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Design of through type plate girder

In a through type plate girder the stringer, cross girder, and the main plate girder are the main load carrying members.

Design
Step 1: Total Width of road = 8 m Span of bridge Thickness of slab = 30 m = 500 mm

The spacing of cross girder is assumed as 3m. (The value lies between 3m to 5m center to center). Spacing of cross girder = 3m Number of cross girders = Spacing of stringer = 2 m Number of stringers Step 2: Dead load Weight of reinforced concrete slab inclusive of wearing coat = = 2880 kN Weight of stringer (assumed @1 kN/m), = 5 x 30 x 1 = 150 kN Weight of cross girder (assumed @ 3 kN/m) = 11 x 8 x 3 = 264 kN Self weight of plate girders by Fullers formula = = Self weight of plate girder = 7x 30 = 210 kN Total dead load of the bridge = 2880 + 150+ 264 +210 Total dead load per girder = = 1752 kN = 3504 kN = 7 kN/m = +1=5 + 1 = 11

Step 3: Bending moment due to dead load The maximum bending moment M1, due to dead load occur at the center. M1 = = =
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= 6570kNm

Step 4: Shear force due to dead load The maximum shear force F1 due to dead load occur at the support. F1 = = = = 876 kN

Step 5: Bending moment & shear force due to live load & impact load Road width between kerbs = 7.5 m Therefore two trains of IRC class A loading pass over the bridge simultaneously. Step 6: Transverse location of loading For the design of maximum section of the plate girders, the loads are so placed that the reaction on one plate girder is maximum. From IRC section II Distance between center to center of two wheels of one train = 1.8 m The minimum distance between adjacent edges of wheels of two trains, g = 1.2 m The minimum clearance between outer edge of the wheel and roadway face to kerb, for IRC class A vehicle, f = 0.15 m Impact factor = = = 0.207

Let p be the intensity of loading through each wheel. For first wheel, p = = 13.5 kN = 57 kN = 34 kN

For third & fourth wheel, p = For fifth & eighth wheel p =

If the two vehicles were placed symmetrically with respect to the center the load transmitted to the plate girder on either side = = 2p

To get maximum load on one of the girder, the procedure is to place the first wheel as close as permitted by code to face of the kerb. In that case the load on the particular girder will be 10 % more than that due to symmetrical loading. That is the maximum load taken by the girder = 2p x 1.1 = 2.2p Considering impact, maximum load on girder = 2.2p x 1.207 = 2.665 p In order to account for the effect of both trains of vehicles and the impact effect, either the wheel load of IRC class A vehicle may be increased or bending moment and shear force may be increased by multiplying by factor 2.665
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Step 7: Longitudinal location of loading. From IRC section II, one train of loads of IRC class A train of vehicles is as shown in figure. The center of gravity of loading, c.g is at a distance y from the front wheel and it is found by taking moment about the same, The resultant of load system = (13.5 x 2) + (57 x 2) + (34 x 4) = 277 kN 277y = 34 (0 + 3+ 6+ 9) + 57(13.3 + 14.5) + 13.5(17.7 + 18.8) y = 9.72 m. It is noted that the absolute maximum bending moment occurs under a wheel load, such that the center of span, O is midway between the c.g of load system and the wheel load under consideration. Thus, the absolute maximum bending moment M2, occur under the fifth wheel load from front, at X as shown in fig. Reaction, RA = 22.29)] = 121.87 kN RB = 155.13 kN M2= [121.87(15-1.79) 571.2 13.5 4.4 13.5 5.5] =1407.85 kNm The absolute bending moment including effect of both the trains and impact = 2.655x 1407.85 = 3737.85 kNm The absolute maximum shear force occurs for the position of loading as shown in fig. Reaction, RB = [57 (0.375 +1.575)+34(5.875+8.875+11.875+14.875)] RA = (250 48.998) = 201.002 kN Maximum shear force including the effect of both the trains and impact = 2.665201.002 = 533.66kN Total bending moment due to dead load, live load and impact load M =M1+ M2 = (6570+3737.85) = 10307.85 kNm =48.998kN [34(3.49 +6.49+9.49+12.49) + 57(16.79+17.99) + 13.5(21.19+

