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National Conference On Electrical Sciences -2012 (NCES-12) ISBN: 978-93-81583-72-2

Department Of EEE, Annamacharya Institute Of Technology & Sciences, Rajampet 26


ANALYSIS OF RADIATION PATTERNS FOR BROAD SIDE AND END FIRE ARRAY DUE TO
SEPARATION OF ELEMENTS AND NUMBER OF ELEMENTS

Shashi Kumar. D

Asst. Professor, Dept. Of ECE, Christ University, Bangalore, India.
Email: shashikumar.d@christuniversity.in


ABSTRACT:
In the present day antenna systems, the two types
of Antenna arrays are majorly used: Broadside
array and End fire array. They are used to radiate
their own beam patterns. The antenna arrays with
different arrangements: The Spacing of the
elements and the Number of elements may produce
the diverse radiation properties. The overall
radiation pattern of an array is determined by
array factor combined with the radiation pattern of
the antenna element. The overall radiation pattern
results in certain directivity and different lobes
with different number of elements and different
spacing between them. Thus in this paper analysis
is made on the effect of number of elements and the
spacing between the elements on broadside array
and end fire array. And the comparative
conclusions are drawn [3, 4]

KEYWORDS:
Antenna array; broadside array; End fire array; Array
factor; Number of elements; Spacing between the
elements; Radiation patterns.

INTRODUCTION:
Antennas have become ubiquitous devices and occupy
a salient position in wireless systems. Radio and TV as
well as satellite and new generation mobile
communications have experienced the largest growth
among industry systems.
The global wireless market continues to grow at
breakneck speed and the strongest economic and
social impact nowadays comes from cellular
telephony, personal communications and satellite
navigation systems. All of the above systems have
served as motivation for engineers to incorporate
elegant antennas into handy and portable systems. A
device able to receive or transmit electromagnetic
energy is called an antenna. [1, 2]


Antenna array:
An antenna array is a configuration of multiple
antennas (elements) arranged to achieve a given
radiation pattern. A single-element antenna is usually
not enough to achieve technical needs. That happens
because its performance is limited. The set of discrete
elements, which constitute an antenna array, offers the
solution to the transmission and/or reception of
electromagnetic energy. [1]The geometry and the type
of elements characterize an antenna array. Antenna
array factor quantifies the effect of combining
radiating elements in an array without the element
specific radiation pattern taken into account. The
overall radiation pattern of an array is determined by
this array factor combined with the radiation pattern of
the antenna element. The overall radiation pattern
results in a certain directivity and thus gain linked
through the efficiency with the directivity. Directivity
and gain are equal if the efficiency is 100% [2].
Classification:
The phasing of the uniform linear array elements may
be chosen such that the main lobe of the array pattern
lies along the array axis (end-fire array) or normal to
the array axis (broadside array).
Broad side array:
Broad side array is the arrangement of identical
antennas, which are placed along the axis
perpendicular to the direction of maximum radiation.
The identical antennas are equally spaced along the
line of axis and all the elements are fed with equal
magnitude of current with the same phase. This results
in array pattern known as broad side array. It is
evident that broad side array is bidirectional where
maximum radiation is obtained in the direction of axis
perpendicular to the array axis. By placing an identical
array at a distance of /4 behind the array,
bidirectional array can be converted to unidirectional
National Conference On Electrical Sciences -2012 (NCES-12) ISBN: 978-93-81583-72-2
Department Of EEE, Annamacharya Institute Of Technology & Sciences, Rajampet 27
array and by lead current in phase by /2.

End Fire Array:
An End fire array looks similar to broad side array
except that the individual elements are fed with the
current that is equal in magnitude but opposite in
phase. In other words, the individual elements are
excited in such a way that a progressive phase
difference between adjacent elements becomes equal
to the spacing between the antennas (elements).

The arranging of identical antennas along a line
drawn perpendicular to their respective axis so that the
principle direction of radiation coincides with the
direction of the axis of array is known as End fire
array. The radiation is maximum in the direction along
the axis of the array i.e., 0 degree (or) 180 degree.

If two equal radiators are operated in phase quadrature
at a distance of /4 apart, an end fire couplet is said to
be formed.


In this paper comparison of radiation patterns with
respect to number of elements and the distance
between the elements is done by using MATLAB
software.

