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GUIDING

PRINCIPLES

CONCERNING DESIGN OF
(

EXPERIMENTS, I~STRUMENTATION AND I MEASURING TECHNIQUES Gian Vincenzo j r a c a s t o r o Mats Douglas Lyberg
I

This document r e f e r s t o research g r a n t 790762-8 from t h e Swedish Council f o r B u i l d i n g Research t o Hidemark 8 Oanielson A r k i t e k t k o n t o r AB. Stockholm.

Preface- 1

PREFACE INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY


I I I

I
policy, an

I n o r d e r t o strengthen cooperation i n t h e v i t a l area o f energy Agreement on an i n d u s t r i , a l i s e d c o u n t r i e s i n November C o o p e r a t i o n and Devel opment (OECD) t o

I n t e r n a t i o n a l E n e r g y Program was f o r m u l a t e d among a number o f

1974.

The

International that

Energy

Agency

( I E A ) was e s t a b l i s h e d a s an autoriomous body w i t h i n t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Economic administer agreement. Twenty-one

countries

a r e c u r r e n t l y members: o f t h e IEA, w i t h t h e Commission o f t h e European

Comnunities p a r t i c i p a t i n g under s p e c i a l arrangement. As one undertake potential element of the International in Energy energy Program research, to our the Participants and were and have, the needs

cooperative of making

activities signifiLant

development, energy

demonstration.

A number o f n e w and i m p r o v e d e n e r g y t e c h o l o g i e s w h i c h contributions

identified for collaborative efforts.

The IEA C m i t t e e on E n e r g y Research

Development (CRD), a s s i s t e d b y a s m a l l S e c r e t a r i a t s t a f f , c o o r d i n a t e s t h e e n e r g y r e s e a r c h , d e v e l o p m e n t , and d e m o n s t r a t i o n programme.

The IEA s p o n s o r s r e s e a r c h and development i n a number o f a r e a s energy. buildings, monitoring, similarities In one of sponsoring various exercises t o i n c l u d i n g ,comparison comparison among of these predict of more accurately computer etc. the The

related use

to of and

t h e s e a r e a s , e n e r g y c o n s e r v a t i o n i n b u i l d i n g s , t h e IEA i s energy existing programmes, building

c a l c u l a t i o n ' methods

differences

c o m p a r i s o n s h a v e t o l d , u s much a b o u t t h e s t a t e o f t h e

a r t i n b u i l d i n g a n a l y s i s and have, l i d t o f u r t h e r ~ E A sponsored research.

,
ANNEX 111

RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS ENERGY ANALYSIS

Energy c o n s e r v a t i o n r e t r o f i t < a r e an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f plan energy in all IEA countries. n a t i o n as a whole, i t i s v i t a l t h a t c o r r e c t i n s t a l l a t i o n o f t h e s e r e t r o f i t s a r e n o t done evaluations by can

the be

energy made

saving of the

F o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l home-owner a s w e l l a s f o r . t h e S i n c e most o f t h e a n a l y s i s and architects and/or engineers,

saving potential o f d i f f e r e n t r e t r o f i t s .

Preface- 2

there

is

c o n s i d e r a b l e concern t h a t t h e r e t r o f i t s w i l l n o t be p r o p e r l y s e l e c t e d

n o r berform up t o e x p e c t a t i o n s . A l l IEA c o u n t r i e s need t o develop calculation methods. houses and t e s t e d f o r v a l i d i t y . Recommendations may i n c l u d e new h e a t i n g , v e n t i l a t i o n and systems, the large retrofits, number of possibilities co-operation of calculation types air and conditioning Because o f recommended for t h e ' marketplace simple, reliable

The c a l c u l a t e d recommendations then need t o be a p p l i e d i n

new appliances, new i n s u l a t i n g m a t e r i a l , new g l a z i n g s etc. international

will

accelerate

the resolution of the

problems i n v o l v e d . The main problem, common t o a l l , i s how t o g e n e r a l i z e experimental from time to time, p l a c e t o p l a c e , on t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l . solved, f i n d i n g s i n one c o u n t r y c o u l d a l s o be used i n another, and
I

results

I f t h i s probem i s

consequently

e x t e n s i v e ' n a t i o n a l research p r o g r k m e s c o u l d be reduced and r e t i o n a l i z e d . I n o r d e r t o g e n e r a l i z e experimental reliable has technique results two things are in needed: Task A 111

t o observe and measure t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n e f f e c t , The main e f f o r t for predicting and

and methods

f o r c o n v e r t i n g these d a t a t o o t h e r environments. of c a l c u l a t i o n consumption techniques models that are currently used

t h e r e f o r e been made a t f i n d i n g t h e l i m i t a t i o n s and t h e b e s t use o f a number the energy o f d w e l l i n g s (Subtask A), and a t c o l l e c t i n g and summarizing g u i d i n g measuring (Subtask 8). Finally t h e r e s u l t s o f these two subtasks have been

p r i n c i p l e s concerning t h e d e s i g n o f experiments, i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n

used when s t u d y i n g t h e energy c o n s e r v a t i o n e f f e c t o f a n i g h t - t e m p e r a t u r e setback i n d w e l l i n g s (Subtask C). The participants in the Task are: Belgim, Denmark, Italy, the

Netherlands, Sweden, ~ w i t z e r l a n d , Turkey, and t h e U n i t e d States. T h i s r e p o r t documents work c a r r i e d o u t under subtask B o f t h i s task. The

c o o p e r a t i v e work and r e s u l t i n g r e p o r t i s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n .

Foreword- 1

EDITORS FOREWORD

The aim o f t h i s Report i s t o supply in energy conservation in buildings on

t o t e c h n i c i a n s and s c i e n t i s t s ' i n v o l v e d the basis f o r s e t t i n g an e x p e r i m e n t i l The from word retrofit "retrofit"

apparatus devoted t o t h e . e v a l u a t i o n o f r e t r o f i t e f f e c t s . represents demand.. every o p e r a t i o n Side e f f e c t s , e.g., on i n d o o r comfort, r i s i n g

a b u i l d i n g aiming a t a r e d u c t i o n o f i t s energy
.

.actions,

are a l s o taken i n t o consideration. ~taij., a : of for and this Countries, to t h e Lead country, proposed t o the o t h e r P a r t i c i p a n t s t h e contents in September 1979. Afterwards, the Participants the of all responsibility Every. competent specific

Report

i n c l u d i n g t h e Lead Country, took upon themselves experience engaged of their to Institutes convey and/or
B

one o r more items, according t o t h e i r personal i n t e r e s t , f i e l d . o f research, the Organizations. material beyond to his himself Report

Participant

o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n h i s own country, whenever t h e t o p i c knowledge, i n order t o o b t a i n advice and suggestions. Since September 1981, when t h e f i r s t d r a f t of several discussed meetings among were Subtask devoted t o Subtask 0, i n which the contents of

was

thls every

Report single

was

completed were

held, both i n t h e framework o f Annex 111, and s p e c i a l l y chapter 8 P a r t i c i p a n t s and i n case revised. Suggestions from

o t h e r Annex I 1 1 P a r t i c i p a n t s have a l s o been considered. I n September 1981 t h e f i r s t d r a f t o f t h e R e p o r t Participants was distributed to all

and t o a number of e x p e r t s from each Country.

Their comnents were

c o l l e c t e d and d e l i v e r e d t o t h e Lead Country by each P a r t i c i p a n t . At t h e beginning o f 1982 t h e rewriting way that and a editing better of the Lead Report Country member started the complete

t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e Swedish P a r t i c i p a n t . The second to all

Overlappings were thus e l i m i n a t e d , t h e s i n g l e Chapters were rearranged i n such a


, balance

among t h e v a r i o u s items "as achieved.

d r a f t o f t h e Report was t h e r e f o r e completed i n A p r i l 1982 and d e l i v e r e d t h e P a r t i c i p a n t s o f Annex 111.

At t h e l a s t Working Meeting i n June 1982, t h e Report was again discussed i n detail and new m o d i f i c a t i o n s were suggested. The Report was t h e r e f o r e revised, Thereafter t h e f i n a l d r a f t was, and t h e t h i r d d r a f t was ready by t h e end o f September 1982, and d e l i v e r e d t o t h e participants o f t h e Subtask f o r f i n a l comments.

Foreword- 2

prepared by t h e E d i t o r s and sent t o t h e E x e c u t i v e C a m i t t e e o f Conservation in w h e r e a f t e r t h e m a n u s c r i p t of t h i s R e p o r t was w r i t t e n .

the

IEA

Energy

B u i l d i n g s and Community Systems f o r a p p r o v a l i n February 1983,

The experiments a b o u t energy r e t r o f i t s on b u i l d i n g s s t u d i e d i n t h i s


'

a r e t h o u g h t t o be a p p l i e d on a b u i l d i n g l e v e l r a t h e r t h a n o n a n a t i o n a l l e v e l as a b a s i s f o r l a r g e - s c a l e energy c o n s e r v a t i o n plans. No economical e v a l u a t i o n s have been made, because t h a t would have irrecoverable felt' i n experiment are not many discrepancies Countries, obsolescence o f t h e Report. Moreover, even if a the Report does not need for provided is the every

Report

among t h e C o u n t r i e s and would have a c c e l e r a t e d t h e recommendations standards for that provide

i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h i s k i n d o f experiments.

The p r i n c i p a l i d e a was

has i t s own v a l i d i t y once i t has been c o r r e c t l y planned, even i f t h e ambitious. An e f f o r t has been made t o d e s c r i b e a number o f d i f f e r e n t out the related

a v a i l a b l e economic budget i s n o t l a r g e and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g o a l s methods and t e c h n i q u e s f o r every k i n d o f measurement p o i n t i n g advantages and disadvantages. Thebuilding techniques, meteorology, of the c o l l e c t e d from is such a caplex and research system that the as applied measurement have to be physics,

experimental many measurement

designs,

methods. f o r fields, such aerodynamics,

evaluation statistics,

different

building

technology,

mathematical description

m o d e l l i n g , s o c i a l s c i e n c e s etc. affect the experimental r e s u l t s .

P a r t i c u l a r emphasis was s e t on t h e

b e h a v i o u r of occupants as r e g a r d t o energy management and on how i t can

The Report has been d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r S e c t i o n s :


I.

BASIC PRINCIPLES Section d e s c r i b e s t h e fundamental problems i n p l a n n i n g e x p e r i m e n t s and

h his

p r o v i d e s g e n e r a l t h e o r y about t h e energy r e l a t e d f e a t u r e s o f t h e b u i l d i n g , t h e environment, t h e h e a t i n g system, and t h e occupants.

11.

DESIGN OF THE EXPERIMENT provides a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f d i f f e r e n t comparison procedures

This Section

adopted t o W a l u a t e t h e energy r e t r o f i t e f f e c t . S i g n i f i c a n t examples a r e g i v e n t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e procedures.

Foreword- 3

111. MEASUREMENTS O N BUILDING AND ENVIRONMENT T h i s S e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s t h e measurement t e c h n i q u e s and t h e guide1 i n e s f o r sensor i n s t a l l a t i o n and d a t a building acquistion f o r everj measurement field related t o the ( i n f i l t r a t . i o n , h e a t f l o w across t h e envelope, h e a t i n g system) and t h e

o u t d o o r a n d i n d o o r environments.

IV.
This

MEASUREMENT AN0 OATA COLLECTION O N OCCUPANCY AND HOUSEHOLD ENERGY S e c t i o n i s d e v o t e d t o t h e study o f t h e occupancy related terms i n t h e

energy

budget. I n t h i s case, s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d , a l o n g w i t h

measurement techniques. A l l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e Subtask B C o u n t r i e s have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e w r i t i n g of t h i s Report: Belgium Italy Netherlands Sweden USA P. Caluwaerts G.V. Fracastoro M . Dubbeld M.D. Lyberg P. Favre D.T. Harrje (CSTC (TNO

WSTB)

(Politecnico d l Torino)

- Delft)

Switzerland

(SIB) (EPF - Lausanne) (Princeton University)

C o n t r i b u t i o n s on s p e c i f i c t o p i c s have a l s o been r e c e i v e d from: M . Cali J.B. B.E. R.A. P.J. H.A. Cooper Erikson Grot Ham ( P o l i t e c n i c o d i Torino, I t a l y ) (EUL (SIB (SP (NBS (TNO (SIB (SIB

USA) Sweden) Sweden) USA) Netherlands) Sweden) Sweden)

M . Fehrm

of berg

D. Wyon

Foreword- 4

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The e d i t o r s o f t h e Report w i s h t o thank Y. Sweden) for t y p i n g t h e manuscript. F. G o b e t t i and M . the linguistic o f t h e drawings, D. undertaking Lundmark and S. Eldblom ( S I B Glaas ( S I B - Sweden) f o r p r e p a r i n g most kindly Wahlberg (SIB Sweden)

Masoero ( P o l i t e c n i c o d i T o r i n o ) f o r

r e v i s i o n o f t h e t e x t and A.

f o r a s s i s t a n c e and a d v i c e i n t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f t h e manuscript. The e d i t o r s a l s o wish t o express t h e i r g r a t i t u d e t o A. Boysen, O p e r a t i n g Agent o f Annex 111, f o r h i s c o n t i n u o u s support and i n t e r e s t i n t h e work. One o f us (GVF) wishes t o thank t h e s t a f f o f t h e CNR p r e c i o u s assistance, and t h e O i r e c t o r o f SIB, Sweden, N . Torino G.V. Cldrch 1. 1983M.D. Lyberg

RFE o f I t a l y f o r t h e

Antoni, f o r g i v i n g t h e

o p p o r t u n i t y of d o f n g p a r t o f t h e work d u r i n g a s t a y a t SIB.

Fracastoro

TABLE O F CONTENTS

PART I

BASIC PRINCIPLES Ch. I a Ch. I b Ch. I c Ch. I d Ch. I e App I The r e t r o f i t and t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t I n t e r a c t i o n between b u i l d i n g and environment Physical i n d o o r environment f a c t o r s ' a f f e c t i n g man I n f l u e n c e of t h e h e a t i n g system on energy c o n s ~ m p t i o n The occupants e f f e c t on t h e b u i l d i n g energy consumption D e f i n i t i o n s of measurement and energy' terms

PART I 1

THE DESIGN O F THE EXPERIMENT Ch. I I a Ch. I I b Ch. I I c Ch. I I d Ch. I I e App I 1 General i n t r o d u c t i o n , experimental design and models On- o f f experiments Before- a f t e r experiments Test- reference experiments Simulated occupancy experiments and Hovers and s t a y e r s The p r o b a b i l i t y o f a r e t r o f i t e f f e c t

PART 111 MEASUREMENT O N BUILDINGS AND ENVIRONMENT Ch. I I I a Ch. I I I b Ch. I I I c Ch. I I I e Ch. I I I f Ch. I I I g App I 1 1 PART I V General i n t r o d u c t i o n and methods of measurement Outdoor c l i m a t e measurements Indoor c l i m a t e measurements Air infiltration Energy conversion and flow i n h e a t i n g system Data a c q u i s t i o n systems and I n s t a l l a t i o n r u l e s E r r o r s . R e p r e s e n t a t i v i t y and Sampling of measurement p o i n t s

Ch. I I I d Thermal performance of b u i l d i n g s

MEASUREMENTS AND DATA COLLECTION O N OCCUPANCY AND HOUSEHOLD ENERGY Ch. IVa Ch. IYb Ch. IYc Ch. IYd General i n t r o d u c t i o n and data c o l l e c t i o n methods Household energy and domestic t a p water Occupancy and human behaviour Implementation of simulated occupancy Data on energy consumption by t a p water and appliances

App I Y Biblography and References f o r P a r t I Y ANALYTICAL INDEX

PART I

BASIC PRINCIPLES

Contents

Ch.

I a The r e t r o f i t and t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t

Ch. I b I n t e r a c t i o n , b e t w e e n b u i l d i n g and environment


Ch.

I c P h y s i c a l i n d o o r environment f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g man I d I n f l u e n c e o f , t h e h e a t i n g system on t h e energy consumption


I e The occupants e f f e c t on t h e b u i l d i n g energy consumption

Ch. Ch.

App I

D e f i n i t i o n s o f measurement and energy terms

CHAPTER I a

The r e t r o f i t and t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t

Contents

general i n t r o d u c t i o n energy balance o f a b u i l d i n g the r e t r o f i t experimental e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t p. I a p l a n n i n g o f t h e experiment example bibliography

p. l a - 7 p. I a -12
P. I a -16

I a-1

I a The r e t r o f i t and t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t

general i n t r o d u c t i o n

------The aim of t h i s r e p o r t i s t o p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r t h e der; i g n and setup residential buildings.


A number of methods can be a p p l i e d t o achieve t h i s r e s u l t , r a n g i n g from t h e

of

experiments f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t s o f energy c o n s e r v a t i o n measures i n

mere must

measurement sophisticated the

of

indoor-outdoor temperatures and energy consumption t o t h e monitoring techniques. Each method will produce an o f which depends on t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f the experiment

information,

quality

and even more so on t h e q u a l i t y o f i t s design. This r e p o r t w i l l d e s c r i b e how t o perform those f i e l d measurements aiming a t the or determination describing the of the energy comfort flows through t h e b u i l d i n g envelope. energy This flows r e q u i r e s the m o n i t o r i n g of p h y s i c a l q u a n t i t i e s g i v i n g r i s e t o t h e thermal o f t h e b u i l d i n g occupants. r e f e r t o these experiments as energy m o n i t o r i n g . F i e l d measurements, a i m i n g a t a q u i c k check-up o f t h e of the building, are also considered i n t h i s r e p o r t . r e f e r r e d t o as energy a u d i t i n g . T h i s r e p o r t , a l t h o u g h i t s purpose i s v e r y s p e c i f i c , w i l l t h e r e f o r e useful and m o n i t o r i n g . The Report c o n s i s t s of four planning the data of the experiment, Parts. basic The ' f i r s t of The one deals with Part general describes techniques, of provide thermal performance

W e w i l l often

These experiments a r e

i n f o r m a t i o n about measurements on b u i l d i n g s i n general, such as a u d i t i n g

principles

b u i l d i n g physics, thermal second

comfort and energy r e l a t e d behaviour o f occupants. energy savings i s based. acquisition, and

d e s i g n of t h e experiment, t h a t i s the comparison on which the e v a l u a t i o n o f The t h i r d P a r t i s devoted t o installation measurement r u l e s i n t h e d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s o f bui,lding monitoring

p h y s i c s anb h e a t i n g systems.

F i n a l l y , the f o u r t Part deals w i t h

occupants and t h e i r energy r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s .

energy b a l a n c e o f a b u i l d i n g

B u i l d i n g s a r e complex ,homogenous as open components. therlnodynamic

systems,

consisting The general

of

great

number for the

of

nonenergy

From t h e thermodynamic v i e w p o i n t they can be c o n s i d e r e d systems. expression

c o n s e r v a t i o n e q u a t i o n f o r t h i s k i n d o f system i s :

ZQ+ ZW+ ZH =
where

AU

(I a-1)

Q i s heat exchanged a t t h e system boundary


W i s work exchanged a t t h e system boundary

( > O when e n t e r i n g t h e system)


( > U when e n t e r i n g t h e system)

H i s enthalpy,

i.e.,

energy a s s o c i a t e d w i t h mass f l o w s a c r o s s t h e boundary ( k i n e t i c energy can be n e g l e c t e d )

(>O when t h e mass e n t e r s t h e system)


U i s t h e i n t e r n a l energy o f t h e system
When eq.

I a - 1 i s a p p l i e d t o a b u i l d i n g , t h e f o l l o w i n g s t e p s s h o u l d be

considered:
1) d e f i n i t i o n of t h e system boundary

T h i s s t e p i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t : what i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e b u i l d i n g and what b e l o n g s t o t h e environment? I s t h e h e a t g e n e r a t o r a p a r t o f t h e system?


A nonambiguous d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e system boundary i s necessary.

2 ) d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e energy flows - c r o s s i n g t h e boundary


Energy f l o w s between t h e b u i l d i n g and i t s environment a r e r a d i a t i v e , Solar r a d i a t i o n , atmospheric heat transfers' take enclosure. place a t Examples c o n v e c t i v e , and c o n d u c t i v e heat t r a n s f e r s . o f radiative heat transfers. Convective

r a d i a t i o n , a n d i n f r a r e d e m i s s i o n from t h e b u i l d i n g envelope a r e examples t h e e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l s u r f a c e s o f t h e b u i l d i n g o f conductive heat t h e ground, across t h e b u i l d i n g envelope.

t r a n s f e r a r e h e a t t r a n s f e r s t o t h e basement, and t o

3) d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e work e n t e r i n g ( o r produced b y ) t h e system


Work e n t e r s t h e b u i l d i n g as e l e c t r i c energy. Examples a r e : electricity f o r a p p l i a n c e s , i l l u m i n a t i o n , c o o k i n g , and sometimes f o r space h e a t i n g .

4) d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e mass flows a c r o s s t h e boundary Mass f l o w s across t h e b u i l d i n g envelope a r e : a i r f l o w s i n

ventilation

systems and a i r f l o w caused b y i n f i l t r a t i o n , c o l d t a p and sewage water,

gas f o r c o o k i n g e t c .

If t h e h e a t

g e n e r a t o r i s p a r t o f t h e system, f u e l

and f l u e gases s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d ( t h e f u e l e n t h a l p y ' s u p p l y and r e t u r n w a t e r t o t h e t e r m i n a l s flows. should be

is'

r o u g h l y equal

t o i t 5 h e a t i n g v a l u e ) ; i f t h e h e a t g e n e r a t o r i s n o t p a r t o f t h e system, c o n s i d e r e d as mass

the r e t r o f i t

A r e t r o f i t i s d e f i n e d as : " a retrofit improvement is an alteration of an existing system aiming at the

o f , i t s performance w i t h r e g a r d t o i t s f u n c t i o n , b u t n o t i n t r o d u c i n g

new uses of t h e system" Therefore, accomplished building retrofits may refer to any of the functions

by the b u i l d i n g i t s e l f .

However, i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h i s R e p o r t , a

r e t r o f i t w i l l r e f e r t o a c t i o n s ' a i m i n g a t t h e r e d u c t i o n o f energy consumption, o r a t t h e improvement of t h e r m a l c o m f o r t i n r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s , o r both. S i d e e f f e c t s of r e t r o f i t s must a l s o b6 t a k e n i n t o account and s t u d i e d a l o n g ' with in the any determination case preserved of energy saving. This, i n i t s t u r n , s h o u l d n o t , i n be An i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e , p r i n c i p l e , be achieved a t t h e expense o f human t h e r m a l comfort, w h i c h s h o u l d o r improved upon. what degree i n energy r e d u c t i o n can t h e r e t r o f i t programme achieve. I n general, r e t r o f i t s a u t o m a t i c a l l y l e a d t o for Such example, retrofits extra will wall also insulation lead a to the improvement of comfort:

and e x t r a window g l a z i n g g i v e r i s e t o an

i n c r e a s e of i n s i d e s u r f a c e temperatures i f t h e a i r t e m p e r a t u r e i s k e p t c o n s t a n t .

b e t t e r i n s u l a t i o n from e x t e r n a l noise. o f indopr draughts close to the

'

Window t i g h t e n i n g w i l l c a u s e

reduction

windows, t h u s i m p r o v i n g c o m f o r t . On t h e o t h e r hand, s u p e r i n s u l a t e d houses w i l l o f t e n be u n c o m f o r t a b l e d u r i n g summertime envelope. prevented. and mid-seasons, due be of to the high amount o f s o l a r r a d i a t i o n and by of transmission odours and through pollutants the is i n t e r n a l h e a t g a i n s which cannot Similarly, at which tightness the certain limit dissipated removal

b u i l d i n g s s h o u l d n o t be improved beyond a

natural

T y p i c a l r e t r o f i t t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n house t i g h t e n i n g have r e s u l t e d i n

10'3-35'3 r e d u c t i o n i n a i r leakage. by natural ventilation which as some c o u n t r i e s i t may even be

Houses t i g h t e n e d may have an a i r change i s l e s s than 0.5 small as 0.1 ACH. Yitii this degree as

rate of an

a i r changes per hour (ACH), i n


Ift h e a i r l e a k i n e s s o f houses

t i g h t n e s s mechanical v e n t i l a t i o n i s a necessity. a d d i t i o n a l energy c o n s e r v a t i o n measure. Other negative side-effects instance, insulation the to possible due to i n t e r i o r walls, similar effects.

can be made very small, then a i r - t o - a i r heat exchangers can be j u s t i f i e d

t h a t have t o be taken cold bridges

into

account

are, extra

for wall

appearance o f m o i s t u r e s t a i n s a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n w i t h emphasized when applying Bad craftmanship w i l l i n some cases l e a d t o

t h e i n s i d e surface.

It must be stressed t h a t i n c e n t r a l h e a t i n g systems c o n t r o l l e d through

the

i s n o t supported by a s u i t a b l e readjustment o f t h e c o n t r o l system. Educational campaigns addressed t o prevent a retrofit from giving only exceeding t h e comfort l e v e l . Little retrofits, information in particular has occupants rise must also be employed to

toehigher

i n d o o r temperatures,

This can reduce t h e energy saving. so ' f a r - b e e n gathered about side effects of and

about those a l t e r i n g t h e human behaviour.

I t i s the

t a s k of t h e experimenter t o i n v e s t i g a t e s i d e e f f e c t s produced by t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on t h e energy savings. R e t r o f i t s can be c l a s s i f i e d as f o l l o w s :

retrofits

r e t r o f i t s improving t h e t h e n o p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e b u i l d i n g envelope retrofits improving t h e performance of t h e heating, l i g h t i n g , t a p water, o r o t h e r systems i n t h e b u i l d i n g .

.-

Some example of r e t r o f i t s belonging t o t h e f i r s t category are:

window improvement

. replacing the existing

. adding of e x t r a g l a z i n g g l a z i n g o r window w i t h a more energy e f f i c i e n t . adding o f an e x t r a window (storm window) . s e a l i n g o r weather s t r i p p i n g o f t h e j o i n t s . sealing o r i n s u l a t i o n o i the r o l l e r blinds container

one

extra wall insulation

. i n s u l a t i o n a p p l i e d t o t h e i n s i d e surface ( p r e f a b r i c a t e d 'panels p r o v i d e d w i t h gypsum board a r e c a n m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e ) . i n s u l a t i o n i n t h e a i r space of c a v i t y w a l l s (foam o r g r a n u l o u s substances


. insulation
a r e poured o r blown i n t o i t )
'.)

applied t o outside surfaces'(finished with materials resistant

t o thermo-mechanical s t r e s s e s . and w a t e r t i g h t )

roof insulation

. pouring,

. p l a c i n g t h e i n s u l a t i o n l a y e r below t h e c e i l i n g . placing a watertight,.and thenomechanically r e s i s t a n t ,


d i r e c t l y over t h e r o o f

b l o w i n g o r l a y i n g i n s u l a t i o n on t h e l o f t f l o o r insulation layer

ground f l o o r i n s u l a t i o n

. applying t h e insulation

t o t h e c e l l a r o r crawl space below t h e f l o o r

Some r e t r o f i t s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e second category are:

.- i m p r o v i n g t h e b u r n e r - b o i l e r e f f i c i e n c y .

- e x t r a i n s u l a t i o n o f domestic h o t water s t o r a g e tank - p l a c i n g i n s u l a t i n g - r e f l e c t i n g panels behind, t h e heat e m i t t e r s - r e p l a c i n g tungsten f i l a m e n t lamps w i t h f l u o r e s c e n t lamps


zoning o f heated space exhausted a i r

- n i g h t temperature set-back - heat recovery from mechanically h e a t recovery from waste water

p l a c i n g t h e r m o i t a t i c valves on heat e m i t t e r s b a l a n c i n g o f h e a t i n g and v e n t i l a t i o n systems i n s t a l l a t i o n o f damper r e g u i a t o r s i n s t a l l a t i o n of motorshunt valves

experimental e v a l u a t i o n of t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t

----

A r e t r o f i t , as i t vHs s t a t e d before, can produce b o t h energy


the improvement o f thermal comfort. e v a l u a t e these two'iffects.

savings

and

The aim of t h e experiment i s t h e r e f o r e t o

Regarding t h e improvement o f comfort, t h e e f f e c t of

r e t r o f i t cannot-be d e f i n e d i n a p r e c i s e way, as t h e r e a r e many d i f f e r e n t ways I c and ' 1 1 1 ~ ) . def.ined

o f q u a l i f y i n g t h e i n d o o r c l i m a t e (see c h .

The energy s a v i n g , which i s t h e main reason f o r a r e t r o f i t , can be as the variation of energy, consumption, c e r t a i n p e r i o d ( u s u a l l y one h e a t i n g season). T h e r e f o r e we d e f i n e t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t as: t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t i s t h e amount o f energy saved by a are kept constant retrofit

due t o t h e r e t r o f i t i t s e l f , o v e r a

"

if

all

factors

e x c e p t f o r t h e r e t r o f i t i t s e l f , and changes i n t h e

b e h a v i o u r o f t h e occupants induced b y t h e r e t r o f i t . Sometimes i t w i l l be c o n v e n i e n t t o compare t h e r e t r o f i t the of: average


.

effect

to,

e.g., ratio

of

t h e energy consumptions i n t h e r e t r o f i t t e d and non r e t r o f i t t e d effect t o t h e average o f t h e energy consumptions i n t h e

buildings. the

The r e l a t i v e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t w i l l t h e r e f o r e be d e f i n e d as t h e retrofit

r e t r o f i t t e d and t h e non r e t r o f i t t e d b u i l d i n g s . The, r e t r o f i t e f f e c t s h o u l d n o t be confused w i t h t h e observed energy saving. This one w i l l be i n f l u e n c e d by d i f f e r e n c e s i n e x t e r n a l c l i m a t e , i n d o o r c l i m a t e , the occupants not is has due sti1.l seldom to the quite been Knowledge. o f the impact of the occupantsb e h a v i o u r on energy and changes i n t h e occupancy and b e h a v i o u r o f retrofit. consumption i n r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s ( s e e ch. actions.

I e and P a r t I Y )

scarce, and t h e r e i s even l e s s i n f o r m a t i o n about how occupants r e a c t t o r e t r o f i t Moreover, t h e e f f e c t o f t h e q u a l i t y o f c r a f t m a n s h i p investigated. These f a c t o r s can o n l y behaviour. good be partially taken into account and correctly marked checked

i n t r o d u c e d i n even t h e most s o p h i s t i c a t e d t h e o r e t i c a l models of b u i l d i n g t h e r m a l Yet, as e x p e r i e n c e shows, t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e . f o r why the evaluation of retrofit effects should be . d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e expected and t h e measured r e s u l t s . reasons e x p e r i m e n t a l l y on b u i l d i n g s where p e o p l e a c t u a l l y l i v e . The experiment consumption .building in itself will consist in t h e . comparison depends not of the .energy only be on
i.e.

Therefore, t h e r e are

retrofitted features,

and non r e t r o f i t t e d b u i l d i n g s . . T h i s comparison i s consumption Some facts the the inte but also o n uncontrollable - factors, t h a t , should

made d i f f i c u l t by t h e f a c t t h a t energy thermal occupants b e h a v i o u r and t h e weather.

taken

account b y t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r a r e :

i t w i l l always

b5 h a r d t o s e p a r a t e t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t from t h e e f f e c t due t o
consequently a

the v a r i a t i o n o f t h e other factors

t h e s e t y p e s o f e x p e r i m e n t s a r e expensive and t i m e consuming: the building, the heating system, and t h e occupants

s u p e r f i c i a l o r h a s t y p l a n n i n g c o u l d , r e s u l t i n a g r e a t waste o f t i m e and money r e p r e s e n t a complex and heterogeneous system which w i l l r e a c t w i t h d i f f e r e n t promptness and i n t e n s i t y t o changes such as r e t r o f i t s p e r f o r m i n g more than one r e t r o f i t a t a t i m e w i l l the evaluation o f t h e i r individual effect. Some g e n e r a l c r i t e r i a f o r p e r f o r m i n g a good experiment should a l s o be taken i n t o account by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . "The r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a good should as' f a r as They a r e c o n t a i n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n : experiment are that the introduce uncertainties i n
-

...
wide

comparisons range of (Cox

p o s s i b l e be f r e e from s y s t e m a t i c e r r o r , t h a t t h e y should be

made s u f f i c i e n t l y p r e c i s e l y , t h a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n s should have a f i n a l l y that the uncertainty i n 19%). F u r t h e r d e t a i l s w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n ch. e n g i n e e r i n g e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n (e.g. Schenk 1961) I 1 a. the conclusions should

v a l i d i t y , t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l arrangement s h o u l d be as s i m p l e as p o s s i b l e , and b e , assessable"

See a l s o general t e x t s

on

p l a n n i n g o f t h e experiment

I n t h i s s e c t i o n an o u t l i n e o f t h e whole p l a n n i n g o f t h e experiment w i l l presented.


I

be

The d i s c u s s i o n below w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d t o problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g p r o j e c t management i n a with some experience of performing broad field t h e reader o f t h i s Report i s

t h e s c i e n t i f i c methodology. sense expected to be a

w i l l o n l y be touched upon i n a' s h o r t way,.as researcher

experiments.

I t would see111 l o g i c a l t o s t a r t t h e

experiment

by

considering

first

the of

workplan
I
1

f o r t h e s c i e n t i f i c p a r t o f t h e p r o j e c t , and from t h i s draw c o n c l u s i o n s realization I n r e a l i t y , the s i t u a t i o n i s very o f t e n the opposite;


i t i s not

about t h e reso"rces i n t i m e , money and p e o p l e necessary f o r t h e the project.

convenient t o make any d e t a i l e d plans f o r t h e experiment resources f o r t h e p r o j e c t a r e known. that the t o be performed may be received by s h o r t n o t i c e and i t how t h e experiment should be allocated. schedule Due. t o performed, the related plans to is

before

the

available essential
will

However, t h e d e c i s i o n t h a t t h e p r o j e c t has therefore resources flexible.

p r o j e c t manager has i n advance a h i e r a r c h y o f a l t e r n a t i v e plans about what be be time i n e v i t a b l e m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n t h e a v a i l a b l e f i n a n c i a l budget should The

and changes i n t h e t i m e schedule,

should a l s o be f l e x i b l e , b u t some f i x e d deadlines f o r i m p o r t a n t st=

o f t h e p r o j e c t should be e s t a b l i s h e d . The

team

performing t h e experiment and t h e At different stages

equipment equipnent,, a

are

the

two

major

resources for social report,

needed. the

o f t h e p r o j e c t , t h e team may i n c l u d e computer specialists for the and final monitoring of crew

t e c h n i c i a n s f o r t h e desigh of t h e measurement writing data for the collection evaluation

programs, of the

i n s t a l l a t i o n , s u r v e i l l a n c e and maintenance o f t h e equipment, scientists behaviour the s c i e n t i s t s f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e s u l t s and f o r and f i n a l l y p r o j e c t managers. Day, 1983. The experiment can be considered as c o n s i s t i n g o f eight

psychologists of the

t h e occupants,

writing

For f u r t h e r d e t a i l s about t h i s t o p i c see

connected

steps,

t h e most r e l e v a n t o f which w i l l be f u r t h e r discussed i n ch.

I l a , l I I a and I I l g :

- task 2 - aim o f t h e 3 - evaluation


I
5 6

investigation o f t h e problem and c h o i c e o f t h e model

4 - . d e s c r i p t i o ~ o f t h e system

- design of t h e experiment - p l a n n i n g o f measurements 7 - measurement campaign 8 - a n a l y s i s o f data


1 . Task

The f i r s t s t e p i n t h e procedure experimenter u t i l i t y etc.) be achieved by a

will

often

be

customer (an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y , a superior, a p u b l i c a c e r t a i n r e t r o f i t ? " T h i s request w i l l e s t a b l i s h t h e main investigation in detail. The financial

request made -

to

the

t o s o l v e a general problem as "what i s t h e energy saving which can through

l i m i t a t i o n s , and o b j e c t i v e s , o f t h e

budget and t h e a v a i l a b l e t i m e w i l l g e n e r a l l y b e proposed by t h e customer a t t h i s

stage.

The t a s k assigned t o t h e researcher w i l l c o n s i s t o f q u e s t i o n s


'

requiring t o the

target-directed,

practical

and

generalizable

answers,

according

customer-s purpose.

2. Aim o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n
The clearly

,
d e f i n e d a t t h e p r e v i o u s stage, has not now been to be

problem, q u a l i t a t i v e l y

defined.

Although t h e problem has been presented i n general terms, i t

i s now necessary t o choose, a s p e c i f i c sample, previously. errors are o b j e c t ( s ) o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n should be chosen introduced in the experiment. The two extreme cases are:

if t h i s
so that

has no

chosen

P r a c t i c a l circumstances w i l l l i m i t t h i s choice.

Nevertheless, t h e large systematic

D i f f e r e n t approaches a r e p o s s i b l e .

a singl'e a larger variables

apartment, house, o r b u i l d i n g can be chosen, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a sample. can be used t o minimize t h e influence of uncontrollable

c e r t a i n p o p u l a t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s and occupants

The s m a l l e r t h e sample t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d i s , t h e more complex t h e experimental apparatus. w i l l have t o be.

3. E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e problem
At t h i s stage t h e experimenter must check i f he can s o l v e t h e problem u s i n g existing the knowledge. savings of

If

the a

reply simple,

is

affirmative, static

t h e r e i s no need f o r an rough estimate of

experimental e v a l u a t i o n . energy

Otherwise, he w i l l have t o make a

. using
the

model, n e g l e c t i n g t h e e f f e c t o f

occupants, making use o f t y p i c a l m e t e o r o l o g i c a l d a t a and t a k i n g i n t o account t h e characteristics control system. Once a rough e s t i m a t e o f t h e energy whether the uncertainties savings has been made, i t should always be v e r i f i e d

a r e s t i l l so l a r g e as t o r e q u i r e an experimental e v a l u a t i o n .

4. D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e system
The n e x t s t e p i s t o c o n s t r u c t a d e s c r i p t i v e investigated. Their climate model of the system are to be

F i r s t o f a l l , t h e system boundaries must be defined.

Theenergy desribed. on

f l o w s across t h e boundary and those coming from i n t e r n a l sources importance

will

depend

on

weather f a c t o r s of building

(1). on

the required indoor

(I), on

t h e thermal performance

components

(I), and

energy

r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s of t h e occupants

(g).

Therefore, t h e r e s e a r c h e r must
I and

now d e c i d e what i n t e r a c t i o n s have t o be c o n s i d e r e d between 0, 0, W, b u i l d i n g components a r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e energy dynamics. o f t h i s t o p i c see ch. Ila.

what

For f u r t h e r discussion

5; Design o f t h e experiment and c h o i c e of t h e model


The d e s i g n o f t h e experiment and t h e c h o i c e o f t h e model a r e t h e v e r y h e a r t of the planning reduce of the experiment. The design non of theexperiment i s the buildings. by It procedure used t o should

compare

t h e r e t r o f i t t e d and

retrofitted limited

t h e i n f l u e n c e o f some u n c o n t r o l l a b l e f a c t o r s , such as 0 o r W, on The d e s i g n o f t h e experiment i s practical

t h e energy e v a l u a t i o n s .

reasons, such as t i m e and money. Along w i t h t h e d e s i g n of t h e experiment a model i s c o n s t r u c t e d . r e l a t i o n s appearing i n t h e model a r e w e l l known, and r e l i a b l e W-related factors t o an experiment. records I n it, the

energy f l o w s of t h e system a r e f o r m a l l y d e s c r i b e d by a s e t o f equations. of

I f the
0-or

a l r e a d y e x i s t , a t h e o r e t i c a l C a l c u l a t i o n would b e p r e f e r a b l e

I f , on t h e o t h e r hand, o n l y one b u i l d i n g component i s i n v o l v e d i n t h e model


and the influential factors can be reproduced under c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s , a l a b o r a t o r y experiment can b e performed. Otherwise a f i e l d experiment w i l l be p r e f e r a b l e . required accuracy and the stage, as w e l l as t h e c o u r s e d i s c u s s i o n s , see ch. and duration of the The t i m e r e s o l u t i o n , experiment. For the

r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e measurements a r e decided a t t h i s further

I l a and I I I a .

6. P l a n n i n g o f t h e measurements
A t t h i s stage t h e t e c h n i c a l q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e measurements be solved. of The measurable such quantities sciences as pertain etc.), to and different (meteorology, methods etc., engineering, measurement, social therefore have to

disciplines different

d i r e c t measurements, o b s e r v a t i o n s , surveys, Furthermore, t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f

have t o be employed (see Chapter I I I a ) .

t h e q u a l i t y of c r a f t m a n s h i p d u r i n g t h e implementation of t h e r e t r o f i t , should b e planned a t t h i s stage.

The whole measurement system from t r a n s d u c e r s t o d a t a planned now be (see ch. IIlg). r u l e s and t e c h n i q u e s (see ch. Illg). to

storage

has

to

be

The sensors w i l l be chosen a l o n g w i t h i n s t a l l a t i o n The accuracy o f t h e measurement c h a i n can If match the model requirements, other

'
1

e s t a b l i s h e d and compared w i t h t h e expected r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e model. out to be insufficient

. i t turns

measurement t e c h n i q u e s should be chosen', o r t h e model should be m o d i f i e d . A t t h i s p o i n t , programs f o r o n - l i n e e l a b o r a t i o n and should be prepared, data storage planned and the measured q u a n t i t y chosen.
7. Measurement campaign

surveillance

of

data

sampling t i m e f o r e v e r y

The f i r s t a c t i o n i n t h e measurement campaign w i l l be t h e i n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e monitoring occupants crew. will Then, have to t h e m o n i t o r i n g equipment should be i n s t a l l e d i n s i t u , disturbance be instructed to the about occupants what
. .

without causing

unnecessary

activities. do in case

The they

to

u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y damage t h e apparatus o r d e t e c t a m a l f u n c t i o n . The whole system s h o u l d be equipment and collect there

tested b e f o r e
on how

s t a r t i n g t h e measurement campaign. to in treat frequently occuring

The m o n i t o r i n g crew s h o u l d be g i v e n t i m e t o l e a r n how t o o p e r a t e t h e measurement


, experience

malfunctions,

should

b e a

"running-

and l e a r n i n g p e r i o d " f o r t h e

m o n i t o r i n g crew. I f a l l t h e previous measurement in this campaign of steps have been carefully considered, during the

o n l y r o u t i n e ' o p e r a t i o n s should be r e q u i r e d , a i m i n g a t t h e These s h o u l d be expected because of the complexity o f the experimental

prompt d e t e c t i o n of any p o s s i b l e system m a l f u n c t i o n s . kind experiment

apparatus and due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e occupants i n t e r f e r e w i t h i t .

of

Once t h e measurement campaign has s t a r t e d no a l t e r a t i o n s "a p o s t e r i o r i " t h e p r e v i o u s p o i n t s 5.


8. A n a l y s i s o f d a t a

and 6 s h o u l d be made.

A f t e r the requires the

measurement analysis

campaign

has

been

terminated,

every

experiment

and t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f data, w i t h o u t which t h e whold

p r o c e d u r e i s meaningless.

F i r s t o f a l l , bad data, stemming from p r e v i o u s l y should be r e j e c t e d from t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . its turn., is validated by checking the

undetected

malfunctions, The model in


'

The reasonable d a t a should be used consistence experience or of t h e values o f t h e .


If a l l

t o e s t i m a t e t h e numerical v a l u e o f t h e parameters o f t h e model. parameters w i t h those p r o v i d e d by p r e v i o u s checks and t h e r e f o r e t o a p p l y i t t o o t h e r

knowledge.

a r e p o s i t i v e , i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o use t h e model as a p r e d i c t i v e model

similar

- buildings.

The experimentar should always w r i t e a r e p o r t d e s c r i b i n g how he collected. The tables

faced

and

solved t h e q u e s t i o n s posed a t each s t a g e o f t h e experiment and how t h e d a t a were

results should
statistical

be presented by u s i n g graphs and equations, as figures.

well effect

as of

or

If

the

task

was t o e s t a b l i s h t h e r e t r o f i t the

e f f e c t , t h e model should now be used t o c o r r e c t t h e r e s u l t from uncontrolled variables.

Example

The f o l l o w i n g example w i l l cover, s t e p by s t e p , t h e procedure d e s c r i b e d


'

in

the

previous

section:

i t has no o t h e r p a r t i c u l a r aim than the d e s c r i p t i o n of

t h e suggested procedure.

1.
2.

Task:

e v a l u a t e t h e energy saving by i n s t a l l i n g t h e r m o s t a t i c valves. The aim i s t o e v a l u a t e valves having a the energy savings

Aim of the investigation:

obtained

by

installing

thermostatic

20c s e t p o i n t on t h e multifamily

r a d i a t o r s of a w a t e r - f e d g a s - f i r e d heating'system. b u i l d i n g i n a suburban area.

The o b j e c t i s a

3.

Evaluation

of

the and

problem: the

From

previous

knowledge 00, are

on

similar

b u i l d i n g s , the average i n d o o r temperature i s e s t i m a t e d t o 2ZC. p r e v i o u s energy b i l l

here fore,
known,

if a
the

Q.

related

degree-days

r e t r o f i t e f f e c t R c o u l d be e s t i m a t e d b y :

= Qc ( 1

00x-2/00x

(la

2)

where

x i s t h e reference i n d o o r temperature f o r t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e degree-days

' ,

4. D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e system: The energy, flows i n t h e system which are


taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n are:

- the - the - the


-

heat d e l i v e r e d t o t h e b u l l d i n g from t h e h e a t i n g system. heat introduced i n t h e b u i l d i n g by s o l a r r a d i a t i o n impinging on t h e energy introduced by occupants through t h e i r presence, use o f appliances.

windows facing south. and opening o f windows. t h e transmission heat l o s s through t h e b u i l d i n g envelope. t h e heat l o s s due t o a i r i n f i l t r a t i o n heat stored i n t h e b u i l d i n g s t r u c t u r e

- the

5.
occupancy

Design of t h e experiment and choice o f t h e model: variations see ch. has to c).

Since t h e e f f e c t

of

be avoided, an experiment i s chosen i n which the The assumption

same b;ilding experiment,

i s examined b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e r e t r o f i t (before- a f t e r design o f

I1

i s made t h a t

occupancy The

is

independent of time. b u t t h a t i t may be i n f l u e n c e d by t h e r e t r o f i t . model i s , according t o s t e p 4.: a*Qc + b*qS where: a b c d e n


Qc

chosen

+ c - d+(fi

fo ) n

- ee'ATint

= 0

(la

- 3)

represents t h e average e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e b o i l e r over t h e p e r i o d

i s a constant of p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y t o southwards v e r t i c a l s o l a r r a d i a t i o n
i s t h e "energy e f f e c t o f occupants"

i s a constant o f p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y t o i n s i d e - o u t s i d e temperature
d i f f e r e n c e , t a k i n g i n t o account transmission and i n f i l t r a t i o n losses i s t h e heat c a p a c i t y o f the b u i l d i n g i s t h e l e n g t h o f t h e time i n t e r v a l between two measurements i s t h e energy corresponding t o t h e amount o f gas burned, V i s southwards v e r t i c a l s o l a r r a d i a t i o n i s indoor a i r temperature i s outdoor a i r temperature

Qs Ti

To

i s t h e average temperature of t h e b u i l d i n g s t r u c t u r e Tint ATint i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n Tint between two readings The minimal t i m e r e s o l u t i o n ( n ) o f t h e model i s one hour

6. Planning of t h e measurements: t h e q u a n t i t i e s t o be measured are


w i t h a t i m e step of one hour

Tint

Tj,To

w i t h a t i m e s t e p of t e n m i n u t e s w i t h a t i m e s t e p o f one m i n u t e

Qs,Vg

e i s measured once by l e t t i n g t h e temperature d r o p a f t e r t h e h e a t i n g system has been s w i t c h e d o f f a and b a r e known from p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e


'

c and d a r e parameters t o be determined by a f i t t o data Data a r e recorded w i t h a

O n - l i n e i n t e g r a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d f o r T i , To, Qs. Vg.

t i m e s t e p o f one hour. The experimental apparatus w i l l be composed o f

a gas f l o w meter f o r t h e measurement o f V

9 r e s i s t a n c e thermometers (RTD) measuring t h e average temperature o f t h e

b u i l d i n g s t r u c t u r e (RTD-s a r e p l a c e d i n i n t e r n a l w a l l s ) RTD-s f o r t h e measurement of i n d o o r a i r t e m p e r a t u r e ( i n t h e l i v i n g room o f every d w e l l i n g ) s o l a r i m e t e r s (pyranometers) p l a c e d on t h e w a l l f a c i n g s o u t h

7.

Measurement campaign:

A f t e r the "running

i n and l e a r n i n g "

period The Before period

o f t h e m o n i t o r i n g crew, t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l ' a p p a r a t u s i s i n s t a l l e d and t e s t e d . f i r s t measurement p e r i o d s t a r t s and goes on f o r a whole h e a t i n g season. The e x p e r i m e n t a l apparatus i s tested again. The second measurement

t h e n e x t h e a t i n g season b e g i n s t h e t h e r m o s t a t i c v a l v e s a r e p l a c e d i n every room. s t a r t s and c o n t i n u e s f o r t h e whole h e a t i n g season.

8.
of the

Analysis o f data: model are

D u r i n g and a f t e r t h e f i r s t campaign by

the

parameters

assessed

a f i t t o e x p e r i m e n t a l data, t h e model f o r t h e

non-retrofitted building i s therefore: a * Q c l + beas, + c I

d*(iil-iol)*n

e*ATint,l

( I a- 4 )

t h e terms w i t h o u t s u b s c r i p t a r e assumed t o be c o n s t a n t d u r i n g t h e measurements A f t e r t h e second measurement campaign we w i l l f i n d : a*Qc2 + b'QS2

C Z

d*(ii2-io2)*b

eeATint,2

'0
f r o m t h a t o f t h e non- r e t r o f i t t e d

If t h e v a l u e o f t h e parameter d i s d i f f e r e n t

b u i l d i n g , t h i s i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e model i s n o t a good one. From t h e eq.

I a- 4 we g e t :
~~1 = ( - b t q s l

+ d*(iil-iol)*n+ s i m i l a r l y , from eq. I a- 5 we get

ee~Tint,,)

ucZ =

(-bqs2

c 2 t d*(ii2-io2)*"

e * ~ T i , ~ , ~/ ) a

Therefore, define

q cI 2.= (-b*qsl

c 2 t d*(ii2-iOl

) * n t e*ATi,t,l)

/ a

Finally, the r e t r o f i t effect

i s given by:

K = Qcl
I a-2,

Qc2 = ( c 2

cl

(Til-Ti2)*0

/ a

I t s h o u l d b e o b s e r v e d f h a t t h i s r e s u l t c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e r o u g h e s t i m a t e i n eq. p r o v i d e d t h e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e i n f l u e n c e from t h e o c c u p a n t s i s n e g l e c t e d .

CHAPTER I b I n t e r a c t i o n between b u i l d i n g and e x t e r n a l environment

Contents

general i n t r o d u c t i o n factors

p . I b - 1 p . I b - 2

- meteorological
-

i n f l u e n c e of meteorological f a c t o r s on t h e b u i l d i n g energy budget p . I b - 5 p. I b -11 p. I b -13 p. I b -14 p. I b -17

thermal performance of b u i l d i n g s i) ii) iv) infiltration heat t r a n s f e r through w a l l s

i i i ) r a d i a t i v e heat t r a n s f e r

d e t e r m i n a t i o n of thermal b u i l d i n g parameters p. I b -19 p. I b -21

references

Keywords

absorptivity a i r flow c o e f f i c i e n t a i r humidity a i r temperature atmospheric r a d i a t i o n b u i l d i n g energy budget emissivity infiltration meteorological factor solar radiation terrestrial radiation thermal parameters o f b u i l d i n g thermal transmittance transmission heat loss transmissivity U-value wind d i r e c t i o n wind v e l o c i t y

I b

I n t e r a c t i o n between b u i l d i n g and e x t e r n a l environment

general i n t r o d u c t i o n

The e x t e r n a l environment e x e r t s d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of i n f l u e n c e on a b u i l d i n g , such the as a c o u s t i c , mechanical, thermal, h y g i e n i c a l , etc. thermal comfort of its occupants. Here we a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n those e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s which modify t h e thermal budget of t h e b u i l d i n g and/or These f a c t o r s a r e r e f e r r e d t o as t h e the outdoor meteorological factors. climate.
O n t h e o t h e r hand,

The s e t o f m e t e o r o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s d e f i n e s

the

indoor

climate

will

be

defined

by

the

human

requirements f o r thermal comfort (see ch. ch.

I c f o r an i n t r o d u c t o r y d i s c u s s i o n and
*

I I I c f o r t h e measurement o f i n d o o r c l i m a t e ) .

The d i f f e r e n c e between i n d o o r and o u t d o o r c l i m a t e produces mass and flows across the building envelope, and the on depend on t h e envelope. climate difference the performance of the

energy building

magnitude o f which w i l l i n general

There a r e o t h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e thermal budget o f a b u i l d i n g , such the heat produced m e t a b o l i c h e a t r e l e a s e d by t h e occupants (see ch. system contribution is, of course, the most i n f l u e n c i n g t h e thermal balance (see ch. T h i s c h a p t e r i s devoted between i n ch. Illb. building of can which be considered with as an open thermodynamic of all system, the to a l e and P a r t I V ) . important

as

by household a p p l i a n c e s , c q l d and h o t t a p water use and t h e The h e a t i n g one of t h e f a c t o r s

I d and I I I f ) . description of the interactions

general

t h e b u i l d i n g and t h e e x t e r n a l c l i m a t e .

Measurements w i l l b e d e a l t w i t h

the three

boundaries

coincide

t h e b u i l d i n g p h y s i c a l envelope.

The heat

t r a n s f e r across t h e envelope i s determined by a -combination components o f heat t r a n s f e r :

r a d i a t i o n from i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l surfaces o f t h e envelope t o t h e surroundings

- convection t o i n d o o r and outdoor - conduction through t h e envelope


t h e b u i l d i n g enclosure. budget o f t h e system.

air

Mass f l o w takes p l a c e b o t h i n t h e form o f a i r flow and

water

flow the

across energy

A i r flow, n a t u r a l l y induced o r a r t i f i c i a l l y f o r c e d i n t o The same a p p l i e s t o water f l o w i n g i n t h e s a n i t a r y p l a n t .

t h e b u i l d i n g , w i l l r e s u l t i n an e n t h a l p y flow, t h u s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o

- meteorological

factors

The m e t e o r o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s can be d i v i d e d i n t o two canponents: is one, s t r o n g l y d e t e r m i n i s t i c and sanehow p r e d i c t a b l e , b e i n g 1inked.to is highly

the

first

the r e l a t i v e

motion of t h e Earth and t h e Sun, w h i l e t h e second one, superimposed on t h e ' f i r s t s t o c h a s t i c though o f t h e same o r d e r of magnitude as t h e other. easily recognize the deterministic component in air obtained as an average o f a g r e a t number o f days o r years, On t h e o t h e r For instance, one can temperature records

as t h e s t o c h a s t i c component i s removed by t h e averaging procedure. singl'e day o r y e a r a r e analyzed. Only a few t y p i c a l weather parameters a r e g e n e r a l l y design of buildings, but when used in be

hand, t h e d e t e r m i n i s t i c component w i l l h a r d l y be recognized ift h e records f o r a

the

thermal

t r y i n g t o s i r n u l a t i t h e thermal behaviour o f a influential.

b u i l d i n g , a l a r g e number of meteorol,ogical f a c t o r s t u r n o u t t o assess e x p e r i m e n t a l l y t h e energy budget o f a b u i l d i n g .

S i m i l a r l y , a number o f m e t e o r o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s should be monitored when t r y i n g t o

W e w i l l here g i v e a l i s t o f i n f l u e n t i a l m e t e o r o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s , along t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n and r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s :

with

a i r h u m i d i t y (AH) a i r temperature (AT) atmospheric pressure (AP) atmospheric r a d i a t i o n (AR) cloudiness and s o l a r r a d i a t i o n (SR) (W)
(CP)

- wind

These f a c t o r s a r e radiation

generated

by

the

canplex

interaction

between the

solar Sun

and t h e Earth and, t h e r e f o r e , p r i m a r i l y depend on such geographic and and t h e time of t h e day (i.e.. t h e Sun hour angle). Other f a c t o r s thermal

astronomical f a c t o r s as t h e l o c a l l a t i t u d e , t h e t i m e of t h e year (i.e., declination) c a p a c i t y , etc.) a r e t h e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e atmosphere ( o p t i c a l thickness,

and t h e ground ( r e f l e c t i v i t y , thermal c a p a c i t y , e t c . ) .

