vehicle accelerates to the set speed.

Both laser and radar based ACC sensors operate by projecting a beam forward to detect a vehicle ahead. Radar based units transmit a millimeter wave radar signal and receive the reflected signal from the vehicle ahead. Laser based units transmit laser beam pulses that are reflected back by the vehicle ahead.

Bad weather may limit the effectiveness of a laser based distance sensor. The information received by the distance sensor is used to measure the gap between the ACC vehicle and the vehicle ahead and determine the speed of the forward vehicle.



Physical layout

As shown in Figure, the ACC system consists of a series of interconnecting components and systems. The method of communication between the different modules is via a serial communication network known as the Controller Area Network (CAN).

ACC Module The primary function of the ACC module is to process the radar information and determine if a forward vehicle is present. When the ACC system is in 'time gap control', it sends information to the Engine Control and Brake Control modules to control the clearance between the ACC Vehicle and the Target Vehicle. Engine Control Module The primary function of the Engine Control Module is to receive information from the ACC module and Instrument Cluster and control the vehicle's speed based on this information. The Engine Control Module controls vehicle speed by controlling the engine's throttle. Brake Control Module The primary function of the Brake Control Module is to determine vehicle speed via each wheel and to decelerate the vehicle by applying the brakes when requested by the ACC Module. The braking system is hydraulic with electronic enhancement, such as an ABS brake system, and is not full authority brake by wire. Instrument Cluster The primary function of the Instrument Cluster is to process the Cruise Switches and send their information to the ACC and Engine Control Modules. The Instrument Cluster also displays text messages and telltales for the driver so that the driver has information

regarding the state of the ACC system. CAN The Controller Area Network (CAN) is an automotive standard network that utilizes a 2 wire bus to transmit and receive data. Each node on the network has the capability to transmit 0 to 8 bytes of data in a message frame. A message frame consists of a message header, followed by 0 to 8 data bytes, and then a checksum. The message header is a unique identifier that determines the message priority. Any node on the network can transmit data if the bus is free. If multiple nodes attempt to transmit at the same time, an arbitration scheme is used to determine which node will control the bus. The message with the highest priority, as defined in its header, will win the arbitration and its message will be transmitted. The losing message will retry to send its message as soon as it detects a bus free state. Cruise Switches The Cruise Switches are mounted on the steering wheel and have several buttons which allow the driver to command operation of the ACC system. The switches include: 'On': place system in the 'ACC standby' state 'Off'': cancel ACC operation and place system in the 'ACC off' state

'Set +': activate ACC and establish set speed or accelerate 'Coast': decelerate 'Resume': resume to set speed 'Time Gap +': increase gap 'Time gap ': decrease gap * These switches manufacturer and use.

protector, excessive mud, snow, etc. Vehicle speed too high or too low. Rear of forward vehicle extremely dirty or has no reflectors. To ensure that the ACC system functions properly, the distance sensor should be kept clean. Wipe with a soft cloth, being careful to avoid damage to the sensor.

depend on technology

Brake Switches There are two brake switches, Brake Switch 1 (BS1) and Brake Switch 2 (BS2). When either of the brake switch is activated, Cruise Control operation is deactivated and the system enters 'ACC standby' state. Brake Lights When the Brake Control Module applies the brakes in response to an ACC request, it will illuminate the brake lights to warn vehicles behind the ACC vehicle that it is decelerating.

Fusion sensors are the latest type of sensors used in ACC system introduced by Fujitsu Ten Limited and Honda. Fusion sensor is a combination of sensors and processors. The Fusion sensor consists of the following components Millimeter-wave radar Stereo camera Image processor Fusion processor

Certain conditions may prevent the ACC from engaging. An activated ABS. Detected instability, activating the traction/stability control system. Brakes overheated signal from the ABS control module. Sensor obstruction from paint, stickers, a vehicle front



Stop and GO Cruise Control (SACC) Co-operative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC)

A prototype of car with Fusion sensor arrangement


Stop and GO Cruise Control (SACC)

Ordinary ACC systems maintain a safe distance between cars at speeds above 40km/hr, whereas SACC will work primarily at lower speeds in heavy traffic. If the car in front stops, it will bring the vehicle to a complete stop. Then it will not re-engage the throttle, thats up to the driver but as soon as the throttle is engaged, it will accelerate and decelerate along with the leading car over any range of speeds between zero and the cruising speed set by the driver. Block diagram of sensing and controlling process


Co-operative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC)

ACC can only respond to a difference between its own speed and the speed of the car ahead, while CACC will respond to two or more cars to communicate and work together to avoid a collision. Ultimately, experiments say, the technology may let cars to follow each other at intervals as short as half a second. At 100km/hr, that would amount to a distance between cars of less than 14 meters (roughly two cars length)

Encourages the driver to become careless. It can lead to severe accidents if the system is malfunctioning.





Its usefulness for long drives across sparsely polluted roads. This usually results in better fuel efficiency. Some drivers use it to avoid unconsciously violating speed limits. Reduction in accident rate for vehicles fitted with collision avoidance type systems. Reduction in driver fatigue. Interconnection to more advanced future systems.

The accidents caused by automobiles are injuring lakhs of people every year. The safety measures starting from Air bags, seat belts and ABS have now reached to ACC, SACC and CACC systems. The researchers of Intelligent Vehicles Initiate in USA and the Ertico program of Europe are working on technologies that may ultimately lead to vehicles that are wrapped in a cocoon of sensors with a 360 degree view of their surroundings. It will probably take decades, but car accidents may eventually become as rare as plane accidents are now. Even the road laws will have to be changed to some extent since the non-human part of the vehicle controlling will become predominant.

REFERENCES 12. LIMITATIONS se_Control_Sys_ www.webcache.googleusercont

One of the biggest challenges in designing ACC systems today are the costs associated with the robust system. Though current costs are substantial, they are slowly decreasing.