FORMULAE USED

- =|-d*Cos(u)+o
o=Phase difference between the adjacent
elements
d=Distance between the elements
- |=2t/
- Array factor for N element antenna array is
defined as

)
(

)


[1, 2, 3, 4]

National Conference On Electrical Sciences -2012 (NCES-12) ISBN: 978-93-81583-72-2
Department Of EEE, Annamacharya Institute Of Technology & Sciences, Rajampet 28
COMPARISON OF BROADSIDE AND ENDFIRE ARRAY BY KEEPING THE NUMBER OF ELEMENTS
CONSTANT.
BROAD SIDE ARRAY


END FIRE ARRAY


0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
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180 0
N=4, d=0.25
0.2
0.4
0.6
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1
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180 0
N=4, d=0.5
0.2
0.4
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1
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180 0
N=4, d=0.75
0.2
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1
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180 0
N=4, d=1
0.2
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180 0
N=4,d=0.25
0.2
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1
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180 0
N=4,d=0.5
0.2
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1
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180 0
N=4,d=0.75
0.2
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1
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180 0
N=4,d=1
National Conference On Electrical Sciences -2012 (NCES-12) ISBN: 978-93-81583-72-2
Department Of EEE, Annamacharya Institute Of Technology & Sciences, Rajampet 29

COMPARISON OF BROADSIDE AND ENDFIRE ARRAY BY KEEPING THE SPACING BETWEEN
ELEMENTS CONSTANT.

BROAD SIDE ARRAY









END FIRE ARRAY





0.2
0.4
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0.8
1
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210
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120
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180 0
N=4, d=0.25
0.2
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1
30
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180 0
N=8, d=0.25
0.2
0.4
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1
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180 0
N=12, d=0.25
0.2
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1
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180 0
N=4,d=0.25
0.2
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1
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180 0
N=8,d=0.25
0.2
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1
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120
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180 0
N=12,d=0.25
National Conference On Electrical Sciences -2012 (NCES-12) ISBN: 978-93-81583-72-2
Department Of EEE, Annamacharya Institute Of Technology & Sciences, Rajampet 30

RESULT ANALYSIS:
The radiation patterns are developed for different
number of elements and the spacing between them, the
broadside and end fire arrays consists of main lobe,
side lobe and nulls which are plotted using MATLAB
software.
First let us analyze the condition for the constant
number of elements and varying the spacing between
them:
As the spacing between the elements is increasing, the
directivity of the antenna reduces and the number of
side lobes increases that is the size of main lobe is
reducing as we increase the spacing between them.
As the spacing between the elements is decreasing, the
directivity of main lobe increases.
At N=4 and d=1 the patterns of end fire array becomes
same. Thus we can conclude that, the area of coverage
of antenna array is inversely proportional to the
spacing between them.

Analyze the effect of number of elements on the
radiation patterns:
In case of end fire array, direction of main lobe
remain unchanged, as the spacing remain unchanged
throughout the results that are obtained But the minor
lobes increased and main lobe little bit become narrow
as the number of elements increases. In case of
broadside array, it is clearly shown in results that the
directivity is more compared to the directivity of end
fire array. As the main lobe in broad side array is very
much narrow, and also pattern is symmetrical, but the
grating lobes appears with increase in number of
elements. End fire array is unidirectional as spacing is
constant here, only the number of elements are varied,
it may be bidirectional if the spacing is increased



The broadside array is bidirectional as it is shown in
results, and produces more symmetrical pattern and
can be used for long distance communication where
directivity needed to be strong. End fire array provide
directional radiations and stable unidirectional
radiation pattern. Thus to get more directivity size of
array has to be more. It can be used in satellite dish
antennas, where a very high directivity is needed,
because they are to receive signals from a fixed
direction.[4]
CONCLUSION
The Effect of number of elements and the spacing
between them on the radiation pattern of broadside
array and end fire array are analyzed and compared in
present paper. In general the directivity of end fire
array is more as compared to broad side array, but the
end fire array produces stable unidirectional
radiations. And broadside array gives more symmetric
pattern as the pattern is bidirectional and can be used
for applications where more area coverage is needed.
The end fire array can be used to construct directional
antennas and can be used in satellite dish antenna to
receive signal from fixed direction.

REFERENCES:

1: Balanis, C.A., Antenna Theory: Analysis and
Design, John Wiley & Sons, New York, N.Y., 1982

2: Krauss.J D Radio astronomy antennas Tata
McGraw hill, 1996

3: Amanpreet kaur, Amandeep Singh, Comparison
between the radiation pattern of uniform circular
array and uniform planar array. International Journal
of Computer Networks and Wireless Communications
(IJCNWC), ISSN: 2250-3501, Vol.2, No.2, April 2012

4: Amanpreet kaur, zonunmawii, Shakti raj chopra,
Comparison between the radiation pattern of
broadside array and end fire array. National
conference on challenges in emerging computer
technologies (CECT2012), vol.4, pp 135-137
0.2
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180 0
N=16, d=0.25
0.2
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1
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180 0
N=16,d=0.25