A i r humidity can be d e f i n e d as t h e water vapour content o f t h e ambient a i r .


It. i s

usually and

measured pressure

and expressed as the r a t i o o f t h e a c t u a l water vapour at of the its air actual mass ( r e 1 a t i ve humidity). H o i s t a i r diagrams showing t h e unit and

content t o t h e water vapour content t h a t would s a t u r a t e t h e a i r temperature r e l a t i o n s between r e l a t i v e humidity, mass water content per used i n two main versions: C a r r i e r m o i s t a i r diagram. the Mollier moist air diagram

( a b s o l u t e h u m i d i t y ) , a i r temperature, atmospheric pressure, and a i r enthalpy a r e socalled

',
of

A i r temperature i s t h e most important meteorological f a c t o r from t h e view o f e f f e c t s on t h e b u i l d i n g thermal budget. from and the daily ground, trends heated, of air as w e l l as d a i l y v a r i a t i o n , transfer seasonal radiation. r e f l e c t i n g i t s o r i g i n , that i s the convective comparing

point heat the for

It shows a s t r o n g seasonal

i n i t s t u r n , by t h e Sun rays. tempecature and

Due t o t h e

thermal c a p a c i t y o f t h e atmosphere, a c e r t a i n delay appears when

global h o r i z o n t a l s o l a r

The y e a r l y f l u c t u a t i o n s o f a i r temperature a r e a l s o responsible

t h e weak y e a r l y ' o s c i l l a t i o n s o f ground temperature. Atmospheric pressure i s defined as t h e weight o f t h e a i r infinitely high vertical the thermal budget o f b u i l d i n g s i n o n l y indirect;therefore contained in an

c y l i n d e r . w i t h i t s base on t h e ground.

I t s e f f e c t on

no f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n

w i l l be p a i d t o t h i s t o p i c i n t h i s chapter.
Atmospheric r a d i a t i o n i s t h e longwave surface. Its origin radiation impinging law, i s on the Earth

can be explained as f o l l o w s :

t h e Earth surface emits an proportional Part o f in all

amount o f r a d i a t i o n which, according t o Stefan-Boltzmann-s

t o t h e f o u r t h power o f i t s absolute temperature, and t o i t s & n i s s i v i t y . t h i s r a d i a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d , o r absorbed and t h e re-emitted, by t h e a i r directions. the
-'

The

part

which from

is

reflected

o r r e - e m i t t e d downwards i s c a l l e d
It i s contained i n t h e r e g i o n of

atmospheric ( t e r r e s t r i a l , longwave) r a d i a t i o n . spectrum ranging Sometimes

4 t o 100 urn.

The s p e c t r a l atmospheric radiance i s continuous under heavy overcast

d i s c r e t e under c l e a r sky c o n d i t i o n s and more conditions.

t h e value of atmospheric r a d i a t i o n i s expressed through

the "effective

sky temperature", t h a t i s

the

temperature

of

blackbody

in

r a d i a t i v e e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h t h e sky. Cloudiness i s d e f i n e d as the f r a c t i o n o f t h e sky covered by clouds. are of three their general types o f c l o u d s : c o n s t i t u e n t s , i.e. cumulus, s t r a t u s and c i r r u s . d i s t i n g u i s h e d , a t a m i c r o s c o p i c l e v e l , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s i z e , shape, water p a r t i c l e s . t h e e a r t h i s c a l l e d fog. ground. P r e c i p i t a t i o n i s d e f i n e d as l i q u i d ( r a i n o r d r i z z l e ) o r s o l i d (snow, etc.) water f a l l i n g o n t o t h e ground. S o l a r r a d i a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s a l l o f t h e r a d i a t i v e exchanges between t h e and the Earth i n t h e s h o r t wavelength r e g i o n o f t h e spectrum. t h r e e components: Sun hail, and There state

These can be

A c l o u d t o u c h i n g t h e surface o f

Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f clouds i s t h e i r h e i g h t above

It c o n s i s t s o f

d i r e c t s o l a r r a d i a t i o n , coming d i r e c t l y from t h e Sun d i s k d i f f u s e s o l a r r a d i a t i o n , coming from t h e sky v a u l t r e f l e c t e d s o l a r r a d i a t i o n , coming from t h e surroundings The d i r e c t component i s determined by t h e extinction Sun of the atmospheric The diffuse The the given by a

layers

(depending i n i t s t u r n on a i r h u m i d i t y , c l o u d i n e s s , etc.) the due on a Sun to is rays the (i.e., of by the solar altitude). is atmospheric amount

and by t h e a i r

mass crossed by components reflected surroundings surface

s c a t t e r i n g , d i f f u s i o n and r e f l e c t i o n . radiation reflected on

component

g i v e n surface.

The shortwave r e f l e c t i v i t y o f t h e ground i s

o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as albedo. yields global solar radiation. Wind i s large scale

Direct+ diffuse+ reflected radiation

the global solar irradiance, usually, but not c o r r e c t l y , c a l l e d

d e f i n e d as t h e h o r i s o n t a l motion of t h e a i r . pressure

Wind can be caused by either

g r a d i e n t s , by t h e uneven h e a t i n g o f l a n d and sea, and b y Wind i s d e s c r i b e d by i t s v e l o c i t x and d i r e c t i o n . factors

o r o g r a p h i c facto,rs.

I n a l l cases t h e d r i v i n g energy comes from t h e sun,

directly or indirectly.

A" overview o f t h e r e l a t i o n s between m e t e o r o l o g i c a l


Table I b-1.

i s given i n

The r e l a t i o n s a r e expressed i n a p u r e l y q u a l i t a t i v e way.

TABLE I b - 1 R e l a t i o n s between m e t e o r o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s

INFLUENCED FACTORS AH INFLUENCING FACTORS A i r humidity A i r temperature Atmospheric pressure Atmospheric r a d i a t i o n Solar radiation Wind (AH) AT AP AR X
X X X X X X X X

CP X

SR X

X
X

. (AT)
(AP) (AR) (SR)

X X

X X

C l o u d s and P r e c i p i t a t i o n (CP)

X X

(u)

i n f l u e n c e of m e t e o r o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s on t h e b u i l d i n g energy budget

A i r h u m i di t y does n o t d i r e c t l y a f f e c t t h e h e a t i n g demand o f a b u i l d i n g , b u t has r a t h e r t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g ' p r o b l e m s . very small and so a r e i t s v a r i a t i o n s . performed by Whatever t h e v a l u e o f will t h e r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y d u r i n g t h e h e a t i n g season, t h e a b s o l u t e h u m i d i t y i s a l w a y s O u t d o o r a i r , h e a t e d t o a b o u t 20c, low relative a l w a y s have, when i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e b u i l d i n g , a v e r y Activities humidity.

p e o p l e a t home; such as c o o k i n g and u s e o f h o t w a t e r ,

and p e r s p i r a t i o n , w i l l however i n c r e a s e t h e i n d o o r w a t e r v a p o r c o n t e n t . A i r t e m p e r a t u r e (AT) e x e r t s i t s i n f l u e n c e t h r o u g h t w o mechanisms:

heat transmission through t h e b u i l d i n g envelope enthalpy f l o w across t h e b u i l d i n g envelope A t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e between i n d o o r and o u t d o o r a i r s e p a r a t e d b y w a l l s ,

g i v e s r i s e t o a heat f l o w transfer coefficient

(q)

which, i n t i e steady-state regime, i s p r o p o r t i o n a l A, and the overall heat

t o t h e a i r t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e AT, t h e w a l l a r e a t o t h e w e l l known e a u a t i o n :

U (sometimes c a l l e d t r a n s m i t t a n c e ) o f t h e w a l l , a c c o r d i n g

q = U ' A'AT
The U-value i t s e l f depends on t h e surface velocity (or

(Ib-1) conductance of the wall and and on for on the the the wind film A

f i l m ) heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t s .

These,

i n t h e i r t u r n , depend on

t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e a i r and' of t h e s u r r o u n d i n g and d i r e c t i o n . depends on n a t u r a l c o n v e c t i o n , and t h i s i s coefficient simplified 1954) : h, h , A T


L
= A*(ATIL)~

surfaces,

AT i n f l u e n c e s t h a t p a r t o f t h e f i l m c o e f f i c i e n t s which of interest and mainly Prandtl Experimental r e s u l t s a r e g e n e r a l l y expressed numbers.

on i n t e r i o r surfaces. expression can be

i n terms o f e q u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g t h e N u s s e l t , Grashof

used f o r a i r a t atmospheric p r e s s u r e (Mc Adams,

where i s the f i l m coefficient i s t h e t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s u r f a c e and t h e a i r i s t h e h e i g h t ( f o r v e r t i c a l surfaces) o r t h e s i d e l e n g t h ( f o r h o r i z o n t a l s u r f a c e s f a c i n g up) A,b are constants Another e f f e c t o f t h e t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e between i n s i d e and o u t s i d e a i r , is This the thermally driven air infiltration ("stack effect"). Temperature d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e i n s i d e and t h e o u t s i d e cause d i f f e r e n c e s i n a i r d e n s i t y . l e a d s t o p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n c e s a c r o s s t h e b u i l d i n g envelope w h i c h a r e g i v e n i n terms of a i r d e n s i t y , o r a i r t e m p e r a t u r e , by:. ~p pp
p.
1

Pi)fg*z

= a*ztp*(l/To

l/Ti)

( I b-2)

where
= pressure d i f f e r e n c e = indoor a i r density = outdoor a i r density = gravitational acceleration
=

Po g z p T i To a

h e i g h t c o o r d i n a t e i n system w i t h o r i g o a t t h e l e v e l where t h e pressure difference i s zero (neutral l e v e l )

= atmospheric p r e s s u r e (Pa) = i n t e r n a l a i r temp.erature (K) = e x t e r n a l a i r t e m p e r a t u r e (K)

,
0.0342 (K/m)

= c o n s t a n t , whose v a l u e i s equal t o

he
latter. the kind

air

flow induced

through

any

kind

of

opening

depends

on ways

the

pressure on

difference, of

by temperature d i f f e r e n c e s o r by wind pressure, across the depending For flow i n l o n g r e g u l a r p i p e s and d u c t s t h e f l o w i s i n

E m p i r i c a l r e l a t i o n s have been expressed i n v a r i o u s opening.

general expressed i n terms o f a power o f t h e p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n c e as


Q
= c+A*A~~

( I b-3a)

where
Q

=flow rateof air


= p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y constant = cross-sectional
=

C A Ap
6

area of opening

p r e s i u r e d i f f e r e n c e across t h e opening

= flow exponent

I t has been shown t h a t t h e v a l u e o f t h e exponent B may depend on ~ p

(Honma

1975). and 112.

The

value

of 6

i s known e x a c t l y o n l y f o r l a m i n a r o r f u l l y developped I t then takes r e s p e c t i v e l y a v a l u e o f 1

t u r b u l e n t flow i n l o n g smooth channels.

For f l o w through o r i f i c e s i t i s common t o express t h e f l o w r a t e as

c * ~~~l~

(I b-3b)

where C, t h e discharge f a c t o r , i n general depends on t h e Reynolds number. S t r i c t l y speaking, none of t h e expressions I b-3a and I b-3b can be a p p l i e d to describe the flow nonin rate through a small opening i n t h e b u i l d i n g envelope. openings; rough walls, varying cross flow flow, e n t r a n c e e f f e c t s e t c . However, from a T h i s i s due t o t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f such section, through bends, openings stationary

p r a c t i c a l p o i n t of view, i t i s necessary t o use some model t o d e s c r i b e t h e b u i l d i n g envelopes. expression I b-3a w i t h an exponent having a v a l u e between 112 and 1. Atmospheric r a d i a t i o n i s probably t h e most neglected o f a l l t h e mentioned losses. values o f factors.

I t has then become common t o use t h e

previously to the

I t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s r e s p o n s i b l e for. l a r g e amounts o f energy


A number o f r e l a t i o n s

E m p i r i c a l models o f the atmospheric r a d i a t i o n r e l a t e i t s v a l u e

air temperature, a i r h u m i d i t y and cloudiness.

have been r e p o r t e d f o r c l e a r sky c o n d i t i o n s (see e.g. i n v o l v e o n l y t h e temperature and n o t t h e h u m i d i t y a r e :

K o n d r a t i j e v 1969, S e l l e r s

1965, M o n t e i t h 1975, P a l t r i d g e and P l a t t 1976 o r Oke 1978). Some examples which

Go = 1.2*o*T4

171, Go = 208 +6.*T,

Go = 0 . 9 4 * ~ * 1 0 - ~ * ~ ~

Go = atmospheric r a d i a t i o n f o r c l e a r sky ( ~ / m 2 )
T
= a i r t e m p e r a t u r e (K) = t h e Stefan-Bol tzmann c o n s t a n t

F o r c l o u d y sky K o n d r a t i j e v r e p o r t s t h e f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n ( developed by B o l t z , see a l s o G e i g e r 1965) G = G o + ( l + k%2) where G = atmospheric r a d i a t i o n (W/m2) n = c l o u d c o v e r ( p a r t s of u n i t y ) k = c o n s t a n t depending on t y p e of c l o u d ( k = 0.04 f o r c i r r i , k = 0.17-0.20 c u m u l i , k = 0.24 for strata) for

The d i f f e r e n c e between r a d i a t i o n e m i t t e d by a " g r a y " s u r f a c e and atmospheric r a d i a t i o n , g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e , i s g i v e n by:

4 R = F*(E +ar TS
where
F
=

G)

t h e ' v i e w f a c t o r o f t h e s u r f a c e t o t h e sky ( f o r i s o t r o p i c sky


F = 0.5*(1

cose),

= t i l t a n g l e o f t h e surface)

= the emissivity of the surface

.Ts = t h e s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e When t h e sky i s c l e a r , d u r i n g cold winter nights, and the surface is

h o r i z o n t a l , R can a t t a i n a v a l u e o f 200 W/m2. The i n f l u e n c e o f c l o u d i n e s s on b u i l d i n g s i n o n l y w i l l n o t be discussed here.


I t i s a hard t a s k t o r e l a t e p r e c i p i t a t i o n t o t h e energy requirements

indirect.

Therefore

it

of

a the

building. U-value. global

D r i v i n g r a i n and snow can moisten' t h e w a l l s , t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r Snow w i l l a f f e c t ground r e f l e c t i v i t y (albedo), surfaces. thus increasing radiation on non-horizontal
I t w i l l a l s o reduce t h e

solar

U-value o f r o o f s , and produce an i n c r e a s e o f ground temperature. Solar r a d i a t i o n gives a major c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the b u i l d i n g minor Law in of importance o n l y t o a i r temperature. atmospheric monochromatlc models have been c o n s t r u c t e d f o r c l e a r sky c o n d i t i o n s . energy budget,

Many a n a l y t i c a l and/or e m p i r i c a l They a r e based on Beer-s corresponding equation (1936) The

extinction.

i n t e g r a t e d o v e r t h e spectrum can be w r i t t e n i n t h e form used by Lunelund

and ASHRAE (1977) :

In= A*exp(-BIsinB)
where

In = d i r e c t normal r a d i a t i o n (u/m2) B . = a l t i t u d e a n g l e of t h e Sun


A,B = parameters depending on t h e day o f t h e y e a r For d i f f u s e r a d i a t i o n i t has been proposed (ASHRAE 1977) t h a t horizontal radiation is proportional . t o depending on t h e day of t h e y e a r . budget o f b u i l d i n g s : the diffuse

I n w i t h a p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y constant

S o l a r r a d i a t i o n has two e f f e c t s on t h e energy

i t i s absorbed b y opaque w a l l s
i t i s t r a n s m i t t e d across t r a n s p a r e n t w a l l s

One way t o t a k e i n t o account t h e f i r s t e f f e c t sol-air temperature, defined as the air

i n c a l c u l a t i o n s i s t o use t h e which would cause a by

temperature

c o n v e c t i v e heat t r a n s f e r from t h e w a l l s u r f a c e equal t o t h a t a c t u a l l y caused r a d i a t i o n and c o n v e c t i o n t o g e t h e r . Tsa = To + (a'l


I
I

S o l - a i r temperature i s defined as:

R)/ho

where To a

Tsa = s o l - a i r temperature
= outside a i r temperature = a b s o r p t i v i t y o f t h e w a l l surface = g l o b a l s o l a r r a d i a t i o n on t h e w a l l surface = n e t longwave r a d i a t i o n l e a v i n g t h e w a l l s u r f a c e = outside f i l m coefficient

I
R ha

The second e f f e c t produced b y s o l a r r a d i a t i o n i s even more 'important. (e.g. window g l a z i n g ) , i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o 1 w i t h a p r o p d r t i o n a l i t y of t h e g l a z i n g , u h i c h depends on, among

The

amount of s o l a r r a d i a t i o n t r a n s m i t t e d t h r o u g h a u n i t area o f a non-opaque medium c o n s t a n t T, the transmissivity a n g l e of i n c i d e n c e . Solarradiation other things, the

represents's

positive factor

in

the

heat

balance

of

b u i l d i n g , b u t t o t a k e advantage o f i t r e q u i r e s a s u i t a b l e d e s i g n of t h e b u i l d i n g and t t i e c o n t r o l system, as w e l l as a c e r t a i n s k i l l on t h e p a r t of t h e occupants.

The wind a l s o p l a y s a g r e a t r o l e i n t h e energy I t a c t s i n two d i f f e r e n t ways:

consumption

of

buildings.

- modifying
-

the outside f i l m c o e f f i c i e n t

producing a p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n c e , and consequently an a i r flow, across t h e b u i l d i n g enclosure The o u t s i d e c o n v e c t i v e h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t hot is be strongly employed related to the give wall. points of an the

to

the

air

v e l o c i t y (forced convection). Reynolds and t h e wind speed.

Non dimensional e m p i r i c a l r e l a t i o n s numbers can U n f o r t u n a t e l y such r e l a t i o n s cannot over t h e r o o f , w i l l different The parameter hot Generally, the is

l i n k i n g t h e Nusselt, P r a n d t l and relations between hoc

be e a s i l y employed because t h e l o c a l a i r v e l o c i t y v a r i e s w i d e l y over Correlations of the same w i t h a r e f e r e n c e wind v e l o c i t y measured, e.g., on d i f f e r e n t w a l l s and even a t ( I t o e t al. for 1972). windows. w a l l (edges, c e n t r e , e t c . ) possibly with the y i e l d d i f f e r e n t values o f hoc

i s o f t e n n e g l e c t e d compared t o t h e thermal r e s i s t a n c e o f most components external I wall, resistance of exception not v a r i a t i o n o f the convective c o e f f i c i e n t w i l l by o n l y a few p e r c e n t . si~nulate the influence greatly change
it

thermal to

a low conductance w a l l , f o r common wind speeds i t w i l l reduce i t I n c a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h e h e a t balance of hoc by giving common
i t a f i x e d value,

independent o f

temperature and wind speed. The wind has a more i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t on a i r i n f i l t r a t i o n : The wind p r e s s u r e i s found t o v a r y over t h e envelope. through from
A P = cpfp'v2/2

i t w i l l cause

p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i n s i d e and t h e o u t s i d e o f t h e b u i l d i n g envelope. This i s ofien expressed P defined the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e dimensionless pressure c o e f f i c i e n t C

(Ib-4)

where
= density of a i r

= r e f e r e n c e wind v e l o c i t y

~ p = d i f f e r e n c e between t h e p r e s s u r e a t a p o i n t on t h e b u i l d i n g facade and a r e f e r e n c e pressure The r e f e r e n c e wind speed and r e f e r e n c e p r e i s u r e a r e the windo f the building. tunnel and These e n t i t i e s a r e e a s i l y determined i n possibly in field generally model defined in as a

wind speed and s t a t i c pressure i n t h e f r e e stream a t a h e i g h t equal t o t h a t studieo

measurements i n v o l v i n g o n l y an i s o l a t e d

b u i l d i n g , b u t a r e l e s s e a s i l y determined i n f i e l d measurements i n sub- urban s e t t i n g . Pressure c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e m o s t l y a v a i l a b l e exposed practice. Surrounding aver buildings may only for

an

urban

or

isolated wind

buildings,

t o wind from a l l d i r e c t i o n s , which i s a s i t u a t i o n r a r e l y encountered i n drastically change\ t h e pressure a b u i l d i n g (see f i g .

distribution

I b - I ) , and t h u s a l s o t h e i n f i l t r a t i o n

losses ( ~ i r b n 1983). The wind speed v a r i e s w i t h velocity proposed. highthe height, and the vertical with profiles height of of have wind been

v a r y w i t h t h e roughness o f t h e t e r r a i n over which t h e wind i s passing. variation R e l a t i o n s of t h i s k i n d a r e d i f f i c u l t t o employ i n c a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h e studies isolated of a buildings. In an urban o r sub- urban s e t t i n g they a r e n o t even However, r e l a t i o n s wind data fran Extrapolations of

Several r e l a t i o n s d e s c r i b i n g t h e wind speed

b u i l d i n g heat balance, p o s s i b l y w i t h e x c e p t i o n f o r use i n rise

approximately v a l i d below a h e i g h t which i s s e v e r a l ' t i m e s t h e average h e i g h t b u i l d i n g s i n t h e neighbourhood of t h e b u i l d i n g s t u d i e d . o f t h e k i n d above a r e sometimes employed when e x t r a p o l a t i n g m e t e o r o l o g i c a l s t a t i o n t o t h e b u i l d i n g s i t e (see ch.

111 b ) .

t h i s k i n d a r e always u n c e r t a i n , and m e t e o r o l o g i c a l e x p e r t s should be consulted.

A second t y p e o f wind-induced v e n t i l a t i o n through


turbulence external the case and a varying flow separation. These on because t h e p u l s a t i n g v e n t i l a t i o n flow w i l l pressure when the fluctuations. depend

an the

opening

is

due of

to the to

f a c t o r s a r e very complex frequency cent,

It has been estimated (Handa 1979) t h a t t h i s compared and

f a c t o r may i n c r e a s e t h e n a t u r a l v e n t i l a t i o n by up t o 30 p e r

t u r b u l a n c e i n t e n s i t y i s s m a l l , depending on t h e t u r b u l a n c e leeward Model s t u d i e s o f t h i s e f f e c t have a l s o been performed

i n t e n s i t y and t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e pressure on t h e windward facades of the building. ( C o c k r o f t and Robertson 1976)

thermal performance o f b u i l d i n g s

I n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n a number o f equations have been given, r e l a t i n g t h e outdoor used and indoor t h e r m o c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s (temperature, pressure, e t c . ) t o the energy o r e n t h a l p y flow across t h e b u i l d i n g envelope. building. The parameters, which a r e and can be

i n t h e s e equations, q u a n t i t a t i v e l y d e s c r i b e t h e thermal performance o f t h e Some parameters have been d e r i v e d from p h y s i c a l t e o r i e s

Fig.

I b-1

Pressure c o e f f i c i e n t

a s m e a s u r e d a t mid-height storey,

o f e x t e r i o r w a l l s and on t h e r o o f of a twohouse. The f u l l - d r a w n

l i n e s a r e f o r an i s o l a t e d ,

exposed house and t h e h a t c h e d l i n e s f o r an i d e n t i c a l house i n a v e r y d e n s e l y b u i l t sub-urban


'

setting.

( a f t e r W i r h 1983)

computed

analytically,

others

are

empirically

determined

and

cannot

be

t h e o r e t i c a l l y calculated. Whendealing w i t h f i e l d experiments, t h e measurement o f thermal i s convenient i f : parameters

1) i t can be performed q u i c k l y , simply, and a c c u r a t e l y

2) t h e model i n which t h e parameters a r e used i s r e l i a b l e


Otherwise a d i r e c t measurement of energy f l o w s should be performed.Building. thermal parameters can a l s o be determined using model c a l c u l a t i o n s combined w i t h f i e l d measurements. The main areas f o r f i e l d measurements a r e t h e n : i) infiltration

ii) heat t r a n s f e r t h r o u g h t h e w a l l s i i i ) r a d i a t i v e heat t r a n s f e r


iv) d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f thermal b u i l d i n g parameters

i ) infiltration

If a b u i l d i n g i s considered as having a c e r t a i n p o r o s i t y
eq.

with

an the sum

overall the internal of air

l e a k i n e s s such t h a t t h e flow through a l l openings can be d e s c r i b e d by, e.g.,

I b-3a, t n e n a t u r a l v e n t i l a t i o n can
is of known. the This can

be

estimated

provided the

pressure flows o u t

be done using t h e mass c o n s e r v a t i o n law, which This law can be used t o c a l c u l a t e t h e i n t e r i o r present. applied

s t a t e s t h a t t h e sum o f a i r f l o w s i n t o t h e b u i l d i n g must equal building.

p r e s s u r e o f t h e b u i l d i n g i f no i n t e r n a l r e s i s t a n c e t o a i r f l o w i s i n t e r n a l resistance. The law of mass c o n s e r v a t i o n then has to be

If
to

t h i s i s n o t t h e case, t h e b u i l d i n g i n t e r i o r has t o be d i v i d e d , i n t o c e l l s w i t h no each c e l l s e p a r a t e l y , t a k i n g i n t o account a l s o t h e a i r flow between c e l l s . The r a t e o f a i r change w i l l , d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , be dependent on:

- t h e pressure d i s t r i b u t i o n over t h e b u i l d i n g facade - t h e temperature d i f f e r e n c e 'between t h e i n d o o r and outdoor a i r - l o c a t i o n o f openings ( o f t e n f a r from a uniform d i s t r i b u t i o n ) - bypass i n s i d e t h e b u i l d i n g ( s h a f t s etc., connecting one p a r t o f t o ' another) internal flow resistance

the building

As t h e i n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e i n t h e case above has t o be c a l c u l a t e d by .a consuming numerical iteration, simpler models assess t h e r a t e o f a i r - c h a n g e i n b u i l d i n g s . Using d a t a on l e a k i n e s s p r o v i d e d by IIle), next. number one the pressurization such method (see

timi-

and methods a r e o f t e n used t o

ch. a

can a t t a c k t h e problem o f comparing l e a k i n e s s from one house t o t h e comparisons for

One attempt i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n has been t o make

o f houses u s i n g t h e parameter Q / A ( f l o w / s u r f a c e a r e a ) , and then d e r i v e a

r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r e s s u r i z a t i o n t e s t s and n a t u r a l a i r i n f i l t r a t i o n ( K r o n v a l l 1978, 1980). Another l i n e o f a t t a c k i s t o modeling estimated of from infiltration knowledge to make allow a number of of simplifications air in the from are

predictions

infiltration

p r e s s u r i z a t i o n measurements (Sherman and Grimsrud 1980). of t e r r a i n and weather. leakage f u n c t i o n s (and geometry) a r e t h e n used t o

Surface pressures air

These surface pressures and calculate infiltration.

T h i s method p r o v i d e s good r e s u l t s , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s i m p l i c i t y o f t h e model. When t h e b u i l d i n g i s equipped w i t h a mechanical v e n t i l a t i o n methods must be used. model (Nylund 1980). system (wind, thermal The method.consists of t h e a n a l y s i s effects and of a system, driving exchange a variety other power rate of

An example i s a method i n c l u d i n g a c a l c u l a t i o n scheme and f a n s ) , and a l e a k i n g system ( t h e b u i l d i n g The a i r and Numerical v a l u e s can be

envelope and p e n e t r a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g v e n t i l a t i o n d u c t s ) . i s t h e sum of t h e d e s i r e d and u n c o n t r o l l e d v e n t i l a t i o n . obtained for individual houses with varying v e n t i l a t i o n systems.

tightness

The s o - c a l l e d " c r a c k method", as one means of e s t i m a t i n g a i r emphasizes leakage rates associated with

infiltration,

windows and doors, which, however,

c o n s t i t u t e a m i n o r f r a c t i o n of t h e o v e r a l l l e a k i n e s s i n many i n s t a n c e s . Methods o f measurement o f a i r i n f i l t r a t i o n a r e r e p o r t e d i n ch. i i ) heat t r a n s f e r t h r o u g h the w a l l s Heat c o n d u c t i o n i n a m a t e r i a l states that the heat flow rate is defined by Fouriet-s flow; equation, the which of 111 e.

i s d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e 'temperature constant I n one dimension we have:

g r a d i e n t and t o t h e area o f t h e s u r f a c e normal t o t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y i s c a l l e d thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y .

i= where q
1

A'At

dT/dx

= heat flow r a t e = thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y = a r e a o f t h e s u r f a c e normal t o t h e f l o w ,

dT/dx = t e m p e r a t u r e g r a d i e n t i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e heat f l o w F o u r i e r - s l a w can be canbined w i t h t h e energy c o n s e r v a t i o n that there is no constant i n a l l becomes: a2T/ax2 + a Z ~ / a y 2+ a 2 ~ / 2 z 2= (,"c/~)* where
X,

law:

assuming equation

i n t e r n a l energy g e n e r a t i o n and t h a t t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y i s the three-dimensional heat conduction

directions,

aT/at

(Ib-6)

y, z

a r e t h e t h r e e space c o o r d i n a t e s

c
t

i s t h e d e n s i t y of t h e m a t e r i a l i s t h e s p e c i f i c heat o f t h e material i s time, The q u a n t i t y A / ( ~ c )= ,, i s c a l l e d the thermal d i f f u s i v i t y o f t h e m a t e r i a l , state behaviour o f the m a t e r i a l : the l a r g e r the

it

describes

v a l u e of

.,

the

unsteady-

the f a s t e r w i l l heat d i f f u s e through t h e material. building of components a r e . generally varying

Calculations o f heat t r a n s f e r through only with performed time. In in one dimension.

Even so, F o u r i e r - s e q u a t i o n i s s t i l l r a t h e r boundary conditions

complex t o s o l v e f o r m u l t i l a y e r w a l l s because this s o l u t i o n only for steady-state conditions. The considered integration constant of with Fourier-s equation, (this

case, t h e r i g o r o u s a n a l y t i c a l approach l e a d s t o a s i m p l e

when

thermal is

conductivity

is

temperature

hypothesis

j u s t i f i e d if t h e

v a r i a t i o n s i n w a l l temperature a r e s m a l l ) , y i e l d s :

;( = CtA*(TSi where
q
$

,-

Tso)

( I b-7)

= heat flow = i n s i d e surface temperature = conductance of t h e w a l l , d e f i n e d as C = 1 / ( z s ~ / A ) ~

T S i C s1

Tso = o u t s i d e s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e

= t h i c k n e s s of t h e i - t h l a y e r

= thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y o f t h e i - t h l a y e r

When a l s o s u r f a c e h e a t t r a n s f e r i s considered, eq.

1 b-7 becomes eq.

1 b-1

and t h e o v e r a l l heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t , U, i s c a l c u l a t e d from


U = 1/( l / h i + 1/C + l/ho)

where h i = i n s i d e surface heat transfer c o e f f i c i e n t ho = o u t s i d e s u r f a c e heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t Transient heat conduction variable surfaces. convective in building walls is always connected with

r a d i a t i v e boundary c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e i n s i d e and o u t s i d e I n t h i s case t h e problem i s b e s t

T h e r e f o r e , even f o r r e g u l a r l y shaped s o l i d s such as m u l t i l a y e r w a l l s ,

an a n a l y t i c a l s o l u t i o n can n o t o f t e n be found. handled by numerical t e c h n i q u e s such as

1 ) f i n i t e - d i f f e r e n c e a p p r o x i m a t i o n ( f o r w a r d and backward d i f f e r e n c e s ) e.g., A r p a c i , 1966) Wilson and N i c k e l l , 1966)

(see,

' 2 ) f i n i t e - element [method (see e.g.,

When t h e t i m e s e r i e s o f o u t d o o r t e m p e r a t u r e and h e a t f l o w can be developped i n a F o u r i e r s e r i e s , t h e F o u r i e r t r a n f o r m method c a n be used (see e.g., Sacchi, 1976). the For every frequency considered i n the thermal

i n s i d e and o u t s i d e s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e s and f l u x e s a r e r e l a t e d t h r o u g h four

C a l i and

oscillations,

complex q u a n t i t i e s Av, Bv, Cv, Dv, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e e x p r e s s i o n :

( I b-8) where Tiv and TOY= i n s i d e and o u t s i d e canponent o f s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e a t frequency v

Giv

i n s i d e and o u t s i d e component of s u r f a c e f l u x a t f r e q u e n c y v and The f o u r c o e f f i c i e n t s must s a t i s f y ' t h e c o n d i t i o n Ay+Dv -. Bv*Cv = 1

The response f a c t o r method ( M i t a l a s and Stephenson 1971), r e l a t e s t h e flux at

heat

a g i v e n t i m e t t o t h e h o u r l y t i m e s e r i e s of i n s i d e and o u t s i d e s u r f a c e

t e m p e r a t u r e s and t o t h e t i m e s e r i e s o f h e a t f l u x e s p r e v i o u s t o t i m e t, a c c o r d i n g t o the equation:

.b,+Tio) j=o J t - j b

d . * ~ ( ~ ) j=, t-jb

( I b-9)

where upper index ( i ) and ( 0 ) r e f e r t o i n d o o r and outdoor lower index denotes t h e t i m e a t which t h e e n t i t y i s e v a l u a t e d
A i s t h e t i m e i n t e r v a l between each e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e e n t i t y

Sets of b, c, d structures can be

coefficients found in

for

great

number Methods

of

walls I 1 1 d.

and

roofs

ASHRAE,'

1977.

o f measurement of heat

t r a n s f e r through t h e b u i l d i n g envelope a r e d e s c r i b e d i n ch. i i i ) r a d i a t i v e heat t r a n s f e r

Experience shows t h a t t h e amount o f r a d i a t i o n e m i t t e d by a body depends its part temperature, of


it

on

on t h e s t a t e o f i t s surface (roughness and c o l o u r ) and on t h e When r a d i a t i o n encounters a body, p a r t o f i t i s r e f l e c t e d , and absorbed,

area of t h e surface. is transmitted. reflectance p

if

the

body

is

transparent, is

part of it i s as the

The r e f l e c t e d f r a c t i o n o f incoming r a d i a t i o n

defined to

,
= 1

t h e absorbed f r a c t i o n as t h e a b ~ o r p t a n c e ~and , the transmitted These t h r e e components must add up unity:

f r a c t i o n as t h e t r a n s m i t t a n c e r .
a

+ r

t p

For an opaque body, r reflecting, (less than

= 0.

For a blackbody, b e i n g opaque as w e l l


a = 1.

as

non ratio
=

= p

= 0, and hence

The blackbody i s taken as r e f e r e n c e i s by d e f i n i t i o n t h e

f o r t h e r a d i a t i o n o f r e a l bodies, whose emittance one) o f , the having t h e same temperature.


a .

r a d i a t i o n f l u x , t o t h e r a d i a t i o n f l u x of a blackbody K i r c h h o f f - s law s t a t e s t h a t , a t e q u i l i b r i u m ,

The c o e f f i c i e n t s (a, 9 , r ) a r e independent of t h e temperature o f t h e but they o f t h e monochromatic q u a n t i t i e s , a x , p~ and r A

body, a r e s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o t h e wavelength, which leads t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n

~ r a n s m i s s i o n , a b s o r p t i o n , and r e f l e c t i o n , as w e l l as emission, i s o f practical radiation Ib-2. radiation interest. may be i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e example of a greenhouse. longer Window glass Most

great

For example, t h e importance o f t h e wavelength o f r a d i a t i o n transmits of the

i n t h e range o f wavelengths from about 0.15 t o 3 pn, as shown i n f i g . wavelengths. which reaches t h e e a r t h from t h e sun i s w i t h i n t h i s range, and s o l a r

I t i s almost opaque t o r a d i a t i o n o f

r a d i a t i o n t h e r e f o r e passes through t h e g l a s s t o t h e t o p s o i l i n t h e greenhouse.

v i s i b l e range I

Fig.

I b-2

Spectrum d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s o l a r r a d i a t i o n , emissivity of top s o i l , of g l a s s and t r a n s m i s s i v i t y

On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e t o p s o i l r a d i a t e s m a i n l y i n t h e and reradiation and t h e glass. greenhouse, surroundings. i v ) d e t e r m i n a t i o n of .thermal b u i l d i n g parameters When analyzing t h e dynamical thermal behaviour with the outdoor climate,
it

longer

wavelengths, the the

from t h e t o p s o i l t o t h e surroundings i s unable t o pass through causes the temperature to be higheK than that of

The heat t r a n s f e r r e d tiy s o l a r r a d i a t i 0 n . i ~t h e r e f o r e trapped i n

of

buildings, make

interacting use a furniture, transfer The models in of non-

is

often

convenient' t o

d e t e r m i n i s t i c models whose parameters have t o be assigned a value by numerical data. a whole, o r i s d i v i d e d i n t o b u i l d i n g f a b r i c etc.) as a lumped coefficient, several parameter and a small having number a of components (air, heat

I n these models, t h e b u i l d i n g thermal mass ' i s e i t h e r t r e a t e d as ( B i l l i n g t o n 1965). system E a c h o f these canponents i s considered certain ''equivalent"

thermal

c a p a c i t y o r thermal t i m e constant (TTC).

are i n general l i n e a r i n t h e parameters. Steinmul l e r 1982).

Models of t h i s k i n d have been used

s t u d i e s o f t h e b u i l d i n g e n e r g y balance (see, e.g.,

Sd"deregger 1977 and

When t h e b u i l d i n g thermal mass i s considered t o c o n s i s t o f "air" and "building. fabric", instance:

the

components

t h e e q u i v a l e n t thermal parameters (ETP) a r e f o r

t h e e q u i v a l e n t heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t (EHTC) between room and outdoor a i r t h e e q u i v a l e n t EHTC between room a i r and t h e b u i l d i n g s t r u c t u r e t h e EHTC between room a i r and an e n v i r o n m e n t o f c o n s t a n t t e m p e r a t u r e , d e s c r i b i n g t h e basement and a d j o i n i n g d w e l l i n g s t h e e q u i v a l e n t thermal c a p a c i t y o f t h e b u i l d i n g o r t h e e q u i v a l e n t TTC o f t h e b u i d i n g t h e e q u i v a l e n t s o l a r window area, d e f i n e d as t h e area of a p e r f e c t l y transparent and i n s u l a t e d opening on t h e southern facade t h a t . w o u l d a l l o w f o r t h e same degree o f indoor s o l a r heating as what i s a c t u a l l y obtained Once t h e model has been constructed, t h e ETP-s a r e determined by a
fit

to

experimental energy from to

data. heating

Fromyhe above i t i s obvious t h a t , . i n systems, v e n t i l a t i o n etc. in an unoccupied

t h i s case, one would

have t o m o n i t o r v a r i a b l e s l i k e indoor and outdoor temperatures, s o l a r r a d i a t i o n ,


I t i s of importance t o c o n t r o l

a l l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e b u i l d i n g energy balance. convenient operate

For t h i s reason One then

it

is

more

building.

a l s o has t h e

p o s s i b i l i t y t o "speed up t h e p r o c e d u r e " b y h e a t i n g ( S o n d e r e g g e r 1977). The d i s p e r s i o n consumptiontime method of points froln a

introducing

supplementary

electric

straight

line

in

the

daily

energy model

temperature is

p l o t i s o n l y p a r t i a l l y due t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f d r i v i n g a i r temperature difference; state effects. temperature", In

f o r c e s o t h e r t h a n t h e i n d o o r - outdoo; resolution for the

i f tne
a

o f t h e same o r d e r o f m a g n i t u d e a s t h e TTC( e.g. of the

one d a y ) , simplified as

t h e d i s p e r s i o n i s a l s o produced b y unsteady evaluation

TTC, one shows t h a t e n e r g y c o n s u m p t i o n i s calculated

a p p r o x i m a t e l y a l i n e a r f u n c t i o n o f an " e q u i v a l e n t ( D r u s i a n i and N e g r i n i 1 9 7 9 ) :

Ti

Kt Ti

.+

(1-K)'Ti_,

where

Ti

Ti

= average outdoor temperature of day i = " e q u i v a l e n t t e m p e r a t u r e " o f day i

U s i n g t h i s method, one has t o m o n i t o r o n l y t h e d a i l y e n e r g y c o n s u m p t i o n and the daily average outdoor temperature. of K can be By l e t t i n g t h e p a r a m e t e r K v a r y from 0 best t o 1, i n t h e d a i l y e n e r g y c o n s u m p t i o n - " e q u i v a l e n t ' t e m p e r a t u r e " p l o t s , , t h e fitted value a v e r a g e TTC o f t h e sample t h r o u g h t h e r e l a t i o n : TTC =

determined, l e a d i n g t o a r e l i a b l e e s t i m a t e o f t h e

241 I n ( 1 - K ) ( h )
of gas

An a n a l y s i s o f t h i s k i n d has been p e r f o r m e d t o e v a l u a t e t h e a v e r a g e TTC a group of buildings through .information about the daily heating consumption.

Markus, T. A. and M o r r i s , E. N. : B u i l d i n g s , C l i m a t e and Energy. Pitman Publ. L t d (1980) Oke, T. R.

i Boundary Layer Climates.

Methuen & Co L t d (1978)

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American S o c i e t y o f Heating, R e f r i g e r a t i n g and A i r C o n d i t i o n i n g Engineers, ASHRAE Handbook o f Fundamentals; A r p a c i , V.S., Inc., New York, 1977.

Conduction Heat Transfer, Addison-Wesley P u b l i s h i n g Co~npany.

Reading Massachusetts, 1966.. Sacchi, A., C a r a t t e r i s t i c h e d e l l e p a r e t i d e g l i e d i f i c i i n regime Novembre-Uicembre


I

C a l i , M., 1976.

oscil1atorio;da

" A t t i e Rassegna Tecnica d e l l a S.I.A.T.",

Cockroft J.P..

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V e n t i l a t i o n o f An Enclosure through a S i n g l e

Opening, B u i l d i n g and Environment, Vol. D r u s i a n i , R. and N e g r i n i , N. AMGA, Bologna, I t a l y (1979)

11,

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Geiger, R. : The C l i m a t e n e a r t h e Ground. Harvard hi". Press (1965)

Handa, K.,

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Research, Document u : 1 9 7 9 , Honma, H..

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N.,

Kimura K. and Oka J.,:"

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K o n d r a t j i e v K.Ya.,

R a d i a t i o n i n t h e Atmosphere, Academic Press, New York, 1969.

K r o n v a l l J.,T e s t i n g of houses f o r a i r leakage u s i n g a pressure method, ASHRAE Transactions, 1978, Vol. 84, Part. K r o n v a l l J., Airtightness

2.
Stockholm, 1980.

Measurements and Measurenent methods, Swedish

Council f o r B u i l d i n g Research, DocumentE:1980, Lunelund H,,

~ ~ r m e s t r ? i l n i n g och l j u s s t r a l n i n g i Finland. Svenska Tekn. Vet.

i F i n l a n d , Acta

l 2 ,H e l s i n k i ,

19.36.

McAdams W.H.,

Heat Transmission, McGraw H i l l Book Company, New York,

1954.

Monteith, J . L. : P r i n c i p l e s of Environmental Physics. Edward Arnold L t d (1975)

Nylund P.O.,

I n f i l t r a t i o n and V e n t i l a t i o n , Swedish Council f o r B u i l d i n g

Research Report No. m 1 9 8 0 , Stockholm. 1980. P a l t r i d g e , G.W. and Climatology. Sherman M.H. and P l a t t , C . M. R. : R a d i a t i v e Processes i n Meteorology E l s e v i e r S c i e n t i f i c Publ. Co (1976) lnfiltration

and Grimsrud D.T.,

--

Pressure C o r r e l a t i o n :

S i m p l i f i e d Physical Modeling, ASHRAE Trans., Sonderegger, R.C.:

1980, Vol. 8_6

2, 1980.

Diagnostic Tests determining t h e Thermal Responce o f

6856, 1977. Berkeley, US (1977) a House. Report LBL- S t e i n m u l l e r , 8.: Zum Energiehaushalt von Gebauden. Oiss. Techn. Univ. o f B e r l i n (1982) Stephenson. D.G. and G.P. M i t a l a s , C a l c u l a t i o n o f heat conduction t r a n s f e r . . vol. 77, p a r t 11. 1971, p. 117:)

functions f o r m u l t i l a y e r s l a b s (ASHRAE Trans.. Wilson, E.L., and R.E.

N i c k e l l ; A p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e F i n i t e Element Method t o Vol. 4, 1966.

Heat Conduction Analysis, Nucl. Eng. Des.,

Wiren, B.G.:

Effects of surrounding b u i l d i n g s on wind pressure d i s t r i b u t i o n s

and v e n t i l a t i o n ' h e a t losses from a s i n g l e - f a m i l y house. To be published by Swedish I n s t i t u t e f o r ~ u i l d i n gResearch (1983)

CHAPTER I c P h y s i c a l i n d o o r environment f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g man

Contents

-general i n t r o d u c t i o n -thermal environment i) ii) iv) physiological basis indoor temperature a i r velocity combined e f f e c t s of a i r temperature, r a d i a t i o n r a d i a t i o n and d r a u g h t on t h e human body - a i r contaminants

P. I c - I p. I c - 2 P. I c - 2 p. I c - 3 p. I c - 7 p. I c - 8 p. 1 c - 9 p.

i i i ) s u r f a c e heat r a d i a t i o n

v)

I c-12

-1 i g h t i n g
- b i b l i o g r a p h y and r e f e r e n c e s

Ic

Physical indoor environment f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g man

general i n t r o d u c t i o n

Every d w e l l i n g should b,e c o n s t r u c t e d so t h a t a c l i m a t e s u i t a b l e beings and can be created. This i n f l u e n c e of t h e e x t e r n a l c l i m a t e b y a s u i t a b l e design o f t h e b u i l d i n g

for,

human

i s achieved by s h i e l d i n g t h e d w e l l i n g from t h e envelope t o keep t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e d w e l l i n g a t a

if

necessary . b y

using

energy

temperature a i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f t h e outdoor a i r . The i n d o o r a i r should be kept at a temperature comfortable for the The'

occupants, t a k i n g i n t o account t h e i r c l o t h i n g and t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s a t home. indoor air. There should not

temperature of t h e i n t e r i o r 'surfaces should n o t d i f f e r t o o much from t h a t o f . t h e be any l a r g e temperature g r a d i e n t s i n s i d e t h e dwelling. The m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t o f t h e i n d o o r a i r should be k e p t w i t h i n c e r t a i n l i m i t s

if t h e . i n d o o r c l i m a t e i s t o be a comfortable one.

The m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t o f the the

i n d o o r a i r w i l l i n general be d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f t h e outdoor a i r due t o i n s i d e the dwelling. The h e a t i n g o f t h e d w e l l i n g and a c t i v i t i e s performed by t h e occupants result in the adding o f p o l l u t a n t s t o t h e indoor a i r .

outdoor- i n d o o r a i r temperature d i f f e r e n c e and t h e use o f water by t h e occupants

will

The i n d o o r a i r may a l s o

be contaminated by gaseous c o n s t i t u e n t s d i s s i p a t i n g from t h e b u i l d i n g f a b r i c . There should n o t be any draught i n t h e d w e l l i n g , lighting should be provided and the demand for considered. A l l factors wellbeing single of mentioned above are of importance for the physiological experience of noise a as 1.f a sufficient should degree also of be

privacy

the like In

occupants.

Their behaviouralresponse t o the indoor climate occupants or level

can be very complex. factor

Only on r a r e occasions w i l l t h e illumination,' they ventilation,

a i r . t e m p e r a t u r e , r a d i a n t temperature of w a l l s and windows,

i n d w r h u m i d i t y , draught, inadequate. general

will

experience a combination o f t h e s e f a c t o r s

through the senses o f v i s i o n , h e a r i n g , s m e l l , touch, and thermal sensation.

at, cases

most, tells

two the

of

the limits

factors of the

mentioned above a r e i n v o l v e d , experience fran controlled laboratory conditions in many comfort range of these f a c t o r s f o r a c e r t a i n

psycho- p h y s i c a l experiments under clothing.

Retrofitting a residential building w i l l often result i n a indoor be done climate. in can a account and n o t j u s t t h e energysaving e f f e c t s ' o f t h e r e t r o f i t . q u a l i t a t i b e manner. quantitative then a b l e t o do t h i s i n a occupant This manner. The thermal

change

in

the

When performing a r e t r o f i t t h i s should t h e r e f o r e b e . t a k e n i n t o

his

can of

often the This

However, i t i s sometimes of i n t e r e s t t o be environment

be d e s c r i b e d by t h e use of a so c a l l e d comfort index. chapter, "thermal of a

t o p i c i s t r e a t e d i n t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n of t h i s

environment". residential

i s f o l l o w e d by two s e c t i o n s t r e a t i n g q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o a i r contaminants

and l i g h t i n g t h a t a r e o f i n t e r e s t when performing a r e t r o f i t building.

thermal environment

i)

p h y s i o l o g i c a l b a s i s : heat balance and.metabol ism o f t h e human body Heat i s produced c o n t i n u o u s l y i n t h e human body a t a r a t e t h a t i s strongly

dependent the the

on t h e a c t i v i t y being performed. that maintains the

Fuel i s of

r e q u i r e d f o r producing t h i s a b u i l d i n g a t the required The caloric value of only Houses that we

heat, and a i r t o burn i t . furnace food temperature.

I n these respects t h e human body does n o t d i f f e r from temperature

The f u e l we burn, o r metabol i s e , i s food.

eaten

, less

the

mechanical

work' performed, i s equal t o t h e heat

produced i n t h e body.

I t must a l l be d i s s i p a t e d

The body can

tolerate

small and r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f changes i n temperature, u n l i k e houses, t h a t can s t o r e h e a t from warm days t o c o l d n i g h t s o r even over p e r i o d s o f several days. need not maintain they subject t o the f i v e - f o l d alterations i n r a t e of heat production t h e i r i n t e r n a l temperature so e x a c t l y as we do, n e i t h e r a r e

impose on o u r bodies as we engage i n d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s . The average r a t e calculated more active as 102 of watts heat ' p r o d u c t i o n for or for a 24 hour period in any has been

women and 126 w a t t s f o r men. pursuits. Large people

These f i g u r e s a r e of ;the by the

based on food i n t a k e 'for an average-sized person, n o t engaging occupations produce more heat.
I t i s usual t o n o r m a l i z e these f i g u r e s by

w i l l e a t more food and


dividing

body * s u r f a c e area, a good measure of t h e s i z e of a person and a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n heat balance, as o u t s i d e w a l l area i s f o r a house. Northern ~ u r o ' p e have an average body s u r f a c e area 64 and 24-hour average r a t e s ' o f h e a t p r o d u c t i o n a r e Since, e.g., women' i n respectively.

if 1.6
70

m2, men 1.8 m2, t h e

W/m2

I g n o r i n g sex d i f f e r e n c e s g i v e s an average o f 67 W/m2. The 24-hour from average is a to useful and concept is for calculating inadequate the the even heat for

contribution calculating required

occupants

a house, b u t i t conceals l a r g e and s y s t e m a t i c therefore However, as we s h a l l average for occur I n most cases, production standing s t i l l

d i f f e r e n c e s a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s o f day contributions temperature

t o t h e h e a t balance of a room. in different clothing

see below, i t p r o v i d e s a s u r p r i s i n g l y good b a s i s . f o r room however, i t i s necessary t o a l l o w f o r d i f f e r e n t r a t e s different activities: occasionally s l e e p i n g 40 W/m2, w o r k i n g 78 W/m2, l i g h t house work 110 W/m2.

calculating ensembles. of heat

s i t t i n g q u i e t l y 55 W/m2,

Much h i g h e r r a t e s o f w o r k i n g

i n t h e home, c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o medium heavy i n d u s t r i a l work 150 W/m 2

heavy manual work 200 W/m2, b u i a r q seldom maintained f o r long. Rate o f h e a t p r o d u c t i o n i s governed by t h e a c t i v i t v i n which we engage. is i n t h e home. governed descending a t which
it

It

t h e r e f o r e t o agvery l a r g e e x t e n t under c o n s c i o u s c o n t r o l d u r i n g l e i s u r e t i m e T h i s i s n o t t h e case d u r i n g w o r k i n g hours. by 5 p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r s : air order sweat last velocity of can line and importance evaporate. of

,air for

Rate o f h e a t a i r temperature, have been

loss listed

is in

&

temperature,

humidity.

These

heat b a l a n c e i n normal d w e l l i n g s and f o r

normal a c t i v i t i e s .

H u m i d i t y - i s i n l a s t p l a c e because i t a f f e c t s m a i n l y t h e r a t e Sweating i s something we t r y t o a v o i d d u r i n g Similarly, shivering i s a h e b t balance only in freak I n hot

normal o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e home, f o r h y g i e n i c reasons as much as f o r t h e f a c t t h a t is the defence. mechanism we t r y t o avoid. O w e l l i n g s should be planned so t h a t

weather c o n d i t i o n s i s i t necessary f o r t h e body t o use t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s . important f a c t o r i n h e a t balance.

c o u n t r i e s t h i s may be an u n r e a l i s t i c g o a l , and i f so h u m i d i t y a t once becomes an Sweating can save enormous amounts o f energy but this specific used f o r summer a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g i n advanced h o t c o u n t r i e s , form o f energy c o n s e r v a t i o n w i l l n o t be d e a l t w i t h here. ii) i n d o o r temperature
I

The p e r m i s s i b l e range of temperature i s g i v e n upon the other radiant 5 factors clothing, temperature, air velocity,

by

the

restraints

imposed activity,

g o v e r n i n g t h e h e a t balance of t h e body humidity. Under

nonsweating

conditions compensated and and to blows the

even

very

large by a

differences change of

in

relative

humidity,

between t h e

extremes a t which h u m i d i t y becomes a nuisance i n i t s e l f thermally paper radiant-

, 20% t o

70%

can

be Air

o n l y 1 K i n t h e a i r temperature.

v e l o c i t y becomes a nuisance by c a u s i n g l o c a l c o o l i n g o f t h e body above 0 . 2 . mls. about.


I t i s usual t o l i m i t a i r v e l o c i t y t o 0.1 m l s i n rooms

occupied by sedentary people f o r t h i s reason. temperature

Under these c o n d i t i o n s t h e a i r

The

'

a f f e c t h e a t l o s s t o about t h e same e x t e n t .

" o p e r a t i v e temp'erature" t a n be taken as t h e a r i t h m e t i c mean o f t h e two and characterize discussed State. t h e temperature o f t h e space. above, as and minimum a i r temperatures f o r t h e a c t i v i t i e s whose h e a t p r o d u c t i o n been value. steady maximum At t h e s e l i m i t s sweating o r s h i v e r i n g , r e s p e c t i v e l y , must occur t o t h e room, by the taking account of the rate in

used has the and a

Table1 c - 1 s e t s o u t t h e maximum

a function o f c l o t h i n g ( o r bed-clothing) insulation

They have been c a l c u l a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e heat f l o w from t h e minimum afforded body t i s s u e s when f u l l y v a s o - d i l a t e d and

c e n t r e o f t h e body a t 37%, insulation vaso-constricted,

respectively. to is

The i n s u l a t i o n v a l u e - o f t h e c l o t h i n g worn i s be 0.1 m/s A except small in amount the of case of but

parameter o f Table 1 c - 1. house-work effective where clothing 0.3 m/s

The i n s u l a t i o n v a l u e o f t h e a i r i s a f u n c t i o n o f i t s light since assumed. uncertainty i s

r e l a t i v e v e l o c i t y taken h e r e

i n t r o d u c e d by t h e dependence o f c l o t h i n g i n s u l a t i o n on a i r v e l o c i t y , insulation opening o r c l o s i n g buttons;

can be a l t e r e d much m o r e , i n an a d a p t i v e way, b y

f o r i n s t a n c e , t h i s can probably b e neglected.

C l o t h i n g and a c t i v i t y , t h e parameters o f Table I c - 1

, may

be seen t o have They n a t u r a l l y to

very l a r g e e f f e c t s on t h e p e r m i s s i b l e range o f room temperature. mean vary they of optimally seasonally, done day and so
it

a f f e c t a l s o optimum temperatures, which f o r t h e p r e s e n t purpose can be t a k e n comfortable diurnally is s e t o u t ' i n Table 1 c - 1 .