Total shear force due to live load dead load and impact load F = F1+F2 = 533.66 +876 Design bending moment = 10307.85 kNm Design shear force = 1409.66 kN Step 8: Design of web.
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= 1409.66 kN

Permissible bending stress = bt = 0.66 fy = 165 N/mm2 Permissible shear stress = va = 0.4 fy = 100 N/mm2 Permissible bearing stress = p = 0.75 fy = 187.5 N/mm2 Approximate depth of web = span/12 to span/10 = 30000/12 to 30000/10 = 2500 to 3000 mm Economic depth = = 5.5 x Adopt overall depth of 2500 mm. Assume a leg angle of 200 mm d1 = depth of web between legs of angles = 2500-(2 200) = 2100mm Assuming 8mm web thickness (tw), Shear stress = = = 83.91 N/mm2 < 100 N/mm2. Hence safe. =2182.35 mm

Step 9: Design of flange. Approximate area of flange = Af = = = 24988.72 mm2 = 600 to 750 mm

Width of flange = span /50 to span /40 = 30000/50 to 30000/40 Provide 750 mm. Assuming two angle sections ISA 20020018 mm, Area of flange Af include the following 1. Area of flange plate = 750 tf 2. Area of flange angle = 2 6881 = 13762mm2

3. Effective web area = 1/8 web area = 1/8 2500 8 = 2500 mm2 24988.72 = 13762 + 2500 + (750 tf ) tf = 11.63 mm Provide two flange plates of 20 mm thick each. Gross area of flange provided, 1. Area of flange plate = 750 20 = 15000 mm2 2. Area of flange angle = 13762 mm2 3. Effective area of web = 2500 mm2 Gross area = 31262 mm2
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Deduct 10% area for rivet holes = 31262 3126.2 = 28135.8 mm2 > 24988.72 mm2. Hence safe. Step 10: Check stress by moment of inertia method. Properties of ISA 200 20018, Cross sectional area = 6881 mm2 Ixx = Iyy = 2588.7x 104 mm4 Cxx = cyy = 56.1 mm Ixx of web = Ixx of flange = 2 [ = 1.04 x 1010 mm4 + 750 x 40 (1250 + 20 )2] = 1.07 x 108 mm4

Ixx of angle = 4[2588.7 x 10 4 + 6881 (2500 56.1)2] = 1.645 x 10 11 mm4 Total Ixx = Ixx of web + Ixx of flange + Ixx of angle = 1.645 x 10 11 + 1.04 x 1010 + 1.07 x 108 = 1.75 x 1011 mm4 Deduct 12% for rivet hole. Net Ixx = 1.75 x 1011 _2.1 x 1010 = 1.54 x 1011 mm4 Maximum bending stress = Step 11: Check for shear. Shear stress = = =83.9 N/mm2 < 100 N/mm2, safe. = = 86.34 N/mm2 < 165, safe.

Step 12: Curtailment of plate. Area of first top plate = a1 = 750 x 20 = 15000 mm2 L1 = L x = 30 x = 21.9 m

Provide an overlap of 0.5 m on either side. L1 = 21.9 +1 = 22.9 m Area of second top plate = a2 = 2 x 750 x 20 = 30000 mm2 L2 = L x = 30 x = 30.98 m

Provide an overlap of 0.5 m on either side. L2 = 31.98 m. Provide L2 as 25 m. Step 13 Checks for deflection. Allowable deflection = span/ 325 = 30000/325 = 92.31 mm

Maximum deflection at the center = It is within the allowable limit. So safe. Step 14 Design of stringer. Effective span = 3m Total width of slab = 8 m

= 0.041 mm

The stringers support weight of slab inclusive of wearing coat and the self weight. Weight of slab + wearing coat per stringer = =72 kN

Self weight of stringer ( 1kN/ m assumed) = 1x 3 = 3 kN Total dead load per stringer = 75 kN Bending moment due to dead load. The maximum bending moment M1 due to load occur at the center M1 = = 28.13kNm

Shear force due to dead load The maximum shear force F1 due to dead load occur at the support F1 = = 37.5 kN