I t i s a common o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t p r e f e r r e d

temperatures and t o l i e mid way between t h e l i m i t s temperatures Had times of and between that ,would (1970) the countries. undoubtedly a n y f i e l d s t u d i e s have and large activity. and between studies systematic

documented t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s , w i t h o u t n o r m a l i z i n g c l o t h i n g probable countries, Fanger

d i f f e r e n c e s i n c l o t h i n g and a c t i v i t y t h a t occur between seasons, between have has preferred preferred temperaure. temperature performed factors.

accounted f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n extensive
It

i n standard c l o t h i n g , s i t t i n g s t i l l ' i n a l a b o r a t o r y , and above seems therefore to give

has .never found any v a r i a t i o n due t o t h e

adequate t o assume t h a t b y t a k i n g account o f t h e c l o t h i n g and a c t i v i t y l i k e l y to, occur i n a g i v e n p l a c e a t a g i v e n time, Table 1 c - 1 v a l u e s may be used the permissible range of s o - c a l l e d seasonal, d i u r n a l and.geographica1 b i a s . The o n l y e x c e p t i o n , room temperature w i t h o u t f u r t h e r c o r r e c t i o n f o r t h e already

TABLE

I c-I

P e r m i s s i b l e temperature range

A.

Minimum temperature w i t h o u t s h i v e r i n g

Activity

fletabol ism w/m2 0 0.5

Clothing ( c l o ) 1.0
1.5

2.0

3.0

Sleeping Sitting, 24-hour average Housework ( s t a n d i n g ) A c t i v e housework

40 55 67 78 110

30 27 25 23 20

28 24 22 19 14

26 21 18 15

24 18 14

21 15

17

8 .

Maximum temperature w i t h o u t sweating fletabol ism ~/m2 0 0.5 clothing (clo) 1.0 1.5' 2.0 3.0

Activity

Sleeping Sitting 24-hour average Housework ( s t a n d i n g ) A c t i v e housework

40 55 I67 78 110

32 30 29 27 26

30 27 25 23 20

28 24 21 19

26 21 18

23 18

19

excluded upper

from

t h e p r e s e n t t r e a t m e n t b u t w o r t h r e i t e r a t i n g , i s when s w e a t i n g i s cduntries. This Table will the and


I c-1

s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b i e o r e c o n o m i c a l l y necessary i n h o t limits do not h e a t a c c l i m a t i z a t i o n must be considered

t h e n a p p l y , o t h e r h e a t s t r e s s e q u a t i o n s must be used and qualitatively. introduce total that heat the Table I c - 1 i s based on an e q u a t i o n v e l o c i t y i s 0.1 m/s e x c e p t i n a c t i v e velocity is assumed,

marked seasonal and g e o g r a p h i c a l v a r i a t i o n . loss is non-evaporative, m/s temperature that range the is air air

f o r d r y h e a t balance b y Humphreys (1976), assuming t h a t 0.7 o f housework', where 0.3 permissible relative

g i v e n b y t h e l i m i t s o f v a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n and

v a s o d i l a t i o n , beyond which s h i v e r i n g and s w e a t i n g occur, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Thermal g r a d i e n t s gradients their for be the are t h r o u g h them. effects occur. in both space and time. Horizontal thermal and

experienced on

as t e m p e r a t u r e swings i n t i m e by occupants who move performance and behaviour have been studied

Temperature swings, t h e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n comfort, (1971, 72, 73, 77).

e x t e n s i v e l y b y Wyon e t a l .

T h e i r r e s u l t s may be summarized

p r e s e n t purposes as showi'ng a s u r p r i s i n g l a c k o f h y s t e r e s i s d u r i n g t h e and occupants assumed to respond to may t h e a c t u a l temperatu;e,

r e l a t i v e l y slow t e m p e r a t u r e swings o c c u r r i n g i n d w e l l i n g s neglected regardless of i t s past variation. V e r t i c a l t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s have been treatment environment o f t h e body. thermal with of criteria but should be based p h y s i o l o g i c a l response.
i t has been

dynamic e f f e c t s

insufficiently on a

studied.

A a

correct uniform vertical only

q u a n t i t a t i v e understanding o f

his

i s a v a i l a b l e f o r t o t a l heat balance i n good practice, This however, to limit to

n o t y e t f o r an environment t h a t v a r i e s between d i f f e r e n t p a r t s found


,

gradients marked

to

Klmetre.

requirement

i s included i n b u i l d i n g likely occur

r e g u l a t i o n s i n several countries. such convective

Larger gradients a r e

c i r c u l a t i o n o f a i r t h a t d r a u g h t s and c o l d f l o o r s

It i s worth noting w i l l cause problems r a t h e r t h a n t h e thermal g r a d i e n t -pertse.

t h a t such t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s a r e always p o s i t i v e , t h e t e m p e r a t u r e i n c r e a s i n g w i t h h e i g h t abbve t h e f l o o r . for multiple (In in air judgements other A l t h o u g h v e r y few t h e r m a l c o m f o r t studies have asked o f thermal comfort r e f e r r e d t o d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f the

body, Uyon e t a1 (1968) showed t h a t t h e r m a l p r e f e r e n c e i s f o r a n e g a t i v e thermal gradient. c o l d feet). gradient words, p e o p l e p r e f e r t o keep a c o o l head r a t h e r t h a n get positive thermal case However, radiant systems c a n e a s i l y c r e a t e a Most h e a t i n g systems can a c h i e v e a t b e s t a s m a l l temperature.

n e g a t i v e g r a d i e n t i n o p e r a t i v e temperature. a r e discussed i n the f o l l o w i n g section.

The l i m i t s a p p l i c a b l e i n t h i s

iii)

s u r f a c e heat r a d i a t i o n
. .

The o p e r a t i v e temperature i n a room i s a f f e c t e d t o t h e same e x t e n t surface temperatures as by t h e a i r temperature.. any p o i n t i n t h e occupi,ed zone must estimate the overall be calculated in order to be

by able

the to

The mean r a d i a n t temperature a t Table I b-1 may then be


I t i s necessary t o

heat balance o f t h e human body.

used t o g i v e t h e p e r m i s s i b l e range o f o p e r a t i v e temperature. define . t h e temperature occupied zone q u i t e c l o s e l $ i n t h i s connection, surface area whose temperature determines subtended by a g i v e n

f o r t h e s o l i d angle from the air This to

differs

i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n , t o t h e mean r a d i a n t temperature.

becomes unreasonably l a r g e i f t h e occu<pied zone i s taken t o extend r i g h t w a l l s and windows. B u i l d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s o f t e n d e f i n e t h e occupied zone as e x t e n d i n g t o
1 metre

up

within

o f t h e w a l l s o r window, and t o 0.5 metres o f an o u t s i d e , w a l l w i t h o u t a the plane radiant thereby temperature. occur, for

window f o r t h e s p e c i a l purpose o f c a l c u l a t i n g High i n t o t h e l a s t metre excluded above.

d e n s i t y & c u p a t i o n w i l l r e q u i r e t h a t t h e occupied zone i n p r a c t i c e extends Real h e a l t h r i s k s can

example when occupants must s l e e p r i g h t up a g a i n s t c o l d o u t s i d e w a l l s . I n c r e a s i n g i n s u l a t i o n standards a r e reducing these r i s k s , b u t i t considering economically by t h e h i g h a l t e r n a t i v e c o s t o f meeting building is worth for

whether e x t r a f l o o r space would n o t i n some s i t u a t i o n s be j u s t i f i e d regulations

thermal environment i f t h e occupied zone must extend t o t h e w a l l s . I n a d d i t i o n t o s a t i s f y i n g t h e above requirements f o r o v e r a l l heat surface be As temperatures than above, it must would the not cause excessive r a d i a t i o n exchange w i t h a c o l d s u r f a c e causes a p a r t i c u l a r p a r t o f t h e colder stated e f f e c t i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t caused by a c o l d draught o r excessive a i r underlying physiological model for asymnetric -thermal loads i s l a c k i n g . measured i n t h e occupied zone, n o t be l e s s than 18oC anywhere, and nor balance,
If

heat l o s s from t h e body. body

to

be i n t h e absence o f t h e surface, t h e s e n s a t i o n and velocity. response t o such

I t has been found good p r a c t i c e t o r e q u i r e


to introduce should the concept in of plane the plane -

i n b u i l d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s t h a t t h e plane r a d i a n t temperature must be c a l c u l a t e d o r . o p e r a t i v e temperature, analogous t o o p e r a t i v e temperature. differences temperature w i t h i n t h e occupied zone exceed 5 . K . from t h e c e n t r e o f t h e window. T h i s q u a n t i t y should operative
1 metre

I n p r a c t i c e t h e extreme p o i n t s

a r e u s u a l l y 1 metre from t h e c e n t r e of a r a d i a t o r below t h e window and t h e l a t t e r p o i n t w i l l be lower than at the former; An occupant

Observe t h a t t h e p l a n e o p e r a t i v e temperature a t seated or

standing function reflected values, body. outside criteria

in

front

of

t h e window w i l ' l experience a n e g a t i v e g r a d i e n t i n p l a n e that a the radiator with of is fulfilling and its other as Whereas t h e radiator,

o p e r a t i v e temperature, p r o v i d e d

o f p r e v e n t i n g down-draught by c r e a t i n g upward convection. whole show window by care the must above and in conventional still calculation may mean radiant

r a d i a n t heat exchange o f t h e body as measurement of g l o b e temperature,

temperature o r temperature of the for

acceptable from

operative

be taken t o ensure t h a t t h e asymmetric r a d i a n t f i e l d different insulation radiator size parts have been found adequate even under severe w i n t e r With increased reduced standards and surface

does n o t cause t o o much l o c a l h e a t g a i n o r l o s s The criteria windows special c o n d i t i o n s w i t h present-day windows. walls except

leading' t o cases of

temperature, t h e asymmetry w i l l be reduced and i t w i l l be easy t o meet t h e above v e r y l a r g e windows o r h i g h temperature r a d i a n t sources. i v ) a i r v e l o c i t y (draught) A i r v e l o c i t i e s t h a t a r e t o o h i g h can cause excessive l o c a l c o o l i n g o f p a r t s
Of

the

body.

They can cause d i s c o m f o r t by d r y i n g t h e mucous membranes o f t h e Some people Even are the in are sensitive is t o the l a t t e r effect. dependent on the O l d e r women o f t e n f a l l i n t o t h i s clothing worn and t h e e x a c t way Sex differences do on and Women tend t o wear

eyes, nose and mouth, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n d r y w i n t e r c o n d i t i o n s . particularly former clothing therefore is a effect lead more for

category and bccount f o r a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f c o m p l a i n t s o f draught. highly c l o t h i n g i n s u l a t i o n i s d i s t r i b u t e d over t h e body surface. t o sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o m p l a i n t s o f draught. and arms has at l i k e l y t o be a f f e c t e d by draughts. matter. . A l t h o u g h work of avoiding canplaints draughts l e s s c l o t h i n g on t h e legs, ankles, shoulders highly individual

than men been done

Thus d r a u g h t s u s c e p t i b i l i t y minimum a given a i r v e l o c i t y ,

temperatures temperature. the effective

p r o v i d i n g t h e means f o r i n d i v i d u a l adjustment of t h i s i s b e t t e r than r a i s i n g t h e These v e l o c i t i e s can t h e n be increased i n h o t weather t o p r o v i d e to raise in c o l d weather. ~aising t h e temperature t o a v o i d i n c r e a s e d c o o l i n g , l o c a l o r g e n e r a l , b u t reduced t o a v o i d d r a u g h t s o r temperature d r a u g h t s i s n o t conducive t o energy conservation. I t i s good p r a c t i c e t o l i m i t t h e general a i r v e l o c i t y i n an occupied whole zone The body

to heat

0.,1

m/s

b u t p r o v i d e t h e means t o i n c r e a s e a i r v e l o c i t y when r e q u i r e d . discussed below,

general e f f e c t o f a i r v e l o c i t y on t h e heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t f o r balance ' i s source of v a r i a t i o n .


\

b u t i n d w e l l i n g s i s u n l i k e l y t o be a major

v ) combined e f f e c t s o f a i r temperature, r a d i a t i o n and d r a u g h t on t h e human body

There have been many a t t e m p t s t o predict q u a n t i t a t i v e l y t h e effecrs thermal environment on the human body.

of

the

Over 20 d i f f e r e n t i n d i c e s of thermal All a have their limitations: They in

s t r e s s have been used i n d i f f e r e n t connections. s i m p l i f y t h e measurement o f thermal c l i m a t e i n lead to widely except different in the the predi,ctions of t h e r e f o r e canndt p r e d i c t r e l ' i a b l y any ' r e l e v a n t practice, stress

some t a k e account o n l y o f c e r t a i n thermal f a c t o r s , n e g l e c t i n g o t h e r s i n o r d e r t o particular of situation. thermal strain thermal measure s t r e s s even i n t h e o r y and

p a r t i c u l a r c o n d i t i o n s under which t h e y were derived. thermal

Most such i n d i c e s a t t e m p t . t o p r e d i c t e q u i v a l e n t combinations o f extreme that to produce a same limiting physiological for these s t r a i n , e.g. p e r m i t t e d h e a r t r a t e , sweat r a t e , o r i e n t r a l body temperature. explicitly predicted numerical value however, b u t t o an a r b i t r a r y v a l u e of "thermal s t r e s s " . be l i n k e d t o t h i s dimension e x p e r i m e n t a l l y . d i s t r i b u t i o n of p h y s i o l o g i c a l response selection the of a of r e a s s u r i n g l y \ exact even number under on

maximum

They do n o t l e a d must the when close

r e l e v a n t parameters,

S t r a i n parameters conditions, Only any

Since t h e r e i s always a s t a t i s t i c a l identical the thermal s t r e s s dimension

conceals a v e r y l a r g e degree o f u n c e r t a i n t y on t h e s t r a i n dimension. measure s t r o k e has t h e e x a c t shape of t h e attention. These i n d i c e s o f extreme thermal s t r e s s a r e of conditions in dwellings. p r o f u s e and d i s c o m f o r t c o n s i d e r a b l e . Another s e t o f questionnaires. indices equate are based on subjective in responses terms o f limited use in distribution been studied with

p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t r a i n i s t h e p r o p o r t i o n observed t o d i e of h e a t

assessing

They a r e a l l based on experiments where sweating was

to the

comfort thermal

They

thermal

conditions

d i s c o m f o r t t h e y produce. inalmost a l l o f the subjects quietly,

T h e i r weakness i s t h a t c o m p l a i n t s o f d i s c o m f o r t depend on which comfort indices are based,, the

v e r y much on what people a r e t r y i n g t o do, i n s p i t e o f t h e h e a t o r t h e c o l d , and experiments were n o t t r y i n g t o do a n y t h i n g . Although q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l i n e q u a t i n g sitting

d i f f e r e n t combinations o f thermal c o n d i t i o n s g i v i n g optimdm c o m f o r t f o r r e q u i r e d f o r energy c o n s e r v a t i o n d e c i s i o n s , which, a r e :

t h e y p r o v i d e a r a t h e r inadequate b a s i s f o r t h e two k i n d s . o f assessment

1 ) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e l i m i t s of t h e reasonably c o m f o r t a b l e zone beyond which i t

i s j u s t i f i a b l e t o use energy t o improve t h e thermal environment

2) t o p r o v i d e a thermal maintain specified a c t i v i t i e s .

environment i n which i t i s

p o s s i b l e f o r t h e body t o

thermal balance i n a way t h a t does n o t h i n d e r t h e performance o f

Most comfort i n d i c e s t a k e no account o f c l o t h i n g , a c t i v i t y o r t h e mechanisms to predict o f t h e body. some this can extend t h e comfort zone. arbitrary uncomfortable, 'inadequate the

adaptive

They t h e r e f o r e n e g l e c t t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s t h a t The o n l y b a s i s t h e y c o u l d p r o v i d e f o r ( 1 ) above i s "unacceptable" degree o f d i s c o m f o r t o r percentage Table I c - 1 shows how H i s e q u a t i o n can show

w h i l e g i v i n g no i n f o r m a t i o n a t a l l on ( 2 ) . s i m p l i f i c a t i o n would be.

.Fanger (1970) made an i m p o r t a n t s t e p

forward b y t a k i n g account o f c l o t h i n g and a c t i v i t y l e v e l .

c o n d i t i o n s p r o v i d i n g i d e a l comfort f o r a g i v e n a c t i v i t y l e v e l and c l o t h i n g ,

i d e a l c o m f o r t being a p a r t i c u l a r s t a t e of thermal balance as d e f i n e d by t h e mean s k i n temperature and sweat r a t e of s u b j e c t s i n e x a c t thermal coinfort. for the

A comfort

zone d e f i n e d by a c c e p t a b l e c l o t h i n g changes would be much narrower t h a n r e q u i r e d

( I ) , 'as
number of

it

would

n o t u t i l i z e t h e a d a p t i o n o f which t h e body i s capable. basis, predicting


It

Fanger t r e a t s d e v i a t i o n s from i d e a l comfort on a s t a t i s t i c a l

people n o t i n i d e a l comfort r a t h e r than t h e consequences f o r an is

i n d i v i d u a l i n terms o f t h e adaption h i s body would be r e q u i r e d t o make. t h e r e f o r e n o t p o s s i b l e t o address ( 2 ) a t a l l by u s i n g Fanger-s equation.

Humphreys (1976) i n t r u d u c e d a much s i m p l e r e q u a t i o n f o r t h e heat balance of the human body which heat enables flow account from of assessments the ( 1 ) and ( 2 ) t o be made. body of core the at 37
OC

It i s an

equation for t h e surroundings, flow: For The continuous

central

to

the air.

taking

t h e t h r e e i n s u l a t i n g l a y e r s t h a t govern t h i s surrounding be the

t h a t of t h e body t i s s u e s , o f t h e c l o t h i n g and

occupation, t h e h e a t flow must be equal t o t h e heat produced i n maintained. temperature

t h e body, o t h e r w i s e a s t a b l e c e n t r a l body temperature c o u l d n o t expressed b y t h r e e terms o f t h e e q u a t i o n and together equal

temperature d i f f e r e n c e s across these t h r e e l a y e r s o f thermal r e s i s t a n c e a r e

d i f f e r e n c e between body c o r e and a i r temperature: T ,

T b =M/A*(Rb t R c tKJ(4.2t13 u1J2)

where: Ta = Body c o r e temperature, 3 7 O ~ Tb = A i r temperature,


OC

MIA= M e t a b o l i c r a t e o f heat p r o d u c t i o n p e r m2 o f body surface, w/m2

K R

= P r o p o r t i o n o f m e t a b o l i c heat d i s s i p a t e d by means o t h e r t h a n e v a p o r a t i o n ,

about 0.7 indoors.


= Thermal r e s i s t a n c e u f . b o d y t i s s u e s , m2,K/W

R
u

= Thermal r e s i s t a n c e o f c l o t h i n g , m2,K/w = A i r speed, m/s

(Popular u n i t : l c l o = 0.155 ~ z , K / w )

ll(4.2

+ 13~''~)= Thermal r e s i s t a n c e between c l o t h i n g and surroundings, m 2 , K / ~

Using Humphrey-s l i m i t i n g values f o r m2,K/M skin at onset of sweating

body

tissue

resistance,

Rb =

0.04 of

and Rb= 0.09 m 2 , K / ~ a t onset o f ' s h i v e r i n g , t h i s adjustment and

e q u a t i o n a l l o w s t h e c a l c u l a t i o n of c o n d i t i o n s t h a t p e r m i t s t a b l e temperature t o t h e p r e v a i l i n g a i r temperature. appropriate to a resistance, assumed in f i x e d values o f m e t a b o l i c r a t e clothing not be room temperatures. using the operative replacing velocities. given

It i s c o n v e n i e n t t o s e l e c t
activity, Air fixed should by air

o r d e r t o a l l o w t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f maximum and minimum velocity i.e. indoor Thermal r a d i a t i o n can be i n c l u d e d by of of the air air for temperature, all normal temperature and mean r a d i a n t

Table I c - 1 was prepared i n t h i s way. t o be l e s s t h a n 0.1 m/s. temperature the instead mean is

Ta

by

arithmetic

temperature.

This approximation

appropriate

Assessment (1) r e q u i r e d f o r energy c o n s e r v a t i o n d e c i s i o n s can be made q u i t e s i m p l y from t h e above e q u a t i o n , i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: o f day, a number o f a c t i v i t i e s a r e t o be expected. to what
it

f o r a g i v e n room and t i m e as

A judgement must be made these . a c t i v i t i e s . calculate

is

reasonable t o be a b l e t o do w i t h o u t sweating o r s h i v e r i n g , , and limits for clothing for These vary greatly between c o u n t r i e s . The e q u a t i o n w i l l t h e n g i v e frequency The

what a r e t h e judgements

reasonable

will

maximum and minimum temperatures, e n a b l i n g t h e engineer t o

diagrams showing t h e number and d u r a t i o n o f occasions d u r i n g a t y p i c a l y e a r t h a t g i v e n a c t i v i t i e s a t g i v e n t i m e s o f day w i l l i n e v i t a b l y l e a d t o d i s c o m f o r t . consequences the a benefits reduced of of refusing increased to i n c r e i s e d frequency and d u r a t i o n of d i s c o m f o r t t h e n energy consumption predicted. can adapt c l o t h i n g can be c a l c u l a t e d i n terms o f t h e Alternatively, be expressed e i t h e r as a

r e d u c t i o n i n t h e frequency and d u r a t i o n of p e r i o d s of d i s c o m f o r t o r i n terms o t h e r t i m e s of day. Assessment ( 2 ) r e q u i r e d f o r energy c o n s e r v a t i o n d e c i s i o n s can considering requiring tissues. the mental i.e. 0.04 unsuitably high vaso-dilated, or low temperatures. cannot A be general rule

of need t o adapt c l o t h i n g o r t o reschedule a c t i v i t i e s t o o t h e r rooms o r

>

be

made

by

consequences o f a d j u s t i n g t h e body-s h e a t balance t o cope w i t h

is

that

activities when of fully body

concentration

adequately thermal

performed

when a t t h e l i m i t o f

reduced

resistance

m2,~/M,

c l o s e t o t h e onset o f sweating.

For such a c t i v i t i e s , a

l o w e r l i m i t o f 0.065 ~ ~ , K I W should be assumed.

It i s b e t t e r t o be s l i g h t l y c o o l

than other manual

s1i;htly hand, work


it

too hot. is to

For s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e , t o o , i t i s unpl;asant
i t dis'courages animation and induces l e t h a r g y .

t o be on On the

t h e verge of sweating:

not pleasant t o - b e c o l d either. for pleasant, of 0.07 active m2 ,K/W

The r e g i o n 0.075 t o 0.055 relaxation. should be

m 2 , ~ / I d i s probably acceptable

If s k i 1 l e d
assumed for

is

be performed, i t w i l l be hampered by t o o g r e a t a degree o f p l a y i n g musical i n s t r u m e n t s , etc. of great flexibility calculated in energy . c o n s e r v a t i o n Occupant by the

vasoconstriction.

A maximum v a l u e

sewing,writing,typing,

The above approach a1 lows decisions. Occupant

behaviour can be assumed t o be a d a p t i v e o r i n f l e x i b l e , as quantitatively. The e f f e c t s o f energy c o n s e r v a t i o n on a c t i v i t i e s o f The degree o f approximation i n t r o d u c e d

a p p r o p r i a t e , and t h e consequences can be d e c i s i o n s can be p r e d i c t e d . v a r i o u s k i n d s can be estimated. t o predict individual reactions.

assumptions i s no g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t i n h e r e n t i n u s i n g group experimental r e s u l t s

a i r contaminants

One of t h e most common measures when r e t r o f i t t i n g a r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g i n order t o c u t down t h e energy consumption, i s t o i n c r e a s e t h e heat r e s i s t a n c e of of insulating material. This measure because in the often leads t o an increased a i r - t i g h t n e s s of t h e b u i l d i n g . T h i s may t h e w a l l by adding an e x t r a l a y e r addition

cause problems, espec.ia1 l y f o r b u i l d i n g s w i t h n a t u r a l v e n t i l a t i o n , v e n t i l a t i o n r a t e can be d i m i n i s h e d t o an unacceptable l e v e l . W e w i l l now d i s c u s s some of t h e major a i r d i o x i d e (CO2 pollutants

separately.

Carbon

is

pollutant

t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of which has been used as a

measure of t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e a i r i n a d w e l l i n g f o r more t h a n 100 years.

A c o n c e n t r a t i o n of C02
acceptable. a volume is of not For

l o w e r t h a n 0.5% by volume i s

often

considered

as

a r e s t i n g person an a i r s u p p l y r a t e o f 12 m3/h i s r e q u i r e d t o For a l i v i n g area o f 60 m2. and the air starts stinking. before is

keep a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of 0.15% a t an e q u i l i b r i u m . r a t e o f 0.4lh. This pollutants. physiological

150 m3containing f i v e persons t h i s leads t o a r e q u i r e d a i r change A t h i g h e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s than 0.15% because The C02 reactions of the 1 ike

Cop

concentration, and

b u t because o f a s s o c i a t e d volume headache become n o t i c e a b l e .

c o n c e n t r a t i o n must a t t a i n a v a l u e o f 3% by breathlessness

T h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n corresponds t o an a i r exchange o f 0.6 m3/h and person and

only

one

twentieth

of t h e a i r s u p p l y r a t e r e q u i r e d t o keep a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f

0.15% constant. The problem o f e x c e s s i v e m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t i n r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s , caused by excessively air-tight inadequate e f f i c i e n c y , has become more i m p o r t a n t i n r e c e n t years. t o save energy, o r have been r e t r o f i t t e d walls. A seated person w i l l e x p i r e about 40 g o f w a t e r p e r hour. five 200 gfh. D r y i n g o f l a u n d r y by i t s e l f w i l l t a k e about one day. For a f a m i l y Laundry of by adding extra This mostly problem to the
'

c o n s t r u c t i o n s o r v e n t i l a t i o n systems'with an

may occur i n b u i l d i n g s where t h e r a t e o f v e n t i l a t i o n has been decreased i n o r d e r insulation

persons t h i s l e a d s t o an i n c r e a s e o f t h e m o i s t u r e ~ c o n t e n ti n a d w e l l i n g by after Thus,.laundry w i t h a d r y moisture

s p i n - d r y i n g w i l l c o n t a i n 50 -100 % of w a t e r b y weight. w e i g h t o f 4 kg w i l l c o n t a i n 2-4 kg of water. from drying

Assuming t h e emission o f

l a u n d r y t o be c o n s t a n t d u r i n g 24 hours leads t o an i n c r e a s e o f t h e

m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t i n a d w e l l i n g by 80-160 g / h from 4 k g d r y i n g l a u n a r y . Adding contribution to this the contribution from the occupants used here and of a a smaller 5-person

from

cooking,

t h e . estimated increase o f moisture content i n the F o r t h e example

l i v i n g area w i l l be about 300 gfh.

f a m i l y i n a l i v i n g area o f 60 m2with a volume of 150 m3, we have p l o t t e d i n f i g .

I c - 1 t h e r e q u i r e d a i r - c h a n g e r a t e t o keep t h e i n d o o r
constant level been performed f o r an o u t d o o r h u m i d i t y o f 85 % t h i s case an air-change r a t e of 0.5fh w i l l i n

relative

humidity

at

a is In the

f o r some d i f f e r e n t o u t d o o r temperatures.

The c a l c u l a t i o n s have family keep

Assuming t h a t t h i s case suffice to

a t home o n l y 16 hours a day w i l l reduce t h e r e q u i r e d a i r - c h a n g e r a t e by 25%. any i n d o o r r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y below 60% d u r i n g t h e h e a t i n g season. A high indoor humidity may bring and the problems air can of a different Dust mites

kind., can High and

Condensation may o c c u r on c o l d s u r f a c e s such as windows. t o s e r i o u s h y g i e n i c disadvantages flourish and be

~umiditycan give rise

stink.'

a t h r e a t t o t h e h e a l t h e s p e c i a l l y f o r a l l e r g i c persons.

h u m i d i t y can a l s o cause r o t and t h e growth o f d r y r o t w i t h s e r i o u s economic h y g i e n i c consequences. High c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f formaldehyde has The recently become is a problem contained

in in

b u i l d i n g s where p a r t i c l e board has been used i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n . o f f u r n i t u r e a l s o c o n t a i n p a r t i c l e board. certain types o f .glue used at formaldehyde

Certain types Allergic

t h e f a b r i c a t i o n o f p a r t i c l e board.

r ( A i r changes per hour1

1.5

Fig I c

R e q u i r e d a i r change r a t e , r, t o keep i n d o o r h u m i d i t y , u, c o n s t a n t f o r d i f f e r e n t outdoor t e m p e r a t u r e , t i s t h e outdoor t e m p e r a t u r e . C a l c u l a t i o n performed f o r d u e l l i n g d e s c r i b e d i n t e x t (5-person f a m i l y , L i v i n g a r e a 6 0 m2, volume of d u e l l i n g 1 5 0 m 3 ) .

Radon level ~ ~ / m '

2 -

i
\,
3.

.........

4-.--

loden hocIse without cellar Wooden house with concrete cellar or multi-family house of concrete or brick Slate-based gas concrete house, mean value Example of a house with an unusually high radon level

Air change rate per hour


Fig I c

Radon c o n c e n t r a t i o n versus a i r change r a t e from some case s t u d i e s o f b u i l d i n g s (Radonutredn. 1979)

persons may r e a c t t o c o n c e n t r a t i o n s as low as 0.1 ppm. houses c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of 2 ppm have been measured. due to imperfect mixing o f the a i r

I n some

recently

built ppm, the

I n some cases i n c r e a s i n g t h e

airchange r a t e from 0.5 t o l / h o n l y lowered t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n from 1 t o 0.7

T h i s problem can n o t t h e r e f o r e be solved elimination at

by an i n c r e a s e of t h e v e n t i l a t i o n , b u t has t o be s o l v e d by source.
,

Radon i s certain high. years of rocks cause

a r a d i o a c t i v e . substance

emitted

fran

the

radium

existing after

in

I n some b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n can b e r e l a t i v e l y 15-40 An a i r change r a t e o f 0.5/h i s considered s u f f i c i e n t concentration

I f t h e v e n t i l a t i o n r a t e i s t o o low, a c o n s t a n t exposure may l u n g cancer. I n fig.

t o eliminate t h i s risk. radon

I c-2 we g i v e as an example t h e

as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e a i r change r a t e as measured i n some case s t u d i e s

o f b u i l d i n g s o f d i f f e r e n t kind. The examples discussed here i n d i c a t e t h a t an airchange sufficient long as t o f u l f i l a l l hygienic rate of 0.5/h is as

ventilation

requirements.

For t h e purpose o f considered

t h i s Report t h e h y g i e n i c problem o f a i r contaminants need n o t be may f a l l below 0.51h.

one does n o t e n c 0 u n t e r . a r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g where t h e airchange r a t e

lighting

Windows, and consequently d a y l i g h t i n g , i s a fundamental p a r t dwellings. The s i z e o f t h e

of

rooms

in

windows and

t h e i r performance have t o be considered

i n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e h e a t balance bf t h e b u i l ' d i n g . I n many c o u n t r i e s t h e b u i l d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s c o n t a i n minimum requirements f o r window. sizes. factors, These requirements are .often expressed as minimum d a y l i g h t The use of windows t o some e x t e n t based on s t u d i e s o f preference.

depends on such t h i n g s as vicw, demand f o r p r i v a c y and c l i m a t e . D i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s and f a s h i o n a r e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e use curtains, b l i n d s , f l o w e r s and p l a n t s . o f d a y l i g h t e n t e r i n g t h e room and consequently on t h e need f o r e l e c t r i c l i g h t . of

T h i s has a g r e a t i n f l u e n c e on t h e amount

The e l e c t r i c l i g h t used i n d w e l l i n g s i s m a i n l y incandescent


\

light

with

few e x c e p t i o n s , f o r i n s t a n c e Japan, where f l o u r e s c e n t l i g h t i n g i s dominant. F l o u r e s c e n t l i g h t i n g i s i n some c o u n t r i e s used m o s t l y i n k i t c h e n The electricity t h e t o t a l energy consumption. There a r e v e r y few s t a t e d r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r e l e c t r i c l i g h t i n g i n However, f o r s t a i r s t h e r e i s o f t e n a r e q u i r e m e n t o f 50-150 l u x . dwellings. possible lighting.

used f o r l i g h t i n g i n d w e l l i n g s i s r e l a t i v e l y small compared t o

For most o t h e r

rooms t h e r e s h o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t number o f e l e c t r i c o u t l e t s t o make i t t a arrrange a s u i t a b l e l i g h t i n g a l l o w i n g f o r i n d i v i d u a l choice For a f u l l e r t r e a t m e n t o f these questions see

Hopkinson-

Petherbridge-

Longmore (1966) and de8oer-Fisher (1978).

I C - 18

Bib1 iography d e Boer.J.8. Fanger.P.0.: Hopkinson,R.G., and Fischer,D.: I n t e r i o r L i g h t i n g . P h i l i p s Technical L i b r a r y ( l 9 7 8 ) 1972

C o n d i t i o n s f o r Thermal Comfort-A .Review. CIB Cam. W45-Symp. Petherbridge,P. and Longm0re.J.

: Daylighting.

W i l l i a m Heineman L t d (1966) References Fanger,P.O.:Thermal Humpreys, M.A.: Comfort. Danish Technical Press, Copenhagen (1970)

D e s i r a b l e temperatures i n d w e l l i n g s . ERE C u r r e n t Paper 75/76.

Also i n B u i l d i n g Services Engineer 44, pp. 176-180 (1976) Radonutredningen. M t n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e , Stockholm Sweden. Report DsJo 1979:9 (1979) Wy0n.D.P.: Human responses t o c y c l i c changes i n t h e thermal environment. Ed. J. Durand and J. Raymud.

I n : Thermal Comfort.

E d i t i o n s INSERM P a r i s 75, pp. 153-162 (1977) Wy0n.D.P. ,Andersen,I. and Lundqvist,G.R.: Spontaneous magnitude e s t i m a t i o n

o f thermal d i s c o m f o r t d u r i n g changes i n t h e ambient temperature. J. Hygiene 70, pp. 203-221 (1972) Wy0n.D.P. ,Asgeirdottir,T. ,Kjerulf-Jensen,P. and Fanger.P.0.:

The e f f e c t s o f ambient temperature swings on comfort, performance and b e h a v i o u r Proc. of t h e CNRS I n t . Symp. " Q u a n t i t a t i v e p r e d i c t i o n o f t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f t h e thermal environment i n Man" and i n A r c h i v e s des Sciences Physiologiques, 27 pp. 441-458 (1973) Wyon,D.P. ,Bruun,N.U. ,Olesen,S. ,Kjerulf-Jensen,P. and Fanger.P.0.

actors

a f f e c t i n g t h e s u b j e c t i v e t o l e r a n c e o f ambient temperature swings.

Proc. of t h e 5 t h l n t . Congr. f o r Heating and V e n t i l a t i n g , Copenhagen. Vol. 1 pp. 87-107 (1971) Wyon,D.P. ,Lidwell,O.M. and W i l l i a m s R.E.O.: Thermal Comfort d u r i n g S u r g i c a l

Operations. J. Hygiene 66, pp. 229-248 (1968)

CHAPTER I d

I n f l u e n c e o f t h e h e a t i n g system on energy consumption

Contents

general introduction heat generators heat d i s t r i b u t i o n heat terminals c o n t r o l systems e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e h e a t i n g system b u i l d i n g ,and h e a t i n g system coup1 i n g b i b 1 iography and r e f e r e n c e s

Id

I n f l u e n c e of t h e h e a t i n g system on energy consumption

general i n t r o d u c t i o n

Energy used t o h e a t a b u i l d i n g o r domestic h o t w a t e r form of primary energy as oil, gas electricity.

is

normally energy

in

the

o r s o l i d f u e l s , o r secondary energy as contained can be u t i l i z e d w i t h t h e h e l p of s o l a r

Renewable energy sources l i k e sun r a d i a t i o n and

i n ambient a i r , ground w a t e r , e a r t h e t c . c o l l e c t o r s o r heat pumps.

A h e a t i n g system o f a b u i l d i n g i s o f t e n d i v i d e d i n t o

four

sub-systems the the

or heat -

components: system. There

the are

heat

generator heat systelns

(the which

heat do

production etc.), contain not

unit), and all

d i s t r i b u t i o n system, t h e components.

terminals

(radiators

control

heating

these four

The most cainnon h e a t g e n e r a t o r s a r e based on t h e above mentioned p r i m a r y o r secondary energies. Table

I d-1

gives

examples

of

t y p e s o f energy; h e a t

d i s t r i b u t i o n media, and h e a t t e r m i n a l s . Warm a i r f u r n a c e s a r e t h e o l d e s t space h e a t i n g equipments. of heating systems more e f f i c i e n t e l e c t r i c b o i l e r s , furnaces and space heaters The development
\

has r e s u l t e d i n e f f i c i e n t combustion b o i l e r s and f u r n a c e s . and even more

e f f i c i e n t thermodynamic h e a t g e n e r a t o r s as h e a t pumps. Heat d i s t r i b u t i o n systems a r e radiators, systems control system. as convectors, solar or baseboard induction terminals etc. waterand or airbased. tube Heat terminals are

finned

terminals,

dual duct.and temperature The with

F l o o r h e a t i n g systems a r e designed f o r low h e a t pump systems.

C o n t r o l systems can be a n y t h i n g from

manual r a d i a t o r v a l v e s t o computer based c e n t r a l feed-back c o n t r o l systems. system must Thus, a c e r t a i n c o n t r o l s y s t e m i s o n l y e f f i c i e n t in combination

be such t h a t i t can match t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s on t h e h e a t i n g .


,

c e r t a i n h e a t i n g systems. The success o f energy c o n s e r v a t i o n depends on behaviour, heating and b u i l d i n g and i n s t a l l a t l o n systems. the knowledge of building

v e n t i l a t i o n systems b e h a v i o u r and t h e c o u p l i n g between The i n t e r a c t i o n between b u i l d i n g and h e a t i n g

Table I d-1.

R e s i d e n t i a l h e a t i n g systems

Forced a i r Primary energy Gas


Oi1

Hydronic Gas O i1 Solid fuels Electricity: -resistance -heat pump Water, steam

Zonal Gas Solid fuels Electricity: -heat pump -resistance

Solid fuels Electricity: -resistance -heat pump Heat d i s t r i b u t i o n medi u m Heat d i s t r i b u t i o n system Heat terminals Diffusers Registers Grillers Ducting Air

Piping

Radiators Fan c o i l u n i t s Floor heating

Included w l t h product

Table I d-2.

Heat g e n e r a t o r s Heat g e n e r a t o r s Combustion b o i l e r s Heat d i s t r i b u t i o n medium.

Fuel o r e l e c t r i c i t y tia s S o l i d fuels Oi1 Electricity

Air
Radiation Water

Combustion furnaces

E l e c t r i c furnaces Resistance space h e a t e r Heat pump Electric boiler Heat pump

Ai r Radiation

Water

system i s analyzgd i n t h e l a s t s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter. The e f f i c i e n c y o f a h e a t i n g system i s o f t e n d e f i n e d as t h e product efficiencies heat of its components. can of be distribution system unambiguously components. defined in terms of of the the are

The e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e h e a t generator and t h e The e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e heat

thermodynamical less easily

properties For

these

t e r m i n a l s and t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f the c o n t r o l system, t h e c o n t r o l e f f i c i e n c y , defined. these accepted d e f i n i t i o ~ t sof the e f f i c i e n c y .

components t h e r e do n o t e x i s t any g e n e r a l l y

heat generators

Fuel o r e l e c t r i c i t y generator, medium.

is

transformed

to

heat

in

device

called

heat

whose c o n s t r u c t i o n depends on t h e t y p e of f u e l and heat d i s t r i b u t i o n

I n Table I d-2 most common types of heat generators a r e l i s t e d . boiler is to a a pressure fluid. vessel designed to transfer 'heat to operate may not as be

Acombustion (produced electric wood, by

combustion) A

B o i l e r s may be designed t o b u r n c o a l , for one specific fuel

wood, v a r i o u s grades o f f u e l o i l , v a r i o u s types of f u e l gas, o r boilers. boiler designed c o n v e r t i b l e t o another t y p e o f f u e l . o i l , o r gas. s o l i d f u e l and one f o r o i l .

Some b o i l e r s can be adapted t o b u r n oil or

coal, by

Some b o i l e r s have two separate combustion chambers, one f o r Several designs a l l o w f i r i n g w i t h gas

b u r n e r conversion, o r by u s i n g a dual f u e l burner. Warm a i r furnaces a r e of 'two t y p e s , g r a v i t y and forced air and through t h e ducts. air. of Forced the warm

furnaces use a m o t o r - d r i v e n blower t o c i r c u l a t e a i r over t h e h e a t exchanger A d r a f t hood i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e o u t l e t furnace

and r e p l a c e s t h e b a r o m e t r i c damper. Conversion burners a r e complete burners installation and control units designed for

i n e x i s t i n g b o i l e r s and furnaces.

Conversion burners f o r ' d o m e s t i c

a p p l i c a t i o n a r e a v a i l a b l e i n s i z e s ranging from about 10 t o 100 kU c a p a c i t y . Space h e a t e r s a r e used f o r h e a t i n g a s i n g l e room o r a l i m i t e d differ from central heating equipment in incoporated. a r e used. Both n a t u r a l c o n v e c t i o n and forced c i r c u l a t i o n warm area. air Tiiey systems

t h e e x t e n t o f d i s t r i b u t i o n system

An o i l burner i s a mechanical d e v i c e f o r p r e p a r i n g f u e l o i l t o cbmbine w i t h air under for control l e d combustion Burners oil is c o n d i t i o n s f o r combustion. supplied Two methods ( a t o m i z a t i o n and combustion flame, or or process. pilot flame. Ignition i s oil v a p o r i z a t i o n ) a r e used f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f f u e l f o r t h e

Air

by n a t u r a l o r mechanical d r a f t . gas pilot

g e n e r a l l y acco~nplishedby an e l e c t r i c spark, flame.

o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o p e r a t e w i t h luminous o r nonluminous flame. high-low burners o r d i n a r i l y have a f u e l consumption r a t e from about 0.5

The o p e r a t i o n may be continuous, i n t e r m i t t e n t , modulating, Residential t o 5 mlts.

A gas burner i s a d e v i c e f o r t h e f i n a l conveyance of t h e gas, o r a


of be gas and air as to the combustion types zone. for Burners are i n j e c t i o n , luminous flame, o r power burner types. classified those designed designed f o r room a p p l i c a t i o n . R e s i d e n t i a l gas

mixture may

o f the atmospheric burners

c e n t r a l h e a t i n g p l a n t s o r those

Gas burners and conversion burners a r e a v a i l a b l e C e n t r a l h e a t i n g a p p l i a n c e s i n c l u d e warm air

f o r s e v e r a l k i n d s o f c e n t r a l systems and f o r o t h e r a p p l i c a t i o n s , where the u n i t s a r e i n s t a l l e d i n the. heated space. furnaces and steam o r h o t w a t e r b o i l e r s .

A mechanical s t o k e r i s a d e v i c e t h a t feeds a s o l i d f u e l i n t o
chamber. Coal,

combustion ash.

It

provides and in

supply

of

a i r f o r b u r n i n g the f u e l under automatic

c o n t r o l and, i n some cases, i n c o r p o r a t e s a d e v i c e f o r a u t o m a t i c removal o f wood,

p e l l e t s can be burned ,more e f f i c i e n t l y by a mechanical s t o k e r the fuel bed, and p o s i t i v e control o f the a i r supplied f o r

than by hand f i r i n g because t h e s t o k e r p r o v i d e s a u n i f o r m f u e l feed r a t e , b e t t e r distribution canbustion. Most o i l - f i r e d b u r n e r s , and many g a s - f i r e d r e s i d e n t i a l b o i l e r s a r e equipped with heater be an internal u s e s no tankless heater c o i l . storage tank: The b o i l e r t h e a t e r i s a water t o w a t e r , By definition, a tankless h e a t exchanger, used t o supply domestic h o t water. . b o i l e r water s u r r o u n d i n g t h e heater c o i l .

the o n l y heat s t o r a g e i s t h e volume o f heated

A s t o r a g e tank f o r domestic water may

added t o supply peak l o a d s and thus t o a l l o w a r e d u c t i o n i n b o i l e r c a p a c i t y .

A c i r c u l a t i o n pump i s u s a l l y needed t o c i r c u l a t e water between b o i l e r h e a t e r and


s t o r a g e tank. E l e c t r i c h e a t i n g systems Systems vessel or consist of room convectors. are either such centralized as space hydronic heaters, or a warm air or

units

radiators,

Hydronic systems o f t e n use an e l . e c t r i c b o i l e r which i s

pressure

designed

t o t r a n s f e r heat from e l e c t r i c r e s i s t a n c e elements t o a f l u i d .

E l e c t r i c b o i l e r s a r e n e a r l y 100% e f f i c i e n t boiler. Losses from electric s u r f a c e and p i p i n g connections. Depending on

in

transferring location, the

heat heat

within losses

the can

b o i l e r s a r e heat l o s t from t h e e x t e r n a l b o i l e r

c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e h e a t i n y o f t h e d w e l l i n g d u r i n g t h e h e a t i n g season:

A heat pump i s a d e v i c e t h a t w i t h h e l p o f work can


lower temperature level to a higher level. The e l e c t r i c a l l y driven,

transfer

heat

fran

vapor-canpression c y c l e , Heat

i s t h e most common working p r i n c i p l e f o r heat pumps.

pumps a r e n o r m a l l y c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o heat source and s i n k and h e a t i n g and c o o l i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n f l u i d . . The most ccnmon t y p e i s t h e a i r - a i r heat pump mostly depending on t r a d i t i o n s from a i r - c o n d i t i o n i n g . The use o f a i r - w a t e r and water-water heat pumps i s i n c r e a s i n g i n Europe as w e l l as i n t h e U.S and Canada.

heat d i s t r i b u t i o n

water systems can be o f t h e f o r c e d type, where water pump, temperature and weight between supply and systems a r e seldom used .today. return columns

is of

circulated water.

by

o r g r a v i t y systems where t h e thermal head i s c r e a t e d by t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n

. Gravity
of

The heated f l u i d i s d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e s i d e n c e b y piping t e r m i n a l s l o c a t e d i n each room. Basic piping arrangements are

system

t o c a s t - i r o n o r s t e e l p l a t e r a d i a t o r s a n d . c a b i n e t convectors o r f a n - c o i l series loop,

one-pipe, two-pipe reverse-'return and twozpipe d i r e c t r e t u r n (see f i g . Losses of energy e.g'. by water l e a k s a r e ccinmon.

I d-1).

F i r i n g r a t e s h i g h e r than delivered Energy system

needed reduce e f f i c i e n c y and i n c r e a s e energy waste. to the outside which air have rather by

Radiant and c o n v e c t i v e h e a t

l o s s e s f r a n heat y e n e r a t o r s and p i p i n g a r e unrecovered i f t h e heat i s saving i s components accomplished insulating the surfaces of al!

t h a n t o t h e spaces where heat i s desired. heating

a temperature a p p r e c i a b l y above t h a t o f t h e surrounding

a i r and which do n o t c o n t r i b u t e heat t o t h e design load. A i r c e n t r a l systems a r e r a r e l y used, i n apartments, s i n c e considered air is undesirable to mix return the air
it

is
U.S.

generally In Heated

from more t h i n one apartment.

s i n g l e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s forced a i r systems a r e w i d e l y used i n t h e distributed throughout residence ducts.

b y metal and/or f i b e r g l a s s a i r

The heat losses from an a i r system a r e m a i n l y due t o a i r leakage and bad

BOILER

U
BOILER

Fig.

I d-I

Examples o f p i p i n g systems A s e r i e Loop system B one-pipe system C = two-pipe r e v e r s e r e t u r n system D = two-pipe d i r e c t r e t u r n system

i n s u l a t i o n of t h e ducts.
It i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e h e a t i n g system i s w e l l adjusted.
.

Otherwise

some

areas

might

become overheated when o t h e r areas a r e t o o c o o l .

A bad system can

a l s o l e a d t o o v e r s i z e d fans and o v e r s i z e d furnaces.

heat t e r m i n a l s

The t e r m iron

radiator
of

i s g e n e r a l l y confined t o tubes or steel

sectional plate

steelplate

or The

cast heat

radiators

column

panel r a d i a t o r s . convection.

The h e a t

emission from a r a d i a t o r i s p a r t l y r a d i a t i o n and p a r t l y emission from a r a d i a t o r depends on:

t h e s i z e o f c o n v e c t i v e surface t h e h e i g h t of t h e r a d i a t o r flow conditions and r a d i a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f room surfaces w a t e r temperature and f l o w

- air

- temperatures - furniture
-

a i r movement i n t h e room curtains t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e r a d i a t o r the distance casing The h e a t e m i t t e d by t h e r a d i a t o r i s n o t proportional to the temperature The numerical the wall. r a d i a t o r - w a l l and r a d i a t o r - f l o o r

difference value The

between

the

radiator

surface

and t h e ambient temperature, b u t i s The s u r f a c e temperature of t h e

r a t h e r p r o p o r t i o n a l t o some power o f t h i s temperature d i f f e r e n c e . o f t h e exponent i s i n general around 1.3. heat losses through

w a l l ,section behind a r a d i a t o r i s much h i g h e r t h a n on o t h e r p a r t s o f t i m e s t h e l o s s e s t h r o u g h o t h e r p a r t s of t h e w a l l . heated by r a d i a t i 0 n . a The term As the wall is

t h e w a l l behind t h e r a d i a t o r can be i s much as t h r e e primarily

s i m p l e r a d i a t i o n s h i e l d can be a t t a c h e d t o t h e w a l l . refers and has two to a or a heat terminal element tubes. The that with a operates element with is

convector air

gravity-circulated secondary s u r f a c e surrounded

heating more

l a r g e amount o f

containing

heating

on. a l l s i d e s by an e n c l o s u r e h a v i n g one a i r i n l e t opening below and

one above t h e h e a t i n g element.

The h e a t emission from convectors depends on:

t h e water temperature a i r f l o w over convector s u r f a c e s convector s u r f a c e s and seconday surfaces o u t l e t openings heater tube refers refers fins to to heat heat terminals terminals designed fabricated for from

- t h e degree o f d i r t on - c o n t a c t between p i p e s - t h e s i z e of i n l e t and


The room a i r . term installation along the

baseboard finned

bottom o f w a l l s .

They o p e r a t e w i t h g r a v i t y - c i r c u l a t e d t o t h e tube. They o p e r a t e w i t h

The term tubing

metallic

with

metallic

bounded

g r a v i t y - c i r c u l a t e d room a i r . The t e r m dual d u c t r e f e r s t o a h e a t t e r m i n a l c o n s i s t i n g o f a with two air supply w i t h a i r o f a temperature above t h a t o f t h e room a i r . "mixing box"

connections, one w i t h a i r o f a temperature below and one The box mixes t h e two a i r

streams so t h e r e s u l t i n g a i r stream has t h e wanted temperature. I n an i n d u c t i o n t e r m i n a l c o n d i t i o n e d supply a i r p a s s i n g over a h e a t i n g c o i l (steam,hot is mixed with room air

water o r e l e c t r i c t y p e ) .

The temperature

of t h e mixed a i r i s c o n t r o l l e d by r e g u l a t i n g t h e o u t p u t o f t h e h e a t i n g c o i l ; Room f a n - c o i l finned coil heat u n i t s c o n t a i n a small exchanger. motor-driven wall, or centrifugal takes the fan air and from a a

They operate on a l l r e c i r c u l a t e d a i r , o r t a k e a

p r o p o r t i o n o f f r e s h a i r t h r o u g h an e x t e r n a l central plant.

The f i n n e d c o i l i s o f t e n heated by h o t water. systems where the floor or the

There a r e h y d r o n i c o r e l e c t r i c h e a t i n g ceiling i s heated by a e m i t t e d by r a d i a t i o n .

p i p i n g system o r e l e c t r i c r e s i s t e n t straps.

Heat i s

c o n t r o l systems

The f u n c t i o n a l requirement o f c o n t r o l i n a h e a t i n g system i s t o system variables control in the load.

alter

the

such a way t h a t t h e equipment c a p a c i t y i s changed t o meet system may o n l y be e f f i c i e n t i n combination w i t h a c e r t a i n

D i f f e r e n t h e a t i n g systems r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f c o n t r o l systems.

certain

h e a t i n g system.'. E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e r e a r e two t y p e s o f c o n t r o l modern h e a t i n g systems: open l o o p and closed loop.

loops

present

in

1) A feed-forward c o n t r o l (see f i g .
because arranged effect energy
it

I d-2a)
loop

is

an An

open

loop

control

is

antlcipating

the the

e f f e c t on t h e system o f an e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e open control. outdoor thermostat has .no

which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r to on w i t h outdoor temperature,

c o n t r o l heat flow t o a b u i l d i n g i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e load, v a r y i n g i s an example. The a c t u a l room temperature this controller. Many

I f t h e l o a d of a room i s decreased because o f . some


occupants open the windows t o a v o i d overheating. with feedforward control

k i n d o f f r e e heat, t h e room temperature w i l l r i s e w i t h e f f e c t s on 'comfort and on consumption. Thermostatic v a l v e s a r e o f t e n used i n combination systems t o a v o i d overheating. 2)'~he c e n t r a l feedlback c o n t r o l (see f i g . closed such the loop c o n t r o l . variation. heat An

I d-2b)

is

an

example

. of

I n t h i s t y p e o f system t h e c o n t r o l l e r measures t h e a c t u a l example i s a room thermostat t h a t c o n t r o l s t h e amount o f


A room

changes i n t h e c o n t r o l l e d v a r i a b l e and a c t i v a t e s t h e c o n t r o l l e d d e v i c e t o o f f s e t h e a t b e i n g d i s t r i b u t e d from t h e h e a t i n g system. room a c c o r d i n g t o i n d o o r temperature.


A modern c o n t r o l system has an outdoor t h e r m o s t a t

thermostat

controlling

d i s t r i b u t i o n t o a b u i l d i n g must be l o c a t e d i n t h e most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e

to

control

the

supply

temperature o f t h e heat d i s t r i b u t i o n medium and a room t h e r m o s t a t t o c o n t r o l t h e amount o f heat d i s t r i b u t e d .


A l o c a l automatic c o n t r o l i s a d e v i c e t h a t c o n t r o l s room

temperature

only

i n t h e room where t h e c o n t r o l i s placed.

The c o n t r o l d e v i c e may c o n s i s t o f

a t h e r m o s t a t c o n t r o l l i n g a n o n - o f f s w i t c h on e l e c t r i c space-heaters a t h e r m o s t a t i c v a l v e c o n t r o l l i n g water f l o w through a r a d i a t o r o r o t h e r water based heat t e r m i n a l s a thermostat c o n t r o l l i n g a damper designed t o c o n t r o l t h e , f l o w o f a i r The performance o f l o c a l manual c o n t r o l depends on the operator, who in

most

cases

will

be

the

occupant of t h e d w e l l i n g .

I n b u i l d i n g s w i t h a water

system t h e manual c o n t r o l m o s t l y operates on t h e water flow.

P
I

OUT DOOR SENSOR

. J

1 ROOM THERMOSTAT -

F i g . I d-2 Examples o f c e n t r a l h e a t i n g c o n t r o l systems Feed f o r w a r d system ( t o p ) and F e e d b a c k system ( b o t t o m )

e f f i c i e n c y o f h e a t i n g systems

The d e f i n i t i o n o f e f f i c i e n c y i s seldom u n i q u e general of efficiency can be defined as "consumed e n e r g y " .

or

commonly

accepted. which

In

t h e r a t i o between " u s e f u l e n e r g y " and consist

F o r complex systems such as h e a t i n g systeins,

a number o f components, t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e s y s t e m c a n be e x p r e s s e d e i t h e r

i n t e r m s o f t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f e a c h , s e p a r a t e component, o r i n t e r m s o f t h e system efficiency.


A h e a t i n g System c a n b e d i v i d e d i n t o

the heat g e n e r a t o r t h e heat d i s t r i b u t i o n system t h e heat t e r m i n a l s t h e c o n t r o l system The c o n t r o l system s h o u l d i n f l u e n c e t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f , and t h e i n t e r a c t i o n

between,

the

other

three

components

so t h a t t h e a c t u a l i n d o o r c l i m a t e i s a s

c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o t h e d e s i r e d one. The e n e r g y f l o w s o f t h e h e a t i n g s y s t e m a r e l i s t e d b e l o w (See f i g . N o t e t h a t h e r e t h e chimney i s n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e h e a t i n g system. Q i = heat content o f the supplied f u e l ( c a l o r i f i c value)

I d-3).

Qj = C o n v e c t i v e and r a d i a t i v e h e a t l o s s e s t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t from t h e h e a t
generator

CJL = c o n v e c t i v e and r a d i a t i v e h e a t l o s s e s t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t f r o m t h e h e a t
d i s t r i b u t i o n system ' Q u = c o n v e c t i v e and r a d i a t i v e h e a t l o s s e s t o t h e environmeng from t h e h e a t terminals Ha = e n t h a l p y o f t h e a i r e n t e r i n g t h e b o i l e r

Hf = e n t h a l p y o f t h e f l o w gases and v a p o u r i n t h e f l u e gases


Hq = e n t h a l p y o f t h e h e a t e d f l u i d e n t e r i n g t h e b o i l e r

HI = e n t h a l p y o f t h e h e a t e d f l u i d l e a v i n g t h e b o i l e r Hz = e n t h a l p y o f t h e h e a t e d f l u i d e n t e r i n g t h e h e a t t e r m i n a l
H3 = e n t h a l p y o f t h e h e a t e d f l u i d l e a v i n g t h e h e a t t e r m i n a l

Wv = work p e r f o r m e d b y t h e b u r n e r Wp = work p e r f o r m e d b y t h e c i r c u l a t i o n pump


The e n e r g y c o n s e r v a t i o n e q u a t i o n o f t h e components i n s t e a d y s t a t e c o n d i t i o n s

Heat terminal -

Fig.

I d-3

G e n e r a l i z e d p i c t u r e o f energy f l o u s i n a h e a t i n g system c o n s i s t i n g o f heat generator, heat d i s t r i b u t i o n system,

and heat t e r m i n a l ( t h e chimney - i s n o t i n c l u d e d )

9. = heat content o f f u e l 1 9. = r a d i a t i v e and c o n d u c t i v e heat Losses from t h e


1 g e n e r a t o r ( j a c k e t Losses)

Q1 = QU =
H

heat Losses from t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n system heat g i v e n o f f by the t e r m i n a l s

= enthalpy of a i r entering burner a H f = e n t h a l p y o f smoke gases and vapoor e n t e r i n g


the chimney

= e n t h a l p y of heated f l u i d Leaving g e n e r a t o r
0,

H4 . H

I + = 3
'4 '4 v P

= =

"
"

"
0,

,,
$0

"

entering

"

"
"

so

,,

entering terminal Leaving

= u o r k performed by b u r n e r = u o r k performed by pump o r f a n

i s then f o r t h e heat generator: -qj

+ W v + q i +'Ha - H f + H4

- H i =O

f o r t h e heat d i s t r i b u t i o n system: -qt +.up + H1 -HZ + H3 f o r t h e heat t e r m i n a l -qu + HZ

H4 ' 0

H j =O

and f o r t h e whole system

The e f f i c i e n c e s can then be d e f i n e d as t h e r a t i o between "useful, energy" "consumed energy". f u e l . The process i n t h e "consumed energy",

and

I t i s then common n o t t o i n c l u d e t h e work r e q u i r e d f o r t h e

b u t t o i n c l u d e o n l y t h e heat content o f t h e

hypothesis i s made t h a t Wv and Wp can be disregarded. One can then

d e f i n e t h e e f f i c i e n c i e s o f t h e heat generator:

a t = Qu/(H2 - H j ) = 1 and o f t h e whole system


1
= Ou/Qi

It i s easily verified that


=

99'' I d * l e

lg

Id

I n p r a c t i c e , t h e term "energy conversion e f f i c i e n c y " o f a b o i l e r ( o r a furnace) can r e f e r t o two d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s o f e f f i c i e n c y as t h i s one w i t h .the load: often varies

I ) t h e steady s t a t e e f f i c i e n c y a t a f i x e d l o a d (defined as i n eq. I d-2)


2) t h e average o r c y c l i c e f f i c i e n c y ( t h e average e f f i c i e n c y over a period. The v a r i a t i o n i n t h e load w i t h t i m e must then a l s o be defined)

The s t e a d y s t a t e e f f i c i e n c y t w o ways:

i s i n general

experimentally

determined i n one o f

t h e d i r e c t balance method t h e i n d i r e c t b a l a n c e method I 1 1 f.

These t o p i c s a r e t r e a t e d i n more d e t a i l i n ch.

I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t p a r t o f t h e r a d i a t i v e and c o n v e c t i v e h e a t l o s s e s o f the h e a t g e n e r a t o r and t h e h e a t d i s t r i b u t i o n system and p a r t o f t h e f l u e l o s s e s T h i s has n o t been t a k e n of the of no into A l t e r n a t i v e proposals f o r heating the heat may a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e h e a t i n g o f a b u i l d i n g . t h e d e f . i n i t i o n o f e f f i c i e n c i e s have been made. system t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e heat d i s t r i b u t i o n termindls and the control efficiency system,

account i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f e f f i c i e n c y g i v e n above.

The e f f i c i e n c y the

has been d e f i n e d as t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e h e a t g e n e r a t o r , efficiency (Uytenbroeck

1981);

but

precise

d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e e f f i c i e n c y of t h e h e a t t e r m i n a l o r t h e c o n t r o l e f f i c i e n c y a r e g i v e n i n t h i s case. and the actual to

he

e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e h e a t t e r m i n a l has been d e f i n e d as t h e certain indoor climate ideal output b y t h e h e a t t e r m i n a l ~Guillaume-Gengoux 1981). This evaluation i s not terminal,

r a t i o between t h e m i n i m a l energy r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e a energy

T h i s t h e n r e q u i r e s a q u a n t i t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e energy r e q u i r e d b y an heat .terminal guarantee a c e r t a i n indoor climate. easy t o perform, due t o t h e c o m p l e x i t y of t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e t h e ambient a i r and t h e s u r r o u n d i n g w a l l s . The c o n t r o l e f f i c i e n c y can b e d e f i n e d i n terms controlled variable). by: T: = t h e a c t u a l i n d o o r t e m p e r a t u r e Ti
= t h e wanted i n d o o r t e m p e r a t u r e

of

the

deviation one

of

the

variable

from

the

set-

p o i n t ( p r o v i d e d t h e r e i s o n l y one c o n t r o l denotes

If t h e c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e i s t h e i n d o o r t e m p e r a t u r e , and

AT = t h e t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e T.;-Ti the control efficiency

%-can be d e f i n e d as
dv d t and o v e r time, and
t.

Its= i - AT)^
The

dv W J T ? Ti and

where t h e i n t e g r a t i o n i s o v e r t h e heated b u i l d i n g volume, V, temperatures


T :

( i n degrees K e l v i n ) may r e f e r t o t h e i n d o o r a i r the indoor air temperature the The t e m p e r a t u r e s T i

t e m p e r a t u r e o r t o a weighted average of surface

t e m p e r a t u r e s o f a room (an o p e r a t i v e t e m p e r a t u r e ) .

and T;

may be f u n c t i o n s of space and time. the be the the integration o~nitted. heat control

I f ncg r e f e r s t o t h e
I f Ti

instantaneous and T; take integration the indoor

efficiency, over
V

o v e r t i m e should be o m i t t e d . In a

t h e same v a l u e everywhere i n t h e heated volume of t h e b u i l d i n g ' , t h e may supplied t o temperature, distribution efficiency system may is be not affected by

feed- f o r w a r d c o n t r o l system, where t h e h e a t defined i n terms o f t h e s u p p l y

t e m p e r a t u r e i n s t e a d o f t h e i n d o o r temperature.
If t h e h e a t demandsfor a c e r t a i n o u t d o o r temperature i s expressed i n

terms heat For an curve of The

of t h e dependence of t h e r e q u i r e d s u p p l y t e m p e r a t u r e on t h e o u t d o o r temperature,

one o b t a i n s a h e a t demand c u r v e l i k e i n f i g . demand c u r v e will fig. heat be more

I d-4.

The

shape

of

this

w i l l . depend on t h e k i n d o f h e a t t e r m i n a l s t h a t a r e used.

a i r system t h e c u r v e w i l l be a p p r o x i m a t e l y l i n e a r , f o r a w a t e r system t h e convex. household e l e c t r i c i t y e t c . ) , t h e c u r v e may be t r a n s l a t e d a l o n g t h e

Depending on t h e amount o f f r e e h e a t ( s o l a r r a d i a t i o n , abscissa

I d-5.
demand

The magnitude o f t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n w i l l v a r y w i t h t h e t i m e o f t h e curve is an intrinsic p r o p e r t y o f t h e b u i l d i n g and t h e h e a t i n g

y e a r i f s o l a r r a d i a t i o n makes a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e f r e e heat. system, and i s n o t i n f l u e n c e d by t h e c o n t r o l system. For a c o n t r o l system where t h e s u p p l y outdoor curve of temperature the temperature is determined by

the

o n l y , t h e dependence o f t h e s u p p l y t e m p e r a t u r e , determined system. For most c o n t r o l systems t h i s c u r v e i s e i t h e r

b y t h e c o n t r o l system, on t h e o u t d o o r t e m p e r a t u r e i s g i v e n b y t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c control a p p r o x i m a t e l y l i n e a r o r s l i g h t l y convex ( s e e f i g .

I d-5).
curve and the

The b e s t c o n t r o l e f f i c i e n c y i s achieved i f t h e h e a t demand characteristic curve


Of

t h e c o n t r o l system c o i n c i d e .

T h i s can, however, never The b e s t t h a t can temperature, curve the of

be t h e case if t h e two c u r v e s do n o t have t h e same c u r v a t u r e . o f t h e o u t d o o r temperature. supply temperature For o t h e r values o f t h e outdoor

be achieved i n p r a c t i c e i s , i n g e n e r a l , t h a t t h e two c u r v e s c r o s s f o r two v a l u e s w i l l n o t be t h e o p t i m a l one. The c o n t r o l e f f i c i e n c y may be characteristic

bad i f t h e c u r v a t u r e . o f t h e h e a t demand c u r v e and t h e t h e c o n t r o l system a r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t . For c o n t r o l systems t h a t do n o t use t h e o u t d o o r input, the situation may be analogous,

temperature

as

the

only

b u t more complex.

I n t h i s case t h e

c o n t r o l e f f i c i e n c y cannot be i l l u s t r a t e d b y j u s t comparing two curves.

I d-16

Supply temperature "C

External temperatureC
Fig.

l d-4

Example o f t h e dependence o f supply t e m p e r a t u r e on t h e e x t e r n a l t e m p e r a t u r e ( h e a t demand c u r v e ) b e f o r e and a f t e r i n c r e a s i n g i n s u l a t i o n o f e x t e r i o r w a l l s

supply temperature

OC

External temperatureC
F i g . I d-5 Examples o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c curves f o r f e e d f o r w a r d c o n t r o l systems
\

For heavpumps one uses i n s t e a d o f t h e e f f i c i e n c y o t h e r t e n s the performance, heat the energy r a t i o ) , and t h e seasonal performance f a c t o r (SPF). between output and pumps depends on t h e temperatures o f heat source and s i n k . i n source-sink temperature, t h e s m a l l e r t h e e f f i c i e n c y . we1 1 d e f i n e d c o n d i t i o n s ( t h e Carnot COP) i s d e f i n e d as COP(Carnot)- T(cond)/(T(cond)-T(evap)) where T(cond) = condensing temperature, K T(evap) = e v a p o r a t i n g temperature, K

to

describe ratio span

c o e f f i c i e n t o f performance (COP, a l s o c a l l e d t h e c o o l i n g The C O P i s the The wider the energy demand ( m o s t l y e l e c t r i c i t y ) . The C O P o f heat

The t h e o r e t i c a l C O P for

P r a c t i c a l l y , 45-60% of t h e COP(Carnot) can be reached, b u t one should . t a k e into account that the condensing temperatire must must be be h i g h e r than t h e s i n k lower than the source temperature, and t h e e v a p o r a t i n g temperature

temperature, t h u s i n c r e a s i n g t h e , temperature span.. Depending on t h e h e a t d i s t r i b u t i o n . m e d i u m fans o r pumps a r e must i s d e f i n e d as t h e r a t i o between t h e t o t a l heat o u t p u t supplementary heating) and the total energy supplementary h e a t i n g ) d u r i n g one year. (heat needed, heating pump which SPF and and heat

be considered when c a l c u l a t i n g t h e seasonal performance f a c t o r (SPF). pump the demand (to heat

The SPF depends on

building

demand, s i z e and t y p e of heat pump and t y p e o f supplementary heat.

b u i l d i n g and h e a t i n g system coup1 i n g

The o v e r a l l e f f i c i e n c y of a h e a t i n g system i s determined by heating system is adapted ' t o t h e b u i l d i n g . system gains d e s i g n heat o u t p u t o f t h e h e a t i n g system. require 'another b u i l d i n g o f heavy allowed so heating construction variations

how

well

the

The most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i s t h e may For a be in

A b u i l d i n g of heavy c o n s t r u c t i o n
in i n d o o r . temperature

than a b u i l d i n g of l i g h t c o n s t r u c t i o n . can be e x p l o i t e d .

should stored

that - solar

T h i s i s n o t so i m p o r t a n t f o r

b u i l d i n g s o f l i g h t c o n s t r u c t i o n as o n l y small amounts o f heat can be t h e b u i l d i n g structure.

A h e a t i n g system can respond q u i c k l y o r s l o w l y t o a change i n h e a t Forced slowly.

demand.

a i r systems and e l e c t r i c h e a t e r s i n general have a q u i c k response, w h i l e In new b u i l d i n g s w i t h w e l l a d j u s t e d water systems, t h e volume o f the The

water systems i n o l d b u i l d i n g s w i t h l a r g e tubes and r a d i a t o r s i n general respond water i n t h e system i s d f t e n small and t h e response may t h e r e f o r e be quick. on t h e response t i w e o f t h e h e a t i n g system. I n a t i g h t b u i l d i n g an a i r t o a i r heat exchanger o r a system
will

a b i l i t y t o e x p l o i t f r e e heat from people, sun, and household e l e c t r i c i t y debends

forced a

air

heating of

work b e t t e r t h a n i n a l e a k y b u i l d i n g . through the building

The v e n t i l a t i o n w i l l remain number T h i s has an

balanced even i f t h e r e i s a s t r o n g wind. penetrations impact on t h e t i g h t n e s s of t h e b u i l d i n g .

Heating systems Cequire

envelope f o r d u c t s and pipes.

When a b u i l d i n g i s r e t r o f i t t e d ' , t h e h e a t demand w i l l i n This means

general

decrease. As that

t h a t a l s o t h e average l o a d o f t h e heat g e n e r a t o r w i l l decrease.

t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f most heat generators decreases w i t h t h e load, t h i s means o v e r s i z e d h e a t i n g systems may become l e s s e f f i c i e n t a f t e r a r e t r o f i t .


It i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o g i v e a f u l l

treatment and heating therefore

of

the

complex system illustrate


will

interaction within the seen the above that,

between framework

building, of by this

heating Report.

system, W e

control only
It

will

dependence

r e g a r d i n g a b u i l d i n g w i t h a r a t h e r simple system, a water system be

c o n t r o l l e d b y a c e n t r a l feed- forward c o n t r o l system.

even f o r t h i s r a t h e r u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d c o n t r o l system, t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e b u i l d i n g , h e a t i n g system and h e a t i n g c o n t r o l system can be v e r y complex. For t h e system d e s c r i b e d above, t h e s e a r e two m a i n requirements to be view: that have

f u l f i l l e d f o r t h e h e a t i n g system t o be e f f i c i e n t from an energy p o i n t o f

- the
-

d i s t r i b u t i o n o f heat must be as even a s ' p o s s i b l e between d i f f e r e n t rooms

t h e room temperature must be k e p t w i t h i n c e r t a i n l i m i t s independent o f t h e swings o f t h e outdoor temperature

I f t h e f i r s t requirement i s
function i.e., as expected. This

to

be

fulfilled,

the

heating

system

must

can be achieved by a d j u s t i n g t h e h e a t i n g system, between radiators The requirement

p r e s e t t i n g o f v a l v e s so t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f water

i s such t h a t t h e temperature d i f f e r e n c e between rooms i s small.

for a c e r t a i n i n d o o r temperature everywhere w i l l then mean t h a t t h e c o l d e s t room

w i l l d e t e r m i n e t h e energy consumption. Even if t h e h e a t i n g system has been adjusted according In a to the above family often

t h e r e w i l l o f t e n s t i l l be a need f o r a p o s t - a d j u s t m e n t of t h e h e a t i n g system t o d e t e c t t h e "weak p o i n t s " o f t h e h e a t i n g system. residential lead to building of this can multiwill

. be

achieved b y l o w e r i n g t h e supply t e m p e r a t u r e I n practice, this

u n t i l complaints by the residents are'received. detection i n s u l a t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g as w e l l .

" w e a k . p o i n t s " o f t h e v e n t i l a t i o n system and t h e thermal,

R e t r o f i t s l i k e improved t h e r m a l performance of e x t e r i o r w a l l s and or decreased ventilation, changes A postfrom one room t o another. t h e r e f o r e be necessary. I n a b u i l d i n g w i t h t h e r m o s t a t i c v a l v e s , t h e s e have t o be wants v a l u e of t h e t h e r m o s t a t i c valves. can be lowered. adjusted adjustment of the

windows, might

t h e energy demand b y an amount t h a t v a r i e s h e a t i n g system

i f one

t o l o w e r t h e i n d o o r t e m p e r a t u r e o f e v e r y room t o a v a l u e below t h e p r e s e t A f t e r t h e adjustment, t h e s u p p l y temperature The r e t u r n t e m p e r a t u r e

kill

then f a l l .

The second r e q u i r e m e n t l i s t e d above was t h a t t h e i n d o o r t e m p e r a t u r e must be kept been the the also within certain limits. noted same that, for for T h i s can, i n p r i n c i p l e , be achieved b y l e t t i n g t h e temperature.
It

s u p p l y t e m p e r a t u r e be determined by t h e o u t d o o r

has

already is not to is

w a t e r systems, t h e dependence o f t h e supply t e m p e r a t u r e dependence p e r i o d s o f t h e year. One would t h e n l i k e t o have t h e

upon t h e e x t e r n a l t e m p e r a t u r e . i s a non- l i n e a r one, and t h e different of fig.

p o s s i b i l i t y t o s h i f t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c u r v e o f t h e c o n t r o l system p a r a l l e l abscissa
I d-5.

T h i s i s , however, n o t p o s s i b l e w i t h most c o n t r u l
it

syste~ns. I n s t e a d , t h e c u r v e can be s h i f t e d p a ' r a l l e l t o t h e o r d i n a t a and t h e c o n t r o l system. W e t h e n have t h e s i t u a t i o n d e s c r i b e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n : temperature will be the correct c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c u r v e of t h e c o n t r o l system c r o s s . When t h e o u t d o o r t e m p e r a t u r e i s changing will be the slowly, the supply the

i n general p o s s i b l e t o change t h e c u r v a t u r e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c u r v e o f

supply

one o n l y when t h e h e a t demand c u r v e and t h e

temperature be

one determined by t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c u r v e of t h e c o n t r o l system.

However, when t h e r e a r e r a p i d changes o f t h e o u t d o o r temperature, t h e r e w i l l

a t i m e l a g between t h e r e q u i r e d and t h e a c t u a l temperature, and t h e a m p l i t u d e of

-4

1
8 0
Fig.
I d-6

1'4

15

18

20

I 22

24

I 2

I
6

Time o f day
Example of recorded supply temperature and e x t e r n a l

temperature d u r i n g a c l e a r day along w i t h t h e " t h e o r e t i c a l " supply temperature t h a t the c o n t r o l system should have produced f o r the a c t u a l e x t e r n a l temperature TSU 1 ; " T. 1 Tex

a c t u a l supply temperature "theoretical" supply temperature

=
= =

i n t e r n a l temperature e x t e r n a l temperature

t h e supply temperature w i l l be s m a l l e r than t h e amplitude r e q u i r e d t o c o u n t e r a c t the change of t h e outdoor temperature (see f i g . of the external' wall. The the

1 -6).
af

The cause of t h i s i s , t h e supply temperature because of the

t h a t t h e reading o f t h e e x t e r n a l temperature sensor i s influenced by t h e surface temperature thermal damping indoor amplitude w i l l i n general n o t a f f e c t inertia of the building. temperature

The reading o f t h e e x t e r n a l t e ~ n p e r a t u r ew i l l .The above factors

a l s o be affected by s o l a r r a d i a t i o n , wind, and a i r humidity. may be important when n i g h t temperature set-back i s used.

Bib1iography ASHRAE Handbook B P r o d u c t D i r e c t o r y : 1979 Equipment, 1980 Systems, 1982 ~ p p ~ i c a t i o n sh. e r i c a n S o c i e t y of Heating, R e f r i g e r a t i n g and A i r C o n d i t i o n i n g Engineers (ASHRAE), New York (1979,1980,1981) C o n s i g l i o Nazionale d e l l e Richerce- Progetto F i n a l i z z a t o Energetica: Guida a1 c o n t r o l l o e n e r g e t i c 0 d e l l a p r o g e t t a z i o n e , PEG, M i l a n o 1983 Handorff, S. and Svedberg, S.: Energibesparing.

Swedish I n s t i t u t e of B u i l d i n g Research. 1973 Recknagel-Sprenger: raschenbuch f u r Heizung und K l i m a t e c h n i k , (1982)

R. Oldenburg Verlag,Munich

R i e t s c h e l - R a i s s : H e i z - und K l i m a t e c h n i k . S p r i n g e r V e r l a g , B e r l i n 1968 (French E d i t i o n : T r a i t e de chauffage e t de c l i m a t i s a t i o n , Ounod, P a r i s 1973)

References Guillaume,.M. M i l l h o n e , J.P. and Gengoux, H. and W i l l i s , E.H.

: " E f f i c i e n c y o f t h e Emission of R a d i a t o r s " i n


(Ed.): New Energy C o n s e r v a t i o n P o s s i b i l i t i e s

Vol. 1, pp.345-358. U y t t e n b r o e c k , J. H i l l h o n e , J.P. Val.

S p r i n g e r V e r l a g , B e r l i n 1981

: "Seasonal E f f i c i e n c y o f a H e a t i n g P l a n t " i n

and W i l l i s , E.H.

(Ed.):

New Energy C o n s e r v a t i o n P o s s i b i l i t i e s

1. pp.345-358.

S p r i n g e r Verlag, B e r l i n 1981

CHAPTER I e

The occupants i n f l u e n c e on t h e energy consumption

Contents

o p e r a t i o n s by t h e occupant a f f e c t i n g t h e energy consumption v a r i a t i o n . i n energy consumption due t o v a r i a t i o n i n i n d o o r temperature and use o f a p p l i a n c e s

p.

I e- 1

p. I e- 4

v a r i a t i o n i n energy consumption due t o b e h a v i o u r and a t t i t u d e s e f f e c t s o f occupancy on t h e h e a t balance of a building references

p.

I e-10

p. I e-14

,
P. 1 e-18

Ie

The occupants i n f l u e n c e on t h e energy consumption

o p e r a t i o n s by t h e occupant a f f e c t i n g energy consumption

The o p e r a t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s of an occupant can be physiological factors.Most

viewed

as

caused

by such

needs, o r s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l norms, o r by a combination o f these of t h e d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s of an occupant a r e p r o b a b l y caused by activity of an occupant to a


i t w i l l o n l y e x c e p t i o n a l l y be u s e f u l t o

a c a n b i n a t i o n of f a c t o r s and, t h e r e f o r e , t r y t o a s c r i b e a c e r t a i n behaviour o r factor.

single

By human behaviour we do n o t here mean t h e habits, behaviour and of

whole

spectrum

of

behaviour, such

a c t i o n s perfonned by t h e occupant i n a r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g due t o Here we w i l l deal w i t h occupanJs in r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s t h a t i n f l u e n c e s t h e domestic

c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l d r i v i n g forces. energy consumption. For a b e t t e r understanding i t may be useful t o behaviour, habits and

split

up

the

complex

of

a c t i v i t i e s of t h e i n h a b i t a n t i n t o s i n g l e o p e r a t i o n s and

determine t h e impact o f each one of these on energy consumption. can then be made between
1) o p e r a t i o n s by t h e occupant i n v o l v i n g consumption o f energy

distinction

i n a d i r e c t form
2 ) o p e r a t i o n s by t h e occupant aiming a t c o n t r o l o f t h e i n d o o r

climate -

in a direct form,

1) Some o p e r a t i o n s i n v o l v e t h e consumption of
often associated with the use of

energy

domestic appliances.

Energy w i l l t h e n be

consumed d i r e c t l y i n t h e f o n o f e l e c t r i c i t y , gas, o i l o r h o t t a p water. .Operations of t h i s k i n d illumination, b a t h o r a shower. include cooking, use of TY, refrigerator and

clothes-washing,

clothes-drying,

washing

up d i s h , and t a k i n g a

Ifan occupant needs t o perform an o p e r a t i o n o f t h i s k i n d , he

can o n l y i n d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e t h e amount o f energy t h a t i s consumed.

The amount o f n e t energy w i l l be determined by ' t h e a p p l i a n c e , by of of energy that is Some a p p l i a n c e s a r e used by t h e occupant t o save t i m e and t o reduce

the the

kind amount

used and t h e conversion f a c t o r from p r i m a r y t o n e t energy. the use o f a dish-washer).

manual work needed t o perform an o p e r a t i o n (e.g.

O f t e n t h i s a l s o means t h a t the amount o f r e q u i r e d p r i m a r y energy i s reduced. Other appliances, l i k e i l l u m i n a t i o n and TV, a r e n o t used t o r e p l a c e work. same The alnount use as of is these needed appliances manual by of the this the

will

always

i n c r e a s e t h e t o t a l energy increase Much o f t h i s

consumption.

The t o t a l energy consumption w i l l , however, n o t

f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n of the appliances.

energy w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e h e a t i n g o f t h e d w e l l i n g .

The 'magnitude and where,

c o n t r i b u t i o n w i l l depend on t h e need f o r v e n t i l a t i o n when t h e a p p l i a n c e i s used, the thermal i n e r t i a and t h e h e a t i n g system of t h e d w e l l i n g dwelling, the appliance i s situated.

ia

A break-down o f t h e t o t a l energy i n t o c o n s t i t u e n t s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e
required domestic o r year. the for the general n o t be necessary if one i s i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n t h e t o t a l energy.
I t can u s u a l l y be read o f f d i r e c t l y from

energy of

performance of o p e r a t i o n s of t h e k i n d discussed here w i l l i n consumption

a meter once a month


calculate

The purpose o f a break-down o f t h e energy consumption i s t o to

contribution

t h e h e a t i n g of t h e d w e l l i n g from the energy by a p p l i a n c e s

when t h e r e i s no way t o measure i t d i r e c t l y .

A d i s c u s s i o n on o p e r a t i o n s of t h e k i n d discussed above, data on what amount


of energy is used when t h e y a r e performed and how t o p e r f o r m measurements o f t h i s energy consumption a r e found i n P a r t I V . Data on certainly when o p e r a t i o n s o f t h i s k i n d t a k e p l a c e a r e scarce. performed o n l y when t h e occupant i s a t home. spends his time But there some can can be

be

T h e r e f o r e knowledge

about when t h e occupant i s a t home and how he u s e f u l (see ch.

I V c).
require an

2 ) Other o p e r a t i o n s than those discussed above do n o t d i r e c t l y


energy at t h e i n d o o r environment. home. the For consumption. towards norms.

source, b u t a r e o p e r a t i o n s performed by t h e occupant i n o r d e r t o c o n t r o l Some o f them can o n l y be performed when t h e occupant i s attitude cultural some i t i s very d i f f i c u l t t o deterniine t h e impact on t h e energy The e x t e n t t o which some o p e r a t i o n s o f

When and if they a r e performed depends on t h e occupant-s p r e v a i l i n g indoor climate.

t h i s k i n d a r e performed i s a l s o more d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d by s o c i a l and These t o p i c s a r e discussed i n ch.

I V c.

An example i s t h e c h o i c e o f o r demand f o r The n a t i o n a l recommendations and indoor until above temperature. the energy The crisis d u r i n g t h i s c e n t u r y (see e.g. in building average the

certain

indoor the

temperature. permissible at least well a1 i k e

d i f f e r e n c e between i n h a b i t a n t s o f d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s i s o f t e n r e f l e c t e d i n regulations regarding has indoor temperature has increased s t e a d i l y been,

Hunt-Steel 1980) and t h e r e

s e v e n t i e s , a tendency of d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l temperature

recommendations and r e g u l a t i o n s t o converge towards an i n d o o r

'

20

OC.

This convergence can be regarded as a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e f a c t t h a t of t h e c l i m a t i c zone. that The demand f o r a h i g h e r i n d o o r temperature


It i s also

r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s i n d i f f e r e n t i n d u s t r i a l i z e d areas a r e becoming more independently common today i s probably l i n k e d t o t h e tendency t o wear l i g h t e r c l o t h i n g a t home. rooms of t h e d w e l l i n g . Another example of t h i s k i n d of behaviour bedroom system, i s very i m p o r t a n t . the notion is the habit of

t h e occupant t r i e s t o keep a comfortable temperature i n a l l

keeping: t h e ventilation there


,

windows open d u r i n g the n i g h t , i n f l u e n c e d by the o p i n i o n t h a t f r e s h a i r


I f t h e d w e l l i n g i s equipped w i t h

a mechanical In these cases

that

fresh

air

is

of

great

importance f o r h e a l t h and can

w e l l - b e i n g may lead t o an excessive

ventilation.

probably be l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s i n behaviouc between d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s .

A t h i r d example, i s t h a t s h u t t e r s and b l i n d s can


amount of sunshine and daylight

be

used

to

control

the

p e n e t r a t i n g i n t o t h e l i v i n g area. The use of

Electric shutters

l i g h t i n g w i l l be used i f t h e r e i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t d a y l i g h t .

and b l i n d s a t n i g h t i s t o a l a r g e e x t e n t determined by t h e demand f o r p r i v a c y . The c h o i c e of, o r demand f o r , a c e r t a i n countries use of c o m p a r a t i v e l y easy t o measure. shutters and blinds indoor temperature in different and the

i s e i t h e r w e l l known o r p r e s c r i b e d i n some code and i t i s i n any case The c h o i c e o f v e n t i l a t i o n i n bedrooms a t n i g h t have been very l i t t l e i n v e s t i g a t e d . To

o b t a i n f u r t h e r k n o w l e d g e ' i n t h i s f i e l d w i l l r e q u i r e a r a t h e r e x t e n s i v e amount o f research.

If t h e occupant does

not

feel

comfortable

with

the

prevailing

indoor might

climate,

he

will

try

t o modify i t i n the r e q u i r e d d i r e c t i o n .

What a c t i o n he

w i l l t a k e w i l l depend on t h e means a t h i s d i s p o s a l .
might open a window.

I f i t i s t o o c o l d he

t u r n on an e l e c t r i c stove r a t h e r than change h i s c l o t h i n g .

I f i t i s t o o warm he

If

the

residential occupant the

building

does to

not

contain at

equipment least the

giving indoor

the air be a

individual

possibility

modify

temperature and t h e v e n t i l a t i o n , very u n p r e d i c t a b l e . behaviour .may useless (see ch. t h a t from an e n e r g e t i c p o i n t easily
I V c).

t h e r e s u l t i n g behaviour o f t h e occupant may view might the be very uneconomical. consumption can Such

He may t r y o t h e r means t o c o n t r o l t h e i n d b o r c l i m a t e , means of a f f e c t the energy consumption t o such an e x t e n t t h a t a l l energy become

c a l c u l a t i o n schemes f o r t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f

Some i n v e s t i g a t i o n s (see ch. energy consumption in nominally

I 1 e) i n d i c a t e t h a t most o f t h e v a r i a t i o n indentical buildings

of

can be e x p l a i n e d by a

v a r i a t i o n i n t h e behaviour o f t h e occupants:

1 t i s t h e r e f o r e i m p d r t a n t n o t t o r e g a r d t h e occupant as a p a s s i v e
dnd occupant.

consumer

of energy b u t t o t a k e i n t o account t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between environment, b u i l d i n g

A f a c t o r t h a t s h o u l d n o t be f o r g o t t e n
towards of energy saving.

is

the

attitude

of

the the a

occupant purpose research of the

If t h e occupants can n o t understand t h e reason why a


I n some cases t h e occupants w i l l u l t i m a t e l y become involved the in

r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g i s r e t r o f i t t e d , he may a c t i n such a way t h a t saving energy i s n o t achieved. understand and accept t h e reason, b u t if t h e y programe o f a d a p t i n g t o t h e new s i t u a t i o n and t h i s research programne. may

r u n n i n g f o r o n l y one h e a t i n g season, they may s t i l l be i n t h e process influence outcome T h i s e f f e c t has been noted i n some i n v e s t i g a t i o n s .

v a r i a t i o n i n energy consumption due t o v a r i a t i o n ' i n i n d o o r temperature and use o f a p p l i a n c e s

I n many d i s c u s s i o n s about t h e e f f e c t of occupancy on energy consumption should be kept in mind :hat data refer occupants. The s c a t t e r around every such "average" w i l l be l a r g e .

it

t o . a n "average behaviour" o f t h e The cause o f education.

t h i s s c a t t e r i s r a t h e r complicated.

Attempts t o c o r r e l a t e energy consumption t o

d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s such as t h e s i z e of d w e l l i n g , f a m i l y s i z e , income,, occupation, o r age have been o n l y p a r t l y o r n o t a t a l l s u c c e s s f u l .

I n most experiments one has found t h a t t h e standard d e v i a t i o n o f t h e energy an 10 t h e average t o t a l energy consumption.

total of

consumption .in a group o f " i d e n t i c a l " houses l i e s between 10 and 30 % o f

I n a group o f houses t h a t a r e
In a group the

really of

i d e n t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h i s standard d e v i a t i o n may sometimes be as small as

15 % (Solum and Songe-Moller 1974, Socolow 1978)!


are

houses

that

s i m i l a r , b u t n o t r e a l l y i d e n t i c a l , t h e observed standard d e v i a t i o n i s distribution

more t y p i c a l l y o f the o r d e r o f 20 %. Two t y p i c a l examples o f i n fig. Ie-1.

f u n c t i o n f o r t h e t o t a l energy consumption i n a group of s i m i l a r houses a r e g i v e n -

One major source o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i n energy consumption i s t h e v a r i a t i o n i n the average indoor one temperature finds between the dwellings. standard I n s t u d i e s of t h e i n d o o r of the average temperature temperature fig. much Ie-2. often that deviation Some italy

i n a group o f d w e l l i n g s i s c l o s e t o 2 K, even i f t h e average i n d o o r examples may these be are g i v e n i n considered countries. as How Here the data for Sweden and

temperature may vary from one c o u n t r y t o another.

representative o f the stock of r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s o f

o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i n t o t a l energy consumption t h a t can be e x p l a i n e d by t h i s In

v a r i a t i o n o f t h e i n d o o r temperature w i l l o f course depend on t h e average i n d o o r outdoor temperature d i f f e r e n c e and t h e degree o f i n s u l a t i o n , o f the d w e l l i n g . fig. I e - 3 we g i v e an example where about h a l f o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i n t o t a l consumption can be e x p l a i n e d by Jhe v a r i a t i o n of the i n d o o r temperature. The v a r i a t i o n i n t h e consumption o f household energy i s on as the variation in the indoor temperature. then, superimposed energy

Here one o f t e n f i n d s t h a t the As an example we g i v e i n fig: from investigations of hot

standard d e v i a t i o n o f a c e r t a i n k i n d o f household energy consumption i s as l a r g e 50 % o f the average t o t a l energy consumption. I e - 4 the d i s t r i b u t i o n f u n c t i o n o f t h e use o f h o t t a p water i n some c o u n t r i e s . t a p water. Very few s t u d i e s have been performed where a energy consumption can be studied. standard larger. deviation The of I n Fig. breakdown of the energy the much

Here the d i s t r i b u t i o n f u n c t i o n from t h e f r e n c h i n v e s t i g a t i o n

may be considered as r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e n a t i o n a l v a r i a t i o n i n consumption

consumption has been made i n such a way t h a t t h e v a r i a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of I e - 5 we g i v e an example where t h e t o t a l energy consumption i s r a t h e r small, w h i l e t h e

v a r i a t i o n i n t h e energy consumption f o r d i f f e r e n t household a c t i v i t i e s ' i s c o n s t i t u t e s t h e major p a r t o f t h e t o t a l energy consumption.

energy consumed f o r h e a t i n g o f t h e d w e l l i n g i n t h i s case probably

;
.
I

-- - Sweden (Munther 1974, U=19 %1

U.S. (Socolow 1978. 4.22%)

1-

Total Energy Consumption

50

100

150

1 Fig I e :

D i s t r i b u t i o n f u n c t i o n f of t h e v a r i a t i o n of t o t a l energy consumption i n a group o f s i m i l a r houses. o i s the standard deviation

-I t a l y ( B o f f a - R u b i n i

--- U.K. IO'Sullivan 1982, T=~B'c. 6.2 ........ Sweden (Holgersson 1982. T=22'C.'

198l.i=19'~. 6=1.7 K l

::

...

i i. .

-5
Fig I e

D i s t r i b u t i o n f u n c t i o n of t h e v a r i a t i o n of i n d o o r temperature i n d u e l l i n g s , T. T i s t h e average i n d o o r temperature f o r a l l k i n d of d u e l l i n g s i n c l u d e d i n t h e experiments, o t h e standard d e v i a t i o n . The d a t a f o r Sueden and I t a l y can be considered as r e p r e s e n t i n g a n a t i o n a l average of a l l k i n d s of d w e l l i n g s

2.5-

- AT/^ I U=l5%1
- - - E]E
I V=3Oo/~)
[Cornish 1976 )

2-

1.5-

1-

0.5-

,
I

Total Energy Consumption [ E l and indoor -outdoor temperature difference [AT) [ % o f overage]
b

50
Fig I e

150
D i s t r i b u t i o n f u n c t i o n s o f t h e r e l a t i v e t o t a l energy consumption, E I E and t h e r e l a t i v e indoor-outdoor temperature d i f f e r e n c e . o i s t h e standard d e v i a t i o n

-3

f
r.
I
'\

. France . (Bienfait

-- - U.K.(Whittle-Warren

1979, U = 5 3 % ) 1978. 4 = 3 8 % )

........ Sweden (Nilsson-Lundgren 1978, 4 ~ 5 0 % )

Consumption of hot water [% of average ]


I I I

100
Fig I e
l

200

300

D i s t r i b u t i o n f u n c t i o n o f t h e consumption o f h o t t a p u a t e r o f a c l a s s of b u i l d i n g s r e l a t i v e t o t h e average consumption of t h a t class. The d i s t r i b u t i o n f u n c t i o n s of s e v e r a l classes of r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s have been added. o i s t h e standard deviation

3-

- t o t a l energy

---

........
2.52-

( U=13%) hot water I 4.22%) lighting and others ( 6 = 2 4 % ) cooking (U=40%)

ISolum and Songe -Msller 1974)

1.5-

1-

0.5-

Consumed Energy [% of average] .


50
100 150

2W

Fig I e

The d i s t r i b u t i o n f u n c t i o n s o f t h e r e l a t i v e energy consumption f o r t o t a l energy consumption, h o t t a p water consumption, cooking and L i g h t i n g and o t h e r consumption f o r a group o f i d e n t i c a l , e l e c t r i c a l l y heated s i n g l e f a m i l y houses i n Norway, o i s t h e standard d e v i a t i o n

Switzerland

o France o Great B r i t a i n

0
Kitchen a r e a [m2 I
I I

10

1 ,

Fig Ie

Percentage of meals taken i n t h e k i t c h e n versus k i t c h e n area i n three countries

Cooking [h/day]

$ 1

Penetration refr~gerator (%)

50
Fig I e

100

I * 1 50

Average t i m e spent on c o o k i n g by women v e r s u s p e n e t r a t i o n of r e f r i g e r a t o r s and f r e e z e r s i n some Western European c o u n t r i e s

Cost per degree tempera!ure

difference (arbitrary units)

Fig I e

8 Occupant s c h o i c e o f i n d o o r - o u t d o o r t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e
( A T ) versus r e l a t i v e c o s t f o r keeping t h i s i n d o o r temperature ( a f t e r Weston 1950)

Most examples g i v e n above do n o t r e p r e s e n t any n a t i o n a l averages, merely case studies, and should therefore not be made the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s of any k i n d . D i s t r i b u t i o n f u n c t i o n s of t h e k i n d found

but basis in

are for fig.

I e - 1 through 5 a r e o f t e n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h b e i n g l o g - normal.
It i s d i f f i c u l t t o ' f i n d i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the v a r i a t i o n i n other

habits presence fig.

of or Ie-6

the

occupant of

that certain

may a f f e c t t h e energy consumption. dwelling

It i s , however, obvious

t h a t the s i z e and o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e absence and le-7.


w i l l perform c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s .

and

the

a p p l i a n c e s w i l l i n f l u e n c e where, when and how t h e occupant Two examples o f t h i s a r e g i v e n i n

The p r i c e of energy w i l l of course a l s o a f f e c t t h e energy consumed occupant. This can be o f g r e a t importance i n experimental s i t u a t i o n s . experiment is energy consumed b y t h e occupant p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n an done under normal circumstances.

by

the

If t h e

subsidized,

t h e r e s u l t may be t h a t he p r e f e r s a h i g h e r i n d o o r temperature than he would have This i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n f i g .

I e-8.

I t should then be obvious t h a t i n any study of t h e e f f e c t o f a r e t r o f i t one

should

take

into

account

the
i

interaction

between environment, b u i l d i n g and

occupant.

v a r i a t i o n i n energy consumption due t o behaviour and a t t i t u d e s

Much o f buildings behaviour has of

the

discussion about occupants

on purely or

energy even

saving more

by

retrofitting would be

residential
if t h e

been the

technical

measures. energy

However, i t should be saved

r e a l i z e d t h a t an ?qua1 amount

c o u l d be changed, o r i f every occupant was r e a l l y

m o t i v a t e d t o save energy a t home. Research on t h e behaviour of occupants a t home has o f t e n used methods, combined with detailed details of surveys the o f houses. h a s t y c o n c l u s i o n s from data. sociological

One should n o t draw any

. Data have been o b t a i n e d by


been representative

d i f f e r e n t r e s e a r c h e r s u s i n g d i f f e r e n t methods of i n v e s t i g a t i o n and i n many cases t h e sample of questioned occupants has n o t i n a t r u e sense

of

the

whole

population

of

country.

However, t h e major f e a t u r e s of d a t a

c e r t a i n l y r e f l e c v t h e behaviour o f t h e occupants.

The

criteria they

of

human of

thermal

comfort

iust and

always

be

examined. system.

Traditionally Thermal

have

been

used t o o p t i m i z e on f u e l and thermal i n s u l a t i o n . ventilation air-conditioning

r a t i o s f o r the design comfort has

heating,

become a commodity produced by t h e ' s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s and and- i n s u l a t i n g

marketed and s o l d by t h e h e a t i n g , v e n t i l a t i o n , a i r - c o n d i t i o n i n g engineers (Fanger 1972). In the past, while individuals recent services relied upon clothing the to

maintain more

thermal

equilibrium, from 1978). the

trends

depend

upon

production of a r t i f i c i a l expensively

i n t e r i o r climates. building

Thermal i n s u l a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e purchased

engineer r a t h e r than from t h e t a i l o r (0-Callaglian

Make t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l assumption t h a t c l o t h i n g h a b i t s changed t o what were that a has l e s s t h a n 15oC. been

they

hundred years. ago, so t h a t t h e i n t e r i o r telnperature c o u l d be lowered t o T h i s alone would save more energy than any o t h e r s i n g l e measure proposed to cut energy consumtption. The importance o f t h e can

behaviour and a t t i t u d e s of t h e occupant f o r t h e l e v e l o f energy consumption be i l l u s t r a t e d by some examples. I n an i n v e s t i g a t i o n forming p a r t o f t h e consumption identical in two t h i r d s o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i n (Sonderegger 1978). energy Twin Rivers for project heating the in

e5ergy

about 200 town houses was s t u d i e d . consumption

It was found t h a t more t h a n nominally

b u i l d i n g s c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d by occupant r e l a t e d consumption p a t t e r n s

I n o t h e r s t u d i e s i t has been observed t h a t if occupants a r e s u b j e c t e d t o an intense energy-saving campaign, the result may be a heavy r e d u c t i o n o f t h e energy consumption. I n an energy saving study t h e occupants were informed consumption of h o t t a p water (Adamson e t a l 1975). i n t h e consumption o f h o t t a p water. how to reduce the

This l e d t o a 40% decrease This indicates for a

However, a few months a f t e r t h e end o f t h e

energy-saving campaign, t h i s r e d u c t i o n had e n t i r e l y disappeared. s h o r t p e r i o d of time, b u t probably have no l a s t i n g e f f e c t s .

t h a t an i n t e n s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n campaign can reduce t h e energy consumption

The importance o f feedback t o t h e occupant about t h e r e s u l t s of h i s to save energy has been t h e s u b j e c t o f a study (Seligman

effort The their

Darley 1977). about

r e s u l t s show t h a t p r o v i d i n g home-owners w i t h feedback

information

r a t e o f energy consumption can be an e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g y f o r saving energy. Another feed-back study (Becker 1977) was conducted t o t e s t t h e adapt to' a d i f f i c u l t c o n s e r v a t i o n goal r a t h e r t h a n shows that save a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of energy. The attitude towards energy of people in saving houses may with be more important than the an 'easy one. hypothesis The result

t h a t feed-back would l e a d t o more energy c o n s e r v a t i o n ifoccupants were asked t o feed-back i s e s p e c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e if t h e occupants a r e m o t i v a t e d t o

technological p~tential for explanation

possibility

s a v i n g energy.

I n a study i n C a l i f o r n i a (Hamrin the In greatest this case save technological the energy probable without

1979), i t was found t h a t

savings a c t u a l l y made fewer c o n s e r v a t i o n e f f o r t s than d i d people canparable nature.

i n c o n v e n t i o n a l houses of a t h e s e as a " t e c h n i c a l f i x " ,

was t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t s i n t h e former c a t e g o r y of b u i l d i n g s regarded a d e v i c e t h a t would l e t them I n contrast t o t h i s , the residents

r e q u i r i n g them t o change t h e way t h e y l i v e d . bills. It i s i m p o r t a n t occupants programne, systems place to new has been found t h a t but the opposite effect. into during to realize saving that has the been

o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l houses were m o s t l y concerned w i t h saving money on t h e i r f u e l

behaviour great at

and the

attitudes beginning more

of of

the a

may change w i t h time. energy

In many s t u d i e s o f t h e e f f e c t s of r e t r o f i t s i t
One has, however ,also n o t e d complex taken time the

t h e n i t has g r a d u a l l y faded away. I n retrofits,

i n c l u d i n g t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of in energy the

t h e b u i l d i n g , sometimes no energy has been saved d u r i n g t h e f i r s t consumption retrofit. has long the second heating season after The probable

h e a t i n g season, b u t a s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c t i o n

e x p l a n a t i o n , i n t h i s c a s e , . i s t h a t i t has t a k e n t h e occupant q u i t e a l e a r n how t o handle t h e new system.

1 t may t h e r e f o r e be an advantage if,i n


This i s often r e f e r r e d t o

s t u d i e s o f t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t , t h e occupants can be g i v e n t i n e t o adapt t o l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s b e f o r e t h e measurements s t a r t . i n and l e a r n i n g p e r i o d " . be of special one importance follow as a "running-

The e f f e c t s d e s c r i b e d above w i l l o b v i o u s l y cases least the retrofit.

in at

where t h e measurements a r e o n l y performed d u r i n g one h e a t i n g seasof1 d f t e r I n t h i s case i t would be an advantage

if

could

t h e t o t a l energy consumption o f t h e b u i l d i n g d u r i n g s t i l l another h e a t i n g

season t o make sure t h a t t h e e f f e c t d e s c r i b e d above i s n o t r e l e v a n t .

I n experiments i n v o l v i n g i n h a b i t e d r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s that the occupants

it

is

important

are informed i n advance about t h e research programme, what changes should the be new introduced g r a d u a l l y t o g i v e t h e environment. The result may

measures a r e going t o be taken and what changes i n t h e i n d o o r c l i m a t e a r e t o be expected. otherwise


If p o s s i b l e ,

occupants t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t o adapt t o be complaints,

and a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e of t h e occupants towards t h e

research p r o j e c t t h a t may a f f e c t t h e outcome of t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I n many research programmes f o r t h e study o f energy savings i n buildings, like the indoor temperature The r e s u l t has often been t h a t t h i n g s p r e v i o u s l y draught, unnoticed by the residential occupants,

has been lowered t o o much and t o o r a p i d l y .

temperature d i f f e r e n c e s between d i f f e r e n t rooms o f t h e d w e l l i n g ,

temperature g r a d i e n t s and i n d o o r temperatures, changing by t h e hour, have becane apparent. (an This has l e d t o complaints from t h e occupants which have n e c e s s i t a t e d temperature of t h i s i s given i n ch. I V c s e c t i o n " c o n t r o l o f v e n t i l a t i o n and a r e v i s i o n o f t h e research programe, and an increase o f t h e i n d o o r example a i r i n g by occupant"). On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e r e i s a danger t h a t enthusiastic energy.
If

the

occupants one

may

become

about to

the be

research p r o j e c t and be w i l l i n g t o do a n y t h i n g t o save heating season. the period

too -

This a t t i t u d e w i l l probably n o t l a s t l o n g e r than happens

this

when t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s performed, t h e

conclusions t h a t a r e drawn from t h e r e s u l t s of t h e experiment may be erroneous. The impact of t h e behaviour and a t t i t u d e s of t h e occupant on t h e outcome of an investigation to may be of particular design test importance (see. P a r t and the
if

the investigation i s Here


it

performed u s i n g t h e t e s t - r e f e r e n c e possible identical different asiertain that except i n one respect and t h a t . the

11). reference are

may

be are in

t h e t e s t and t h e reference b u i l d i n g a r e i d e n t i c a l population not of affected the

w i t h respect t o s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s . ways

I t can be more d i f f i c u l t t o ensure


populations

t h a t t h e behaviour and a t t i t u d e s o f t h e two

by t h e i n f o r m a t i o n they r e c e i v e a b u t t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n , by t h e alternations interior

procedures of t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o r by d i f f e r e n t environments.

I n t h i s case i t can be of worth t o have access t o experts

with

experience

from p h y s i o l o g i c a l experiments t o evaluate f a c t o r s l i k e .those described above.

I n any case t h e members of t h e two p o p u l a t i o n s must be informed i n ways s i m i l a r ways as p o s s i b l e .

as

e f f e c t s o f occupancy on t h e energy balance o f a b u i l d i n g

Below we have t r i e d t o sum up t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e occupants on t h e consumption o f a b u i l d i n g . W e h a v e u s e d t h e data given i n Appendix I V . residential building energy cooking, when input hot

energy

Compare t h e energy balance of t h e same i s t h e same (see f i g . i s an e x t r a n e t energy generation, windows. In and from Ie-9). input the

it

is

unoccupied and when i t i s occupied, assuming t h a t t h e average indoor temperature I n t h e unoccupied' case, t h e from electric appliances, stems water at the from t h e 'heat p l a n t and from s o l a r r a d i a t i o n . occupants
I f t h e b u i l d i n g i s occupied t h e r e

themselves.

The energy i n p u t from s o l a r

r a d i a t i o n may be d i f f e r e n t due t o t h e occupants- use of shading devices

the unoccupied case, the energy losses consist of transmission,


I f t h e b u i l d i n g i s occupied, t h e r e a r e i n

i n f i l t r a t i o n , and v e n t i l a t i o n ibsses. content o f t h e discharge water. c o v e r i n g o f windows. The e f f e c t of a i r i n g and covering treated in ch.
IV

a d d i t i o n losses caused by a i r i n g , and losses corresponding t o t h e increased heat The t r a n s m i s s i o n losses by long- wave r a d i a t i o n the through windows may n o t be t h e same i n t h e two cases, due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n

of

windows

on

energy

consumption

is

c.

Here we w i l l e s t i m a t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e n e t

energy i n p u t from appliances, cooking, human heat and hot water generation, t h e energy losses due m a i n l y t o t h e discharge o f water. The f o l l o w i n g assumptions have been made: 1) a l l o f t h e net energy used f o r i l l u m i n a t i o n , TV, r e f r i g e r a t o r ,
2 ) 25 % of t h e n e t energy used f o r cooking i s l o s t through

and

freezer

and minor e l e c t r i c appliances i s converted t o , heat i n s i d e t h e b u i l d i n g kitchen flue, and steam losses 3) 25 % o f t h e net energy used f o r h e a t i n g o f t a p water i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e b u i l d i n g by losses from t h e h o t water storage and t h e plumbing
4 ) 20 % o f t h e heat 'content o f t h e h o t t a p water

r e l a t i v e t o the

indoor

solar radiation

infiltration Losses

Fig Ie

Energy balance of a residential building if unoccupied and (Occupied

temperature i s l o s t t o t h e b u i l d i n g before discharge 5) 20% o f t h e n e t energy used by c l o t h e s - and dish-washers i s l o s t t n t h e building interior 6) c o l d w a t e r t a k e s a t e m p e r a t u r e j u s t between t h a t of t h e of and t h a t o f t h e i n l e t water before i n l e t v d t e r i s c l o s e t o t h e y e a r l y average a i r temperature. 7) humah m e t a b o l i s m has been assumed t o be 90W and employed occupants a r e assumed t o be a t home on t h e average 14 h o u r s a day, non-employed 20. indoor a i r d i s c h a r g e . The t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e

8) t h e a p p l i a n c e e f f i c i e n c y o f h o t t a p w a t e r a p p l i a n c e s has
t o be 60

%.

been assumed

For a d i s c u s s i o n on t h e background o f t h e s e assumptions see t h e s e c t i o n App.

of used the

1V

where

the

specific

topic

i s treated.

I n Table I e- 1 we g i v e t h e

e s t i m a t e d n e t energy i n p u t from a p p l i a n c e s , c o o k i n g , human h e a t and energy n e t energy i n p u t , t h e c o l d w a t e r l o s s e s , and t h e r e s u l t i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n heat balance of the building. c o n s i d e r e d h e r e between 50 and 60 % o f t h e n e t energy input. For a to

f o r t h e h e a t i n g o f h o t t a p wdter, t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e h e a t b a l a n c e from t h i s T h i s r e s u l t i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n i s i n most cases further

d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s q u e s t i o n see Romig-Leach (1977). T h i s c a l c u l a t i o n has been performed assuming s t a t i c t h e r m a l c o n d i t i o n s , and

the

i t has n o t been c o n s i d e r e d where, i n t h e b u i l b i n g , t h e h e a t has been r e l e a s e d .

The

calculated

resulting

contribution

to

heat

balance

of

the

residential

b u i l d i n g c o n s t i t u t e s t h e r e f o r e o n l y an upper l i m i t f o r how much t h e contributions S t i l l , it gives vary between

e n e r g y consumption f o r space h e a t i n g c a n be reduced, due t o t h e s e from a p p l i a n c e s , cooking, h o t w a t e r g e n e r a t i o n , and human h e a t . some i n d i c a t i o n about how t h e s i z e d i f f e r e n t countries. of these contributions can

TABLE I e- 1 Estimated n e t energy i n p u t from appliances, cooking, human h e a t and energy used f o r h o t water generation, t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s n e t energy i n p u t t o t h e heat balance of t h e b u i l d i n g , t h e energy losses due t o use o f c o l d water and t h e r e s u l t i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e heat balance o f t h e b u i l d i n g from these f a c t o r s ( M J f d w e l l i n g and day d u r i n g t h e h e a t i n g season) Net energy input Useful f o r heating Cold water 1osses Resulting heat contribution

( I o f n e t energy)
BELGIUM: DENMARK: FINLAND: FRANCE; FRG: ITALY: NORWAY SWEDEN SWITZERLAND UK US Antwerpen Brussels Copenhagen National Helsinki Lahti Paris P a r i s area Hamburg and Munich Torino Rome Oslo National Basel Zurich National New York Washington D.C. 75 78 77 66 57 52 54 65 70 53

119

References t o ch. I e

Adamsson, B.