Bending moment & shear force due to live load& impact load. Road width between kerbs = 7.5 m Therefore two trains of IRC class A loading pass over the bridge simultaneously. Transverse location of loading The minimum clearance between outer edge of the wheel and roadway face to kerb, for IRC class A vehicle, f = 0.15 m For the design of maximum section of the plate girder, the loads are so placed that the reaction on one plate girder is maximum. From IRC section II Distance between center to center of two wheels of one train = 1.8 m Reaction on the central stringer, =P[ Impact factor = = = 0.545 = 1.28P

Reaction on the central girder including impact = 1.28P x 1. 545 = 1.978 P Maximum one wheel load of IRC class A standard loading
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P = 144/2 = 57 kN Longitudinal location of loading The maximum bending moment occur when the two heaviest wheel of one train are as shown in fig. The distance between wheel is 1.2 m. Maximum bending moment due to both the trains and including impact. M2 = 1.978 57 0.9 = 101.45 kN m The dispersion of wheel load takes place at 450 inclinations. Therefore length of dispersion of wheel load = 0.25 + B + 0.25 = 0.25 + 0.5+ 0.25 = 1 m The maximum shear force occurs in the stringer when the heaviest wheel load is as shown in figure. Maximum shear force due to both the trains and including impact. F2 = 1.978 57 [ (3- ) + (3 1.2 - )] = 142.81 kN Total bending moment due to dead load, live load and impact load M = M1 + M2 = 28.13 +101.45 = 129.58 kNm Total shear force due to dead load, live load and impact load F = F1 +F2 = 37.5 + 142.81 = 180.31 kN Design bending moment =129.58 kNm Design shear force =180.31 kN Permissible bending stress = bt = 0.66 fy = 165 N/mm2 Permissible shear stress = va = 0.4 fy = 100 N/mm2 Section modulus required Z = = 784.97 x mm3

From ISI hand book, select ISMB 400 @ 0.616 N/m Zxx = 1022.9 Check for shear va.cal = = 50.65N/mm2 <100 N/mm2, so safe. mm3, tw = 8.9 mm, h = 400 mm.

Step 15 Design of cross girder. Effective span = 8 m Impact factor = = = 0.419

The maximum reaction on cross girder occurs for the position of load as shown in fig. Maximum reaction on central cross girder = 57 + 57
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= 91.2 kN

Maximum bending moment The trains of IRC class A loading pass simultaneously on the carriageway. Therefore, there are four wheel loads on the cross girder. The maximum bending moment is caused for the position of loads as shown in fig. Maximum bending moment occur at the center = 2 91.2 - 91.2 [1.8 + ] 91.2 = 401.28 kNm

Maximum shear force Maximum shear force occurs when the position of load is as shown in fig. = 91.2 [ (8 1.9) + ( 8 3.7) + ( 8 5.12) + (8 6.92 )] = 163.7 kN Maximum shear force due to live load and impact load = 1.419 163.7 = 232.3 kN Dead load on cross girder Weight of slab over cross girder = 3 8 0.5 24 = 288 kN The cross girder support five stringers. The stringers transmit the loads as concentrated loads at 2 m spacing. However, the loads are treated as uniformly distributed load. Weight of stringer = 5 0.616 3 = 9.24 kN Self weight of stringer (assumed @ 3 kN/m) = 3 8 = 24 kN Total dead load = 288 + 9.24 + 24 = 321.24 kN Maximum bending moment due to dead load = Maximum shear force due to dead load = = 321.24 kNm = 160.62 kN

Total bending moment due to dead load, live load and impact load = 401.28 +321.24 = 722.52 kNm Maximum shear force due to dead load, live load and impact load = 160.62 +232.3 = 392.92 kN Design bending moment =722.52 kNm Design shear force =392.92 kN From ISI hand book, a built up plate girder section as shown in fig. is provided for the cross girder. Maximum allowable moment = 1112 kNm > 722.52 kNm, hence safe. Maximum allowable shear = 907 kN > 392 92 kN, hence safe. Weight per meter = 2.097 kN /m < assumed weight, hence safe.
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