, Hamler,

J. and Mandorff, S.:

Energibesparing. (1975)

Swedish Council o f B u i l d i n g Research Report R23:1975. Becker, L.J.:

"The j o i n t e f f e c t o f feedback and g o a l s e t t i n g on Psych. (1977)

performance". J . of Appl. B i e n f a i t , 0.
NO 205, oec.

: " C o n t r i b u t i o n a une m e i l l e u r e connaissance des 1979 (1979)

consommations d - e a u chaude des logements". Cahiers du CSTB,

B o f f a , C. and R u b i n i , F. : " M o n i t o r i n g o f E x i s t i n g B u i l d i n g s i n Italy". C o n t r i b u t i o n t o Proc. of t h e I n t . C o l l . on COMPARATIVE EXPERIMENTATION O F LOW-ENERGY HOUSES, Liege, Belgium 1981. u n i v e r s i t e de L i e g e (1981) Cornish, J.P.: "The e f f e c t o f Thermal I n s u l a t i o n on Energy

Consumption i n Houses (1977) Fanger, P.O.:Conditions

''

i n Proc. o f t h e 1976 CIB Symp. on Energy

Conservation i n t h e B u i l t Environment. The C o n s t r u c t i o n PressICIB

f o r Thermal Comfort - A Review

CIB Corn. W 45 Symp. 1972 (1972) Hamrin, J. :"Energy Saving Homes: Do Not Bet On Technology Alonea'

Psych. Today, A p r i l 1979, p. 18 (1979) Holgersson, M.

: "Domestic i n d o o r temperatures". Report from

t h e Swedish I n s t i t u t e f o r B u i l d i n g Research (1983) Hunt, O.R.G. and S t e e l , M.R.:

''

Domestic temperature t r e n d s " .

H e a t i n g and V e n t i l a t i n g Engineer 54 pp. 5-15 (1980) Munther, K.E.: E n e r g i f o r b r u k n i n g i smshus. Swedish Council f o r

B u i l d i n g Research Report R58:1974 (1974) N i l s s o n , S. and Lundgren T. Report R 23:1979,


: l n d i v i d u e l l Varmvattenmatning.

Swedish Council f o r B u i l d i n g Research (1979)

0-Callaghan, P.W.

: B u i l d i n g f o r Energy Conservation.

Pergamon Press (1978)

0-Sullivan,

P. and McGeevor, P.A.

:"The E f f e c t s of Occupants on

Energy Use i n Housing" Proc. o f CIB W67 3 r d I n t . Symp. Energy Conservation i n t h e B u i l t Environment, D u b l i n I r e l a n d 1982 (1982) Romig, F. and Leach, G.: "Energy Conservation i n UK D w e l l i n g s :

Domestic S e c t o r Survey and I n s u l a t i o n " . The I n t e r n a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r Environment and Oevelopment, London (1977) Seligman,'C. and D a r l e y , J.M.: Feedback as a means o f d e c r e a s i n g

r e s i d e n t i a l energy consumption. J. of Appl. Psych. 67 p. 363 (1977) Socolow, R.H. (Ed.): Saving Energy i n t h e Home. B a l l i n g e r

P u b l i s h i n g Company (1978) Solum. N.O. and Songe-Mgller, O.A.: ~ m ~ h u s o p p v a r m n i n g NBI .

Report 81. ~ o r w e g i a nB u i l d i n g Research I n s t i t u t e (1974) Sonderegger, R.C. i n Socolow (1978) Weston, J.C.: "Heating R e s e a r h . i n Occupied Houses". J o u r n a l o f , :"Movers and S t a y e r s : The Resident-s C o n t r i b u t i o n t o

V a r i a t i o n across Houses i n Energy Consumption f o r Space H e a t i n g "

t h e IHVE.19 p. 47 (1951) W h i t t l e , G.E. and Uarren, P.R. :The e f f i c i e n c y of domestic h o t

water p r o d u c t i o n o u t of t h e h e a t i n g season. BRE C u r r e n t Paper CP 44/78 (1978)

APPENDIX I

D e f i n i t i o n s o f measurement and e n e r g y - t e n s

Contents

d e f i n i t i o n s of measurement terms d e f i n i t i o n s o f model terms d e f i n i t i o n s o f e n e r g y terms references

p. App I P. App 1

-4
5

p. App 1

P. App 1

App 1-1

Appendix I

D e f i n i t i o n s of measurement and energy terms

I n t h i s appendix we have c o l l e c t e d t h e

d e f i n i t i o n s 0f.some terms t h a t a r e

used i n t h i s Report; These d e f i n i t i o n s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e groups:

measurements energy

- models
-

d e f i n i t i o n s o f measurement terms

A measurement i s a procedure t o g i v e a quantity is representing a physical

numerical It

value is

to

conceptual that i n the entity

observable.

asiuhed,

measuring procedure t h e r e l a t i o n between t h i s q u a n t i t y and t h e exactly and i n which way t h e measurement can be performed. As a l l measurements a r e approximations i n possible to tell exactly what has the sense

measured

d e f i n e d and t h a t i t i s d e s c r i b e d p r e c i s e l y under what circumstances

t h a t i t . seldom

is

been measured, a measurement i s n o t v e r y

i n t e r e s t i n g i f t h e measured numerical value i s n o t g i v e n a l o n g w i t h an 'estimate o f t h e e r r o r o f t h e measurement.


I t i s common t o make a d i s t i n c t i o n between two

kind

of

error, on the of

statistic parameters

errors over

and which

svstematic e r r o r s . one has

A s t a t i s t i c ( a c c i d e n t a l o r random) e r r o r i s the

s c a t t e r i n t h e r e s u l t o f several repeated measurements depending i d e n t i c a l a t two measurements. remains after By a systematic e r r o r i s meant There are, however, ways

no c o n t r o l , even i f i n p r i n c i p l e t h e c o n d i t i o n s should be error that Consequently an e r r o r o f estimating E r r o r s can or

c o r r e c t i o n f o r a l l o t h e r known e r r o r s . e.g.,

t h i s k i n d i s i n p r i n c i p l e unknown. systematic errors,

u s i n g d i f f e r e n t methods o f measurements.

a l s o be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o where i n t h e measuring procedure t h e y appear according t o t h e i r o r i g i n . I n a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n according t o where in the measuring procedure

the

e r r o r s appear, one can d i s t i n g u i s h between:


1. e r r o r s i n t h e measured o b j e c t - when something e l s e than intended i s measured

App 1-2

( t h e environment and t h e

measuring procedure a f f e c t t h e measured o b j e c t ) (e.g., calibration e r r o r s , environmental

2. e r r o r s i n t h e measuring apparatus
parameters etc.)

3. e r r o r s produced by t h e observer (he i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e


a preference f o r a c e r t a i n r e s u l t ) 4.errors i n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s ( t h e measurement i s founded

environment o r has

upon

an erronueous a r e rounded o f f

t h e o r y , c e r t a i n values a r e d i s r e g a r d e d as b e i n g false,values t o o e a r l y i n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n etc.) I n a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n according t o


1. e r r o r s i n t h e measuring

origin one

can d i s t i g u i s h between: theory,

method ( t h e

method i s based on an erroneous

i n f l u e n c e s t h e measured o b j e c t , t h e measurement apparatus i s s u b j e c t e d t o an unallowed s t r a i n ) ,

2. e r r o r s i n the instrument

( f a u l t y c a l i b r a t i o n , aging, used

under c o n d i t i o n s

d i f f e r e n t from those p r e v a i l i n g a t t h e moment of c a l i b r a t i o n e t c )

3. t h e environment a f f e c t s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e measurement
o b j e c t , t h e measuring apparatus o r t h e observer. The measurement several
,

through the

measured

must

fulfil

many

requirements.

To

characterize

them

terms have been i n use (reliability,congruence, p r e c i s i o n , o b j e c t i v i t y , validity, relevance, accuracy, resolution, reproducibility. There i s no common agreement

constancy,

d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , s e n s i t i v i t y , d r i f t , s t a b i l i t y etc.) upon t h e exact meaning o f these terms.


1. t h e measuring

Below i s an a t t e m p t t o d e f i n e them. i.e.,


it

procedure i s r e q u i r e d t o be o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n a b l e ,

must be p o s s i b l e t o t e l l e x a c t l y how t h e p a s u r e m e n t i s t o be performed.

2. a second demand i s r e l i a b i l i t y ( t h e terms


a measuring more t h a n one procedure shall give results

reproducibility or which agree

precision are defined,

sometimes used i n s t e a d w i t h t h e same meaning). T h i s means that.once measurement i s performed. The demand f o r

reasonably w e l l if r e l i a b i l i t y can be

further divided i n t o :

congruency: degree of

agreement between r e s u l t s from d i f f e r e n t

measuring

App 1-3

methods

p r e c i s i o n : degree o f observers

- objectivity:

agreement between r e s u l t s from repeated measurements results o b t a i n e d by different

degree o f ' agreement between

constancy: degree o f agreement between r e s u l t s frm measurements performed a t d i f f e r e n t times

3. a l s o r e q u i r e d i s v a l i d i t y ( t h e words relevance o r accuracy a r e used instead with the same meaning). By t h i s i s meant the consistency between what i s measured and what has been t h e worth noting, t h a t a good v a l i d i t y

sometimes degree o f a good

intention t o

measure. I t may be

requires

r e l i a b i l i t y , n o t v i c e versa For the requirements on t h e measuring apparatus one'uses terms as

1. accuracy

degree o f agreement between t h e v a l u e read o f f an

i n s t r u m e n t and

" t h e t r u e value". r e l a t i v e error.

Sometimes i s meant t h e r a t i o between t h e d i f f e r e n c e of t h e

two values and " t h e t r u e value".

A b e t t e r t e r m i s then r e l a t i v e accuracy o r

2. p r e c i s i o n

- which

w i t h the

d e f i n i t i o n -above i s a but t o the error.

measure o f how small t h e error). Precision

a c c i d e n t a l e r r o r i s ( b u t says o t h i n g about t h e s y s t e m a t i c r e f e r s n o t t o t h e measured value 3.

r e s o l u t i o n ( o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ) . T h i s i s a measure o f

how small

a change i n

t h e i n p u t can be and s t i l l be r e s o l v e d by t h e instrument.

4. s e n s i t i v i t y

refers t o the r a t i o

betweenthe l e a s t

possible

change i n t h e

v a l u e read of t h e i n s t r u m e n t and t h e change of i n p u t r e q u i r e d t o cause t h i s The above moment. terms d e s c r i b e t h e performance of an i n s t r i n n e n t ( a t a performance o f an instrument during a certain longer

Terms r e l a t i n g t o t h e

period of time are :


5. drift

t h e maximal

d e v i a t i o n i n t h e measured

value'due t o

t h e instrument

during a prescribed time period.

6. d r i f t rate

- drift - the

p e r u n i t ,of t i m e v a l u e of a g r e a t number o f

7. s t a b i l i t y

r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y o f t h e average

App 1-4

measurements under p r e s c r i b e d c o n d i t i o n s a t d i f f e r e n t times.

- definitions

o f model terms

By a mbdel we mean imagined, classifying ways. where only

an the For

abstraction taken into

or

mapping

of 'There

an

object, a r e ' many

real ways

or of

components and r e l a t i o n s necessary f o r t h e model t o account. o u r p u r p o s e i t w i l l s u f f i c e t o mention t h e f o l l o w i n g

f u l f i l i t s purpose have been models.

I. The purpose of u s i n g t h e model


a) d e s c r i p t i v e model (answers a q u e s t i o n ) b ) e x p l a i n i n g model (e.g., independent v a r i a b l e s ) c ) p r o g n o s t i c model ( e x p l a i n i n g model where t h e re1 a t i o n s can be e x t r a p o l a t e d i n t o the future). 11. Technique of s o l u t i o n ( f o r mathematical models) a) a n a l y t i c model b ) s i m u l a t i o n model 111. Time dependence gives analytic relations between dependent and

a) s t a t i c models b ) dynamic models c ) continuous variables d) d i s c r e t e v a r i d b l e s

I V . Degree o f p r e c i s i o n
a) d e t e r m i n i s t i c ( t h e r e s u l t i s c u n p l e t e l y determined by i n p u t d a t a ) b) non-deterministic c ) s t o c h a s t i c ( t h e r e s u l t depends on random f a c t o r s

App 1-5

- definitions

o f energy terms

- p r i m a r y energy
-

i s the gross c a l o r i f i c value o f t h e f o s s i l f u e l s c o a l , o i l and

n a t u r a l gas o r the e q u i v a l e n t o f nuclear and h y d r o - e l e c t r i c i t y . secondary enerqy i s t h a t which i s contained i n coal-gas, coke, e l e c t r i c i t y o r

any o t h e r form o f energy manufactured from a primary energy source. n e t energy consump,tion o f a p a r t i c u l a r consumer i s t h e r e a l received by t h a t consumer. amount of energy

gross energy consumption o f a consumer i s t h e t o t a l primary energy e q u i v a l e n t r e q u i r e d t o produce and d e l i v e r t h e i r n e t consumption. useful energy i s t h e energy needed t o perform a r e q u i r e d t a s k and d i f f e r s '
Of

from t h e d e l i v e r e d energy by an amount equal t o

t h e f l u e and o t h e r losses used i n t h e

t h e appliance. The term " u s e f u l energy'' i s m a i n l y

d i s c u s s i o n of

space heating loads. For loads such as cooking, where l o s s e i may be recovered as f o r t u i t i o u s g a i n s t o t h e h e a t i n g system,the concept i s l e s s e a s i l y d e f i n e d

f i n a l user o r end user i s a consumer who does not b u t uses i t f o r h i s own purposes.

produce

energy f o r o t h e r s

The d e f i n i t i o n s given above are t h e ones gi'ven a t t h e 1976 used i n t h i s document, t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t .

C1B

Symposium

e w i l l here a l s o g i v e t h e d e f i n i t i o n of an important term by Leach and Desson. W

t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t i s t h e amount o f energy saved by a r e t r o f i t i f e v e r y t h i n g i s kept constant except f o r t h e r e t r o f i t i t s e l f , and changes i n t h e behaviour o f t h e occupants induced by t h e r e t r o f i t . The r e t r o f i t e f f e c t i s n o t t o be confused with the observed change not the in due non

energy to

consumption.

This

one

will

be i n f l u e n c e d by d i f f e r e n c e s i n e x t e r n a l

c l i m a t e , i n d o o r c l i m a t e , and changes i n t h e behaviour of t h e occupants the r e t r o f i t . all been made f o r these differences between the retrofitted and

The r e t r o f i t e f f e c t i s t h e saved energy when a c o r r e c t i o n has

r e t r o f i t t e d building.

THE DESIGN OF THE EXPERIMENT

Ch. 11 a
Ch. I 1 b Ch. I 1
C

General i n t r o d u c t i o n , experimental design and models On- o f f experiments Before- a f t e r experiments Test- reference experiments Simulated occupancy experiments and Movers and s t a y e r s P r o b a b i l i t y o f the r e t r o f i t e f f e c t

Ch. I 1 d Ch. II e App. 11

Keywords

a n a l y t i c a l approach b e f o r e - a f t e r experiment b u i l d i n g system c h o i c e o f model component d e s i g n o f experiment d e s c r i p t i v e model generalization o f results h e a t flows interaction p r e d i c t i v e model on- o f f experiment p a r a m e t e r s o f model s i m u l a t e d occupancy experiments simp1 i c i t y s t a t i s t i c a l approach s t a t u s of system system t e s t - r e f e r e n c e experiment time- plan variable

CHAPTER 11 a

General i n t r o d u c t i o n , e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n and models

Contents

general i n t r o d u c t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e system

P.
P.

I1 a- 1 I1 a- 2

d e s i g n o f t h e experiment and c h o i c e o f t h e model p. I1 a-,5 designs p. p.


P.

- common e x p e r i m e n t a l
use o f models

11 a-12 I1 a-17
11 a-20

- example
-

- example 2
example 3 example 4 b i b l i o g r a p h y and r e f e r e n c e s

P. I1 a-21

p. 11 a-26

P.' I1 a-31
p. I1 a-34'

I 1 a- 1

(11 a

General i n t r o d u c t i o n , e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n and models

general i n t r o d u c t i o n

I n P a r t I 1 methods f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n of t h e e f f e c energy consumption o f a b u i l d i n g a r e described. steps o f t h e procedure o u t 1 i n e d i n ch.

~f a

retrofit

on

the

T h i s c h a p t e r corresponds t o two system"

I a, namely " d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e

and "design o f t h e experiment and c h o i c e o f t h e model". These a r e a l s o t h e t i t l e s o f t h e f i r s t two s e c t i o n s o f ch. followed by two sections dealing with design, "common experimental designs" and "use of models". Ch. common 11 a i s f o l l o w e d by f o u r chapters d e s c r i b i n g i n more d e t a i l experimental designs i n r e t r o f i t s t u d i e s . experiments of great and, interest t h e l a s t ch. I 1 c Before- a f t e r experiments, ch. to an the most ch. Testmethod I 1 a which are

more s p e c i f i c t o p i c s of experimental

The t i t l e s o f t h e s e a r e : I1 d

I 1 b On- o f f experiments, ch. reference which is and Movers and Stayers. energy consumption.

I 1 e Simulated occupancy experiments experimental

Movers and s t a y e r s r e f e r s

f o r t h e assessment o f t h e impact o f occupancy on

P a r t I 1 i s ends w i t h ' an appendix on s t a t i s t i c a l methods o f i n t e r e s t f o r t h e design o f experimental s t u d i e s on r e t r o f i t e f f e c t s . After t h i s , a bibliography and a reference l i s t f o l l o w . I n t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h e r e does n o t description exist any exhaustive and simultaneous W e therefore

o f t h e d i f f e r e n t experimental designs discussed here.

have t o r e f e r t o t h e examples g i v e n i n t h e t e x t .

illustrations o f t h e use o f t h e s e experimental designs can a l s o be found i n


research r e p o r t s where t h e method01 o g i c a l q u e s t i o n has been taken s e r i o u s l y , see the bibliography. Saaty and A general d i s c u s s i o n on t h e use of models (1981). Examples on ~ n o d e l s can can be be found found in in e.g. The here Alexander of some

Sonderegger and G a r n i e r (1982), W i l t s h i r e (1981). and S t e i n m u l l e r properties IEA Annex 111 Subtask A ( K a l l b l a d 1983). S t a t i s t i c a l methods o f

(1982). interest

l a r g e computer models have been e v a l u a t e d i n a Report fran

can be found i n Cox (1958) and Hahn (1977).

d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e system

When t h e aim o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n on t h e e f f e c t s o f formulated experiment. in a precise manner (see ch. measurements a r e t o be performed, one should proceed with

retrofit the design

has of

been the

I a), and i t has been decided t h a t

I t i s then o f g r e a t importance t o r e a l i z e t h a t i n t h i s case one i s

n o t d e a l i n g w i t h a c o n t r o l l e d experiment where t h e experimenter can a t w i l l -change t h e p h y s i c a l s t a t u s o f t h e b u i l d i n g , o r i s o l a t e i t from i t s surroundings. Instead, one i s d e a l i n g w i t h a systemwhere t h e b u i l d i n g , t h e e x t e r i o r and t h e occupants i n t e r a c t i n a complicated manner.
I t m i g h t then be advantageous

climate,

to

regard

this

iystem

as

consisting

of

components. system,

Examples

of components r e l a t e d t o t h e p h y s i c a l b u i l d i n g s t r u c t u r e ventilation The occupants

a r e t h e e x t e r n a l w a l l s , c e i l i n g , basement, windows, h e a t i n g system, c o l d and h o t t a p water systems, domestic a p p l i a n c e s e t c . All these can be regarded as o t h e r components of the system. n o t o p e r a t e independently o f one another. i n t e r a c t i o n between a t l e a s t some of them. domestic system. appliances by and their is the Another example radiative, internal and

components

will
of

I n general t h e r e w i l l be some k i n d of An example i s t h e occupants- use energy balance heat of the o f the set points o f t h e heating building, t r a n s f e r s between

manipulation

determined components.

conductive

convective

The s t a t u s o f t h e .system variables. Some variables b u i l d i n g i n t e r i o r , e.g.

is

described associated

by with

the the

instantaneous the temperature

value of

of the the

are

physical status of the

t h e indoor a i r

temperature,

e x t e r n a l w a l l s , t h e temperature o f t h e h o t t a p water, the energy o u t p u t from t h e h e a t i n g system, t h e r a t e o f a i r exchange produced by a v e n t i 4 a t i o n moisture content of t h e i n d o o r a i r , etc. uniform v a l u e throughout t h e b u i l d i n g i n t e r i o r . Other v a r i a b l e s temperature, occupants indoor are wind e.g. describe speed the the outdoor climate, etc. e.g. the outdoor to air the system, V a r i a b l e s do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t a k e a

and d i r e c t i o n , a i r pressure on t h e b u i l d i n g envelope, Variables related age and occupation of t h e occupants, t h e occupants-

outdoor h u m i d i t y , g l o b a l and s o l a r r a d i a t i o n

knowledge o f t h e h e a t i n g system, t h e occupants- demand f o r comfort and a c e r t a i n c l i m a t e , t h e i r h a b i t s w i t h regard t o a i r i n g , t h e frequency i n t h e use o f d i f f e r e n t domestic a p p l i a n c e s e t c .

Here one i s n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n a l l aspects o f t h e above complicated but in certain r e t r o f i t .


I t may then be n a t u r a l t o s t a r t w i t h c o n s i d e r i n g

system, energy -

those features o f i t t h a t are r e l e v a n t t o t h e study o f t h e e f f e c t s o f a the These energy flows can be d i v i d e d i n t o

fl o w s o f t h i s system.

1) conductive, convective and, r a d i a t i v e energy f l o w s

2 ) heat flows emanating from work


3) enthalpy f l o w s Examples o f conductive, convective, and r a d i a t i v e losses solar t h e h e a t i n g system, heat produced by t h e radiation impinging upon partitions. transfer human energy flows heat are, are heat by heat use of

through t h e b u i l d i n g envelope, heat t r a n s f e r t o t h e b u i l d i n g i n t e r i o r by metabolism, from work produced e.g., the the b u i l d i n g , and heat f l o w s through i n t e r n a l Examples of enthalpy

An example o f energy flows emanating

t o t h e b u i l d i n g i n t e r i o r by domestic appliances.

f l o w s are heat losses due t o i n f i l t r a t i o n , energy losses caused by c o l d and h o t t a p water, and d e l i v e r i e s o f fuel t o the b u i l d i n g .

The energy c o n s e r v a t i o n equation f o r a thermodynamic system ( a s a b u i l d i n g ) states that the sum of the energy flows, due t o conduction,convection and due to mass transfer r a d i a t i o n , t h e mechanical work, and t h e enthalpy flows, through t h e b u i l d i n g envelope,must be zero. the effects to

A l l energy f l o w s may not be o f i n t e r e s t f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f


of a certain retrofit. the o f t e n be neglected. identify heat One is The f i r s t task of the experimenter is,

Energy flows t h a t are n o t a f f e c t e d by t h e r e t r o f i t can therefore, Thts w i l l r e q u i r e a t l e a s t some knowledge mechanisms the system.
It w i l l a l s o r e q u i r e an

r e l e v a n t energy flows. to the

o f where, and how, heat i s produced i n s i d e t h e b u i l d i n g , and by what dispersed exterior o f the building. understanding o f how t h e r e t r o f i t w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e components o f no previous knowledge. When t h e energy flows of importance f o r the study of retrofit flows. have o f t h e system which t a k e a p a r t i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f , o r the

should n o t a t t h i s stage choose t o n e g l e c t energy flows about which one has

effects

of

the

been determined, t h e experimenter should i d e n t i f y t h e components affect, .these energy

/-

Heat loss bv window

and radiation to ceiling

Conduction and radiation through windows

~ u e to l heating device

F i g . IIa-1.

E x a i p l e s o f h e a t flows i n a s i m p l e d e s c r i p t i v e modeL.

A t t h i s s t a g e t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r w i l l have reduced system to relevant t o t h e study constructed given i n fig. a of the or retrofit in question.

the

initial The

complicated has
It i s

a more t r a c t a b l e one, i n c l u d i n g o n l y t h e energy flows and components experimenter of this qualitative I 1 a-1. planning outlined in d e s c r i p t i v e model - o f t h e i n i t i a l system. An example

o f t e n u s e f u l t o p r e s e n t t h i s model i n a g r a p h i c form.

is

'The e x p e r i m e n t e r has t h u s completed one s t e p o f t h e ch.

I a, t h e s t e p " d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e system".

d e s i g n of t h e e x p e r i m e n t and c h o i c e

bf

t h e model

I n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n one system", can was discussed.The be performed

step

of

the

planning,

"desription

of

the

e x p e r i m e n t e r can now proceed t o t h e s t e p " d e s i g n of T h i s s t e p i s a c o m p l i c a t e d one, a n d i t analysis of the in a c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r a c c o r d i n g t o some scheme.

t h e experiment and c h o i c e o f t h e model". seldom

However, i t i s o f t e n advantageous t o s t a r t b y a more d e t a i l e d energy f l o w s .

I t i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e t o f u r t h e r reduce t h e number o f energy f l o w s t h a t have

to

be

considered.

Some

of

them

may be v e r y s m a l l compared t o t h e r e t r o f i t energy flows that

effect.

I n t h e model t h e r e must be i n c l u d e d t h o s e r e s i d u a l magnitude

a r e g r e a t e r than, o r o f t h e same o r d e r o f magnitude as, t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t . t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l energy f l o w s a b o u t one o r d e r o f retrofit effect, these will in general smaller 'than

If
the

a l s o have t o b e t a k e n i n t o account.

However, i n most cases i t w i l l n o t make any sense t o i n c l u d e i n t h e model energy f l o w s t h a t a r e even s m a l l e r compared t o t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t . To make t h e above comparison between t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t a n d ' t h e o f d i f f e r e n t energy f l o w s , c r u d e e s t i m a t e of t h e retrofit effect has already
I a).

magnitude A the when

i t w i l l be necessary t o e s t i m a t e t h e s e magnitudes.

been

obtained

e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e problem was performed (see ch.

An e s t i m a t e o f t h e h e a t l o s s e s - t h r o u g h t h e e x t e r n a l w a l l s can be
e.g.,

obtained, One has t o

i f one has some i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e average i n d o o r - o u t d o o r t e m p e r a t u r e

difference, know

as w e l l as about t h e t r a n s m i t t a n c e o f t h e e x t e r n a l w a l l . properties of s o m e components of I n t h e above example, t h e

physical

t h e system, o r t o a s s i g n a transmittance

n u m e r i c a l v a l u e t o c e r t a i n parameters.

i s c o n s i d e r e d as a parameter ( t h e a component, t h e e x t e r n a l a wall. construct

"U- v a l u e " ) d e s c r i b i n g a p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t y of
In other words, the experimenter has to the

model o r d e s c r i b e a procedure, whereby t h e magnitude o f t h e energy and some v a r i a b l e s ( i n t h i s case t h e temperature d i f f e r e n c e across

flows can be estimated, p r o v i d e d t h e v a l u e of some parameters ( i n t h i s case

U-

value),

the e x t e r n a l w a l l ) a r e known.

... ,
The above procedure o f d e c i d i n g what energy f l o w s a r e t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e model to is i m p o r t a n t , because t h e magnitude o f the energy.'flows t h a t one chooses neglect

will

have

great

impact

on

the

resulting

aciuracy

of

the

determination of the r e t r o f i t effect.

Before proceeding w i t h t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f how t o s e l e c t t h e model, i t be necessary to know what experimental o f ' the designs can be applied some by experimenter.

will the. cmmon

I I

A short

description

differences

between

experimental designs i s g i v e n i n t h e s e c t i o n " c m o n experimental designs". Some p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f reducing t h e number o f energy flows i n t h e model have been considered In above. These p o s s i b i l i t i e s have n o t y e t been exhausted. design or the model by of the system can By be the choosing a simplified. suitable experimental

general, one i s i n t e r e s t e d i n g e t t i n g r i d of energy flows t h a t influenced variables describing

a r e e i t h e r d i f f i c u l t t o measure,

e x t e r i o r c l i m a t e , o r t h e behaviour o f t h e occupants.

From t h e a n a l y s i s designs",
it

done that

in

the

following

section

"common in

experimental It is

is

clear

i n most designs t h e r e a r e u n d e r l y i n g assumptions practice.

which have t o be v e r i f i e d .

T h i s w i l l seldom be t h e case

t h e n p o s s i b l e t o proceed a l o n g one o f two l i n e s :

1) i t i s p o s s i b l e t o i n c l u d e i n t h e study a s u f f i c i e n t number o f
t o t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t ( t h e s t a t i s t i c a l approach). doubtful Even t h i s procedure retrofitted

buildings can be be is

so t h a t t h e r e s u l t i n g average e r r o r becomes s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t compared

if

nothing

b u t t h e energy consumption i s measured.

I t can, e.g.,

d i f f i c u l t t o v e r i f y whether t h e i n d o o r c l i m a t e o f t h e t h e same as t h a t o f t h e non- r e t r o f i t t e d one

building

2) one can f u r t h e r proceed w i t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a mathematical model o f


the system.
It

may

then

be p o s s i b l e t o t a k e i n t o account t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n indoor climate (the

energy consumption due t o d i f f e r i n g weather c o n d i t i o n s o r a n a l y t i c a l approach).

One can m o n i t o r a few b u i l d i n g s v e r y p r e c i s e l y , measure a

l o t of v a r i a b l e s and use a s o p h i s t i c a t e d model t o d e s c r i b e will then know of the


I t w i l l p r o b a b l y be

the

findings. in

One the

v e r y a c c u r a t e l y t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t f o r t h e b u i l d i n g s studied. difficult occupants to due include in the model variations t o the r e t r o f i t o r t o f a c t o r s other than the

behaviour

c l i m a t i c ones. At t h i s stage t h e experimenter has a l s o to consider. practical questions

r e l a t e d t o what experimental design t o choose and what model t o use

- what
-

b u i l d i n g s i s i t p o s s i b l e t o i n c l u d e i n t h e study?

f o r how l o n g (how many h e a t i n g seasons) i s i t p o s s i b l e t o use t h e b u i l d i n g f o r measurements? i s the r e t r o f i t r e v e r s i b l e ? a r e t h e r e occupants i n t h e b u i l d i n g s ? what i s t h e c o s t if a c e r t a i n experimental design i s used and how much money w i l l t h e r e b e . l e f t f o r measurements? how a r e t h e r e s u l t s t o be g e n e r a l i z e d ? A s t a t i s t i c a l approach w i l l r e q u i r e a large number of buildings and/or be The the

households.

The e x a c t number i s determined by t h e e s t i m a t e d r e t r o f i t e f f e c t and I 1 and ch.

t h e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e energy consumption among t h e households o r b u i l d i n g s t o s t u d i e d (see App.

I e).

The r e s u l t i n g e r r o r can be reduced if some

s i m p l e measurement o t h e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e energy consumption i s performed. e v a l u a t e d , e.g., building. The by t h e use o f some simple model o f t h e thermal losses of

e f f e c t o f t h e d i f f e r e n t i n d o o r temperatures b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e r e t r o f i t can be c o s t f o r these measurements have t o be weighed a g a i n s t t h e c o s t

f o r s t u d y i n g a l a r g e number of b u i l d i n g s . The number o f importance when heating choosing seasons available retrofit for can measurements be reversed,

will
the

be

of

between ,e.g.

t h e before- a f t e r experiment and t h e on-. o f f possible occupancy

t e s t - r e f e r e n c e experiment.

I f the

experiment can be used i n s t e a d o f t h e b e f o r e - a f t e r experiment. to use this

I f t h e r e a r e no

occupants i n t h e b u i l d i n g when t h e r e t r o f i t i s i n t r o d u c e d , i t m i g h t be system, t h e thermal behaviour of studies. The experimenter w i l l a l s o have t o c o n s i d e r how t o g e n e r a l i z e from t h e measurements. the the building, and for simulated

occasion f o r s i m u l a t i o n s t u d i e s o f t h e performance o f t h e h e a t i n g

results he may

I f he o n l y wants t o study t h e e f f e c t o f t h e r e t r o f i t on

a v e r y w e l l d e f i n e d c l a s s o f b u i l d i n g s , u s i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c a l approach,

choose a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e number of such b u i l d i n g s f o r t h e experiment. he g e t s ' w i l l then probably be t r u e f& a l l b u i l d i n g s o f t h i s c l a s s . not be possible to experimenter wants t o know t h e e f f e c t t h e study of t h e r e t r o f i t . building classes grows He very of the retrofit find out for that

The'answer But i t may

g e n e r a l i z e t h i s r e s u l t t o o t h e r b u i l d i n g classes. several the

I f the
building

types, he w i l l have t o c l a s s i f y b u i l d i n g s according t o sane c r i t e r i a r e l e v a n t t o

will

probably

number

of

q u i c k l y w i t h t h e number o f c r i t e r i a used f o r t h e

c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t h e b u i l d i n g s (and maybe a l s o t h e i r surroundings). I n s t e a d , t h e experimenter can use t h e a n a l y t i c a l approach. then be experimenter w i l l have t o assign a v a l u e t o describe buildings. the the parameters not be of The the model can
.

used t o p r e d i c t t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t f o r o t h e r types o f b u i l d i n g s . model for

The to

p r o p e r t i e s o f these b u i l d i n g s i n o r d e r t o g e n e r a l i z e h i s r e s u l t s . known other The effect of the occupancy on energy consumption w i l l a l s o be

However, t h e v a l u e o f these parameters w i l l p r o b a b l y

unknown t o t h e experimenter, f o r he has p r o b a b l y n o t been a b l e t o r e c o r d i t even i n t h e monitored b u i l d i n g s . At t h i s stage t h e experimenter f i n d s h i m s e l f i n He He has can a model a l l , energy flows: use a complicated chobse he situation. between. has to

where he can e s t i m a t e t h e magnitude o f some, b u t p r o b a b l y n o t He has a number o f experimental designs t o can do..

a s t a t i s t i c a l o r an a n a l y t i c a l approach o r a combination of these. Finally

There a r e some p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s t o what he c o n s i d e r how t o g e n e r a l i z e t h e r e s u l t s .

The optimal c h o i c e f o r t h e experimenter i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n .a s t a t i s t i c a l approach t o f r e e t h e model from as many unknown possible. dependence on t h e generalization direction. remaining determined. Every one o f t h e remaining energy f l o w s should measurable components. assigned, ch.
111 a ) .

is

probably flows want for

to as for the

s t a r t by e x p l o i t i n g as f a r as p o s s i b l e a s u i t a b l e experimental d e s i g n a l o n g w i t h energy and a the model The energy flows t o g e t r i d o f are p r o b a b l y 'those which have a s t r o n g occupancy. The practical limitations

w i l l o f course determine how f a r t h e experimenter can go i n t h i s


flows. The numerical value o f these w i l l a l s o have t o be

It now remains f o r t h e experimenter t o c o n s t r u c t energy

be of

modelled the values

.in
must

terms and also should

of its be be

variables which can

and

in

terms

of

parameters

system

To these v a r i a b l e s and parameters numerical

come from measurements o r can be assumed t o be known (see

The g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e model

simpl'icity. included. determined sophisticated

I n t h e model as few v a r i a b l e s and parameters as p o s s i b l e s h o u l d be

A s i m p l e and r o b u s t model i s a l m o s t
one, where the The values of the accurately. experimenter

always

preferrable can try to

to not use

very only

parameters always

o f t e n be

should

parameters t h a t can be g i v e n a s i m p l e p h y s i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .

However, i n t h i s

case one o f t e n has t o make compromises i f one wants a s i m p l e model. The construction of the model is, however, not yet complete. .The

experimenter resoiution for data. a

must a l s o d e c i d e t h e maximal e r r o r due t o t h e measurements t h a t he T h i s w i l l d e t e r m i n e by what t o be perfomied. upon. of how The t i m e The to demand store and precision timethe measurements have

can a c c e p t f o r t h e e s t i m a t e of t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t .

r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e measurements w i l l a l s o have t o be decided small resolution s t a t i c one. This decision w i l l especially a f f e c t t h e choice

w i l l be g r e a t e r f o r a dynamic model t h a n ' f o r a

There may s t i l . 1 be some energy f l o w s where t h e e f f e c t o f occupancy can be measured d i r e c t l y .


it

not done,

One can t h e n c o l l e c t more i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e b e h a v i o u r Even i f t h i s a is

o f t h e o c c u p a n t s b y o b s e r v a t i o n s and s u r v e y techniques. may be used as i n p u t t o model c a l c u l a t i o n s . behaviour residential generalize affects the energy and i n f o r m a t i o n from a l a r g e sample building to r e f i n e d s t a t i s t i c a l techniques. occupants living of

d i f f i c u l t t o q u a n t i f y t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n such a way t h a t i t can b e


I t i s seldom e x a c t l y known how

certain type of to

consumption. occupants

One

can, o f course, g a t h e r such in a certain

living is,

relate

t h i s t o t h e i r energy consumption by means of information however, difficult in o t h e r types o f buildings. T h e r e f o r e such

Such

s t u d i e s have o n l y r a r e l y been performed. Nonetheless t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r s h o u l d always be aware these there phenomena. Even of the existence of

if

no

b r o a d s t u d y o f t h e s e e f f e c t s can b e p e r f o n e d ,

t h e r e a r e s i m p l e o b s e r v a t i o n s , t h e r e s u l t s o f which can be used as i n d i c a t o r s if i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e occupants between t h e r e t r o f i t t e d and t h e non r e t r o f i t t e d b u i l d i n g . o b s e r v a t i o n s i s g i v e n below.


1) t h e i n d o o r t e m p e r a t u r e s h o u l d always be measured. If there i s

l i s t ' of

some

simple

measurements

and

great in

d i f f e r e n c e i n i n d o o r t e m p e r a t u r e between t h e r e t r o f i t t e d and t h e non r e t r o f i t t e d b u i l d i n g , t h i s may e x p l a i n a s u b s t a n t i a l energy consumption. part of an observed difference

2 ) t h e consumption o f household e l e c t r i c i t y and gas can e a s i l y be measured.


If
t h e i n d o o r temperature has been t o o low o r t h e r e has been draught b e f o r e t h e fired the heating building r e t r o f i t , t h e occupants may have used a u x i l i a r y e l e c t r i c o r gasappliances.

If t h e

building

is

equipped

with

cooling in

o r a mechanical

v e n t i l a t i o n system, t h i s may have been used having t h e h i g h e r i n d o o r temperature.

more

frequently

3 J a i r i n g i s f r e q u e n t l y used by occupants t o c o n t r o l
Usually habits. a

the

indoor

climate.

r a t h e r small number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s under s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s , b e f o r e

and a f t e r t h e r e t r o f i t , s u f f i c e s t o e s t a b l i s h i f t h e r e t r o f i t has changed ,these

4) s h i e l d i n g o f windows i s f r e q u e n t l y used t o p r o t e c t from s o l a r r a d i a t i o n .


I f t h e r e t r o f i t has t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e f r e e heat from s o l a r

r a d i a t i o n changes s u b s t a n t i a l l y , t h e degree o f window s h i e l d i n g different. d u r i n g , e.g., used. t h e before and a f t e r p e r i o d s , when t h e before-

will

often method

be' is

This w i l l a l s o be t r u e if t h e amount of s o l a r r a d i a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t after

5 ) i f t h e use of h o t t a p water changes because o f t h e r e t r o f i t , t h i s c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e occupants have changed t h e i r h a b i t s .

is

'6) t h e t i m e spent a t home by t h e occupants should be about t h e same i n t h e


retrofitted household Information information and t h e non r e t r o f i t t e d b u i l d i n g s . in the appliances, about the hot tap
,

If t h e r e i s a l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e ,
amount etc. of energy be used for The c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the also of different,. this

t h e r e w i l l probably a l s o be a d i f f e r e n c e water, h e a t i n g o f t h e d w e l l i n g from the

airing

human metabolism w i l l

t i m e spent a t home by occupants w i l l p r o b a b l y r e q u i r e a

separate i n v e s t i g a t i o n (see ch. indirectly (at

IV

c).

simpler

way

gathering

l e a s t i f t h e study i n c l u d e s a s u f f i c i e n t number o f

households) i s t o c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n on

7 ) t h e age and occupation o f t h e occupants.


also for other reasons. Occupants of

This

information age and

is

useful

different

occupation have

d i f f e r e n t h a b i t s and t h i s i s l i k e l y t o have a g r e a t impact on t h e consumption o f energy.

8) a simple way of checking i f t h e occupants experience a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e


indoor climate between t h e r e t r o f i t t e d and t h e non r e t r o f i t t e d b u i l d i n g i s t o ask a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample o f them about t h e i r h a b i t s o f d r e s s i n g a t home.

If

TABLE 11 a - l Summary o f the steps of p l a n n i n g " d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e system" and "design o f the experiment and c h o i c e of t h e model" t r e a t e d i n ch. description o f t h e system 1 ) D e f i n e t h e system: 1Ia retrofit,

b u i l d i n g and components, weather,, interactions

environment, occupants, r e t r o f i t effect

2 ) L i s t a l l energy flows o f importance f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e 3 ) L i s t a l l components of t h e system which t a k e p a r t i n t h e

p r o d u c t i o n of a c e r t a i n heat f l o w o r can i n f l u e n c e i t 4 ) L i s t energy f l o w s and components a f f e c t e d by t h e r e t r o f i t 5 ) C o n s t r u c t a d e s c r i p t i v e model of t h e system b e f o r e and a f t e r the r e t r o f i t

d e s i g n o f t h e 1 ) E s t i m a t e t h e magnitude of a l l energy flows i f t h i s i s p o s s i b l e experiment and c h o i c e o f t h e model 2)Exclude small energy flows from t h e model 3)Choose a s u i t a b l e experimental d e s i g n c o n s i d e r i n g : The p o s s i b i l i t y o f e x c l u d i n g from t h e model energy fiows t h a t can n o t be measured o r a r e i n f l u e n c e d by u n c o n t r o l l a b l e v a r i a b l e s (occupancy and weather) What b u i l d i n g s a r e a v a i l a b l e ? What p e r i o d i s t h e r e f o r measurements? I s the r e t r o f i t reversible ? Are t h e r e occupants? What i s t h e c o s t and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t o g e n e r a l i z e t h e r e s u l t s t o o t h e r b u i l d i n g s if a c e r t a i n experimental d e s i g n i s used a l o n g w i t h a combination of a s t a t i s t i c a l and an a n a l y t i c a l approach? 4 ) C o n s t r u c t . a model o f t h e system w i t h t h e remaining energy. f l o w s i n t e r n s o f measurable v a r i a b l e s and parameters d e s c r i b i n g t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f components 5)What a r e t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f checking if nonmeasurable energy flows remain u n a l t e r e d ? 6)Decide maximal e r r o r o f measurements and t h e t i m e r e s o l u t i o n 7)Time p l a n n i n g o f t h e experiment

the

indoor

climate

is

s i m i l a r , t h e thermal i n s u l a t i o n ensured by t h e c l o t h e s

should a l s o be about t h e same (see ch.

I c).
model is now almost The

I
I

The experiment design process and t h e choice o f t h e finished. What experimenter must now make a t i m e p l a n f o r t h e experiment

remains i : , however, as important as t h e previous stages.

when does t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e measurement system have t o be f i n i s h e d ?

- when a r e t h e measurements t o s t a r t ? - when i s t h e r e t r o f i t t o be implemented? - f o r how l o n g t i m e s h a l l t h e measurements go on? - what t i m e i s t h e r e f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f ' t h e data? - when must t h e f i n a l r e p o r t be w r i t t e n ?
F i n a l l y i t must be stressed t h a t t h e procedure o u t l i n e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n almost' never (see ch. precision. a one- staqe process. is is The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e measurement system It

I 1 1 g) w i l l o f t e n p r o v i d e a feed back t o t h e above procedure.


The planned measurements may t u r n o u t t o be t o o c o s t l y . I n Table I 1 a-1 a sumnary of the

not always p o s s i b l e t o make measurements w i t h t h e wanted accuracy,resolution and Such events on

w i l l o f t e n make a r e v i s i o n of t h e model necessary and, maybe, even a r e v i s i o n o f


t h e design o f t h e experiment. ,the discussion design o f t h e experiment i n t h e previous two sections i s given.

- common experimental

designs

Some common experimental designs t h a t can be a p p l i e d t o reduce of energy flows

the

number and the

w i l l b e described below.

To f a c i l i t a t e t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , i t few buildings,

w i l l be assumed t h a t t h e study i n c l u d e s o n l y one o r a

o n l y measurement performed i s t h a t o f t h e t o t a l energy consumption. TO c l a r i f y t h e d i f f e r e n c e between some camon experimental designs, a formal the which I), approach very 0,

will

be

used.

Assume t h a t t h e energy consumption, C, i s an

e x p l i c i t f u n c t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s and t h e s t a t u s o f t h e b u i l d i n g , weather, will but be

W,

t h e indoor c l i m a t e , I, and t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e occupants, 0.

Assume, f u r t h e r , t h a t 0 has a n i m p l i c i t dependence on 0 , W, denoted on other by A.

I and o t h e r
(0,

factors
W

The behaviour of t h e occupants depends on what and

b u i l d i n g they l i v e i n and t h e p r e v a i l i n g outdoor and indoor c l i m a t e also factors

(A),

e.g.,

v a r i o u s a t t i t u d e s and f a c t o r s o f

economic n a t u r e .

This can be expressed by t h e formal r e l a t i o n

1) Now imagine t h a t two b u i l d i n g s c o u l d be found which

are

identical their

and

situated building)

close and

to the

one other

another. is not

If

one

of

them

i s r e t r o f i t t e d (the

test

(the

reference

building),

energy

consumptions d u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d can be measured and compared t o one another. The above e x p e r i m e n t a l experiment. From design is referred to a s the testreference

t h e formal a n a l y s i s below, i t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e i d e a l case t o

use t h e t e s t - r e f e r e n c e d e s i g n i s when t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e f u l ' f i l l e d : a) t h e b u i l d i n g s a r e r e a l l y i d e n t i c a l b e f o r e r e t r o f i t , n o t only nominally so

b) t h e occupants o f t h e two b u i l d i n g s behave i n t h e same way b e f o r e t h e r e t r o f i t and i f t h e y change t h e i r b e h a v i o u r a f t e r t h e r e t r o f i t t h i s change i s i d e n t i c a l and o n l y due t o d i f f e r e n t weather c o n d i t i o n s c ) t h e i n d o o r c l i m a t e o f t h e two b u i l d i n g s i s t h e same and b u i l d i n g i s t h e same a f t e r t h e r e t r o f i t as b e f o r e When t h e t e s t r e f e r e n c e d e s i g n i s used, and compared t o one another. present. Otherwise these t h a t of t h e test

underlying errors

assumptions will always

or

c o n d i t i o n s must always be v e r i f i e d i f t h e energy consumptions a l o n e a r e measured unpredictable be

'

2) NOWc o n s i d e r a n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y .
before and after the retrofit, the is Assume a l s o t h a t t h e change i n

Assume t h a t t h e behaviour

energy is not

consumption, due to the

measured

o v e r two e q u a l l y l o n g periods.

occupants

r e t r o f i t , o r t h a t t h e weather c o n d i t i o n s can be neglected. The above experimental design is referred to as the beforeafter

experiment.

Evidently

t h e i d e a l case t o use t h i s d e s i g n i s when t h e f o l l o w i n g

conditions are f u l f i l l e d : a ) t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e occupants does n o t change because o f t h e r e t r o f i t o r f o r o t h e r reasons b) t h e weather i s t h e same before and a f t e r t h e r e t r o f i t c ) t h e i n d o o r c l i m a t e i s t h e same b e f o r e and a f t e r AS f o r the previous method these assumptions consumption a l o n e i s measured. the r e t r o f i t must be checked

i f energy

TABLE I 1 a-2 Advantages and disadvantages of some c o m o n experimental designs

Advantages Beforeafter of occupants t h a n i n o t h e r designs The outdoor environment i s t h e same b e f o r e and a f t e r The same model w i t h t h e same parameter v a l u e s can be used f o r most components b e f o r e and a f t e r the r e t r o f i t Testreference
'

Disadvantages O f t e n more t h a n one h e a t i n g season r e q u i r e d f o r measurments

No reference b u i l d i n g r e q u i r e d

Often l e s s v a i i a t i o n i n behaviour Running-in and l e a r n i n g p e r i o d o f t e n required t o counteract i n i t i a l change o f behaviour The o u t d o o r cl.imate i s n o t t h e same b e f o r e and a f t e r Requires a model t o c o r r e c t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e outdoor c l i m a t e The measurement equipment must be removed when r e t r o f i t t i n g Reference b u i l d i n g r e q u i r e d D i f f i c u l t t o v e r i f y t h a t occupancy behaviour i s t h e same i n t e s t - and reference b u i l d i n g s D i f f i c u l t t o ascertain that testi d e n t i c a l i n a l l respects Values o f t h e parameters can be d i f f e r e n t even i fmodel i s t h e same ,Requires c a l i b r a t i o n phase i f previous,difference consumption ~ e h a v i i ro f occupants i n r e f e r e n c e b u i l d i n g may change i f known t h a t t h e y t a k e p a r t i n an experiment i n energy

One h e a t i n g season s u f f i c e s f o r measurements No d i f f e r e n c e ' i n environment and o u t d o o r c l i m a t e i ft e s t reference b u i l d i n g s close D i f f e r e n c e i n energy consumption e f f e c t i fb u i l d i g s i d e n t i c a l The same model can be used f o r most b u i l d i n g components and

d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e t r o f i t and reference b u i l d i n g s t e c h n i c a l l y

TABLE I 1 a-2 ( c o n t i n u e d )

Advantages On-off No r e f e r e n c e b l d g r e q u i r e d Can o f t e n be performed i n one h e a t i n g season The environment i s t h e same The same model w i t h t h e same parameter v a l u e s can be used f o r f o r most components i n on- and off states Long term changes o f occupancy l e s s important than i n other designs

Disadvantages Requires r e v e r s i b l e r e t r o f i t Time c o n s t a n t s o f b u i l d i n g must be considered when l e n g t h o f on-off p e r i o d s i s chosen Outdoor c l i m a t e d u r i n g on- and o f f p e r i o d s may n o t be t h e same Requires a model t o c o r r e c t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e outdoor c l i m a t e

Short t e r m r e a c t i o n s o f occupants occupants may occur when s w i t c h i n g from one s t a t e t o another w i t h unknown e f f e c t s on consumption Dynamic model o f t e n r e q u i r e d

simulated occupancy

Easy t o s t u d y e f f e c t s o f v a r i o u s behaviour o f occupants o r t o perform p a r a m e t r i c s t u d i e s of i t s i n f l u e n c e on t h e consumption Easy m o n i t o r i n g o f t h e occupancy One b u i l d i n g o f a k i n d o f t e n s u f f i c e s f o r t h e experiment R e t r o f i t e f f e c t separable from weather and occupancy e f f e c t s Easy t o study e f f e c t s o f "standard occupancy schedulesc4

Loss o f i n f o r m a t i o n on behaviour . o f r e a l occupants

-.
Expensive and d i f f i c u l t t o c o n s t r u c t schemes f o r t h e simulated occupancy ~xtra c o s t f o r purchase o r r e n t o f the building

i f o n l y one b u i l d i n g o f a k i n d i s
used v a r i a t i o n o f outdoor c l i m a t e may be l i m i t e d No i n f o r m a t i o n on v a r i a t i o n i n energy consumption due t o v a r y i n g h a b i t s o f occupants

3) A t h i r d d e s i g n e x i s t s , s i m i l a r t o t h e b e f o r e a f t e r
onand o f f experiment. the consumption

design,

called

the The

T h i s one can be used when t h e r e t r o f i t i s r e v e r s i b l e . during the on-

energy consumption i s t h e n measured d u r i n g a number o f repeated on- o f f periods.

cycles, as

p e r i o d s i s compared t o t h a t of t h e o f f -

When t h i s method i s a p p l i e d , t h e same c o n d i t i o n s must be f u l f i l l e d

when the before- a f t e r method i s used.

4) There a l s o e x i s t s another d e s i g n t h a t i s sometimes used.


occupants artificial experiment. in the b u i l d i n g . This using By this means. design is referred in It to as might

There

are

no

~nst'ead, t h e presence o f occupants i s s i m u l a t e d by a#.simulated even be occupancy to design combination w i t h the t e s t - reference possible

design, t h e e r r o r s w i l l be g r e a t l y

reduced.

perform t h e s i m u l a t i o n so t h a t t h e r e w i l l be no e r r o r s a t a l l . The above conclusions f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t experimental designs be obtained as f o l l o w s : l e t C,B,W,I e n t i t i e s d u r i n g a measurement campaign on a non
CtAC,

can

formally and in let

and A denote t h e values of t h e r e s p e c t i v e retrofitted for the building

B ~ A B ,W+AW, I ~ and A AtdA I denote the' corresponding values o f a r e t r o f i t t e d One then has the formal relation difference energy

building.

consumption between the o r i g i n a l and t h e r e t r o f i t t e d b u i l d i n g : AC =aC/aO+aO/aA+~At(aC/aBtaC/ao+a0/a~)*~~ (ac/aw+Bc/ao*ao/aw)*iwt retrofit four to a effect. all I n t h i s r e l a t i o n t h e t e r m (aC/aBt

(aC/aItac/ao*aoWI)+AI

ac/ao*

ao/aB)* AB can be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h conditions. The

the

The terms aC/aW'AW describe the

and a C / a I * A I

o b v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e t h e change remaining The terms due other

i n energy consumption due t o t h e d i f f e r e n t c l i m a t e terms influence aC/aO*aO/aW*Aw

e x e r t e d by t h e occupants.

and aC/aO*aO/a 1.~1 d e s c r i b e t h e change i n energy consumption The remaining term aC/aO+aO/aA*AA describes

variation

of t h e occupants- behaviour, coupled t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e between

the climate conditions.

f a c t o r s than 0, W and I which can i n f l u e n c e t h e behaviour o f t h e occupants. In a testreference experiment the difference between the energy

consumptions can, as AW=O, f o r m a l l y be expressed as

dC=aC/aO*aO/aA+~At(aC/aBtaC/aO+aO/as)*~Bt(aC/a
has :

ItaC/aO*aO/al)*~I

From t h e assumptions f o r t h e b e f o r e - a f t e r d e s i g n f o l l o w s ' t h a t AA=O. One t h e n

If t h e s i m u l a t e d occupancy experiment i s used


reference A=O. design, and

in

combination

with

the

test-

t h e presence o f t h e occupants i s s i m u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o

t h e same r u l e s as i n t h e t e s t and t h e reference b u i l d i n g , one w i l l have AW=O and As i n t h i s case a l s o AI-0 and aO/aB=O, t h e r e a r e no o t h e r terms t h a n t h e r e t r o f i t effect. I n Table 11 a-2 the advantages and disadvantages 'than the of the experimental a "pure"

designs discussed above a r e summarized. design.


It

It should n o t be f o r g o t t e n t h a t o f t e n a choice. of v a l u a b l e t o have access t o a reference

combination o f t h e s e designs i s more e f f i c i e n t is, for example, always

b u i l d i n g and t o know t h e p r e v i o u s consumption of energy.

use o f models

I t w i l l i n general be necessary t o use a model f o r data energy derived from the of measurements The a residential models i n use a r e t h e s t a t i c ones. consumption most simple
W,

the model as

treatment

of

the the

on a r e t r o f i t t e d b u i l d i n g . building,

The s i m p l e s t

approximates

a l i n e a r 2-parameter

f u n c t i o n of one v a r i a b l e , t h e indoor-outdoor a i r temperature d i f f e r e n c e AT, i.e. W=a+b*AT, where a and b a r e parameters.


If t h e m o d e l i s used f o r p r e d i c t i v e purposes i t i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as t h e

degree-day exterior non-zero.

model. walls of

The the

variable building.

is The

then

calculated

from

the

building of the solar

c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and i t g i v e s an average v a l u e of t h e heat parameter This then gives the p o s s i b i l i t y of t a k i n g also

conductance into account

a i s g e n e r a l l y taken t o be

r a d i a t i o n and f r e e heat from i n t e r n a l a p p l i a n c e s etc.

Ift h e model i s used f o r d e s c r i p t i v e purposes i t i s o f t e n


the enerqy signature of the building. The parameters a

referred and

to

as

b a r e then

determined from a f i t t o a c t u a l d a t a on t h e energy consumption of t h e b u i l d i n g . When t h i s model i s used, t h e temperature d i f f e r e n c e A T i s as an average over a r a t h e r l o n g p e r i o d o f time. One s h o u l d be aware o f t h e shortcomings of t h i s describes a good a p p r o x i m a t i o n if d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the model. The envelope parameter have b generally taken

an average t r a n s m i t t a n c e of t h e b u i l d i n g envelope. building

T h i s m i g h t n o t be very

different solar

transmittances. part a of

The the

parameter

describes

a 'background"

energy from Any o f be wind driven

consumption by t h e occupants, c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e h e a t i n g o f t h e b u i l d i n g radiation, nor and have energy l o s s e s due t o i n f i l t r a t i o n e t c . Some energy flows will on dependence the energy these f a c t o r s may n o t be c o n s t a n t a t a l l . constant variables. speed linear and The i n f i l t r a t i o n may, e.g., direction, neither the

on AT, o r may be i n f l u e n c e d b y o t h e r dependence to a losses due thermally

have a s t r o n g

i n f i l t r a t i o n w i l l have a s t r o n g e r dependence t h a n a l i n e a r one on AT. More complex models, w the one v a r i a b l e s l i k e wind speed, temperatures. G a r n i e r (1982). Models of p r e d i c t i v e purposes. i wind this n t h e parameters, have t h e same direction, kind are a such global in model radiation, is given in structure and as

d e s c r i b e d above b u t t h e y a l s o t a k e i n t o account o t h e r e x t e r i o r c l i m a t e radiative


I

g e n e r a l used f o r e x p l a n a t i v e o r Sonderegger-

An example o f

If one p r e f e r s t o use a dynamic model i t w i l l be


account and often a set the heat capacity of the building

necessary too. like of longer

to

take The walls, kind

into roof are of

components

thermal

p r o p e r t i e s o f d i f f e r e n t components o f t h e b u i l d i n g e x t e r i o r , windows, a r e t h e n o f t e n modelled s e p a r a t e l y . very of as complex coupled computer nonmodels. They performance o f t h e h e a t i n g system o f t h e b u i l d i n g . often s t r u c t u r e , e.g. simultaneously. require Models no

I t i s a l s o usual t o model t h e this have a s i m p l e

l i n e a r i n t h e v a r i a b l e s a n d / o r parameters, b u t t h e y c o n s i s t
If t h e y a r e t o be used f o r

l i n e a r d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n s which have t o be s o l v e d a predictive purpose one has they to then often perform often The

i n p u t a v e r y d e t a i l e d knowledge about t h e ' t h e r m a l p r o p e r t i e s of t h e As t h i s knowledge i s o f t e n l a c k i n g , with one of v a r y i n g ' p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e b u i l d i n g components, and The i n d o o r t e m p e r a t u r e i s either taken two ways.
It

b u i l d i n g components. calculations treated indoor in

t h e model i s used as a s i m u l a t i o n model. is

t o ' b e c o n s t a n t , which free-floating.

corresponds t o a p e r f e c t l y t h e r m o s t a t e d b u i l d i n g , o r i t i s temperature t h e model. The models d i s c u s s e d so f a r have properties occupants model. also t o a great extent ( s e e ch. be determined only by taken the into

i s t h e n c o m p l e t e l y determined by t h e h e a t - f l o w e q u a t i o n s o f

account and

the habits

physical of the

of the residential building.

But t h e a c t u a l energy consumption w i l l behaviour

I V c).

For t h i s t h e r e does i n g e n e r a l n o t e x i s t any s i m p l e

Iff a c t o r s o f t h i s k i n d a r e t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e model one w i l l have t o

r e l y on e x p e r i e n c e and canmon sense.

TABLE I 1 a-3

G u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a model

1) Make t h e model as s i m p l e as p o s s i b l e . T h i s w i l l
t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and t h e a n a l y s i s
2 ) Try t o model each energy f l o w s e p a r a t e l y

facilitate

3),Choose t h e parameters so t h a t t h e y have a simple and d i r e c t physical i n t e r p r e t a t i o n

4 ) L e t t h e r e t r o f i t be d e s c r i b e d by j u s t one energy flow. w i l l make i t e a s i e r t o e s t i m a t e t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t . 5 ) Use as few parameters as p o s s i b l e t h a t have t o he

This

assigned

a v a l u e by a f i t t o e x p e r i m e n t a l data. T h i s w i l l reduce t h e e r r o r o f t h e parameter values determined i n t h e f i t . Compare t h e parameter v a l u e o b t a i n e d i n a f i t t o some o t h e r independent e s t i m a t e of t h i s v a l u e i f i t i s possible. This can g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n of t h e goodness o f t h e model.

7 ) If p o s s i b l e , c o n s t r u c t a model t h a t can be used a l s o , f o r o t h e r b u i l d i n g s . T h i s w i l l make i t e a s i e r t o compare w i t h


r e s u l t s from o t h e r experiments. However, t h i s demand

will

sometimes c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e demand f o r model s i m p l i c i t y .

A general d i s c u s s i o n on t h e use o f models can be f o u n d ' i n Saaty-

Alexander evaluation experiment

(1981).
model. of

In

Table every

I1

a-3

we

g i v e some g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a and every r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g i s unique 'and another

However, i t should be remembered t h a t , when d e a l i n g w i t h t h e experiment Below

retrofits,

t h e r e f o r e no model used i n one experiment can be a p p l i e d i n without models. forethought.

are g i v e n some very simple examples on t h e use o f

Example 1

Consider a b e f o r e - a f t e r experiment where one measures t h e heating timesystem, resolution


W,

output

of

the The The

and the

the

indoor-

outdoor temperature d i f f e r e n c e AT. walls. i s one day.

b u i l d i n g i s r e t r o f i t t e d by adding e x t r a i n s u l a t i o n t o t h e e x t e r i o r of experiment

One can then, assuming t h a t

t h e r e i s a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n between W and AT, determine t h e parameters a and b o f the model W=a+ b*AT. Assume, t h a t f o r t h e b e f o r e p e r i o d , we o b t a i n W=a,+b,*AT and f o r t h e period of the e.g., the free the W=a2 +b2'AT. value heat of b, The the solar solar parameter difference b should 'here bl describe the t r a n s m i t t a n c e o f t h e b u i l d i n g envelope. improvement due t o i n s u l a t i o n . from of after average

As t h e r e t r o f i t c o n s i s t s of a r e d u c t i o n between and b? should d e s c r i b e an things, describes

The parameter a, among o t h e r and a2

r a d i a t i o n and energy consumption due t o occupancy.

Therefore, one should expect t h a t al amount

. take

about t h e same v a l u e , u n l e s s ,

radiation

has been very d i f f e r e n t d u r i n g t h e two

measurement p e r i o d s o r t h e occupants have changed t h e i r h a b i t s .

I f b o t h measurement p e r i o d s a r e o f t h e l e n g t h t, t h e t o t a l
energy, E, w i l l be E= W .I d t = a'tt b * i ~ Td t

consumption

of

The t o t a l consumption o f t h e b e f o r e p e r i o d , El,

and t h a t of t h e a f t e r p e r i o d ,

E2, a r e then
E1=al*ttblf i ~ T ( 1 )d t and E2=a2*ttb2'/AT(2) dt

To e v a l u a t e t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t one now has t o c a l c u l a t e consumption of the retrofitted building would i n d o o r c l i m a t e and t h e behaviour o f t h e occupants, t h e before- period. for except for

what

the

energy of the

have been i f t h e o u t d o o r and changes a

b e h a v i o u r t h a t can be d i r e c t l y a s c r i b e d t o t h e r e t r o f i t i t s e l f , had been t h a t o f W i t h t h i s model i t i s o n l y p o s s i b l e t o make correction One t h e n n o t t h e d i f f e r e n t average outdoor- i n d o o r t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e . However, if e.g. effect

i n c l u d e s t h e e f f e c t s of an eventual d i f f e r e n t i n d o o r temperature i n t h e r e t r o f i t effect. a, the t h e amount o f S o l a r r a d i a t i o n has been d i f f e r e n t , o r t h e occupants have changed t h e i r h a b i t s , b o t h f a c t o r s d e s c r i b e d by t h e parameter o f changes i n t h e s e f a c t o r s i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t . consumed the The r e t r o f i t t e d b u i l d i n g would then, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e model, have energy Ep=a2*t+b2*IAT(I) during t h e before
I

dt period. The temperature corrected difference in energy - a 2 ) * t + ( b -b ) * l A T ( l ) d t . 1 2 correct also for

consumtion can t h e n be c a l c u l a t e d as ( a

I f one wants t o e s t i m a t e t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t one has t o


f a c t o r s o t h e r t h a n t h e i n d o o r - o u t d o o r temperature d i f f e r e n c e . the that is

I n t h i s case one during means periods very

has t o c a l c u l a t e what t h e energy consumption of t h e r e t r o f i t t e d b u i l d i n g t h e r e t r o f i t , d e s c r i b e d by t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e parameter b. periods. This then both has

b e f o r e - p e r i o d would have been i f a l l f a c t o r s had been i d e n t i c a l except f o r t h e parameter a would t a k e t h e same v a l u e d u r i n g t h e - b e f o r e - and t h e a f t e r T h i s can be arranged i f a simultaneous f i t t o d a t a from a f i t u s i n g 3 parameters, a, b, t h e amount o f
it

performed, but

and b2. solar

This i s c e r t a i n l y not a been Assuming

s a t i s f a c t o r y procedure i f e.g. different,

radiation

i s t h e b e s t t h a t can be achieved w i t h t h i s model.

t h e n t h a t t h e parameter a t a k e s t h e same v a l u e d u r i n g t h e b e f o r e - and t h e a f t e r p e r i o d s , t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t i s g i v e n by (blb2)*JAT(1) d t

Example 2

I n t h i s example we w i l l t r e a t a case where t h e model i n c l u d e s flows but still is of of a s t a t i c one. adding doors and extra package c o n s i s t i n g weatherstripping insulation A to the exterior

many

energy and

The r e t r o f i t i n t h i s example i s a r e t r o f i t walls group of houses has a l r e a d y been equipped with sensors.

windows.

selected for t h e r e t r o f i t .

A number o f them a r e t o be

The App.

number

o f such houses i s determined from t h e expected r e t r o f i t e f f e c t (see 111). As only one heating season is be available for and the a t h e t e s t - reference design i s t i be used. The houses are d i v i d e d retrofitted

I 1 and

measurements, reference

i n t o two groups, a t e s t group of 20 houses which a r e t o experiment has been finished. A l l houses a r e nominally i d e n t i c a l before t h e close only to one a r e e l e c t r i c a l l y heated. possible t a p water and appliances).'

group of another 20 houses which a r e not t o be r e t r o f i t t e d u n t i l t h i s

retrofit

and

are

situated The houses


It

another, b u t are n o t o r i e n t e d i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n .

The h o t t a p water i s a l s o e l e c t r i c a l l y heated. A l l houses have a n a t u r a l v e ' n t i l a t i o n system.

is The

t o record t h e t o t a l consumption of e l e c t r i c energy ( h e a t i n g , h o t

s i t e o f t h e houses i s h i g h l y exposed t o t h e wind. The aim o f t h e experiment i s t o determine t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t on t h e energy consumption measurement experiment. When e s t i m a t i n g t h e magnitudes o f the d i f f e r e n t energy flows i n t h e houses,
i t i s found t h a t f i v e energy flows have t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e model :

f o r the r e t r o f i t package and i f p o s s i b l e t o separate the e f f e c t s o f tightness in the of the houses. of A the equipment i s chosen t h a t a l l o w s t h e measurement of v a r i a b l e s every are to be used final analysis

t h e increased i n s u l a t i o n , a n d t h e increased a i r hour, b u t weekly averages

We= e l e c t r i c energy consumption ( h e a t i n g , h o t t a p water and appliances) Wr= s o l a r and sky r a d i a t i o n through t h e windows Wc= conductive and r a d i a t i v e heat losses through t h e b u i l d i n g Wv= heat losses due t o v e n t i l a t i o n and a i r i n f i t r a t i o n Wo- o t h e r heat losses, i n c l u d i n g heat losses t o t h e ground, heat l o s s e s by a i r i n g , sewage water heat losses e t c .
It

envelope

is

believed constant

that in

when

averaged

over

group

of

houses,

Yo,is

approximately

time and takes t h e same value f o r t h e t e s t - and t h e

reference houses.

he

model can then be expressed as

I t i s obvious t h a t i n t h i s model t h e term Yo i n c l u d e s most of t h e v a r i a t i o n

of

energy consumption r e l a t e d t o t h e h a b i t s of t h e occupants,

i n f a c t a l l of i t

except t h e use of domestic e l e c t r i c i t y and h o t t a p water.

It i s a l s o c l e a r t h a t

with

this

model the

it

will

not

be p o s s i b l e t o separate t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e two groups the

retrofits strictly. describe while the difference airtightness of the

The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e t e n W c between t h e two effect houses due due to i n the term W v w i l l describe the effect the weatherstripping of

will

retrofit

t o t h e increased U-value o f t h e i n s u l a t i o n increased and t h e increased

a i r t i g h t n e s s due t o t h e addlng o f e x t r a i n s u l a t i o n . The energy f l o w s o f t h e model a r e now expressed i n terms o f parameters as: W c =
CC'

variables

and

AT^' Ac

where

b r a = t h e i n d o o r - outdoor a i r temperature d i f f e r e n c e Cc = average heat t r a n s m i t t a n c e o f t h e b u i l d i n g envelope Ac = area o f b u i l d i n g envelope Uv = (Cv* v v 2

112 Ct* AT^) 'Ca*

AT^* Ac

where

= wind speed

Ca = v o l u m e t r i c heat c a p a c i t y o f a i r Cv and C t a r e two parameters


W r = C r * Ar

' Qr

where

Qr = t h e amount o f s o l a r and sky r a d i a t i o n on a v e r t i c a l p l a n e f a c i n g south


Ar = t h e window area o f a house p r o j e c t e d . o n a v e r t i c a l p l a n e f a c i n g south

C r = s h o r t - wave r a d i a t i o n t r a n s m i t t a n c e o f a window
The above r e l a t i o n s a r e r a t h e r s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y , b u t t h e the energy expressions from the only for south the

r need some f u r t h e r comments. flows W v and W

For t h e energy flow W r

one has assumed t h a t most o f t h e s o l a r and sky r a d i a t i o n comes d u r i n g t h e measurement campaign. radiation impinging be checked a g a i n s t m e t e o r o l o g i c a l data. One then has to

The v a l i d i t y of t h i s assumption must o f course measure


It i s a l s o assumed t h a t

on a v e r t i c a l p l a n e f a c i n g south.

t h e parameter C r i s independent o f t h e angle o f i n c i d e n c e between t h e and t h e window.

radiation

For t h e energy f l o w W v one has chosen a non- l i n e a r combination o f t h e wind speed small periods v and the air temperature d i f f e r e n c e hTa. The r a t e o f . a i r change i s for for

it) ' i /s~ c l e a r t h a t assumed t o be p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e f a c t o r ( ~ v + v ~ + ~ t * A ~ a


There w i l l t h e r e f o r e be a h i g h degree o f when t h e wind speed i s small. correlation between W c and

w2 h i l e wc i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o hTa. wind speeds wv i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o ~ ~ a 3 1

Wv

The use o f t h i s model t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e s

t h a t t h e measurement campaign i n c l u d e s p e r i o d s infiltration t h a n by stack directiun. are driven more One effects. has not

when any

the

ventilation on

and the

air wind of

by t h e r e s u l t i n g wind p r e s s u r e across t h e house assumed dependence

This can be a good a p p r o x i m a t i o n i f s t r o n g winds come p r e d o ~ n i n a n t l y house

from one d i r e c t i o n o r i f f o r every house o f t h e t e s t group t h e r e i s a t h e - r e f e r e n c e group t h a t has about t h e same o r i e n t a t i o n . One now has t o measure t h e v a r i a b l e s AT^, v and Qr and t h e The entities Ca, Ac and heat

flow

W e . Cc, value

Ar

are

e i t h e r known p h y s i c a l q u a n t i t i e s o r can be The is parameters a Here d i f f e r e n t methods a r e assigned

c a l c u l a t e d from t h e , g e o m e t r i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e houses. Cv, C t and Cr have t o be assigned a numerical value. used. The s h o r t - wave t r a n s m i t t a n c e of t h e windows, C r ,

determined i n l a b o r a t o r y and f i e l d experiments w i t h windows o f t h e k i n d found i n t h e experiment houses. The v a l u e of t h e p a r a m e t e r c t i s determined from measurements of of occasions when t h e r e difference with of is is no wind large. and In t h e , indooroutdoor the air on the rate

a i r exchange i n t h e t e s t - and r e f e r e n c e - houses d u r i n g t h e h e a t i n g season on temperature occasions relatively wind and p r i n c i p l e t h e v a l u e of t h e parameter Cv summer

c o u l d have been determined i n an analogous manner i n a. s t r o n g the test outdoor a i r .

no temperature d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i n d o o r and t h e orientations

However, t h i s was n o t done i n t h i s experiment as t h e

houses a r e n o t e x a c t l y t h e same as those of t h e r e f e r e n c e houses,

and one was a l i t t l e u n c e r t a i n about t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e wind d i r e c t i o n . The values o f Cc and Cv then have t o be determined by a f i t t o e x p e r i m e n t a l data. Due to the non-linearity o f t h e model i n t h e parameter Cv, i t i s n o t a nonlinear fitting house, p o s s i b l e t o use a l e a s t - squares f i t i n t h i s case, b u t procedure has t o be a p p l i e d .

With t h e approximations t h a t have been made, t h e

model i s now l e s s s u i t e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e thermal performance of a s i n g l e t h e r e f e r e n c e group r e s p e c t i v e l y . Below we w i l l denote values b e l o n g i n g t o t h e r e f e r e n c e symbols and t o determine t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t . between. t h e assumption test that and the group by

b u t should be used t o d e s c r i b e t h e "average" thermal performance o f t h e t e s t and

unprimed

values b e l o n g i n g t o t h e t e s t group by primed symbols. C l e a r l y t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n energy one in makes the reference

One now has consumption a prihri

houses due t o t h e r e t r o f i t s i s g i v e n by

Wc-Wc-+Wv-Wv- which i s i d e n t i c a l t o We-We-tWr-Wr-,if

W o takes t h e same v a l u e f o r t h e t e s t and t h e r e f e r e n c e 'houses. energy consumption

However, one does n o t want t o i d e n t i f y t h i s . d i f f e r e n c e

with

t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t as t h e former i n c l u d e s e.g. the values o f t h e parameters Cc,Cc-,Cv be calculated.

the effect o f a different I n s t e a d one there are wants still to two

i n d o o r temperature i n t h e t e s t and t h e r e f e r e n c e houses. determine t h a t t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t can p o s s i b l e approaches. The Simplest one i s t o assume t h a t No t a k e s t h e groups o f houses. In the this case of and one houses, one can determine t h e values o f t h e above f o u r same However,

and Cv- from a f i t t o d a t a so

value

for and to

the

two

By a simultaneous f i t t o d a t a from t h e t e s t and t h e reference parameters


is

Wo=Wo-. determine

will

n o t have any way o f d e t e r m i n i n g i f t h e r e has been any The o t h e r approach

change i n t h e behaviour o f t h e occupants. values W o

Cc, Cv and W o from a f i t t o d a t a from t h e r e f e r e n c e houses, and I n t h i s case t h e retrofit effect, difference
AM.

a p p l y t h e analogous procedure f o r t h e t e s t houses. between WoHowever,this does n o t e f f e c t t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e b o t h cases above i t w i l l be g i v e n by

i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f a changed behaviour o f t h e occupants. In

Ift h e second approach above


calculated Then
if

is

followed,

the

retrofit

effect

can

be

Wo-Woe i s small canpared t o t h e magnitude o f Wo, because i n t h i s

case i t seems l i k e l y t h a t a l s o t h e behaviour of t h e occupants has been t h e same. t h e requirements f o r t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t , t h a t t h e t e s t fulfilled. The and t h e reference b u i l d i n g s a r e i d e n t i c a l i n a l l r e s p e c t s , a r e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t w i l l t h e n be g i v e n by t h e e x p r e s s i o n

To check t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h i s model, t h e f i t t e d values o f Cc and Cc- should be compared to theoretical values calculated from knowledge about the ought construction o f the building. At l e a s t t h e d i f f e r e n c e between Cc and Cc-

t o be w e l l determined as t h i s i s a r e s u l t of t h e r e t r o f i t .

Example 3

I n t h i s example we w i l l evaluation night

describe

the

use

of

dynamic

model

in

the

o f a r e t r o f i t package when t h e on- o f f . d e s i g n i s used.

The r e t r o f i t

package c o n s i s t s o f t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f a heat exchanger and t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f s e t back. The experimental b u i l d i n g i s a l a r g e m u l t i - f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l is The equipped heating The with system has a mechanical an exhaust oilThe h o t tap and supply is to the The heat includes f i r e d burner, a water building. ventilation genereted the The b u i l d i n g system.

c i r c u l a t i o n pump and h o t - water r a d i a t o r s i n t h e f l a t s . electrically. building facing south.

two dominant facades, one o f them delivered water of

When t h e n i g h t set back i s i n o p e r a t i o n no heat i s The a

apartments f o r e i g h t hours, b u t t h e c i r c u l a t i o n pump i s s t i l l working, thus is kept at a constant temperature d u r i n g t h e n i g h t set back. with recuperative

t h e heat s t o r e d i n t h e pipes i s g i v e n o f f t o t h e r a d i a t o r s . furnace . v e n t i l a t i o n system i s a f t e r t h e exchanger. AS t h e r e does not e x i s t heating season is used i n t h i s experiment. any suitable reference retrofit equipped

building

and

only

one

a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e measurements, t h e on- o f f design i s t o be

When e s t i m a t i n g t h e magnitudes o f the energy flows t h a t c o u l d

be

included

i n t h e model , 'one concludes t h a t t h e model should c o n t a i n t h e heat flows W h = energy i n p u t from t h e heating system W s = heat storage i n t h e b u i l d i n g i n t e r i o r and envelope W e = e l e c t r i c energy consumption
W r = s o l a r and sky r a d i a t i o n through t h e windows

W c = conductive and r a d i a t i v e heat losses through t h e b u i l d i n g W v = heat losses through t h e v e n t i l a t i o n system W o = o t h e r heat losses ' i n c l u d i n g heat losses t o t h e i n t h e heating system etc. The model i s then wh+ We+ Wrs Wc+ Wv+ Ws+ W o

envelope losses by

ground; heat

a i r i n g , s o l a r r a d i a t i o n through t h e e x t e r i o r w a l l s , d i s t r i b u t i o n losses

The working c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e heatlng r e g u l a t i o n system a r e such burner

that until

the the

will

start

if

the

temperature o f t h e water l e a v i n g the furnace f a l l s The burner

below a c e r t a i n p r e s e t

temperature.

will

remain

on

temperature of t h e water l e a v i n g t h e furnace reaches another preset temperature.

The water l e a v i n g t h e furnace i s mixed w i t h p a r t b e i n g fed i n t o t h e pipes. return certain water

of

the

return

water

before the

The temperature and t h e f l o w r a t e of t h e supply water T h i s v a l v e w i l l open o r c l o s e exceeds The outdoor a i r temperature.

i s a f f e c t e d by t h e o p e r a t i o n of a m i x i n g v a l v e which c o n t r o l s t h e m i x i n g o f and t h e water l e a v i n g t h e furnace. limits determined by the depending on whether t h e temperature of t h e supply water f a l l s below o r temperature e f f e c t o f t h e burner v a r i e s w i t n t h e load. I n order t o avoid a detailed modelling of t h i s heating system, which

by

i t s e l f would n o t serve any purpose,' as t h e h e a t i n g system has n o t been s u b j e c t e d t o any r e t r o f i t , one decides t o i n c l u d e i n t h e model o n l y t h e n e t o f f by t h e n e a t i n g system. t h e s u p p l y water and t h e r e t u r n water and t h e f l o w r a t e . energy given is One t h e n measures t h e temperature d i f f e r e n c e between The energy f l o w W h

then, when t h e n i g h t s e t back i s n o t i n o p e r a t i o n , g i v e n by W h


= Cw* bTh* Qh

where

ATh = temperature d i f f e r e n c e between s u p p l y and r e t u r n water Qh = f l o w r a t e of t h e h e a t i n g system C w


= v o l u m e t r i c heat c a p a c i t y of water

When t h e n i g h t s e t back i s o p e r a t i n g another model o f t h e h e a t i n g system i s used. and the The t o t a l w a t e r volume o f t h e p i p i n g system i s known. So when t h e . n i g h t s e t circulating water The t i m e c o n s t a n t back is operating of t h e h e a t i n g system i s a l s o known.

g i v e s o f f i t s heat t o t h e r a d i a t o r s , i t i s assumed The energy f l o w W h is

t h a t t h e temperature of t h e water f a l l s of e x p o n e n t i a l l y . t h e n i n t h i s case g i v e n by W h


Vw
= Cw* Vw'

ATW* e x p ( - t / ~ )

where

= volume o f w a t e r i n t h e p i p e s

ATW = average temperature d i f f e r e n c e between t h e water and t h e i n d o o r a i r when t h e n i g h t setback s t a r t s


= t h e t i m e c o n s t a n t of t h e h e a t i n g system.

D u r i n g t h e f i r s t hour a f t e r t h e n i g h t s e t back some o f t h e heat by the burner is. used water c o n t a i n e d i n i t . g i v e n by W h

given

off is

t o ' r a i s e t h e temperature of t h e p i p i n g system and t h e

D u r i n g t h i s hour one assumes t h a t t h e energy flow W n

= Cwf(bThf Qh- V ~ A T W )

E l e c t r i c energy i s used f o r h o t t a p water and domestic e l e c t r i c i t y . t o t h e h e a t i n g of t h e building because of sewage water losses,

It

is in

assumed t h a t only a c e r t a i n f r a c t i o n o f theconsumed e l e c t r i c i t y w i l l c o n t r i b u t e .airing connection w i t h cooking e t c . W e Ee Ce


= = =

The energy f l o w W e i s then modelled as where

Ce* Ee

t h e t o t a l consumption of e l e c t r i c energy t h e f r a c t i o n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e h e a t i n g of t h e b u i l d i n g
It i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e major c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e h e a t i n g of

the flow

building As t h i s
W r is

from s o l a r and sky r a d i a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f i a d i a t i o n through t h e windows. r a d i a t i o n can be measured on t h e i n s i d e o f a modelled as


W r = Ar* q r

window,

the

energy

where

Ar

= window area o f t h e southern facade of t h e b u i l d i n g

p r = impinging s h o r t - wave r a d i a t i o n measured on t h e i n s i d e o f a window The energy f l o w W c i s modelled as W c Cc Ac


= Cc* Ac

ATa

where

= average heat t r a n s m i t t a n c o f b u i l d i n g envelope = area of b u i l d i n g envelope

ATa = indoor- outdoor a i r temperature d i f f e r e n c e The parameter of the Cc is assumed walls to be constant in time. The thermal although

performance

external

i s thus assumed t o be s t a t i c , and thermal model,

g r a d i e n t s i n t h e i n s u l a t i o n a r e n o t taken i n t o account i n t h i s o t h e r energy flows o f t h e model are dynamic.

I n t h e v e n t i l a t i o n system t h e f l o w r a t e o f t h e s u p p l i a i r i s that of t h e exhaust a i r . reduce

smaller

than

This w i l l c r e a t e a pressure i n s i d e t h e b u i l d i n g t h a t The o v e r a l l A

w i l l enhance t h e e f f e c t o f t h e pressure on t h e windward s i d e of t h e b u i l d i n g b u t instead t h e f l o w o f a i r through t h e leeward e x t e r i o r w a l l . increase of the uncontrolled e f f e c t w i l l i n general be an ventilation due t o stack e f f e c t s . W v Ca
= Cat ATv *as

infiltration.

system of t h i s k i n d w i l l a l s o enhance t h e u n c o n t r o l l e d i n f i l t r a t i o n The heat l o s s caused by v e n t i l a t i o n , Wv, i s expressed as


/

where

= t h e volumetric heat c a p a c i t y o f a i r

ATv = t h e temperature d i f f e r e n c e between t h e exhaust a i r l e a v i n g and t h e supply

a i r e n t e r i n g t h e b u i l d i n g ( o r t h e heat exchanger i f t h i s one i s i n use )


QS

= t h e f l o w r a t e o f t h e supply a i r

The h e a t s t o r a g e i n t h e b u i l d i n g w i l l t a k e p l a c e m a i n l y i n components, envelope. the heating

three

building the

system, t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e b u i l d i n g and t h e b u i l d i n g

The h e a t s t o r a g e i n t h e h e a t i n g system has been accounted f o r i n The energy flow W s i s model l e d as where

energy .flow Wh. W s Cs


= CS'

dTi

= a parameter d e s c r i b i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e h e a t c a p a c i t y o f t h e b u i l d i n g

d T i = t h e t e m w r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e i n d o o r a i r between two measurements The parameter Cs w i l l i n e f f e c t d e s c r i b e n o t o n l y t h e h e a t s t o r a g e building are to interior be used ,but in the t h r o u g h t h e b u i l d i n g envelope, Wc, was t r e a t e d as a s t a t i c one. of the data indoor proper heat

a l s o t h a t of t h e b u i l d i n g envelope, as t h e energy f l o w

A;

hourly The in a and

a n a l y s i s , t h e temperature d i f f e r e n c e dTi w i l l be t h e

d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e i n d o o r temperature between two c o n s e c u t i v e hours. temperature model .sources should in one d e s c r i b e d i n App. be that Ill. Because t h e temperature t o radiation be used

i s measured i n a number o f f l a t s determined by a procedure l i k e t h e o f t h e b u i l d i n g f a b r i c , and n o t t h a t o f t h e i n d o o r a i r , through windows

which can f l u c t u a t e r a p i d l y due t o s o l a r measurement o f t h e i n d o o r a i r temperature.

t h e apartments, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t such f a c t o r s do n o t a f f e c t t h e

The remaining h e a t source W o i s assumed t o be c o n s t a n t i n t i m e and t a k e t h e same value during the onand the offperiods. T h i s 1s p r o b a b l y a good a p p r o x i m a t i o n i n t h i s case, as much o f t h e p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e h a b i t s o f t h e occupants has been t a k e n i n t o account i n t h e energy f l o w W e . One t h e n has t o measure t h e temperature v a r i a b l e s ATh, ATa, the areas The-parameters Ca and Cw a r e known p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of Ar and been d e s c r i b e d how t h e parameters o f t h e h e a t i n g assigned a value. t h e energy f l o w W o . system air
ATv

and water,

dTi, the

f l o w r a t e s Qh and Qs, t h e r a d i a t i o n Qr, and t h e e l e c t r i c i t y consumption,Ee. and Ac can be c a l c u l a t e d from t h e b u i l d i n g geometry.


It has a l r e a d y

Vw,

and

ATW a r e

It remains t o a s s i g n a v a l u e t o the.parameters Ce, Cc, Cs and


From p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s on s i m i l a r b u i l d i n g s i t i s known t h a t T h i s value i s taken as i n p u t t o t h e model. and from the the offoffperiods. peiiod The The alone

t h e .value o f Ce i s about 0.5'.

parameters Cc and Cs a r e t h e same d u r i n g t h e ont h e on-. and t h e o f f - periods. A f i t t o ' t h e data

values o f Cc, Cs and W o can now be determined i n a simultaneous f i t t o d a t a from

would should

probably be

result

i n a very poor d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e parameter Cs unless The values o f Cc and Cs

t h e swings o f t h e indoor temperature have been large. knowledge about the construction the fitted of the building.

compared t o t h e o r e t i c a l l y c a l c u l a t e d values of these parameters frm

If t h e r e

are

large

discrepancies

between

and, t h e t h e o r e t i c a l values, t h e u n d e r l y i n g

assumptions of t h e model should be reviewed. One should now t u r n t o t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t . one with has a good model describing rather detail.
I t t u r n s out t h a t t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e r e t r o f i t

I n t h i s case effect meets

t h e thermal performance of t h e b u i l d i n g i n

some d i f f i c u l t i e s .

Probably t h e average i n d o o r temperature has been lower the night setback. effect of

d u r i n g t h e on- periods than d u r i n g t h e o f f - periods due t o i n d o o r temperature a l l t h e time. the night t h e o f f - period. model. setback. effect of

The r e s u l t i n g energy saving could a l s o have been achieved by simply lowering t h e So one would l i k e t o know what t h e of estimating this with set back had been i f t h e average indoor temperature had been t h a t o f There i s no simple way t h e . above energy f l o w can be d i r e c t l y associated w i t h t h e e f f e c t o f t h e n i g h t I n a sense t h e model i s too, complex f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e r e t r o f i t the night setback, t h e e f f e c t of t h e n i g h t setback i s d i s t r i b u t e d

N ;

between t o o many o t h e r energy flows. One can c a l c u l a t e t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e heating from t h e h e a t but only for This the is exchanger,

actual indoor temperature o f t h e on- periods, n o t what t h i s so, because t h e temperature o f t h e exhaust a i r e n t e r i n g t h e loises

c o n t r i b u t i o n would have been i f t h e indoor temperature had been t h a t o f t h e o f f periods. in heat exchanger i s n o t t h e same as t h e . i n d o o r temperature because o f heat t h e ducts.

A c a l c u l a t i o n using t h e temperature o f t h e o f f - periods as i n p u t

c o u l d have been performed i f a more complex model o f t h e heat exchanger had been used and a l s o t h e temperatures o f t h e supply a i r e n t e r i n g t h e heat exchanger and t h e exhaust a i r l e a v i n g i t had been measured. One would also in this case r e q u i r e knowledge about t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e heat exchanger. The model i s t o o complex f o r t h e e s t i m a t i o n of setback, design. the effect of the night off

b u t t o o simple f o r the e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t o f t h e heat exchanger. One can l e t o f f - p e r i o d s a l t e r n a t e w i t h p e r i o d s when o n l y one o f t h e

A way out o f t h i s dilemma i s t o use a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d v a r i a n t o f t h e on-

r e t r o f i t s i s on and w i t h periods when b o t h ' r e t r o f i t s are on (see Cox 1958).

Example 4

I n t h i s example we w i l l d e c r i b e a case when a model, l i n e a r i n t h e l i n e a r term. The experimental b u i l d i n g s a r e s i t u a t e d a t d u r i n g t w o . h e a t i n g seasons. exchangers a high latitude. A

indoor-

outdoor temperature d i f f e r e n c e AT, had t o be m o d i f i e d by t h e i n c l u s i o n of a non-

beforeheat

a f t e r experiment was c a r r i e d o u t on a group o f detached s i n g l e - family d w e l l i n g s The r e t r o f i t c o n s i s t e d o f t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n of i n t h e exhaust and supply v e n t i l a t i o n system, and t h e replacement o f

double- glazed windows by t r i p l e - glazed. One recorded the weekly of averages by (9 of the indoor for months). and hot heating temperature, tap The was water, and flowsystem outdoor household the at heat o f the two ten

temperature, exchanger

consumption energy the

electricity season

e l e c t r i c i t y , and t h e during

supplied

heating

rate

v e n t i l a t i o n system was f i x e d d u r i n g t h e experiment, occasions i n b o t h h e a t i n g seasons. per cent

measured

Tracer gas measurements were a l s o perfonned. never exceeded One would then

It was estimated t h a t t h e a i r exchange due t o i n f i l t r a t i o n

o f t h e a i r exchange forced by t h e v e n t i l a t i o n system.

expect t h a t t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n and v e n t i l a t i o n losses would be l i n e a r i n 8T.


I t was found t h a t t h e energy used f o r h e a t i n g was n o t as l i n e a r

in

A T as for

expected, n e i t h e r f o r t h e b e f o r e p e r i o d nor f o r t h e a f t e r p e r i o d . was even worse i f t h e consumed e l e c t r i c energy heating. was added to the

he situation
energy

At f i r s t i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e observed e f f e c t c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d by t h e neglect effect. of solar r a d i a t i o n i n t h e energy balance of t h e b u i l d i n g . for part of the with a However, a observed strong. rough estimate showed t h a t t h i s c o u l d ' o n l y account

Another argument, i n favour of a more complicated explanation, was t h a t One t h e r e f o r e perfonned a more

a f i t l i n e a r i n A T was n o t acceptable even i f data from p e r i o d s s o l a r r a d i a t i o n were excluded from t h e data set. d e t a i l e d study o f t h e energy balance of t h e b u i l d i n g .

One wanted t o estimate, among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e balance of the building the r a d i a t i o n through measurements windows, and infiltration losses due to

energy No

from heat losses t o t h e ground, p e n e t r a t i o n o f s o l a r wind. The e s t i m a t e t h e r e f o r e had

had been performed o f these v a r i a b l e s .

Wind speed

Ground

One year

One year

Solar radiation

.
One year Fig. I1 a-2 The v a r i a t i o n of some energy v a r i a b l e s during the year.

t o be based on d a t a r e c o r d e d building site.

at

the

meteorological

station

cl0SeSt

to

the

One p l o t t e d t h e e s t i m a t e d t r a n s m i s s i o n l o s s e s t o t h e ground, t h e solar o f e l e c t r i c i t y for hot tap water, and the actual consumption of

estimated household

r a d i a t i o n t h r o u g h windows, t h e average wind speed, t h e a c t u a l consumption

e l e c t r i c i t y versus t h e number o f t h e week.


I t was found t h a t a l l t h e p l o t t e d v a r i a b l e s , e x c e p t f o r t h e consumption

of

hot

t a p w a t e r , which was c o n s t a n t d u r i n g t h e measurement p e r i o d , c o u l d be w e l l d e s c r i b e d a s f u n c t i o n s of t i m e b y a c o n s t a n t p l u s a t r i g o n o m e t r i c f u n c t i o n (see fig. I1 a-2).


It

was,

thus,

believed

that

many

energy to

flowscouldbe sin2n/52(n-no) As a sum model was the

r e p r e s e n t e d by an e x p r e s s i o n c o n t a i n i n g a t e r m

proportional

p l u s a c o n s t a n t , where n i s t h e number of t h e week and n o of e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h i s k i n d can be w r i t t e n i n t h e same modified t o

i s a phase.

manner,

E = a
where

AT + ~ E * ~ i n 2 d 5 2 * ( n - n ~ )

E = energy used f o r h e a t i n g n = t h e number o f t h e week


AT= t h e i n d o o r - o u t d o o r t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e

and a,b,AE,

and n o a r e parameters o f t h e model, whose v a l u e s a r e t o be

d e t e r m i n e d b y a f i t t o e x p e r i m e n t a l data.
It

was

then

found

that,

using

this

model,

satisfactory

fit

to

e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a c o u l d be o b t a i n e d .

B i b l i o g c a p h y and References t o Ch. I 1 a

Cox, U.R.: D i c k , J.B.: J.

P l a n n i n g of experiments.

John Wiley & Sons (1958)

"Experimental S t u d i e s i n N a t u r a l I n f i l t r a t i o n o f Houses".

I n s t . Heat. Vent. Eng. 17, p. 420-466 (1949) and Thomas, D.A.: " V e n t i l a t i o n Reseaich i n Occupied Houses".

Dick, J.B.

J. I n s t . Heat. Vent. Hahn, G.J.

Eng. 19, p. 306 (1951)

"Some T h i n g s Engineers Should Know about Experimental Design".

J. o f q u a l i t y Technology 9, p. 13-20 (1977)


K a l l b l a d , K. ( E d . ) : " C a l c u l a t i o n residential buildings". methods t o p r e d i c t energy s a v i n g s i n

IEA Annex I 1 1 Subtask A Report.

Swedish Council f o r B u i l d i n g Research (1983) Saaty,T.L. and Alexander, J.M.: (Ed.): T h i n k i n g w i t h Models. Pergamon Press (1981)

Socolow, R.H. (1978)

Saving Energy i n t h e Home. B a l l i ' n g e r P u b l i s h i n g Company

Sonderegger, R.C.

and G a r n i e r , J.Y. : "A S i m p l i f i e d Method f o r C a l c u l a t i n g Contribution t o

H e a t i n g and C o o l i n g Energy i n R e s i d e n t i a l B u i l d i n g s " .

t h e Proc. o f C I B W67 T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l Symposium,Dublin I r e l a n d (1982) S t e i n i n i i l l e r . 0.: "Zum E n e r g i e h a u s h a l t von Geb;iudenM. D i s s . Technical

Univ. o f B e r l i n (1982) Westun, J.C.: 19, -

'

" H e a t i n g Research i n Occupied Houses". J. I n s t . Heat. Vent. Eng.


,

p. 47 (1951)

W i l t s h i r e , T.J.: Accomodation".

"A Study o f t h e E f f e c t of Thermal I n s u l a t i o n ' i n Old Persons C o n t r i b u t i o n t o I n t . C o l l . on Comparative E x p e r i m e n t a t i o n o f

Low Energy Houses, L i e g e , Belgium 1981. L a b o r a t o i r e de Physique de Batiment, U n i v e r s . i t e de- L i g g e (1981)

Keywords

accuracy o f e x p e r i m e n t a l method aim of experiments climate correction data analysis d e s i g n o f experiment measurement c y c l e parameters, environmental reference building time constant
%

b e h a v i o u r of occupants

I1 b

On-off experiments

D e s c r i p t i o n o f the o n - o f f experiment

The o n - p f f experimental design can be

used .whenever

the

retrofit on of or

in

r e s i d e n t i a l ' b u i l d i n g c o n s i s t s of t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a system, o r a component o f an a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g system, t h a t can a t w i l l be e i t h e r off. heating The retrofit can also consist such of e x i s t i n g system. Examples o f systems, or turned switched are a. new way o f o p e r a t i n g an a l r e a d y components systems,

systems, v e n t i l a t i o n and a i r - c o n d i t i o n i n g systems, h e a t exchanger, heat

pump, and s o l a r energy systems. The use o f t h e on-off enviroment or go then off of the can experiment o f f e r s several advantages. Regarding t h e

building be

and the exposure t o outdoor c l i m a t e , t h e b u i l d i n g to satisfy the special regquirements o f t h e to may

w i l l be i t s own reference.
state experiment i n q u e s t i o n . through be several

The l e n g t h o f t h e p e r i o d when t h e system i s i n an on

chosen

If t h i s p e r i o d i s s h o r t enough, i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e

on-off

cycles.

I f t h e number of such c y c l e s i s l a r g e , a
In many cases
it

s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t o f t h e r e s u l t s becomes p o s s i b l e . t o when, e.g., t h e b e f o r e - a f t e r method i s used.

p o s s i b l e t o reduce the e x t e n s i o n and c o s t of t h e measurements compared

The l e n g t h o f t h e p e r i o d when t h e b u i l d i n g i s i n an on o r o f f s t a t e should, in an i d e a l case, be g r e a t e r than c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t i m e c o n s t a n t s o f t h e b u i l d i n g in and systems of t h e b u i l d i n g , b u t s h o r t e r than t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r a change t h e average values o f environmental parameters. The v a l u e o f such t i m e constans can v a r y much between b u i l d i n g s . constant t h e degree of i n s u l a t i o n ' , be o f t h e o r d e r o f one day f o r a building The of time 1i g h t

o f t h e thermal c a p a c i t y o f a b u i l d i n g may, depending o f course a l s o on

c o n s t r u c t i o n , b u t be a week o r more f o r a b u i l d i n g of v e r y heavy c o n s t r u c t i o n .


I f t h e - b u i l d i n g s t u d i e d has t y p i c a l time-constans o f t h e o r d e r o f one

day,

the

length

of

t h e p e r i o d mentioned above should comprise a t l e a s t a few days. I t may be p o s s i b l e t o that of the

'

Ifi t i s o f t h e o r d e r o f one week, o r s h o r t e r , i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o go through


several c y c l e s o f measurements d u r i n g one h e a t i n g season. get an average c l i m a t e f o r the on-periods which is close t o

<

off-periods. valid

One

may a l s o have measurements from d i f f e r e n t c l i m a t e s i t u a t i o n s What has been discussed so far is

f o r t h e on as w e l l as f o r t h e o f f periods. uninhabited b u i l d i n g .

independently whether the experiment i s c a r r i e d o u t i n an i n h a b i t e d o r an

Regarding t h e i n f l u e n c e from occupancy, t h e on-off advantageous during the the method.


If . t h e

experiment prevailing

is

also

an

time

of

t h e on-off

c y c l e i s s h o r t enough, the conditions, used to

occupants a r e given t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t o s h o r t i n t e r v a l o f time. shifting p r e v a l e n t f o r t h e moment.

experience

the

on as w e l l as the o f f periods, several times d u r i n g a comparatively I n t h i s way t h e occupants may e v e n t u a l l y g e t and conditions, no l o n g e r n o t i c e whether t h e on o r o f f s t a t e i s

This w i l l of course n o t be t r u e if t h e i n d o o r c l i m a t e

i s very d i f f e r e n t d u r i n g t h e on- and off-periods. I n cases when t h e behaviour o f t h e occupants i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t d u r i n g on and t h e o f f periods, e.g., p e r i o d s and t h i s leads t o a more frequent a i r i n g , t h i s behaviour d u r i n g period would be t h e same i f t h e on s t a t e were permanent. occupants must i n t h i s case be considered t o be p a r t o f t h e n a t u r a l between occupant, b u i l d i n g and enviroment. One should, however, be aware t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e between the conditions
If t h i s

the on

if t h e indoor temperature i s h i g h e r d u r i n g t h e on
the This behaviour of t h e interaction

d u r i n g t h e on- and t h e o f f - s t a t e may be such t h a t t h e occupants need a very l o n g t i m e t o adapt themselves t o t h e new s i t u a t i o n a f t e r a change o f s t a t e . i s so, t h e behaviour of t h e occupants w i l l c l e a r l y i n f l u e n c e energy consumption. I f t h i s i n f l u e n c e can be expected t o be so l a r g e t h a t i t i s of the same order o f magnitude as the expected d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e observerd energy consumption, i t In this

w i l l not be p o s s i b l e t o use t h e o n - o f f experiment as described above.

cse one w i l l e i t h e r have t o advice a method t o measure o r estimate t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e occupants, perform t h e measurements i n an u n i n h a b i t e d b u i l d i n g , o r choose an experimental design, where this i n f l u e n c e i s minimized. Whether t h i s i s p o s s i b l e c a n o n l y be determined case by case.
I t w i l l i n most cases be necessary t o make

a the

correction building

in and

relation if the

to an

climatic

differences.

This

correction . i s between

most, e a s i l y

performed

appropriate model of the i n t e r a c t i o n c l i m a t e i s used.

external.

I t f o l l o w s from what has been discussed above t h a t t h e use

of

the the

on-off building to the


Of

method o f f e r s no s p e c i a l problems w i t h regard t o t h e v a l i d i t y o r t h e accuracy o f t h e method, p o s s i b l y w i t h one exception. This e x c e p t i o n i s that, has some p r o p e r t i e s u n k n o w n t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r , p r o p e r t i e s t h a t are specifi; t h e experimental, b u i l d i n g b u t n o t t o o t h e r , s i m i l a r , b u i l d i n g s . case, the t h e experiment. reference on-off method. The use o f t h e on-off method i s i l l u s t r a t e d below w i t h 3 The first of these illustrates the influence building. simple examples. If this i s or l a c k o f a reference b u i l d i n g m i g h t be d i s a s t r u o u s f o r t h e outcome
It i s t h e r e f o r e always o f v a l u e . t o have access t o one

more

buildings

even

if t h i s

is

n o t p e r se r e q u i r e d f o r t h e use of t h e

o f the time constants of the

Example 1

I n t h i s example t h e accuracy o f t h e o n - o f f experiment w i l l with a few simple eases. W e have

be

illustrated

chosen t o d i s c u s s t h e use o f t h e o n - o f f

experiment i n experiments t o determine t h e e f f i c i e n c y of n i g h t set-back. I n t h i s case we w i l l c a l c u l a t e t h e r a t i o o f t h e observed energy saving the theoretical energy saving and this e n t i t y w i l l be denoted b y a. the kind of analysis c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e intended t o f e r v e as examples o f and These that

should preceed every experiment where t h e on- o f f method i s used. W e w i l l f i r s t d i c u s s t h e case of a r e s i d e n t i a l thermostat r e a c t i n g on t h e i n d o o r temperature Ti. a maximal heat o u t p u t o f PnaX. During the day the below T+. heat o u t p u t w i l l be Pmax building equipped T with amd
T-.

The h e a t i n g system can supply settings, i f t h e i n d o o r temperature f a l l s t h e heat o u t p u t will to

The thermostat has two

If' t h e i n d o o r temperature reaches t h e v a l u e T+

be such t h a t T i keep Ti at

i s kept a t t h i s level.

A t n i g h t no heat w i l l - be s u p p l i e d if T , s u f f . i c i e n t heat w i l l be s u p p l i e d difference to T+. be

i s g r e a t e r ' t h a n T-. this

If Ti
level.

f a l l s below T-,
It

i s f u r t h e r assumed t h a t t h e heat l o s s e s o f t h e with a constant.

b u i l d i n g a r e p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e indoor-outdoor temperature p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y , constant ki, The outdoor temperature w i l l be denoted by To

and t h a t t h e heat c a p a c i t y o f t h e b u i l d i n g i s Ci. and i s assumed i f Ti-

The heat o u t p u t d u r i n g t h e day w i l l t h e n be P=ki*(T+-To)

W e w i l l assume t h a t the thermostat s e t t i n g i s such t h a t t h e night period are of equal

day-

and

the

length,^,

( i n t h i s caser,= ( i .e. of

12 h).
N days).

The l e n g t h of

t h e on- and o f f p e r i o d s o f t h e experiment i s 2Nr, To d i m i n i s h the i n f l u e n c e o f t h e heat energy energy consumption Consumption o f an on- o r o f f - p e r i o d , of t h e l a s t (N of each period. Whena

capacity

the

building

on

the

one can n e g l e c t t h e f i r s t No days The

i s determined, one w i l l then t a k e i n t o account o n l y t h e

No) days of each on- and o f f p e r i o d .

on- and o f f - p e r i o d s are assumed t o s t a r t w i t h a n i g h t .


Ift h e indoor temperature reaches t h e value T+

during t h e off-period,

one

can d i s t i n g u i s h four cases. a) The f i r s t n i g h t o f t h e on- p e r i o d T i does not f a l l t o T-. day t h e heat o u t p u t Pmax i s s u f f i c i e n t t o r a i s e Ti Tiis then the same for d u r i n g t h e whole off-period. to,Tt. a l l days o f t h e on-period and Ti During the next

The development

qf

takes t h e value T+

b ) The temperature T i f a l l s t o T' d u r i n g t h e f i r s t n i g h t of t h e on-period


reaches t h e value T+ in time is during the off-period. d u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g day. I n t h i s case t h e change a l s o t h e same f o r a l l days o f t h e on-period and Ti

and in Ti

i s e q u a l ~ t oT+

c ) The temperature Ti f a l l s t o T- d u r i n g t h e f i r s t n i g h t o f t h e on-period, b u t t h e heat o u t p u t Pmax i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o r a i s e Ti t o T+ d u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g day. The development o f Ti

w i l l be t h e same f o r a l l days o f t h e on-period b u t


for a l l of the

t h e f i r s t one. off-period.

The i n d o o r temperature w i l l not be equal t o T+

d) The i n d o o r temperature does not f a l l t o T- d u r i n g t h e f i r s t n i g h t and n o t reach a value of T+ d u r i n g t h e f i r s t day. The development of Ti

does in time

w i l l be d i f f e r e n t f o r each day of t h e on-period, and Ti


except f o r p a r t of t h e off-period. The development i n t i m e o f t h e indoor temperature Ti l i s t e d above i s i n d i c a t e d i n f i g . I 1 b-1.

w i l l not be equal t o T+

in

the cases

four can

'

cases occur

For a given r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g and

f i x e d values of Pmax, T t , and T-, more than one of these four depending on t h e value o f t h e outdoor temperature TO.

I n t h e cases a) and b ) t h e observed energy s a v i n g w i l l always be the theoretical energy s a v i n g s o a w i l l be i d e n t i c a l l y 1. i n general be c l o s e t o 1 i f t h e energy consumption o f t h e f i r s t day o f a n d , o f f - p e r i o d s i s excluded when n i s c a l c u l a t e d . The case d) requires were 2kiTo a further treatment. the energy The theoretical

equal
a

to will on-

I n case c )

the

energy be

consumption if t h e o n - s t a t e were permanent would be equal t o (N-Ne)*~,'Pmax.'and

if

the

off-state

permanent Pmax). during

consumption

would

~ ( N - N o ) * I ~ * ~ ~ * ( T ~ - T ~The ) . t h e o r e t i c a l energy s a v i n g would t h u s be equal t o (N-N.)'ro'(2kiTt

The observed energy t h e o r e t i c a l one, i.e.

consumption

the

on-period

is

the

same

as

the

(N-No)*To*Pmax reaches t h e v a l u e Tt a t the time tS, tS> 2Nof~o.

If i t i s assumed t h a t T i

after P,,,,,*(tS ki'(Tt

the off-period

s t a r t s , t h e observed energy consumption of t h e o f f - p e r i o d (Tf

w i l l be equal t o

2Noro)

To)*(2Nro

tS).

The observed energy s a v i n g i s t h u s equal t o To) ( 2 Nro

t S ) + Pmaxt(ts

Nro

No~o). r)

If t h e r a t i o Pnax/ki(T+- To) i s denoted by r, t h e v a l u e o f a i s

e= 1+ (r

1) ( ~ S / T O 2 No)/(N

N0)(2

C l e a r l y t h i s case can o n l y be r e a l i z e d when 1 t r i s the time constant o f the building. For t h e two extremes t S = 0 ( i . e .
a equal t o 1 and r / ( 2 - r )

< l+exp(-ro/r)

where

=Ci/ki

a l s o No= 0) and t S = 2 Nro, t h e v a l u e s close to


ts/ro

of or

r e s p e c t i v e l y a r e obtained.

I t i s obvious t h a t i f one

wants a v a l u e o f a c l o s e t o 1 one should e i t h e r t a k e 2No take N large.

e ) I n t h i s case we assume t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t a l b u i l d i n g i s equipped w i t h a water r a d i a t o r system. The temperature of t h e feed water i s v a r i e d d u r i n g t h e day during the day system so and is kh. k,. t h a t a n i g h t temperature set-back i s o b t i i n e d . that there
It w i l l a l s o be assumed t h a t t h e

outdoor temperature, i o ( t ) . v a r i e s , i n an a r b i t r a r y manner d u r i n g t h e day. The heat t r a n s f e r t o t h e b u i l d i n g from t h e with a a

i s a f r e e heat gain, Q f ( t ) , t h a t a l s o v a r i e s i n an a r b i t r a r y manner heating

assumed t o be p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e feed water temperature. T h ( t ) , and t h e i n d o o r temperature, T i ( t ) , p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y . constant proportionaly constant The heat l o s s e s o f t h e b u i l d i n g a r e assumed,to be p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i n d o o r and outdoor temperature w i t h The i n d o o r temperature i s t h e n determined by t h e e q u a t i o n

The l e n g t h o f t h e n i g h t set-back i s assumed t o be r0=12 h. also assume that

For

simplicity The

t h e v a r i a t i o n of t h e feed water temperature T h ( t ) i n t i m e i s

antisymmetric w i t h respect t o t h e t i m e of t h e onset o f t h e n i g h t set-Lack. feed water temperature can then be represented by t h e s e r i e s .

+ E,,AT~(~' s i n wnt ~ ~ ( =ti )h


where are wave shown

i h is

t h e average temperature o f t h e feed The indoor temperature Ti

water,

w=n/ro lary has


It

and a

AT^(^)
square thus be the free

coefficients. form. that

will

then

during the

experiment as shown i n f i g . I I b - 1 ift h e feed water temperature equal t o t h e maximum feed water temperature o f t h e on-period. saving, a, w i l l be independent of t h e outdoor temperature heat Q f ( t ) .
a =

The feed water temperature d u r i n g t h e o f f - p e r i o d i s assumed t o be can and t h e r a t i o o f t h e observed energy saving and t h e t h e o r e t i c a l energy To(t) One obtains 2 2 2 wnr/(w n r ) )/(Th(max)

1 +~(1 + L,AT~("

ih)
T,

where Th(max) i s t h e maximal feed water temperature d u r i n g t h e day, and t i n e constant of t h e b u i l d i n g , i s equal t o l / ( k i
+ kh)

the

, and

Ti

and To

are If

the the

average feed
t

of water

the

indoor

and is

the

outdoor

temperature,

respectively. Th = Th =
a =

temperature

assumed

t o have'a simple

square-wave form such as

Th - nTh i h + AT^
1
+

for 0

<

< <
2r0

for ro < t
+

t h e above s i m p l i f i e s t o 2*6/(1 exp(

ro/r1 I

if t h e on- p e r i o d s t a r t s by a n i g h t , and
a =

Z f 6 / ( l + exp( r O / r ) )

i f t h e on-period s t a r t w i t h a day.

A few r e s u l t s should be s t r e s s e d i n t h i s case


1 ) a i s always g r e a t e r than 1, so t h e energy-savinq i s overestimated. ( T h i s was t r u e a l s o i n t h e cases a)

d l above).

2) I t i s favourable t o . s t a r t t h e on-period w i t h a n i g h t .

3)

a a

w i l l be c l o s e r t o 1 i f N o r No a r e increased. However, i f N i s increased, w i l l approach 1 as 1/N, whi1.e i f No i s increased i t w i l l approach 1 as than N. I n Table I 1 b-1

It w i l l ,

exp(-Nr0/r). i n general, be more e f f i c i e n t t o increase No f o r some cases.

below we g i v e ' t h e value of a

I t has then been assumed t h a t t h e .

temperature d i f f e r e n c e r a t i o (Ti-io)/(ih-ti)

i s equal t o 1/2.

Fig.

I1 b - I

The development o f t h e i n d o o r temperature Ti on-off experiment (hatched curves). Fig.

d u r i n g an

a) t o d) r e f e r

t o d i f f e r e n t cases f o r a r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g equipped u i t h a t h e r m o s t a t . The f u l l - d r a w n of t h e thkrrnostat. Fig. l i n e s a r e the s e t t i n g s

e) ' r e f e r s t o a b u i l d i n g u i t h l i n e s represent the

L a t e r r a d i a t o r s . The f u l l - d r a w n asymptotic temperature.

TABLE I l b - 1 The r a t i o of t h e observed t o t h e t h e o r e t i c a l energy saving f o r a r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g w i t h water r a d i a t o r s and n i g h t s e t back.

DLYS

DAY NISI41

2N=,

Z E (14
DAY

DAYS)

2N0=

7 1.39
1.@5

1
1 1 3

4 1.01 1-01 1.37 1.05

5 1.01

1
7

D4Y NlLHT

=? D A Y S

NIGHT

1.16 1.17

1.13 1.10

1.34 1.32 1.10 1.38

?.!I2 1 1.03 1.C7

1.J1 1 1.75 1.34

1.Dn
1.35 1.34

=l DAY

0 4 1 NIGHT Dl\Y H I 6HT

r -2 D A Y S

N = number of days i n an on-off o r a s t a t i c c y c l e No= number of days i n t h e b e g i n n i n g of a c y c l e n o t used i n t h e a n a l y s i s


T =

the time constant o f the b u i l d i n g

DAY and NIGHT i n d i c a t e if t h e o n - o f f c y c l e i s s t a r t e d by a day o r a n i g h t

Example 2

t y p e of o b j e c t : has been

An e i g h t - s t o r e y r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g w i t h 48 erected The h e a t i n g system is

flats.

The

building

r a t h e r r e c e n t l y , i t i s o f a l i g h t c o n s t r u c t i o n and waterbased. The change.

well insulated.

Windows a r e double-glazed.

R a d i a t o r valves have been p r e s e t , and t h e h e a t i n g system has been balanced. v e n t i l a t i o n system i s o f t h e exhaust a i r t y p e w i t h a f i x e d r a t e o f , a i r The b u i l d i n g i s s i t u a t e d i n a suburban enviroment. aim o f experiment: buiiding, when To determine t h e energy consumption for heating

the

a n i g h t setback o f t h e h e a t i n g system i s used, compared t o when

t h e b u i l d i n g i s c o n t i n u o u s l y heated. d e s i q n of experiment: second week during one a n i g h t setback o f the h e a t i n g system was used every h e a t i n g . season. was The weekly energy consumption f o r to be compared to the planned

h e a t i n g , w h e n a n i g h t setback was used,

consumption when the b u i l d i n g was c o n t i n u o u s l y heated. One i n t e n d e d t o compare t h e r e s u l t s o f obtained from o f r a t h e r e x t e n s i v e measurements on t h e test the measurements turned to out the to results be so

measurements on a r e f e r e n c e b u i l d i n g . building

However, t h e f i n a l c h o i c e

expensive t h a t one c o u l d n o t a f f o r d t h e use o f a r e f e r e n c e b u i l d i n g . The c h o i c e o f one week as t h e p e r i o d f o r a change from other week was the mainly first dictated day, when by the one state to the

t h e f a c t t h a t t h e t i m e c o n s t a n t of the thermal For every way o f h e a t i n g t h e b u i l d i n g was changed, was

c a p a c i t y of t h e b u i l d i n g was e s t i m a t e d t o be o f t h e o r d e r o f one day. excluded from t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s (see below measurements). The weekly consumptions should be grouped a c c o r d i n g t o t h e of t h e i n d o o r - o u t d o o r temperature d i f f e r e n c e s . on the assumption that the variation temperature, t h i s was nleasured a t one p o s i t i o n i n based weekly This indoor

average was

To determine t h e average i n d o o r

8
in

flats.

number

i n d o o r temperature between temperature

d i f f e r e n t f l a t s was 3 K and on t h e request t h a t t h e average should be known w i t h an accuracy o f 1 K (see App. measures t a k e n : of the was worked o u t . 111).

from i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e heat c a p a c i t y and t i m e c o n s t a n t to

b u i l d i n g and t h e h e a t i n g system, a s u i t a b l e design o f t h e n i g h t setback The maximum i n d o o r temperature d u r i n g t h e day was e s t i m a t e d

230C

and

the

lowest a t n i g h t t o 18%.

With continuous h e a t i n g i t was.planned

t h a t t h e average indoor temperature should be 220C. measurements: flow hot t h e i n d o o r and outdoor temperature, and t h e temperature and

o f . t h e supply and r e t u r n water were measured every hour. tap

These d a t a were

s t o r e d on a magnetic tape r e c o r d e r .

The consumption o f domestic e l e c t r i c i t y and the final'

water was read o f f manually a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e f i r s t day and once

a t t h e end of t h e l a s t day o f each p e r i o d t h a t was t o be i n c l u d e d i n a n a l y s i s o f t h e data. course of i n v e s t i g a t i o n : low a t n i g h t . some indoor flats, t h e measurements s t a r t e d as planned.

After

month t h e r e were c o m p l a i n t s by t h e occupants t h a t t h e indoor temperature was too From t h e temperature measurements i t was p o s s i b l e t o see t h a t , i n this temperature had in some c a s e s - been as low as 16%. The

procedure f o r t h e n i g h t setback was a d j u s t e d t o compensate f o r t h i s , t h e minimum temperature was c a l c u l a t e d t o be r a i s e d by 1-2 K. during tha day on was t o o high. with a After t h i s correction fewer c o m p l a i n t s were received. temperature been There were a l s o some c o m p l a i n t s t h a t t h e i n d o o r This d i d n o t depend on whether t h e used. These complaints rather had long solar radiation. I t was a l s o

h e a t i n g was continuous o r t h e n i g h t s e t back was received during mainly days strong

observed t h a t on such days many r e s i d e n t s opened t h e i r windows f o r periods no t h e day. taken

This was b e l i v e d t o i n f l u e n c e t h e energy consumption, Therefore modify t h e to counteract this behaviouror or to

b u t i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o estimate t o what e x t e n t t h i s was t h e case. measures were experimental design. data treatment: lower heated. when night that
i t was found t h a t t h e energy consumption f o r

heating
It

was be data

setback

was

used large

than

when t h e b u i l d i n g was c o n t i n u o u s l y in the data. could The

But t h e r e was a

rather

scatter

demonstrated

t h e l a r g e s t d e v i a t i o n s had occurred f o r weeks when t h e s o l a r

r a d i a t i o n had been i n t e n s e , according t o m e t e o r o l o g i c a l observations. a n a l y s i s of data. that The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s n o t known.

f o r t h e use of domestic e l e c t r i c i t y and h o t tap w a t w were n o t used i n t h e f i n a l A possible explanation because all

ii
data

these d a t a were c o l l e c t e d by t h e care- t a k e r of t h e b u i l d i n g , and t h o s e i n

charge of t h e p r o j e c t d i d n o t want t o use these data, e i t h e r

were judged n o t t o be t r u s t e d , o r maybe because these d a t a were l a c k i n g f o r sane weeks.

canments: daily energy

i n t h i s case t h e r e s e a r c h des!gn consumption had been used been

was made

rather of also the

simple. to

If t h e
solar also

instead

weekly one i n t h e

a n a l y s i s , a g r o u p i n g o f d a t a c o u l d , have radiation. hour. using a

according

T h i s would have been p o s s i b l e as t h e t e m p e r a t u r e was r e c o r d e d e v e r y definite conclusion time resolution o f one week. I n t h i s case an a l t e r n a t i v e would have averages. have

On t h e o t h e r hand, i t was p o s s i b l e t o r e a c h a

been n o t t o p e r f o r m so e x t e n s i v e measurements, b u t t o use o n l y weekly

he
made when

c o s t would t h e n have been so much l o w e r t h a t i t would have been p o s s i b l e t o This would probably
it

p e r f o r m measurements a l s o on a r e f e r e n c e b u i l d i n g . possible

t o r e a c h a c o n c l u s i o n about whether t h e d e v i a t i o n s f o r weeks The s c a t t e r of d a t a would p r o b a b l y a l s o have water model had of the

when t h e s o l a r r a d i a t i o n was i n t e n s e was t y p i c a l f o r b u i l d i n g s of t h i s k i n d a l s o n i g h t set-back was n o t used. been s m a l l e r i f t h e energy used f o r domestic e l e c t r i c i t y and h o t t a p was performed. the energy analysis. It would t h e n a l s o have been p o s s i b l e t o use a s i m p l e of the building.

been added t o t h e energy consumption f o r h e a t i n g when t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s o f d a t a balance T h i s would have f a c i l i t a t e d t h e f i n a l

The r e m a i n i n g s c a t t e r of d a t a c o u l d m a i n l y have been a s c r i b e d t o

i n f l u e n c e o f t h e occupants.

Example 3

type o f object: houses The

t w e n t y t e r r a c e d two- s t o r e y s i n g l e The houses a r e of

family light

houses.

The

a r e s i t u a t e d i n a suburban environment. is

The i n s u l a t i o n of t h e houses i s construction.

good and t h e windows a r e double-glazed. heating

e l e c t r i c and t h e houses a r e equipped w i t h a s u p p l y and exhaust The h o t t a p w a t e r i s

a i r v e n t i l a t i o n system w i t h p r e - h e a t i n g o f t h e s u p p l y a i r . e l e c t r i c a l l y heated i n s i d e t h e b u i l d i n g s . measures t a k e n : with water and

t h e houses were equipped w i t h t e m p e r a t i v e h e a t The o f f -

exchangers

g l y c o l a s c i r c u l a t i n g medium.

s t a t e c o u l d be reached

u s i n g a s i m p l e by-pass c i r c u i t . aim o f e x p e r i m e n t : exchanger t o determine the energy consumption when the heat

i s i n f u n c t i o n and when i t i s n o t .

A second aim was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e

e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e h e a t exchanger i n s i t u .

experimental design: houses in each. was that energy not of

t h e twenty houses a r e g r o u p e d ' i n two

rows row

with and It

ten the was

Every second week t h e heat exchangers were p u t i n t o o p e r a t i o n the f o l l o w i n g week. This was done d u r i n g one h e a t i n g

f u n c t i o n i n one o f t h e rows w h i l e t h e y were shut o f f i n t h e o t h e r situation season. planned of the reversed these

The d a i l y consumption o f energy was measured f o r every house. A

d a t a should be grouped a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e between comparison For the when t h e heat exchan,gers were i n f u n c t i o n and when be performed for every such group.

i n d o o r and outdoor temperature, wind speed, and s o l a r r a d i a t i o n . consumption should the then t h e y were

determination

e f f i c i e n c y of t h e heat exchanger, d a t a should be grouped

a c c o r d i n g t o outdoor temperature. measurements: position measured constant foc i n every house t h e indoor temperature was The temperature of the measured exhaust at air one was

i n each of t h e two storeys. just air before flows of of the arriving the

The average of these two values was taken The temperature o f t h e mechanically for controlled heating,

as t h e average i n d o o r temperature. supply a i r was measured a f t e r

a t the heat exchanger. pre-heating. The

t h e v e n t i l a t i o n system were measured once every second The amounts of e l e c t r i c i t y used supply a i r , and f o r t h e h e a t i n g o f h o t t a p water were

month d u r i n g t h e h e a t i n g season. pre-heating measured s e p a r a t e l y . The outdoor of temperature the houses.

and

solar

radiation thought

were that

measured the free

in wind The

the was air

neighbourhood undisturbed

The wind speed and d i r e c t i o n was measured a few

hundred meters away a t a p l a c e where i t was

by t h e e n v i r o m e n t . A l l data from these measurements were s t o r e d as then calculated.

one-hour averages from which t h e d a i l y average was

i n f i l t r a t i o n was measured t w i c e i n a l l t h e houses d u r i n g t h e h e a t i n g season. course of i n v e s t i g a t i o n : the measuring one the equipment had in week houses. were c a r r i e d o u t as performed technique. two of been the These b e f o r e t h e h e a t i n g season t h e heat exchanger planned. middle two of The infiltration measurements of ownership and were for

were i n s t a l l e d i n t h e house.

Continuous measurements

t h e h e a t i n g season u s i n g a t r a c e r - g a s

During t h e measurement p e r i o d t h e r e was a change houses were thereafter

excluded

fromthe

investigation. T h i s was done because i t i s w e l l known t h a t energy consumption d i f f e r s much even between identical houses, due to differences in the habits or o f the so to residents.
I t i s a l s o w e l l 'known t h a t t h e new r e s i d e n t s need a y e a r

l e a r n how t o manage a house and t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e energy consumption can change d r a s t i c a l l y d u r i n g t h e f i r s t year. data a n a l y s i s : strong such being correlation clear a f t e r grouping o f t h e data, was found was between found of the energy the data were on analyzed. A No

consumption

one hand, and

indoor-outdoor temperature d i f f e r e n c e and s o l a r r a d i a t i o n on t h e o t h e r hand. correlation for Here t h e r e was a l a r g e s c a t t e r i n data. different winds This was a s c r i b e d t o from the the

between energy consumption and wind speed. infiltration data one, of had the been same s t r e n g t h b u t o f d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n .

Although no f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n about t h i s c o u l d be drawn When data from a l l wind d i r e c t i o n s , except t h e excluded wind speed was obtained. most

i n f i l t r a t i o n measurements, t h e r e was a s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h i s was t h e case. prominent from t h e a n a l y s i s , a b e t t e r c o r r e l a t i o n between energy consumption and

A f t e r t h i s t h e energy consumption, when t h e heat exchangers were when they were n o t , c o u l d be compared i n an unambigious way.

used

and

No problems were

associated w i t h t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e heat exchanger. comments: was planned variables. i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n an u n u s u a l l y ambitious research with a grouping of data according to three programe

outdoor c l i m a t e

For t h e aim o f t h e experiment i t would probably have s u f f i c e d t o use

'only t h e indoor-outdoor temperature d i f f e r e n c e . The data from t h e i n f i l t r a t i o n measurements were never into the of data t o be used i n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s . temperatures were used in the performed much more f r e q u e n t l y . Even i f o n l y t h e analysis, the used daily as an input of an

t h e data a n a l y s i s , b u t they t u r n e d out t o be u s e f u l when s e l e c t i n g t h e s e t averages use final measurements were

It would probably have been cheaper t o

experimental design where o n l y t h e d a i l y average temperature was stored. As t h e a i r flows i n t h e v e n t i l a t i o n system c o u l d n o t e a s i l y be the occupants in this w i t h t h e behaviour o f t h e occupants. changed by

investigation,, t h e r e were no l a r g e problems associated

CHAPTER I 1 c

B e f o r e - a f t e r experiments

Contents

- description o f
example 1

t h e b e f o r e - a f t e r experiment

p IIc

"
"

- 3

- example

- 5

I1 c

Before-after experiments

d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e b e f o r e - a f t e r experiment

The b e f o r e - a f t e r e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n can case of I n p r a c t i c e , t h e advantages

in and

sense

be

regarded of these

as

a two of

special

t h e o n - o f f experiment where t h e measurements i n c l u d e o n l y one disadvantages

(on-off) cycle. experimental residental or when p r a c t i c a l use.,

d e s i g n s d i f f e r e n t t h a t t h e above mentioned r e l a t i o n i s n o t o f much The b e f o r e - a f t e r d e s i g n has t o be a p p l i e d when t h e consists not be is the retrofit building i n a permanent change o f t h e b u i l d i n g i t s e l f , o r introduced, Examples o f sealing of or done w i t h o u t a f f e c t i n g o t h e r systems. be new used type are of

when a system which cannot be t u r n e d on and s w i t c e d o f f a t w i l l this 'an r e t r o f i t s where t h e b e f o r e - a f t e r experiment can windows, heating system, or the installation of a

t h e i n c r e a s e o f t h e i n s u l a t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g , t h e replacement o f t h e ventilation

a i r - c o n d i t i o n i n g system. When t h e b e f o r e - a f t e r experiment i s used one g e n e r a l l y has t o energy c l i m a t e v a r i a b l e s , have n o t t a k e n t h e same values. compare often the to The

balance o f t h e b u i l d i n g d u r i n g t w o , p e r i o d s when e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s , l i k e T h e r e f o r e one has

use a model of t h e energy b a l a n c e o f t h e b u i l d i n g t o r e a c h any c o n c l u s i o n s . measurements t h e r e f o r e have t o be so e x t e n s i v e and a c c u r a t e t h a t i t i s to achieve the same time r e s o l u t i o n as when, i.e., used. Regarding t h e environment o f t h e climate, prevailing different. the average the before-after during experiment the before is building and the exposure to

possible

t h e o n - o f f experiment i s

outdoor

o f f e r s t h e same advantage as t h e o n - o f f However,. periods, regarding the the situation i s and after

experiment because t h e b u i l d i n g i s i t s own reference. climate

When t h e b e f o r e - a f t e r experiment i s used, t h e r e i s no guarantee t h a t climatic situation t h e same d u r i n g t h e b e f o r e - a s d u r i n g t h e several

a f t e r - p e r i o d , even i f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d i s made v e r y l o n g , i.e. heating seasons. two p e r i o d s has been d i f f e r e n t .

R c o r r e c t i o n has t o be made i f t h e average c l i m a t e d u r i n g t h e

One has t o c a l c u l a t e what t h e energy consumption d u r i n g t h e would period. that is have been

after

period

i f t h e c l i m a t e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d had been t h a t o f t h e b e f o r e
Such a correction than is two not always necessary even

The accuracy of t h i s procedure w i l l depend on t h e accuracy o f t h e model used. of time

i f the
often

measurements extend o v e r o n l y one o r periods shorter

heating

seasons.

There a r e

a week when t h e c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g t h e

b e f o r e p e r i o d s were t h e same as those d u r i n g p a r t o f t h e a f t e r p e r i o d .

I f t h e energy
sometimes period. of such possible

consumption to compare provision

for

such

shorter

periods

is

known, the

it

is

d i r e c t l y t h e consumption d u r i n g two such s h o r t after number is of course that the number o f e x t e r n a l

p e r i o d s , one o f them b e l o n g i n g t o t h e b e f o r e p e r i o d and t h e o t h e r t o

necessary

parameters i n f l u e n c i n g t h e energy consumption i s very s m a l l , o r t h a t t h e periods i s great. and s p e c i a l c a r e should be taken when a p p l y i n g i t .

T h i s procedure i s sometimes a r a t h e r u n c e r t a i n one,

When t h e b e f o r e - a f t e r experiment i s used t h e occupancy b e h a v i o u r may be g r e a t e r ' importance t h a n when t h e o n - o f f experiment i s used. The introduction may of lead

of

This i s associated

w i t h t h e v e r y marked s e p a r a t i o n i n t i m e between t h e b e f o r e and t h e a f t e r p e r i o d . t h e r e t r o f i t may e a s i l y r a i s e u n r e a l i s t i c a l l y p o s i t i v e of to the a future change performance in of the the of the building.
It

07

negative' expectations expectations important

Such

behavoiur experiment.

and a t t i t u d e s o f t h e is therefore

occupants w h i c h may a f f e c t t h e outcome

t h a t t h e occupants and t h e persons i n v o l v e d i n t h e maintenance o f t h e

b u i l d i n g a r e informed i n advance about what t h e consequences o f t h e r e t r o f i t and measurements w i 11 be.

If.a r e s u l t o f t h e r e t r o f i t i s a change i n t h e i n d o o r c l i m a t e , t h i s
should, discussed

change the

if

possible, above can

be to a

introduced certain

gradually extent be

to

give

the

occupants

p o s s i b i l i t y of a d a p t i n g t o t h e new i n d o o r environment. " r u n n i n g - i n and l e a r n i n g p e r i o d " . o f the after-period.

D i f f i c u l t i e s o f the kind

avoided

if

one i n t r o d u c e s a has more

By t h i s i s meant t h a t , when t h e r e t r o f i t influence of

been performed, one can l e t a c e r t a i n t i m e pass b e f o r e s t a r t i n g t h e measurements W i t h t h i s procedure one can a v o i d t h e temporary changes i n t h e b e h a v o i u r of t h e occupants, changes n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r e t r o f i t i t s e l f b u t o n l y w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of it. of in the the occupants research and

. 1

A study o f the h a b i t s
be but included may have

t h e i r a t t i t u d e towards t h e r e t r o f i t and t h e experiment, Such a s t u d y must n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be a i m i n g a t a

b e f o r e , d u r i n g , and a f t e r t h e measurement p e r i o d , should t h e r e f o r e programme. c a n p l e t e s u r v e y of t h e b e h a v i o u r and a t t i t u d e s o f t h e occupants,

t h e more l i m i t e d purpose t o a s c e r t i n t h a t no g r e a t changes,of t h e s e f a c t o r s t a k e place.


I t f o l l o w s from t h e d i s c u s s i o n above t h a t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e

and of

before-after of the

experimental occupants greater

design

rests

to

great of the

extent

upon t h e c o m p a r a b i l i t y o f t h e attituteds data is The demand f o r t h e e x t e n s i o n generally with two t e s t - r e f e r e n c e and t h e o n - o f f is illustrated

o u t d o o r c l i m a t e and t h e

constancy

behavoiur analysis the

d u r i n g t h e b e f o r e and t h e a f t e r p e r i o d . the like than for other experiments

and accuracy of t h e measurements and f o r experiment. The use of t h e b e f o r e - a f t e r

experiment

s i m p l e examples below.

Example 1

type Electrical

of

object:

4-storey

residential

building

with

100

flats. in an

h e a t i n g and v e n t i l a t i o n system o f t h e exhaust a i r type. t h e b u i l d i n g i s s a t i s f a c t o r y and t h e b u i l d i n g i s shielded and 250C. by o t h e r b u i l d i n g s . The i n d o o r temperature of

The thermal

! insulation o environment between 20

situated the flats

Hot t a p water i s e l e c t r i c a l l y heated varies There have been c o m p l a i n t s

and s t o r e d i n s i d e t h e b u i l d i n g .

Windows a r e double-glazed.

about draughts from t h e windows i n some f l a t s . aim o f experiment: the pre-setting


'

t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e d u c t i o n i n energy consumption thermostats

after

of

the

o f e l e c t r i c r a d i a t o r s and t h e s e a l i n g o f

windows. experimental d e s i g n : building, summer, second the measurement to as no s i m i l a r b u i l d i n g i s a v a i l a b l e be as a 'reference During taken, during takes the and the into

campaign i s c a r r i e d o u t d u r i n g two h e a t i n g seasons. performed. will be performed which the energy consumption

D u r i n g t h e f i r s t of t h e s e o n l y measurements a r e t o measures heating reduce

measurements o f t h e r e s u l t i n g energy consumption w i l l be season. a r e t o be compared a f t e r a c o r r e c t i o n u s i n g a s i m p l e

The energy c o n s u m p t i o n s d u r i n g t h e two h e a t i n g seasons model,

account t h e average outdoor temperature and t h e average s o l a r i d i a t i o n . measures taken: t h e t h e r m o s t a t s were p r e s e t t o a l l o w a c a l c u l a t e d The occupants became i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e maximal

i n d o o r temperature o f 20C. t h e b u i l d i n g were sealed.

Due t o t h e c o m p l a i n t s about d r a u g h t s a l l windows of investigation

and expressed a wish t o p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n t h e energy saving. energy s a v i n g campaign was planned t o be second h e a t i n g season. launched during the

Therefore an of the

autumn

The occupants would be i n s t r u c t e d on how t o save energy

by a i r i n g rooms l e s s f r e q u e n t l y and u s i n g l e s s h o t t a p water. measurements: temperature, one-day different App. 111). course o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n : first sealed. There things heating was
it

t h e d a i l y consumption of e l e c t r i c energy, i n d o o r and o u t d o o r speed, The is and s o l a r r a d i a t i o n were measured and d a t a s t o r e d as estimated
K.

wind

averages. flats

variation

in

indoor

temperature

between (see

As one wants t o know t h e average i n d o o r temperature flats

w i t h an accuracy o f 0.5

K, t h e i n d o o r temperature i s measured i n 15

measurements were performed as planned d u r i n g t h e the summer all windows of t h e b u i l d i n g were the Among the autumn. other This indoor of the

season.

During

The energy s a v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n campaign was s t a r t e d d u r i n g a was was had passed. that

d e l a y i n t h e p r e s e t t i n g of t h e t h e r m o s t a t s , and t h i s work was n o t found in too that many many thermostats by had the n o t been c a l i b r a t e d .

f i n i s h e d u n t i l several months o f t h e h e a t i n g season presetting resulted temperature complaints

occupants only three

low, and t h e p r e s e t t i n g of t h e t h e r m o s t a t s was changed t o months of

2PC

instead o f

2WC. when t h i s work was f i n i s h e d


in tap a substantially but the

heating

seasol1 relnained t o perform measurements. and hot water,

The energy saving campaign a t consumption appeared. t o domestic less become

f i r s t seemed t o r e s u l t electricity

smaller effect

substantial during the winter. data treatment: due to the delay in the measurement programme, heating The the

comparison o f t h e energy consumption d u r i n g t h e two h e a t i n g seasons c o u l d n o t be c a r r i e d o u t as planned. were in divided data was into I n s t e d , a v a i l a b l e d a t a from t h e second groups according season scatter several t o t h e outdoor temperature, and

compared t o s i m i l a r l y grouped data from t h e f i r s t h e a t i n g season. consumption had taken place. The l a r g e s c a t t e r i n d a t a was a s c r i b e d t o t h e f a c t three months of that the

l a r g e , b u t i t was p o s s i b l e t o conclude t h a t a r e d u c t i o n i n energy

during

the

last the could

t h e h e a t i n g season, when t h e measurements were pe'rformed, building

c o n t r i b u t i o n from s o l a r r a d i a t i o n t o t h e energy balance o f n o t be neglected.

comments: degree mixture launched, The of of

t h e n o t i c e d decrease i n energy investigation. taken, campaign. This

consumption
It

can

not by not an

with

any

confidence be ascribed t o t h e p r e s e t t i n g of the e l e c t r i c thermostats was caused should unknown been value. These all above three all now measures p r e s e t t i n g o f thermostats, s e a l i n g of campaign have

s o l e l y , as was t h e aim o f t h e windows, and energy t h e h e a t i n g season. complaints saving

because t h e e f f e c t o f i t was probably n o t constant d u r i n g The thermostats should have been p r e s e t t o a h i g h e r r e s u l t e d i n t o o s h o r t a measurement period. solar radiation were never used. The data from

t h e measurements o f wind speed and measurements i n t h e experimental design. I f a simplemodel of contribution a higher the

could 'have been o m i t t e d as t h e r e was no plan about how t o use them

energy

balance

of

the

building,

taking

the

from s o l a r r a d i a t i o n i n t o account, and t h e a v a i l a b l e data on s o l a r of confidence, whether a r e d u c t i o n i n energy consumption had

r a d i a t i o n had been used, i t would probably have been p o s s i b l e t o a s c e r t a i n , w i t h degree taken place, d e s p i t e t h e l a r g e s c a t t e r i n data.

Example 2

type of o b j e c t : heating the system is

10-storey

residental

buidding

with

40

flats. insulation the

The of The indoor

waterbased

and the v e n t i l a t i o n system i s of t h e supply and The thermal On windy Windows a r e double-glazed. days

exhaust' a i r type w i t h preheating of t h e supply a i r . b u i l d i n g i s considered t o be s a t i s f a c t o r y . building

is

highly

exposed

to

strong

winds.

temperature 25OC at the

can become low i n the upper p a r t of t h e b u i l d i n g . bottom f l o o r .

A temperature of

lEC has been measured a t t h e t o p f l o o r compared t o a simulaneous temperature of The temperature o f t h e supply a i r i s a l s o lower a t not Occupants i n t h e lower p a r t o f t h e b u i l d i n g have the top floor. regarded Because o f t h i s , t h e heating and t h e v e n t i l a t i o n system a r e

as working properly.

been observed t o a i r rooms f r e q u e n t l y due t o h i g h indoor temperatures. aim o f experiment: the the balancing presetting of of the v e n t i l a t i o n flows, t o determine the r e d u c t i o n i n energy consumption heating and ventilation system, the after of and of a

reduction

and a lowering of t h e water and supply a i r temperatures, radiator valves. not in the effect

One was i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n t h e combined

e f f e c t of these measures on t h e energy consumption, s i n g l e measure.

experimental design: heating seasons.

t h e experiment was

to

be

carried

out

during. the

two same

Between t h e two h e a t i n g seasons t h e measures t o reduce energy During t h e second h e a t i n g season

consumption were t o , b e i n t r o d u c e d .

measurements as d u r i n g t h e f i r s t one were t o be performed. measures t o be t a k e n : the b a l a n c i n g of t h e h e a t i n g system c o n s i s t e d o f

p r e s e t t i n g a l l values t o c a l c u l a t e d values e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e f l o w i n main d i s t r i b u t i o n differences p o s t adjustment i n rooms where t h e o b t a i n e d temperature d e v i a t e s t o o much from t h e d e s i r e d v a l u e t o be a c c e p t a b l e i n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e o p e r a t o r of t h e h e a t i n g system. Corresponding measures were taken f o r ' t h e balancing of the ventilation were p i p e s by d i r e c t measurements pressure checking t h e water d i s t r i b u t i o n t o t e r m i n a l s by measurement o f

system. used for

c a l c u l a t i o n was made t o determine how t o p r e s e t r a d i a t o r v a l v e s and Data from the measurements d u r i n g t h e f i r s t h e a t i n g season

flow c i r c u i t s .

t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n and f o r a d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f o p t i m a l values o f r a t e of

v e n t i l a t i o n and supply a i r temperature. measurements: waterflows water and one hour average values o f i n d o o r and outdoor temperature, and hot tap

temperatures d i f f e r e n c e s f o r r a d i a t o r s , e l e c t r i c energy f o r the Arrangements were made t o o b t a i n m e t o r o l o g i c a l d a t a

p r e h e a t i n g o f t h e supply a i r , consumption o f domestic e l e c t r i c i t y were t o be recorded. from a nearby a i r p o r t . Due t o t h e p r e v i o u s l y n o t i c e d l a r g e of the average The to indoor temperature variation two for of temperature these indoor two differences parts of

between the I t was two

the

upper and lower p a r t o f t h e b u i l d i n g , i t was considered u s e f u l t o o b t a i n a value building flats judged


K.

separately. sufficient

estimated

temperature with

between

b e l o n g i n g t o one of t h e two b u i l d i n g p a r t s was estimated t o 2 K. determine these average values Therefore, t h e temperature was measured i n 8 f l a t s i n each o f t h e h a l v e s (see App.

an e r r o r o f 0.5

building

111).
d u r i n g t h e f i r s t h e a t i n g season the When the to measurements other values

course of i n v e s t i g a t i o n : were than performed as planned.

water d i s t r i b u t i o n t o t h e h e a t e r s was T h i s was c o r r e c t e d

checked, i t was found t h a t t h e r a d i a t o r valves had been planned due t o a misunderstanding o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s .

and d u r i n g t h e autumn t h e temperature o f t h e supply water and t h e supply a i r was gradually during
It

reduced.

Thereby the' occupants were given t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t o a d j u s t Not many complaints from t h e occupants were r e c e i v e d When checking data, i t was

t o t h e new indoor c l i m a t e . the

f i r s t few months o f t h e h e a t i n g season.

observed t h a t t h e i n d o o r temperature of some f l a t s was much lower than expected. was found t h a t t h e cause o f t h i s was t h a t , i n these f l a t s , t h e temperature sensors had been p o s i t i o n e d on t h e e x t e r i o r wall. A f t e r some u n u s a l l y c o l d days an inc-rease o f t h e indoor temperature and the temperature about o f t h e supply water was noticed. heat too low indoor temperatures o f t h i s , one found out t h a t t h e manager o f t h e complaints plant had the received cold of

When i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e cause many during p e r i o d and initiative.

t h e r e f o r e had r a i s e d t h e temperature o f t h e supply water on h i s own This was accepted f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e heating season. d a t a treatement: computerized radiation. of the building. a l l data from t h e measurements were used as

input

to

model o f the energy balance o f t h e b u i l d i n g and t h e h e a t i n g system This model needed as i n p u t , among o t h e r t h i n g s , data on solar Data o f t h i s k i n d from t h e nearby meteorological s t a t i o n were used. resulted The d i f f e r e n c e i n temperature between

I t was p o s s i b l e t o conclude t h a t the measures which had been taken had

i n a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e energy consumption.

d i f f e r e n t f l a t s had decreased s u b s t a n t i a l l y . = s : could be a t several occasions t h e r e was a jeopardized, by unforeseen events. risk that the investigation The

Due t o a continous e v a l u a t i o n o f

obtained data these accidents could be observed i n t i m e and c o r r e c t e d f o r .

gradual l o w e r i n g o f t h e temberature probably minimized t h e number o f complaints.


'

I n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h e use o f a computerized model was j u s t i f i e d because t h e complexity o f t h e o b j e c t and t h e measures taken, even i f t h e c o s t turned

Of

out t o be r a t h e r high.

CHAPTER I1 d

Test- r e f e r e n c e experiments

Contents

d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e t e s t - reference experiment

p. 11 d- 1

- example - example

1
2

P. I 1 d- 3
P . I1 d- 4

I 1 d-1

I1 d

Te!i t - reference experiments

d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e t e s t refence experiment

L i k e t h e before- a f t e r experiment, t h e t e s t - reference applied test t o t h e study o f most r e t r o f i t s . is performed, one must have access t o a t l e a s t two b u i l d i n g s . building) that, The energy consumptions o f these two obvious have to i n a l l respects. compare phase) and a f t e r possible buildings are to be

experiment One of

can

be (the

when t h e t e s t - reference experiment i s them


It

r e t r o f i t t e d , t h e o t h e r one ( t h e reference b u i l d i n g ) i s not. compared. Therefore one is o f . course effect is

a p a r t fran the r e t r o f i t , t h e y o u g h t t o be as s i m i l a r as p o s s i b l e I n p r a c t i c e t h i s w i l l seldom be t h e case. the energy t h e r e t r o f i t ( t h e comparison phase). the


It

will
also (see

consumption b e f o r e t h e r e t r o f i t ( t h e c alibration E x a c t l y how many w i l l be retrofit

t o use several t e s t and r e f e r e n c e b u i l d i n g s .

r e q u i r e d i s determined by t h e expected magnitude o f

App.

11). That the b u i l d i n g s should be as " i d e n t i c a l " as their possible means that be they the

should type. same. similar.

have Their

the

same geometrical p r o p e r t i e s and be of t h e same c o n s t r u c t i o n a l occupants should and exposure t o t h e outdoor c l i m a t e should a l s o be

T h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n and t h e b e h a t i o u r o f surroundings

Minor d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e b u i l d i n g s , l i k e t h e i n t e r n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n rooms, situated can be accepted i f a c a l i b r a t i o n phase i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e experiment.


if

of

A
are the the

s i m i l a r exposure t o t h e outdoor c l i m a t e can be achieved close t o one another. These due to, e.g., neighbourhood. d i f f e r e n t shading o r d i f f e r e n t s h i e l d i n g microciirnatic differences

the the

buildings wind by in

The remaining c l i m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s may then be from n i l ! i n general be e a s i e r t o situated

handle than t h e c l i m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s if t h e b u i l d i n g s a r e n o t same c l i m a t i c zone. The calibration between phase the two serves to determine the

difference

in

energy

consumption

buildings

before the r e t r o f i t .

This d i f f e r e n c e

should be determined i n such a way t h a t t h e r e s u l t i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant.

If only

two

buildings

are used, t h e i r energy consumption must be known f o r a to determine the average d i f f e r e n c e in energy

s u f f i c i e n t number of

consumption observed buildings

and

its

scatter. of the

A l t e r n a t i v e l y one can use a s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e

sample of b u i l d i n g s t o achieve t h i s r e s u l t . difference can be energy

I f one knows
and

the one

reason can

for .the

consumption,

express t h i s

i n f o r m a t i o n i n a q u a n t i t a t i v e form, a model d e s c r i b i n g t h e energy balance o f t h e used. The observed d i f f e r e n c e i n energy consumption must o f 11). also the to the course be p u t i n r e l a t i o n t o the expected r e t r o f i t e f f e c t (see App. What has been s a i d above about t h e c a l i b r a t i o n phase a p p l i e s following difference in the comparison during the of phase.

If

the

test

b u i l d i n g was n o t r e t r o f i t t e d , i t s minus observed change in and Hence, any observed d e v i a t i o n from To reduce t h e e f f e c t o f a that include such a a to "runningchange w i l l be

energy consumption would be t h a t o f t h e r e f e r e n c e b u i l d i n g calibration the phase. t h i s v a l u e can be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e r e t r o f i t . behaviour occupants, often diminished i n time, i t i s learning" .period convenient

assuming

b e f o r e t h e c a l i b r a t i o n phase, a p e r i o d i n which t h e occupants

a r e g i v e n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t o g e t used t o t h e r e t r o f i t t e d b u i l d i n g .

.
have the

Ifp r o p e r l y performed,
f o l l o w i n g advantages:

the

test

reference

experiment

should

independence o f t h e c l i m a t i c - c o n d i t i o n s independence o f t h e b u i l d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h e observed change i n energy consumption depends o n l y on t h e r e t r o f i t ( i n c l u d i n g t h e r e a c t i o n s o f t h e occupants) can sometimes be performed i n a s i n g l e h e a t i n g season if t h e s c a t t e r o f t h e observed d i f f e r e n c e i n energy consumption o f t h e t e s t and r e f e r e n c e b u i l d i n g s i s small b e f o r e t h e r e t r o f i t

Example 1

t y p e o f object: design, one another. aim o f

two

multi-

family

residential

buildings

of

the

same

w i t h t h e same o r i e n t a t i o n , b u i l t i n t h e same y e a r and s i t u a t e d c l o s e t o

experiment:

to

determine

the

effect

of

the

installation

of

t h e r m o s t a t i c r a d i a t o r v a l v e s on t h e energy consumption

experimental design:

a d i r e c t comparison o f t h e energy consumption of

the

two b u i l d i n g s i s t o be performed measures taken: b u i l d i n g were taken measurements: d a t a on t h e energy consumption^ of t h e two b u i l d i n g s f o r Data on t h e energy consumption the of no o t h e r measures than t h e retrofitting of the test

f i v e h e a t i n g seasons preceeding t h e r e t r o f i t were c o l l e c t e d . seasons t h e n d e f i n e t h e c a l i b r a t i o n phase. the are heating given in during

These f i v e h e a t i n g

season f o l l o w i n g t h e r e t r o f i t were a l s o c o l l e c t e d and t h i s h e a t i n g The r e s u l t of t h e s e of measurements the reference No o t h e r Table the I 1 d-1. calibration To f a c i l i t a t e a comparison t h e d a t a have been phase has been s e t equal t o 100.

season 'then c o n s t i t u t e s t h e comparison phase.

normalized i n such a way t h a t t h e average energy consumption building

measurements t h a n t h o s e of t h e t o t a l energy consumption were performed. course o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n : data t r e a t m e n t : consumption a l l measurements were made a p o s t e r i o r i . energy test

from t h e d a t a o f Table I 1 d - l one n o t i c e d t h a t t h e phase. The corresponding number for the

o f t h e reference b u i l d i n g was 2 % l o w e r d u r i n g t h e comparison phase One t h e r e f o r e concluded t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f t h e r e t r o f i t was

than during the c a l i b r a t i o n b u i l d i n g was 1.5 %. negative. comments:

one f i r s t n o t e s t h e r e l a t i v e l y u n i f o r m energy consumption o f t h e The spread i s very small. The t h e spread i s f o u r o r f i v e The reason have the the
'

r e f e r e n c e b u i l d i n g d u r i n g t h e c a l i b r a t i o n phase. times larger than

energy consumption o f t h e t e s t b u i l d i n g v a r i e s more; f o r t h i s ought t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d . adjustments difference difference probably system o f t h i s b u i l d i n g n o t in during energy the I s it due The between 4.3, to

f o r the nominally i d e n t i c a l reference b u i l d i n g . change and two of the

occupants, spread The of

been made t o t h e heat p l a n t of t h e t e s t b u i l d i n g , o r i s t h e h e a t i n g balanced? average the consumption buildings during

c a l i b r a t i o n phase a r e o f t h e same s i z e , 4.8 and 3.8 r e s p e c t i v e l y . comparison 'phase, s i g n i f i c a n t and no c o n c l u s i o n s i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n any c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn. can be drawn.

observed Dne would

i s therefore not s t a t i s t i c a l l y

have t o i n c l u d e several h e a t i n g seasons i n t h e comparison phase b e f o r e

TABLE I 1 d - l Energy consumption o f t h e b u i l d i n g s H e a t i n g season Reference b u i l d i n g Test b u i l d i n g Difference

1 2 3 4 5
Average o f c a l i b r a t i o n phase

101.2 100.3 99.2 99.8 99.5

90.4 94.2 99.9 94.7 96.8

10.8 6 . 1 -0.8 5 . 1 2 . 7

100.0t-0.7 98.0

95.2t-3.1 93.7

4.8+-3.8 4 . 3

6
(compari son phase)

Example 2

t y p e o f o b j e c t : t w o groups of s i n g l e and people. flats of The a total number of f l a t s i s 56. f l a t s of a -medium- o r - l o w - i n s u l a t i o n l e v e l . groups o f f l a t s i s about t e n km. heavyweight be operated construction. The

double

occupancy one

flats consists

for of

old

One o f t h e groups c o n s i s t s o f 24 The o t h e r

32

- h i g h s o r -medium- i n s u l a t i o n l e v e l . instal led

The d i s t a n c e between t h e two

A l l f l a t s f o r m p a r t . o f two- s t o r e y b l o c k s o f a h e a t i n g system c o n s i s t s i n e l e c t r i c which can

r a d i a n t c e i l i n g p a n e l s w i t h a t h e r m o s t a t i c as w e l l as a t i m e c o n t r o l by t h e occupants. used t h e i n s t a l l e d h e a t i n g system as t h e o n l y means Instead, only devices of t h i s kind. generation and cooking. to heat their for

However, o n l y a small f r a c t i o n o f t h e occupants dwellings. Some used hot water Half o f

most occupants used a u x i l i a r y e l e c t r i c d e v i c e s f o r h e a t i n g . The occupants used o n l y e l e c t r i c i t y A l l f l a t s a r e o f a s i m i l a r s i z e and l a y o u t .

t h e two- person f l a t s were occupied by o n l y one person.

aim of t h e experiment:

t o determine t h e e f f e c t of t h e i n s u l a t i o n l e v e l

of

t h e f l a t s on t h e consumption of energy f o r space h e a t i n g . e x p e r i m e n t a l design: d i v i d e d i n t o four classes:

t 0 , f a c i l i t a t e t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a t h e f l a t s were

1) one person f l a t s from group one, i n s u l a t i o n l e v e l h i g h 2)

"

'"

"

"
"

two one two

3) two 4) "

"

"

" " "

medium medium low classes of flats,

B y making t h e a p p r o p r i a t e comparisons between t h e f o u r the e f f e c t o f t h e s i t e , of t h e s i z e o f t h e f l a t , t h e energy consumption can be determined. measures taken: started, the as b o t h groups of f l a t s e x i s t e d .when

and of t h e i n s u l a t i o n l e v e l on

the

investigation

e f f e c t o f t h e r e t r o f i t had t o be e v a l u a t e d b y a d i r e c t comparison

as d e s c r i b e d above, and no a d d i t i o n a l r e t r o f i t t i n g was performed. measurements: t h e , t o t a l e l e c t r i c i t y consumption o f each f l a t was the ~neasured air

weekly d u r i n g one y e a r .

The i n d o o r a i r temperature o f t h e l i v i n g room, bedroom, external The g l o b a l s o l a r r a d i a t i o n speed were o b t a i n e d from a

and k i t c h e n of each f l a t was recorded every hour, and so was temperature a t t h e s i t e of b o t h groups o f b u i l d i n g s . was a l s o recorded a t b o t h s i t e s . external air temperature, sun hours, and wind

I n a d d i t i o n t o these measurements, d a t a on t h e

m e t e o r o l o g i c a l s t a t i o n s i t u a t e d about f i f t e e n k i l o m e t e r s from b o t h s i t e s .

A survey o f t h e t e n a n t s was made.

They were asked about how m u c h t i m e t h e y

spent a t home and what use they made of h o t w a t e r and e l e c t r i c i t y f o i cooking. course of i n v e s t i g a t i o n : installation measurement of sensors I n some f l a t s t h e r e were equipment gaps the in occupants the This of six f l a t s 'objected of to the and

i n t h e i r f l a t s , t h u s l e a v i n g a sample o f f i f t y f l a t s . occupancy, change occupants, meant t h a t o n l y f o r p a r t of t h e f l a t s

brekdowns.

t h e r e was a continuous t i m e - s e r i e s o f measurements. data t r e a t m e n t : one of week. the t h e t i m e r e s o l u t i o n used i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e The weekly data was

Even if t h e measurements went on f o r one year, o n l y d a t a from weeks average v a r i a b l e s was c a l c u l a t e d f o r each c l a s s o f f l a t s . Due t o t h e

b e l o n g i n g t o t h e h e a t i n g season were used i n t h e a n a l y s i s . measured

incomplete d a t a s e t , i t was necessary t o apply some c r i t e r ' i a f o r t h e i n c l u s i o n o f data from a c e r t a i n f l a t i n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f a c l a s s average. data the To i n c l u d e a energy For t h e from the two final
'

f l a t i n t h e a n a l y s i s i t was judged necessary t h a t temperature as w e l l as consumption thirds of were a v a i l a b l e f o r a t l e a s t two t h i r d s o f t h e weeks. flats belonging to the c a l c u l a t i o n o f a weekly average f o r a c l a s s i t was r e q u i r e d t h a t d a t a question. These demands reduced t h e number o f f l a t s considered in

c l a s s were a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e week i n From t h e above a l s o

a n a l y s i s t o 4 2 , ' w i t h about t e n i n each o f t h e f o u r classes. c o u l d vary somewhat f r o m o n e week t o another.

f o l l o w s t h a t t h e number o f f l a t s f o r which a weekly c l a s s average was c a l c u l a t e d

If t h e e x t e r n a l temperature o r t h e s o l a r r a d i a t i o n d a t a were m i s s i n g f o r

c e r t a i n p e r i o d a t one o f t h e b u i l d i n g s i t e s , an e s t i m a t e o f t h e m i s s i n g d a t a was made so t h a t t h e estimates at the were period based could be included in the final analysis. These on a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n , determined by r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , station, and, on t h e o t h e r hand, between t h e observed

between, on one hand, t h e e x t e r n a l a i r temperature a t t h e b u i l d i n g s i t e and t h a t meteorological g l o b a l s o l a r r a d i a t i o n a t t h e b u i l d i n g s i t e and t h e number o f sun hours recorded a t the meteorological station. T h i s procedure was judged t o be r e l i a b l e because correlation of t h e r e l a t i v e v i c i n i t y t o t h e m e t e o r o l o g i c a l s t a t i o n and t h e good obtained i n the regression analysis. I n the f i n a l analysis o f the data a l i n e a r account the combined f o r space h e a t i n g ( H e l ) , contributing the electric energy model used was for used, domestic taking into

f a b r i c and heat losses ( H l o s s ) , the e l e c t r i c energy used appliances from with the a

tb

t h e h e a t i n g o f t h e d w e l l i n g ( H a p p l ) , t h e m e t a b o l i c heat from t h e
I t was assumed t h a t t h e combined f a b r i c and heat' l o s s e s

occupants (Hmet), and t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e h e a t i n g of t h e d w e l l i n g solar r a d i a t i o n (Hsol). proportionality global CQtQsol. solar constant radiation were p r o p d r t i o n a ~t o t h e i n d o o r CT, Qsol, or o u t d o o r . temperature Hloss= a CT+AT. d i f f e r e n c e AT,

I t was a l s o assumed t h a t t h e the total c o n s t a n t CQ, o r Hsol=

c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e h e a t i n g from s o l a r r a d i a t i o n was p r o p o r t i o n a l t o with proportionality The model can t h e n be w r i t t e n as: Met CQ+ Qsol described below.

CT* AT= Hel+ Happl observed Above that,

The e n t i t i e s Hel. Happl and Hmet were c a l c u l a t e d as

It

was

f o r a l l c l a s s e s o f f l a t s , t h e t o t a l e l e c t r i c energy consumption

decreased l i n e a r l y w i t h t h e outdoor a i r temperature up t o a c e r t a i n temperature. t h i s temperature i t remained c o n s t a n t , and t h e r e Las a c o n s t a n t base l o a d T h i s base l o a d was i n t e r p r e t e d as t h e electric o f e l e c t r i c consumption, Hbase.

energy used by e l e c t r i c appliances.


I t was then assumed t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e

total also

consumption estimated

of the

electric

energy and t h i s base load, Hbase, c o n s t i t u t e d the e l e c t r i c energy used . F r m t h e base load, Hbase, one t o t h e h e a t i n g o f t h e d w e l l i n g from t h e energy used by appliances,

f o r space h e a t i n g , Hel. contribution Happl. of the

From t h e survey o f t h e occupants one c o u l d estimate t h a t about one t h i r d energy used f o r appliances was used f o r h o t water generation, one t h i r d One a l s o estimated t h a t the energy One used could f o r hot water generation, 75% o f t h e energy used f o r thus deduce t h a t 68% o f t h e e l e c t r i c energy used by Happl- 0.68'Hbase. about how much

f o r cooking, and one t h i r d f o r l i g h t i n g and o t h e r uses. 30% o f the

cooking and a l l t h e energy used f o r o t h e r purposes c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e h e a t i n g of dwelling. appliances c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e h e a t i n g o f t h e d w e l l i n g , and t h i s amount o f energy was i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e term Happl of t h e model, i.e.

From t h e survey o f t h e occupants one a l s o had i n f o r m a t i o n time they spent a t home. t e r m Hmet o f t h e model c o u l d be estimated.

Assuming an average m e t a b o l i c heat r a t e o f 80 W t h e

As t h e e n t i t i e s AT and Qsol o f th,e model were known from t h e the parameters CT use of r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . b u i l d i n g classes. This was done separately for each

measurements, of the four

and CQ o f t h e model could be determined by a f i t t o data by

Comparing t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e values o f t h e parameters CT w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l y flats. the much indoor estimated U-value'area

obtained of the

f o r t h e f o u r classes, i t was found t h a t these d i f f e r e n c e s agreed reasonably w e l l This would then mean t h a t t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l y h i g h e r i n s u l a t i o n l e v e l had This was not The reason average and

been achieved a l s o i n p r a c t i c e ( p r o v i d e d o f course t h a t t h e i n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e o f four b u i l d i n g classes was t h e same, which was never checked). lower if one had compared o n l y t h e t o t a l energy consumption. ascribed to a a t r i v i a l f i n d i n g as t h e estimated e f f e c t o f a b e t t e r i n s u l a t i o n would have been f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n could be higher

temperature of t h e b e t t e r i n s u l a t e d f l a t s , and a p o s s i b l y more e f f i c i e n t solar radiation

way. o f t a k i n g advantage of t h e i n c i d e n t a l heat gains from energy used by domestic appliances.


It

was

the

conclusion of an

of

the

experimenters

that

the would

theoretically be in other

calculated . e f f e c t s verified.

increased i n s u l a t i o n on t h e thermal losses c o u l d be

What t h e e f f e c t on t h e t o t a l energy consumption

buildings

could

not

be estimated.

For t h i s one needed more i n f o r m a t i o n about

how t h e i n c i d e n t a l heat g a i n s were used. comments: one should f i r s t n o t e t h e reduction of the in sample size for of be

d i f f e r e n t reasons. the f i n a l analysis. this kind. f l a t s should b e neglected.

I n t h i s case o n l y 75% o f t h e o r i g i n a l f l a t s c o u l d b e used i n T h i s i s something which o f t e n enough so that the happens of experiments could

The o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n o f t h e experimenters was t h a t each c l a s s o f great effects occupancy Now each c l a s s f i n a l l y c o n s i s t e d o f o n l y about t e n f l a t s , which may

b e t o o small a number t o n e g l e c t t h e e f f e c t s o f occupancy. Two parameters were e s t i m a t e d , CT and CQ, i n t h e model, b e i n g c o n s t a n t s proportionality strong of the terms containing respectively the temperature d i f f e r e n c e &T, and t h e t o t a l s o l a r r a d i a t i o n Q s o l . correlation procedure, radiation. dangerous E s t i m a t i n g t h e v a l u e o f t h e s e two because parameters may of

indoor-outdoor There i s o f t e n a therefore be a

between t h e o u t d o o r a i r temperature and t h e amount of s o l a r CT and CQ may n o t b e independent. The model can

reproduce t h e experimental d a t a e q u a l l y w e l l i f t h e v a l u e s o f CT and CQ a r e b o t h i n c r e a s e d o r decreased. The c o n c l u s i o n s drawn by t h e experimenters assumption flats. checked. D e s p i t e these shortcomings, t h e experimental d e s i g n was i n t h i s case r a t h e r ambitious and. r e l i a b l e , and i t i s t h e r e f o r e h i g h l y p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r e r e l i a b l e too. that the rely to this some extent on had the been

a i r i n f i l t r a t i o n was t h e same f o r a l l t h e f o u r c l a s s e s o f assumption

I t would p r o b a b l y have been an advantage i f

CHAPTER I 1 e

-----------Simulated occupancy experiments and Movers and s t a y e r s

......................................................

simulated occupancy experiments and s t a y e r s

p. I 1 e- 1 p. I 1 e- 3 p. 11 e- 4

- movers
-

references

I1 e S i m u l a t e d occupancy experiments and Movers and s t a y e r s

...........................................................

s i m u l a t e d occupancy experiments

...............................
The r e t ' r o f i t e f f e c t of energy c o n s e r v a t i o n measures has been App. retrofit. T h i s change i s due t o t h e .improvement of the building defined or (see

I ) as t h e change i n energy consumption w h i c h ' i s i m p u t a b l e s t r i c t l y t o t h e heating i n f l u e n c e d by

system performance, b u t i t w i l l a l s o , as a second o r d e r e f f e c t , ' b e

a p o s s i b l e change i n t h e occupants h a b i t s - i n consequence of t h e r e t r o f i t . As a l r e a d y seen i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s , consumptions which is differs due h e a t i n g seasons ( b e f o r e - a f t e r ' e x p e r i m e n t s ) , from t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t . to the comparison general of the a energy result It

i n t w o b u i l d i n g s ( t e s t - r e f e r e n c e e x p e r i m e n t s ) , o r i n two d i f f e r e n t will in produce T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s i n 8-A experiments However, w h i l e a a of relatively


\

m a i n l y due t o v a r i a t i o n s of t h e weather from one h e a t i n g season t o a n o t h e r . mainly occupancy d i f f e r e n c e s i n T-R experiments. experiments, a great f a i r l y a c c u r a t e c o r r e c t i o n i s p o s s i b l e i n 8-A small a c o r r e c t i o n would r e q u i r e t h e performed reducing by t h e occupants. the error in monitoring of when

number o f m e t e o r o l o g i c a l q u a n t i t i s a r e measured, i n T-R experiments such number activities way of T h i s k i n d of approach t h e r e f o r e has t o be r e j e c t e d A better experiments, (see ch.

i n many cases because o f t e c h n i c a l and economic d i f f i c u l t i e s . these

I 1 d ) i s t o perform a
differences

c a l i b r a t i o n b e f o r e t h e measurement campaign, a s s e s s i n g t h e r e l e v a n t between t h e occupants o f t h e two b u i l d i n g s . A good s o l u t i o n i s t o choose t h e two b u i l d i n g s i n such energy bills A occupancy. calibration slight variation of occupancy can still a way

that between

their the

have been t h e same i n t h e p a s t and t h e r e has n o t been a change i n occur p e r i o d and t h e measurement p e r i o d , and p o s s i b l y t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t

s p o i l an experiment which i s l i k e l y t o be expensive and t i m e consuming. Toavoid experiments. "noise", this risk, simulated when the occupancy can be used in, e.g., T-R

Actually, by

t h e two i n v e s t i g a t e d b u i l d i n g s a r e b o t h equipped of occupants, o f t h e measurement w i l l be

w i t h an apparatus s i m u l a t i n g t h e e n e r g y - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s of t h e occupants, t h e produced presence suppressed.

There would a l s o n o t b e any " n o i s e " i f t h e presence o f occupants simulated generalized. disputable occupancy will the at all, the but this procedure leads to results'that will Moreover, t h e u t i l i t y o f t h e experiment i t s e l f since does energy balance. On the

were cannot

not be

then

become

r e s u l t s c o u l d be more e a s i l y o b t a i n e d by means o f a good contrary, simulated


it

computer model of t h e b u i l d i n g

n o t e l i m i n a t e t h e i n f l u e n c e of occupants on energy consumption, The main drawback o f t h i s method i s t h a t to

but w i l l rather allow i t s control. such i n f o r m a t i o n as i n p u t . second

n o t p r o v i d e any i n f o r m a t i o n on human b e h a v i o u r , b u t i t w i l l r a t h e r r e q u i r e
I t w i l l n o t enable t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r

investigate as

o r d e r r e t r o f i t e f f e c t (see ch.

I 1 a ) , u n l e s s t h e s i m u l a t i o n can be

i n f l u e n c e d by some feed-back mechanisms based on p h y s i o l o g i c a l indexes, such i l l u m i n a t i o n . thermal c o m f o r t o r n o i s e indexes. T h i s k i n d of s i m u l a t i o n r e q u i r e s t h a t and p e o p l e - s r e a c t i o n s can be assessed. the physiological is the weak indexes point of can such

be a

o b j e c t i v e l y determined and measured', and t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n between t h e s e s t i m u l i This procedure, b e s i d e s i t s t e c h n i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y and c o s t . Summing up, t h e use o f s i m u l a t e d occupancy i n T-R experiments p r e s e n t s f o l l o w i n g advantages: the

a r e l i a b l e s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g e f f e c t on t h e consumption o f from t h e weather and t h e occupancy e f f e c t s t h e r e p e a t a b i l i t y o f t h e experiment t h e easy adjustment o f t h e s i m u l a t e d occupancy if one wants t o p a r a m e t r i c study o f i t s e f f e c t on t h e consumption o f energy t h e easy m o n i t o r i n g o f t h e occupancy, s i n c e t h e equipment fo!

energy

perform

simulation

w i l l be e l e c t r i c a l l y d r i v e n (see ch. I V d )
t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f " s t a n d a r d occupancy compare r e s u l t s from d i f f e r e n t p h y s i o l o g i c a l behaviour, and used i n a c o u s t i c s . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e disadvantages a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g : t h e l o s s o f i n f o r m a t i o n on a c t u a l human t o energy c o n s e r v a t i o n measures t h e t e c h n i c a l and economic difficulty of behaviour, and i t s v a r i a t i o n constructing of simple due
'

schedules"

makes i t p o s s i b l e t o subjective had t o be

experiments. It must be mentioned t h a t t h i s t h e . r e l a t i o n between physical .quantities objective

idea has a l r e a d y been used i n cases when

e s t a b l i s h e d , l i k e t h e " s t a n d a r d e y e ' i n i l l u m i n a t i o n and t h e " s t a n d a r d e a r "

schedules

which do n o t c o n s i s t o f s t e r e o t y p e d p r e s e t t r a i n s

a c t i v i t i e s , but are

dynamic and i n c l u d e a feed-back mechanism s i m u l a t i n g p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t i m u l i (see ch.

I V d)
cannot be

t h e e x t r a c o s t f o r t h e r e n t o r purchase o f t h e d w e l l i n g s , t h a t occupied by a c t u a l r e s i d e n t s t h e e x t r a c o s t f o r t h e purchase o f t h e s i m u l a t i o n apparatus.

movers and s t a y e r s

-----------------Uhen a study o f t h e energy consumption i s performed on a number family dwellings, there d u r i n g t h e measurement p e r i o d . Data from t h e s e houses are generally of single excluded

w i l l o f t e n be some houses t h a t have changed ownership

from t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a b e f o r e t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s o f d a t a i s performed..

A method has been advocated how t o r e t a i n t h e s e d a t a s o t h a t


used to shed of light the energy on house the influence between of consumption of variation (Sonderegger

they

can that

be the

t h e occupants on t h e t o t a l energy One then assumes nominally identical houses can be

1977).

consumption

a s c r i b e d t o one of t w o f a c t o r s :
1)

v a r i a t i o n i s due t o occupant b e h a v i o u r v a r i a t i o n i s due t o d i f f e r e n c e s between n o m i n a l l y i d e n t i c a l b u i l d i n g s (e.g. d i f f e r e n c e s due t o b u i l d i n g damage o r t o bad workmanship d u r i n g the erection o f the building).

2)

,
where The one of

The houses 'are d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s , one c o n s i s t i n g o f houses a change o f ownership has occured and t h e o t h e r of houses where i t has n o t . l a t t e r c a t e g o r y serves as a control group. The energy consumption h e a t i n g season i s then c m p a r e d t o t h e energy consumption o f a second one.

I f energy. consumption

is

mainly

determined

by

the

properties

of

the due to

b u i l d i n g s t r u c t u r e , t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n energy consumption would be expected t o b e ' t h e same f o r t h e two c a t e g o r i e s o f houses. to the

I f energy consumption i s m a i n l y
I n r e a l i t y one has

b e h a v i o u r of t h e occupants, one would e x p e c t a s m a l l e r change i n houses

b e l o n g i n g t o t h e f i r s t c a t e g o r y t h a n t o t h e second one. seasons.

make c o r r e c t i o n s f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e e x t e r i o r c l i m a t e between t h e two h e a t i n g

I f , t h i s method i s t o be applied, t h e

only

required

data

are

the

total

energy 1977)

consumption

o f two h e a t i n g seasons, and data about where and when t h e r e When t h i s method was f i r s t a p p l i e d (Sonderegger the behaviour of the

has been a change of occupants.

i t was found t h a t about two t h i r d s o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i n energy consumption

between n o m i n a l l y i d e n t i c a l houses c o u l d be a s c r i b e d t o occupants.

When t h i s method was a p p l i e d t o 10 years o f c o l l e c t e d data from nominally change in identical ownership. Swedish There SFD ( ~ u n d s t r o m 1980). between t h e energy consumption o f two consecutive y e a r s having t h e same occupants.
if there

a had

set been

of a

no c o r r e l a t i o n was found

was, however, a very good c o r r e l a t i o n f o r houses

References

~ u n d s t r o m , E.:

"Energy Consumption i n Single-Family Houses"

Dept. o f B u i l d i n g Economics, The Royal I n s t i t u t e o f Technology Stockholm, Sweden (1980) Sonderegger, R.C.: "Movers and Stayers: The Resideni-s C o n t r i b u t i o n t o Socolow), B a l l i n g e r P u b l i s h i n g

V a r i a t i o n across Houses i n Energy Consumption f o r Space Heating" i n Saving Energy i n t h e home (Ed. R.H. Company (1978)

APPENDIX I 1

The p r o b a b i l i t y o f a r e t r o f i t e f f e c t

--

Contents

general i n t r o d u c t i o n d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e l i m i t s of t h e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e sample s i z e references

p. App. I 1 p. App. I 1 p. App. 11 p. App. 11

3
4

App 11-1

App.

I 1 The p r o b a b i l i t y o f a r e t r o f i t e f f e c t

general i n t r o d u c t i o n

The aim of t h e experiments we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h i s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e effects buildings. Whenever of energy conservation due to measures (retrofits) the in a The f i r s t , i o u r c e o f e r r o r i s t h e design of information, over be a experiment related to

average of itself. energy relate the

population

only a small number o f v a r i a b l e s b e i n g measured does not allow the experimenter

( f o r example, t h e i n s i d e - o u t s i d e temperature d i f f e r e n c e and t h e consumption results a period), examined

d e t e r m i n i s t i c a l l y t h e e f f e c t o f t h e r e t r o f i t t o t h e b u i l d i n g energy budget, should 1 9 8 1 , ' ~ ~ B 1981, ~, Sonderegger, 1978). but could measurement and large the also be used in before-

w i t h t h e h e l p of s t a t i s t i c a l techniques ( E v e r e t t , This approach i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e i n after (0-A) experiments whenever the units such of

t e s t - reference (T-K) experiment, i f a l a r g e sample o f b u i l d i n g s can be used, campaign of extends over several h e a t i n g seasons. I n these cases i t experimental by This k i n d o f

would be advantageous i f t h e r e l a t i o n between t h e number of precision that

thP

estimated r e t r o f i t e f f e c t was known.

a n a l y s i s may lead t o , t h e conclusion t h a t t h e estimate w i l l be a f f e c t e d errors no conclusions can be drawn.

I n o t h e r cases i t may lead t o

t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t an adequate p r e c i s i o n can be reached w i t h a smaller s i z e t h e sample. When a p p l y i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c a l techniques t h a t w i l l be described below, u n d e r l y i n g assumptions a r e 1) a l l systematic erro'rs can be i d e n t i f i e d and removed when choosing t h e t h e experimental u n i t s

the

2) t h e systematic e r r o r may be e l i m i n a t e d when . c a l c u l a t i n g t h e

effects
I

o f r e t r o f i t s . I n t h i s case one can make use of t h e s t a t i s t i c a l theory d e a l i n g w i t h random sampling and evaluate t h e problem by means o f t h e "t-test" (see e.g. Cox 1958, o r Kendall and S t u a r t 1963)

For t h e estimate of t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n energy consumption between two groups of r e t r o f i t t e d b u i l d i n g s (GR8) and non r e t r o f i t t e d b u i l d i n g s (GNRB), define:

i l = average energy consumption i n GNRB i 2 = average energy consumption i n GRB

App 11-2

nl = number o f b u i l d i n g s i n GNRB n 2 = number o f b u i l d i n g s i n GRB W e a l s o need a measure o f t h e v a r i a t i o n which average retrofit so c a l l e d r e s i d u a l standard d e v i a t i o n s. From prev'ious experience t h e r e s i d u a l standard d e v i a t i o n f o r occupancy, so, (T-R experiments) i s known t o range from 20% t o 30% o f the t o t a l b u i l d i n g energy consumption ( E v e r e t t 1981, sonderegger' 1978). while the residual' standard (B-A d e v i a t i o n f o r t h e weather, based on t h e seasonal degree-days v a r i a t i o n , s , experiments) ranges from 6% t o 10%. However, when t h e two groups o f b u i l d i n g s a r e chosen i n such a way that affects the error of the

e f f e c t R i n the population o f b u i l d i n g s studied.

This i s the

they have almost i d e n t i c a l energy consumptions b e f o r e t h e r e t r o f i t , t h e r e s i d u a l standard d e v i a t i o n , due o n l y t o v a r i a t i o n s i n occupancy i n t i m e and u n r e l a t e d t o t h e r e t r o f i t i t s e l f , w i l l g e n e r a l l y be around 10% (Sonderegger 1978). The e s t i m a t e d r e t r o f i t e f f e c t i s d e f i n e d as: (APP 11

XI -

F2

1)

and t h e e s t i m a t e d r e l a t i v e r e t r o f i t e f f e c t

i s defined as:

= 2 ( i 1 - X2)/(il + i2) (APP I 1 - 2) Assuming t h a t sl and s 2 ( s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s of x, and x 2 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) a r e

b o t h c l o s e t o s, t h e standard e r r o r sR i n t h e e s t i m a t e o f R i s g i v e n b y :
SR =

sdl/nl

+ l/n2

(APP 1 1

3)

and t h e standard e r r o r s

i n t h e e s t i m a t e of r i s g i v e n by:

s , = s / ( X 1 t X2) + 2 + d l / n l + l / n 2 (App 1 1 4) For t h e case when t h e two s e t s c o n t a i n an equal number of u n i t s n, t h e App 11 -3 and App I 1 -4 become: s,
= ~ s ( ~ / n j / ~
=

eq.

(APP 1 1

s3

(APP 11 Here, then, t w o ' d i f f e r e n t e v a l u a t i o n s can be made:

s(~/n)'/~

5)
6)

1) determine from t h e measurements t h e c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l which f o r a s e l e c t e d


l e v e l of p r o b a b i l i t y effect. (confidence) covers o r c o n t a i n s t h e average retrofit

App 11-3

2) determine, b e f o r e t h e experiments a r e performed, f o r interval.

different

probability confidence

l e v e l s , t h e r e q u i r e d sample s i z e f o r some d e f i n i t e l e n g t h of t h e

- determination

of the l i m i t s of the r e t r o f i t effect

For q u a l i t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s , i t can f o r l a r g e samples, be s a i d t h a t ; a) when t h e e s t i m a t e d r e t r o f i t e f f e c t i s s m a l l e r t h a n 1.65 t i m e s t h e standard e r r o r , sr, t h e r e i s no evidence t h a t t h e r e i s any t r u e d i f f e r e n c e a t a l l . r' difference error, s b ) when t h e e s t i m a t e d r e t r o f i t e f f e c t i s about t w i c e i t s standard t h e r e i s good evidence ( p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l above 95 %) t h a t t h e i s n o t zero. c ) when t h e e s t i m a t e d r e t r o f i t e f f e c t , s , . e r r o r , t h e r e i s a s t r o n g evidence t r u e d i f f e r e n c e i s n o t zero. For a more s i g n i f i c a n t q u a n t i t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n , i t can relative retrofit sr, effect, t(p,n)* r, s , ) is situated, i n t e r v a l ( s o c a l l e d confidence i n t e r v a l ) be said that the i s more t h a n 2.6 t i m e s i t s standard ( p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l above 99 %) t h a t t h e

a t a p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l p, i n t h e

(r

t(p,n)*

(APP 11

7)

where t(p,n) i s a f u n c t i o n o f p and n g i v e n ' i n Table App I 1 -1

The w i d t h o f t h e c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l w w i l l be g i v e n by: w = 2' t(p,n)* sr (App 11

8) The

I
Example 1. L e t us c o n s i d e r two groups of 10 b u i l d i n g s i n a T-R experiment. GNRB g i v e s i,=80 G J I y r , w h i l e t h e GRB g i v e s X2=65 GJlyr. we have: which g i v e s i / s = 0.207/0.089= r 2.32. sr= 0 . 2 m =0.089 =8.9% and r' = 2'(80-65)1(80+65)
= 0.207

Then, assuming.s,=20%,
= 20.7%

As a g u a l i t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n , we a r e a b l e t o say t h a t t h e r e i s good evidence that Then 0.207there is a d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two groups. 0.089'2.26 and 0.207t i.e., I f we wish a q u a n t i t a t i v e 2.26. between i.e., between 0.6% e v a l u a t i o n w i t h a 95% p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l , we w i l l r l i e s between 0.2070.089x1.03 and 40.8%. f i n d . t h a t ' t(0.95,10)= 0.089'2.26,

S i m i l a r l y , w i t h a p r o b a b i l i t y o f 213 (67%), t h e t r u e r l i e s and 0.207+ 0.089x1.03, between 11.5% and 29.9%.

APP 11-4

d e t r n ~ i i n a t i o no f t h e sample s i z e

I n t h i s case t h e problem i s t h a t of d e t e r m i n i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e sample f o r t h e experiment, l e a d i n g t o a p r e s e t l e n g t h o f t h e c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l . t h e eq. App 11-6 and App 11-8, we d e r i v e t h e f o l l o w i n g i m p l i c i t r e l a t i o n :

size From

n = ~*(~+s*t(p,n)/w)' t h e s o l u t i o n o f which, f o r p = 67, 75, 90, 95%, i s g i v e n i n f u n c t i o n o f 2sIw i n f i g . App. Example 2. so= 20%. I 1 -1. graphic form as a

Suppose we a r e p l a n n i n g a T-R experiment assuming, as b e f o r e , t h a t Wewant t o achieve a result which deviates at most 5% from the

e s t i m a t e d r w i t h a p r o b a b i l i t y o f 213. W e f i n d 2 s / w = 4 , and f r o m f i g . is considered too high and, App I 1

lweget n=31.

If this

number we

because

t h e expected r e t r o f i t e f f e c t i s f a i r l y

l a r g e , we can accept a l a r g e r c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l ( f o r example,

20%),

w i l l f i n d t h a t 2slw=2 and t h e r e f o r e n l i e s between 8 and 9.


S i m i l a r l y , if t h e two groups had been checked i n advance and f o r i n s t a n c e 10%. their ,energy

consumption were v e r y much t h e same, a l o w e r standard d e v i a t i o n can be expected, Accepting, as above, w=20X a t a p r o b a b i l i t y o f 213, we, would i n t h i s case f i n d 2s/w=l and n=3. Example 3. For a 8-A experiment, assuming s w = 7.5%, we would need about 5 t o 6 6 h e a t i n g seasons i n each group i n o r d e r t o g e t a +-5% c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l a p r o b a b i l i t y o f 213, and j u s t 2 i f a t-10% i n t e r v a l c o u l d be accepted. As a f i n a l comment we want t o p o i n t o u t t h a t values fixed, of there are no "recomended" w should be with

w and p.

However, i t appears t h a t t h e c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l p should n o t interval

be chosen below 213, w h i l e t h e l e n g t h o f t h e c o n f i d e n c e taking t h e s m a l l e r t h e expected r e t r o f i t e f f e c t ,

i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e expected r e s u l t o f t h e measurement, e.g., t h e s m a l l e r w should be taken.

App 11- 5

F i g . App 11-1.

R e l a t i o n between sample s i z e n and 2 s l u , where s i s t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n and u i s t h e w i d t h of t h e confidence i n t e r v a l , w i t h t h e confidence L e v e l , p, as a p a r a m e t e r .

- --

TABLE App I 1

Values o f t f o r d i f f e r e n t p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l s p and sample s i z e n.

References

E v e r e t t , R.C.:

"The s t a t i s t i c a l problem o f t h e Pennyland experiment,"

Proc.

from t h e I n t . C o l l . on ~ h p a r a t i v eE x p e r i m e n t a t i o n o f Low-Energy HouSeS, ~ i P g e , 6-8 May 1981. SCBR (Swedish C o u n c i l f o r B u i l d i n g Research):Energy Saving E f f e c t s i n D w e l l i n g s where Measures have been implemented by Governmental Energy Saving G r a n t s , Document D7:1981, Stockholm (1981). Sonderegger, R.C.: Movers and S t a y e r s : "The R e s i d e n t - s C o n t r i b u t i o n t o 3, A p r i l 1978.

V a r i a t i o n a c r o s s Houses i n Energy Consumption f o r Space Heating," Energy and B u i l d i n g s , Vol.1, .Cox, D.R.:

P l a n n i n g o f Experiments, W i l e y I n t . E d i t i o n , New York, 1958. and S t u a r t , A.: The advanced Theory o f S t a t i s t i c s , Vol. 1,

K e n d a l l , M.G.
C.

G r i f f i n & Co. Ltd.,

London, 1963.

PART 111

MEASUREMENTS O N BUILDINGS AND ENVIRONMENT

Contents

Ch. 111 a c h i 111 b Ch. I 1 1 c Ch 111 d

General i n t r o d u c t i o n and methods o f measurement Outdoor c l i m a t e measurements Indoor c l i m a t e measurements Thermal performance of b u i l d i n g s Air infiltration Energy conversion and flow i n h e a t i n g systems Data a c q u i s i t i o n systems and I n s t a l l a t i o n g u i d e - l i n e s E r r o r s , R e p r e s e n t a t i v i t y and sampling o f measurement p o i n t s

ch. 111 e Ch. 111 f Ch. 111 g App. I11

Keywords

accuracy archives audit data hapdling diary d i r e c t measurements group comparison interview

..

maintenance of measurement system ma1 f u n c t i o n of equipment measurement system model monitoring observation parameter precision . q u a l i t y o f craftmanship reliability survey t e c h n i q u e s time resolution variable

CHAPTER 1 1 1 a General i n t r o d u c t i o n and methods o f measurement

Contents

-'general

introduction

p. 1 1 1 a- 1 p. 1 1 1 a- 2

r e l a t i o n between measurements and model measurement methods i) ii) iv) v) d i r e c t measurements observations use o f a r c h i v e s
- l a b o r a t o r y comfort measurements

p. 1 1 1 a- 6
p. 1 1 1 a- 6
p. 111 a- 7

i i i ) survey techniques

p. I 1 1 a- 8
p. I 1 1 a-10

p. 1 1 1 a-10 p. I l l a-12

-'

b i b l i o g r a p h y and r e f e r e n c e s

I11 a-l

IIIa

General i n t r o d u c t i o n and methods o f measurement

-general i n t r o d u c t i o n

P a r t I 1 1 w i l l deal w i t h instruments. methods, and p r i n c i p l e s o f measurement that can be used when evaluating the effect o f r e t r o f i t t i n g a residential and techniques of measurement
If

building.

A g r e a t number o f d i f f e r e n t methods

traditionally necessary quantities.

used i w d i f f e r e n t s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i p l i n e s can then be a p p l i e d . will consist in a direct measurement of

t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n c l u d e s t h e m o n i t o r i n g o f a r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g , most o f t h e measurements physical

Measurements measurements.This measurement o f

of

this

kind

will

here

be

referred

to

as

direct

t o p i c i s d e a l t w i t h i n ch.

111 b through 111 f , i n c l u d i n g t h e

outdoor c l i m a t e indoor climate thermal performance of b u i l d i n g s infiltration energy conversion and f l o w i n h e a t i n g systems The measurement o f household energy and h o t t a p water, how to complement is dealt.

direct with

measurements in Part
IV.

by

information

on

the

behaviour o f t h e occupants when, studies

m o n i t o r i n g a r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g , and performing s i m u l a t i o n P a r t I 1 1 ends w i t h ch. systems and i n s t a l l a t i o n r u l e s .


I f an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n v o l v e s a l a r g e number o f b u i l d i n g s

I 1 1 g dealing w i t h data a c q u i s i t i o n

it

will the total

not

be

practicalmeasurements consumption. classify the

or

possibleconsist

to only

monitor of the

all

of

them. of

Instead, the

direct energy To to want

will

measurement

The e v a l u a t i o n w i l l then be performed u s i n g group comparison. studied residential

g e n e r a l i z e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e energy measurements, one w i l l i n general

b u i l d i n g s a c c o r d i n g t o some simple b u i l d i n g .

characteristics.Background

d a t a f o r t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n must t h e n be c o l l e c t e d .

Several methods can 'be used f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n of data on t h e behaviour Qccuuants . and data on s t a t i s t i c a l l y meaningful b u i l d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . methods i n c l u d e observations, survey techniques Under other circumstances the' i n f l u e n c e This may be t h e case, e.g., simulating and use of

of

These

a r c h i v e records: a building.

i t may be advantageous t o use experimental methods.


i f one wants t o study t h e behaviour o f

by

t h e occupants, i n s t e a d of performing experiments I 1 e and I V d). of occupants

w i t h occupants i n t h e b u i l d i n g (see ch.

I f one wants t o use e x i s t i n g data on behaviour and a t t i t u d e s in the residential buildings,

and p l a c e any r e l i a n c e on i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h i s ' k i n d ,

one should be a b l e t o judge t h e adequacy of t h e research behind i t by e v a l u a t i n g r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e research design, and by j u d g i n g i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o t h e I n p r i n c i p l e there used when are no differences between used the to on the the methodology c o l l e c t i n g d a t a of t h i s k i n d and t h e The terminology and techniques t h a t validity
O f these demands i t i s

issues b e i n g confronted. demands describe in

demands when perForming, e.g., are different.

physical measurements.
I t i s t h e data

procedures i s t h e same.

The usual demand f o r o b j e c t i v i t y , r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y is most difficult to fulfil.

a s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n must always be f u l f i l l e d .

o f t e n t h e one f o r v a l i d i t y t h a t articles gathering Burnette- Moleski- Vachon (1974). from archives Sechrest (1971).

Introductory data

on how t o o b t a i n and use behavioural i n f o r m a t i o n can be found i n LangThe use of observational techniques and and records i s desciibed i n Webb- Campbell- Schwartz-

r e l a t i o n between measurements and model

When t h e aim and design o f t h e experiment have been describing the energy flows of the building has determine what measurements a r e t o be Derformed. I f t h e model describes t h e energy energy flow, t h e sum of which i s zero. in-ch. I 1 a. balance of the

decided been

and

model

chosen,one has t o

whole

building

or

component o f t h e b u i l d i n g , i t w i l l c o n t a i n terms, each r e p r e s e n t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r Examples of such energy flows a r e given

Some terms w i l l represent a d i r e c t l y measured energy v a r i a b l e l i k e t h e h e a t . output from. t h e heating system o r t h e e l e c t r i c household appliances. of Other the 'terms w i l l c o n t a i n one o r more b u i l d i n g parameters ( p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s

building)

along

w i t h variables. "Uvalue")

An example o f t h i s ' i s a term r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e being (a the product of and the the of the caponent parameter),

conductive heat f l o w through a b u i l d i n g component,


'

transmittance

(the

temperature d i f f e r e n c e across t h e component ( a v a r i a b l e ) .


It i s then c l e a r t h a t t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e energy

flows other

will

involve

the

measurement

of

directly

measurable

energy

flows,

v a r i a b l e s and

parameters. Assuming t h a t t h e values of a l l parameters are known, a straightforward

measurement of a'n energy f l o w can be p e r f o m e d i n two ways: 1) a measurement o f one energy v a r i a b l e o n l y 2) a simultaneous measurement of several v a r i a b l e s

1) I n many cases i t i s p o s s i b l e t o use a sensor which can d i r e c t l y

measure

t h e energy v a r i a b l e . An example i s a Watt hour meter r e c o r d i n g t h e e l e c t r i c consumption by e l e c t r i c domestic appliances. '

2) Sometimes t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f an energy f l o w has t o be performed simultaneous of the net measurement energy of more than energy flow from t h e value of these v a r i a b l e s . output An example i s t h e water can

by

one v a r i a b l e and a c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e determination be measured The water f l o w and t h e

by a water h e a t i n g system.

temperature d i f f e r e n c e between t h e feed and t h e r e t u r n separately.

From t h i s t h e energy flow can be c a l c u l a t e d . term the speed, air contains outdoor the air parameters air of the model as well of hot as

I f an energy f l o w

v a r i a b l e s , t h e v a r i a b l e s w i l l i n most cases have t o be measured d i r e c t l y . v a r j a b l e s can be, e.g., radiation, water, the the wind of temperature, the amount the

These solar tap

pressure d i f f e r e n c e across t h e b u i l d i n g

envelope, i n d o o r a i r and surface temperatures, t h e temperature of rate degree o f s h i e l d i n g o f windows etc.

exchange, t h e amount o f c o l d t a p water consumed, t h e

A numerical value w i l l a l s o have t o be assigned t o t h e


model. This can be done i n v a r i o u s ways:

parameters

of

the

1) t h e parameter i s already known 2) t h e parameter can be d i r e c t l y measured 3) t h e parameter i s determined by a f i t t o data

, 1) The value of the parameter can be assumed


experience, from l a b o r a t o r y measurements, etc. the Some examples a r e : "free heat", can be assumed The rate to of to

.
be known from previous

from c o n s t r u c t i o n data o f t h e b u i l d i n g be known from p r e v i o u s measurements on assumed to be known

t h e c o n s t a n t t e r m o f a degree- day model, r e p r e s e n t i n g

similar buildings. laboratory

The U- value o f windows can be air

fran

experiments.

exchange produced by a mechanical

v e n t i l d t i o n system o r t h e window area can be i n f e r r e d from c o n s t r u c t i o n data. 2) The parameter can,be determined w i t h a s i n g l e Some examples a r e : heat f l o w meter. measurement. The The e x t e r i o r average wall area can be or a few measurements. with a single

t h e U- value of the e x t e r i o r w a l l s can be determined u s i n g a determined heat c a p a c i t y o f t h e b u i l d i n g can be determined by

l e t t i n g t h e i n t e r n a l temperature drop when t h e h e a t i n g system i s shut o f f .

3) The parameter can be determined by a f i t t o experimental d a t a


'measurements, have internalexternal the representing proportionality radiation been performed. Some of examples term the in are: a the degreeenvelope. the the wind amount temperature average difference value day

once

all

slope

o f the model, the the solar

U-

building

When speed, of

i n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e has been assumed t o be p r o p o r t i o n a l t o & v a l u e o f the e x t e r n a l ' w a l l i s known. through the windows has The been case when

c o n s t a n t can be determined by a f i t t o experimental d a t a i f t h e assumed proportional t o the solar

r a d i a t i o n , i n c i d e n t on t h e e x t e r i o r w a l l , can be t r e a t e d i n an analogous way. What has been s a i d above about parameters can i n some cases apply variables. Sometimes the temperature of the ground or the temperature can be assumed t o be c o n s t a n t s and t r e a t e d . a s parameters. The c h o i c e o f t h e model w i l l a l s o have i m p l i c a t i o n s o t h e r than those mentioned above l i k e : for the measurements also to

internal a i r

1) t h e t i m e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e measurements
2) t h e r e s o l u t i o n and p r e c i s i o n o f t h e measurements

3) t h e accuracy o f measured e n t i t i e s

4) t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f comparison w i t h o t h e r experiments 5) the storage'of data


1) The model w i l l determine t h e t i m e - r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e measurements.

This

may vary from one hour o r l e s s f o r dynamic models up t o one month o r one h e a t i n g season f o r a degree- day model.
I

A l l v a r i a b l e s should, i f p o s s i b l e , be

recorded

with by

the the

same

time-

resolution.

it

is,

however, pecessary t o p e r f o r m t h e than indicated

measurements f o r r a p i d l y f l u c t u a t i n g q u a n t i t i e s more f r e q u e n t l y t i m e - r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e model. t o s t o r e d a t a averaged over a t i m e gi;en

But i t should a l s o i n t h i s case s u f f i c e by t h e t i m e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e model. with the

2 ) The measurement p r e c i s i o n and r e s o l u t i o n should be c o n s i s t e n t


An example: that

model a n d t h e model should o f course i n c l u d e o n l y f a c t o r s t h a t can be estimated. t h e model c o n t a i n s t h e heat f l o w across the e x t e r n a l w a l l s and a l s o the ceiling. temperature through the

I f b o t h t h e U- v a l u e o f t h e . e x t e r i o r w a l l s and t h a t
data,
it

o f t h e c e i l i n g a r e t o be determined from t h e measure the c e i l i n g .

will

be

necessary correlated,

to
it

d i f f e r e n c e across t h e e x t e r i o r w a l l as w e l l as across This

If these two temperature d i f f e r e n c e s a r e s t r o n g l y

w i l l n o t be p o s s i b l e t o e s t i m a t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two U- values.

w i l l then n e c e s s i t a t e a r e v i s i o n o f t h e model.

Ifone of the energy f l o w terms o f t h e model i s

associated

with

a
It

large

not with

e r r o r , t h i s w i l l have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e demand o f r e s o l u t i o n and p r e c i s i o n o f t h e measurement o f v a r i a b l e s and parameters c o n t a i n e d i n o t h e r terms. make the any sense to require a too good

will

accuracy o r p r e c i s i o n o f these

measurements i f t h e e r r o r o f model c a l c u l a t i o n s i s anyway determined by t h e t e r m largest error. T h i s e r r o r must i n any case n o t exceed t h e r e q u i r e d maximal e r r o r o f t h e model.

3) The accuracy o f t h e measurements o f t h e v a r i a b l e s has t o be


any models contain in a the "indooroutdoor i n d o o r temperature may v a r y f r o m ' p l a c e t o p l a c e i n s i d e t h e temberature room. indoor The temperature of t h e b u i l d i n g masonry i s d i f f e r e n t a i r and does n o t have t h e same t i m e c o n s t a n t . temperature" is building. from

determined. But t h e The of air the the

temperature d i f f e r e n c e " . .

room may d i f f e r by several degrees between two p o i n t s i n t h e that I t i s therefore important measured

how, and where, i n t h e b u i l d i n g t h e ''indoor

if

wanted maximal e r r o r o f t h e model i s n o t t o be exceeded.

to be

4) I f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e measurements o r t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e experiment a r e be cornpared t o r e s u l t s from experiments i n o t h e r b u i l d i n g s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t


T h i s demand can never are i d e n t i c a l . way. completely fulfilled in practice, as no two buildings

t h a t t h e v a r i a b l e s have been measured i n t h e same manner.

However, one s h o u l d always t r y t o p e r f o r m t h e measurements i n an i d e n t i c a l a t l e a s t i f t h e same model i s going t o be used

5) The design o f t h e experiment and t h e model w i l l determine how are bn to be analyzed.


It

the

data

is

then

an

advantage

if t h e

results

fromthe
It i s also

measurements a r e s t o r e d i n such a way t h a t t h i s task i s f a c i l i t a t e d . of t h e experiment a r e going t o be presented. way t h a t t h e amount of work i s reduced. What has been s a i d above about measurements should n o t onestage process. There should design o f t h e experiment and choice o f t h e model. been planned may t u r n out t o be t o o expensive. have t o be changed. be

advantage if already before t h e measurements s t a r t one knows how t h e r e s u l t s Data can then be s t o r e d i n such. a

regarded

as

be a feed- back t o t h e previous stage o f Some measurements which this have will
I f i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o perform

measurements w i t h an accuracy and a p r e c i s i o n demanded by t h e model,

measurement methods

il d i r e c t measurements

If a p p l i c a b l e , d i r e c t measurement i s g e n e r a l l y t h e method t o be
It

preferred. Even i f often are

is

o f t e n more o b j e c t i v e than t h e o t h e r techniques discussed below.

e r r o r sources a r e i n h e r e n t a l s o i n t h i s method, t h e r e s u l t i n g e r r o r s

small compared t o e r r o r s when another data g a t h e r i n g technique i s used. Using d i r e c t measurements i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o achieve the end use of energy i n a r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g . a l s o be performed w i t h a very small r e s o l u t i o n i n time, e.g., can be recorded. The maximal e r r o r t h a t can be allowed i n t h e measurement of parameters then of the will in t u r n a r e determined by t h e aim o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . sensor, data acquisition being system, data What is and variables interesting data and is a break-down of

Measurements of t h i s k i n d can one-hour averages

general be given by t h e demands on t h e model, which i n i t s

n o t t h e accuracy o r r e s o l u t i o n of a s i n g l e sensor, b u t t h e r e s u l t i n g e r r o r storage, handling ch. Before implemented every data a c q u i s i t i o n system should be

procedure. I11 9):

evaluated t o a s c e r t a i n t h a t i t f u l f i l s t h e f o l l o w i n g requirements (see a l s o

1) t h e system

accuracy i s S u f f i c i e n t t o meet

t h e aim o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n and

more s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e demands o f t h e model

2) t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e system does n o t l e a d t o unacceptable l o s s o f d a t a


3) t h e r e a r e no unnecessary processing of i n o r d i n a t e l y l a r g e amounts o f data

4) t h e system i s m a i n t a i n a b l e by t h e a v a i l a b l e s t a f f 5 ) t h e complexity. o f t h e system i s compatible w i t h t h e


of the s t a f f 6 ) t h e t i m e schedule f o r t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n , debugging,calibration o f t h e data i s r e a l i s t i c and processing t r a i n i n g and experience

7 ) t h e important v a r i a b l e s b e i n g monitored a r e e a s i l y v e r i f i a b l e i n t h e f i e l d

8) t h e redundancy of t h e system i s s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h e purpose o f t h e experiment


Other important questions than t e c h n i c a l ones a l s o have t o These system. Some examples a r e : be

considered.

have t o do w i t h t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e occupants.and t h e measurement what a r e t h e r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e l a n d l o r d , occupants


W i l l t h e sensors be d i s t u r b e d by

and t h e ,caretaker o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g ? t h e occupants? report malfunctions? Can

Can t h e c a r e t a k e r be asked t o survey t h e measurement system

and

t h e c a r e t a k e r o r t h e occupants be i n s t r u c t e d n o t t o

change t h e f u n c t i o n o f any component of t h e b u i l d i n g t h a t i s being s t u d i e d ? The answer t o these and experiment starts. other questions have to be found before the

It w i l l g i v e t h e m o n i t o r i n g crew t h e necessary i n f o r m a t i o n

f o r t h e c h o i c e o f t h e m o n i t o r i n g equipnent and t h e set up o f t h e measurements. i i ) observations Observational methods have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been used t o observe t h e behaviour of the to occupant in social studies. the
Of more i n t e r e s t here a r e observations

r e l a t e d t o t h e energy consumption. order Another between


it

An example i s an energy a u d i t ,performed energy of the s t a t u s o f a b u i l d i n g using, e.g., differences on a temperature

in

qualitatively example the is the

assess

thermographic methods t o observe s u r f a c e observation and the

wall.

quality

o f craftmanship when a Another example i s

r e t r o f i t i s im~lemented. This i n f o r m a t i o n may be useful t o e x p l a i n disagreement calculated actual energy saving. c o u n t i n g t h e number o f open windows o f a r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g i n o r d e r t o r e l a t e to t h e e x t e r i o r o r t h e i n t e r i o r a i r temperature. Only l i t t l e e f f o r t has so f a r been spent i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . From these examples i t i s c l e a r t h a t q u a l i t a t i v e nature. observations are not always of a is

They can sometimes be q u a n t i f i e d .

Observation i s t h e r e f o r e monitoring

an a l t e r n a t i v e t o d i r e c t measurements e s p e c i a l l y if a continuous

n o t necessary.
A

drawback

of

observation the is observer difficult

is

that and to the

it

is

often

an

expensive is

and the often

time-consuming interaction uncontrollable.

method.
It

If t h e observation i n v o l v e s observing an o;cupant,

between

occupant

observed

know t o what e x t e n t t h e presence o f t h e

observer i n f l u e n c e s t h e behaviour o f t h e occupant. Observations information environment about are the more reliable than survey techniques behaviour in in gathering his usual

occupant-s

actual

behaviour.

6bservations. give the

p o s s i b i l i t y of r e c o r d i n g and measuring t h e occupant-s

i i i ) survey techniques Survey techniques include the use of interviews, diaries and energy reliable

questionnaires. consumption. due to

Any of these can be used as an instrument t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n Data on, e.g., the occupant-s use of household equipment,

about t h e a t t i t u d e s , behaviour and h a b i t s o f t h e occupant r e l a t e d t o t h e frequency o f t a k i n g baths, o r window opening h a b i t s a r e o f t e n not very unreliable estimates Using these methods i t might be p o s s i b l e t o obtain more reliable

by t h e occupant of h i s own h a b i t s and behaviour. information

fr,om t h e occupant about h i s h a b i t s o f d r e s s i n g a t home (see chapter I c ) . The .interview i s 'a quick way o f g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . can be carried out at the occupant-s telephone have the;advantage that the respondent in an can tell to
It i s flexible

and

home o r by telephone; about

~ n t e r v i e w sby his a actual better Compared t o

behaviour j u s t b e f o r e t h e i n t e r v i e w . many o t h e r techniques i t i s p o s s i b l e

He does n o t have t o remember. interview maintain

c o n t r o l o f t h e sample and l e s s e f f o r t on t h e p a r t o f t h e respondent i s required. Questions can be closed o r open. choose between a number to of allowed t o e l a b o r a t e upon h i s response. additional questions clarify the the i n t e r v i e w e r can estimate i n f o r m a t i o n i s given. validity I n closed questions t h e occupant In I n t h i s case t h e i n t e r v i e w e r response of the of t h e occupant. answer and obserie has can how to

categories.

open questions the occupant i s give the The s k i l l e d

The i n t e r v i e w e r - s task i s n o t o n l y t o present also level to .elicit of accurate He and must unbiased lead

and

record To do

questions,

but

information.

t h i s he has t o

e s t a b l i s h c o n t a c t w i t h t h e occupant, be personable and demonstate an a p p r o p r i a t e interest. t h e i n t e r v i e w and n o t l e t i t d i g r e s s i n t o i r r e l e v a n t discussions. An a l t e r n a t i v e t o i n t e r v i e w s i s t o l e t t h e occupant keep a then instructed and to habits this write of down give the when and where answers he to activities. behaviour asked to This method can accurate diary. He is the

performs some s p e c i f i e d questions about

occupant.

The drawback o f t h i s method i s t h a t The occupant should n o t be T h i s method has A discussion o f

keeping a d i a r y can g e t r a t h e r b o r i n g a f t e r a w h i l e . perform o f t e n been used i n t i e e - b u d g e t s t u d i e s (see e.g. be found i n W a l k e r - S t a f f o r d - H i l d o n (1982).

task over a prolonged p e r i o d o f time. S z a l a i 1972).

t h e advantages and drawbacks o f t h e use o f d i a r i e s i n e n e r g y - r e l a t e d s t u d i e s can

Using g u e s t i o n n a i r e s i s an i n e x p e n s i v e method which enables t h e to to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n from a l a r g e number o f people. administer a is questionnarire used, than to conduct an interview.

researcher When a

I s i s l e s s time-consuming The i n f o r m a t i o n can be given

questionnaire

t h e s i t u a t i o n i s more uniform.

coded and p e r m i t s comparisons between i n d i v i d u a l s . t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f remaining anonymous.

The respondent can be

Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s must c o n t a i n s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s on how t h e form i s t o used terms. and how t h e q u e s t i o n s are t o be answered. legible. The q u e s t i o n s have t o be as unambiguous as p o s s i b l e , s t a t e d in Wordings is

be

The l a y o u t should be c l e a r and simple are The

Each q u e s t i o n should be c l e a r and r e a d i l y understood by a l l respondents. which loaded or leading should be avoided. Q u e s t i o n s s h o u l d n o t be way developed.

A l l a v a i l a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s of answer should be presented. emotionally grouped so t h a t a tendency t o respond i n a p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n should. be used t o communicate, n o t educate.

There e x i s t ready-made s e t s of q u e s t i o n s i n t e n d e d t o c o v e r a l a r g e p o s s i b l e purposes of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h i s kind. to the i n a n a t i o n a l survey on household a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g a l s o (1975). questions

set

of

An example o f q u e s t i o n s asked relevant

energy consumption i n domestic d w e l l i n g s can be found i n Newman and Oay

I n any case, survey experts. i v ) use o f a r c h i v e s

techniques

should

not

be

u-sed

without

con,sulting

Data c o l l e c t i o n from a r c h i v e s i n c l u d e , e.g., o i l d i s t r i b u t i o n firm. size,

the c o l l e c t i o n of

infurmation the age,

on t h e ene'rgy consumption o f a r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g from t h e s a l e s r e c o r d s of an It can a l s o i n c l u d e t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a on and o t h e r b u i l d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from an o f f i c i a l ' e s t a t e o f f i c e o r from

t h e r e c o r d s o f a r e a l e s t a t e agent. Compared nonreactivity. t o ' survey Even techniques this method has the of advantage data of

i f t h e r e may be s u b s t a n t i a l e r r o r s i n t h e m a t e r i a l , i t i s
introduction o f f a l s e records) because

unusual t o f i n d masking (e.g.

t h e producer o f t h e d a t a knows t h a t h i s r e c o r d s w i l l b e . s t u d i e d .

here
and

a r e two m a j o r sources o f & i n survival.

archival records

selective deposit the fact t h a t presenting given false

selective

S e l e c t i v e d e p o s i t h e r e r e f e r s t o e.g.

t h e r e c o r d - keeper may choose between d i f f e r e n t ways o f r e c o r d i n g o r t h e . data. a l s o be erroneous s i m p l y becaus'e t h e owner information t o the t a x office. Selective survival i s Sometimes official records usually a problem associated with old of the building has

Data on a r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g t a k e n from a m u n i c i p a l t a x r e c o r d m a y

records. Some that

a r e cleansed f r a n "unnecessary" i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s may l e a d t o t h e effect

d a t a w i l l be k e p t , some w i l l be t h r o w n away.

t h e r e m a i n i n g d a t a a r e no l o n g e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n . v) l a b o r a t o r y c o m f o r t measurements An example of experimental methods is the use of psychophysical

laboratory

techniques

t o study t h e c o m f o r t o f an occupant f o r d i f f e r e n t i n d o o r

temueratures. E x p e r i m e n t a l methods have f o r many y e a r s been used i n determine given indoor the psychophysics to

human l e v e l o f c o m f o r t when exposed t o d i f f e r e n t combinations of The o p t i m a l , l e v e l of comfort when v a r y i n g above is well-known under certain

a i r t e m p e r a t u r e and h e a t r a d i a t i o n and sometimes a l s o h u m i d i t y and a i r v e l o c i t y . t h e c l o t h i n g and t h e a c t i v i t y . climate variables mentioned

c i r c u m s t a n c e s (see c h a p t e r I c ) .

This can be used t o p r e d i c t t h e energy used when t h e occupant i s performing certain rising, activities. he Assume to that the occupant is resting air in an indoor starts the the environment o f optimal thermal comfort. I f the indoor temperature try to

will

try

lower

i t when i t has reached t h e upper l i m i t o f t h e

temperature i n t e r v a l where he f e e l s comfortable. temperature t o i t s previous l e v e l . circumstances in

He w i l l

restore upon

Whether t h i s i s t o be done by s h i e l d i n g from depend However, a lower l i m i t f o r t h e difference period the


I t w i l l o n l y be a lower

s o l a r r a d i a t i o n , opening a window o r some o t h e r a c t i v i t y w i l l and w i l l i n generai n o t be known.

change o f t h e energy balance caused by t h i s a c t i v i t y i s g i v e n by t h e heat content o f t h e a i r and t h i s can be c a l c u l a t e d . l i m i t because if t h e a c t i v i t y i n v o l v e s a i r i n g o u t over a amount o f energy consumed w i l l be l a r g e r . The o p e r a t i o n o f s h u t t e r s and b l i n d s can a l s o t o some e x t e n t using a s i m i l a r , method. Suppose windows are radiation. be prolonged

predicted or to

covered t o s h i e l d from s o l a r

If t h e i n d o o r i l l u m i n a n c e f a l l s below an acceptable l e v e l b l i n d s
However, i n t h i s case t h e occupant may choose

c u r t a i n s w i l l be operated upon by t h e occupant t o a l l o w an increased p e n e t r a t i o n o f l i g h t from t h e outside. s w i t c h on t h e l i g h t i n g i n s t e a d o f o p e r a t i n g t h e b l i n d s .

Bibliography

Lang, J.

, B u r n e t t e , C. , M o l e s k i , W. and ~ a c h o nD. (Ed.):

D e s i g n i n g f o r human b e h a v i o u r (Comnunity Development S e r i e s Vol. 6 ) . Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc. (1974) Proc. o f I n t . C,olloquium on COMPARATIVE EXPERIMENTATION O F L O W ENERGY HOUSES Webb, E.J.

~ i i g e ,Belgium 1981. U n i v e r s i t C de ~ i 6 g e(1981) D.T.

, Campbell,

, Schwartz,
A

R.D.

and Sechrest : : L
'

U n o b t r u s i v e Measures. Rand Mc N a l l y

Co (1966)

References

Newman, D.K.

and Day, D.

: The American Energy Consumer.

Bal l i n g e r P u b l i s h i n g Company (1975) Socolow, R.H. (Ed.): Saving Energy i n t h e Home.

Bal l i n g e r P u b l i s h i n g Company (1978) S z a l a i , A. (Ed.)

: The Use o f Time. Flouton & Co, P a r i s (1972)


Stafford. B.R. and H i l d o n , A.

Walker, M.B.A.,

: " S o c i a l and
1B p. 160 (1982)

B e h a v i o u r a l Aspects o f Domestic Energy Consumption". Proc. o f CIB W67 T h i r d I n t . Symp.. D u b l i n I r e l a n d Vol.

CHAPTER I 1 1 b Outdoor c l i m a t e measurements

Contents

general i n t r o d u c t i o n measurement o f s o l a r and atmospheric r a d i a t i o n i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) direct solar radiation global r a d i a t i o n diffuse solar radiation reflected solar radiation sunshine d u r a t i o n cloudiness atmospheric r a d i a t i o n

v i i i ) tbtal radiation

measurement o f wind measurement o f a i r e n t h a l p y i) ii) measurement o f temperature measurement o f a i r h u m i d i t y

precipitation references

- wind
-

s o l a r and atmospheric r a d i a t i o n a i r temperature

- a i r humidity - precipitation - measurement

o f s o l a r and k m o s p h e r i c r a d i a t i o n

Almost n e g l e c t e d f o r a l o n g t i m e , s o l a r and t e r r e s t r i a l more wide-spread, accurate, and detailed measurements

radiation has

is

now

taken i n t o g r e a t e r account i n energy conscious b u i l d i n g design. increased. to its Many t e x t s (e.g., use.

The r e q u e s t f o r simultaneously

O u f f i e and Beckman 1974, K r e i d e r and K r e i t h 1977, They usually angular c o n t a i n some i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e relations unich provide the sun

Balcomb 1980) have r e c e n t l y been p u b l i s h e d on s o l a r energy, most of them r e l a t e d technological p h y s i c s o f s o l a r r a d i a t i o n and t h e p o s i t i o n on t h e sky v a u l t . D e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n about s o l a r r a d i a t i o n measurements other more s p e c i f i c t e x t s (e.g. W e r e f e r t o these t e x t s , and t o t h e i n s t r u m e n t s more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n . According t o t h e form i t assumes when r e a c h i n g t h e Earth, can be d i v i d e d i n t o : i) ii) iv) direct solar radiation global r a d i a t i o n reflected solar radiation rough solar radiation instructions can for be found in and

Coulson 1975, K o n d r a t i j e v 1969 and IEA 1978). further

i i i ) diffuse solar radiation When no i n s t r u m e n t s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r s o l a r r a d i a t i o n measurements, some i n f o r m a t i o n can be o b t a i n e d by u s i n g records o f v) sunshine d u r a t i o n I n t h i s case supplementary i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be g i v e n by r e c o r d i n g v i ) cloudiness W e f u r t h e r have t o c o n s i d e r t h a t p a r t o f t h e E a r t h r a d i a t i v e bqlance f o r t h e Earth i t s e l f i s d i r e c t l y responsible, .called v i i ) atmospheric r a d i a t i o n Finally, a description w i l l be g i v e n of instruments measuring t h e r a d i a t i o n which

balance o f the E a r t h . o v e r t h e whole spectrum, a l s o c a l l e d v i i i ) total radiation I n experiments on b u i l d i n g s t h e radiation is often sufficient, but measurement sometimes of global horizontal solar

t h e g l o b a l s o l a r r a d i a t i o n on

facades t u r n s out t o be more conventient. panes.

D e t a i l e d experiments

will

sometimes For special

need more than one v e r t i c a l instrument, placed i n f r o n t of and behind t h e window Sunshine d u r a t i o n and cloudiness records should be avoided. purposes the measurement of atmospheric or scientific t o t a l r a d i a t i o n can.

p r o v i d e new and i n t e r e s t i n g data. Many o f t h e instruments f o r measurement o f s o l a r and atmospheric are very fragile. must be To. a v o i d manafacturer maintenance regarding calibration, rigorously positioning, In shielding, some cases radiation and and

any measurement e r r o r s , t h p i n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e mounting, calibration followed.

maintenance must be performed very f r e q u e n t l y . Care must be taken i n t h e treatment of solar sampling and atmospheric at least radiation every 5

data. minutes,

Since

solar

r a d i a t i o n ' (especially ,an integrator,

i t s d i r e c t component) i s a r e p i d l y data

varying p h y s i c a l q u a n t i t y ,

will

have t o be used w&tever instruments. Sunshine

t h e t i m e r e s o i u t i o n of t h e experimental manufacturers duration and cloudiness records r e q u i r e Hourly sampling can

apparatus. of

Usually such i n t e g r a t o r s a r e provided d i r e c t l y by t h e

radiation

t h e o r e t i c a l e l a b o r a t i o n i n order t o p r o v i d e estimates of global s o l a r r a d i a t i o n . Atmospheric r a d i a t i o n i s a r a t h e r s l o w l y .varying q u a n t i t y . be s u f f i c i e n t . i) Direct solar radiation D i r e c t s o l a r r a d i a t i o n i s t h e energy f l u x coming d i r e c t l y disk normal falling solar to on a u n i t surface per u n i t time. Pyrheliometers effect. The stability, are radiation Seebeck used, generally from the on solar the

For t h e measurement of d i r e c t based

thermoelectric according

WMO has c l a s s i f i e d .pyrhel iometers (PYRH)

sensitivity,

temperature

dependence,

spectral

s e l e c t i v i t y and t i m e constant. The s e n s i t i v e element o f t h e Eppley Normal Incidence Pyrheliometer, NIP

(Eppley mounted

lab.,

1975)

i s a w i r e wound p l a t e d (copper- constantan) m u l t i j u n c t i o n The t h e r m o p i l e i s

thermopile, provided w i t h a temperature compensating c i r c u i t .

a t t h e base o f a brass tube, t h e a p e r t u r e of which subtends an angle o f

5.7'.

The s i g n a l of t h e NIP i s s u i t a b l e f o r remote r e c o r d i n g and f o r c o n t i n u o u s o p e r a t i o n a t exposed l o c a t i o n s .

the

case

is

weatherproofed

I n t h i s case t h e

i n s t r u m e n t has t o be a t t a c h e d t o an e l e c t r i c a l l y d r i v e n t r a c k i n g d e v i c e . The Linke-Feussner P y r h e l i o m e t e r ( K i p p and zonen A c t i n o m e t e r ) uses thermopile one exposed consisting to the of sun 40 and c i r c l e of 1 cm diameter. temperature f l u c t u a t i o n s . a Moll

manganin- c o n s t a n t a n thermocouples a r r a n g e d i n a the other shaded, i n o r d e r t o compensate f o r is 10.2


0

The t h e n o c o u p l e s a r e arranged i n two o p p o s i t e a r r a y s , The a n g l e a p e r t u r e o f i t s c o l l i m a t o r

and

t h e maximal response t i m e i s 8-10 seconds. P y r h e l i o m e t e r s which a r e n o r m a l l y used as o p e r a t i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t s designed to be absolute instruments, and they s t a n d a r d i n s t r u m e n t s i n t h e case a b s o l u t e v a l u e s a r e t o t h e i r indications. instrument accomplished instrument. and the two has by been the calibrated against
it

are

not

require c a l i b r a t i o n against be determined is through Once a secondary

The p r i m a r y s t a n d a r d i s t h e i n g s t r h PYRH. (this

operation

. usually

m a n a f a c t u r e r ) , i t can be. used t o c a l i b r a t e an o p e r a t i o n a l should be very close to each other. For an For every instrument

The comparison s h o u l d be made under c l e a r a n d . s t a b l e sky c o n d i t i o n s instruments

c a l i b r a t i o n many ( a t l e a s t 10) comparisons s h o u l d be made.

working continuously t h i s c a l i b r a t i o n should'be repeated several times a year. The f i r s t s t e p i n s e t t i n g a t r a c k e r i s t h e c h o i c e o f t h e l o c a t i o n . free from
0

A site, insure

r o t a t e 360

shadows, s h o u l d b e chosen t o i n s u r e t h a t t h e t r a c k e r w i l l be f r e e t o There a r e f o u r s e t t i n g s which have to be considered to

p r o p e r t r a c k i n g o f t h e sun:

-. N o r t h t o South

Latitude Declination Time o f t h e day Global s o l a r r a d i a t i o n Short-wave s o l a r r a d i a t i o n i s composed of t h e d i r e c t component o f sunlight of the

ii)

and

the

diffuse budget

component is

of skylight. The

When measured t o g e t h e r , t h e v a l u e i s other short-wave canponent The w a v e - l e n g t h o f micrometers.

r e f e r r e d t o as t h e g l o b a l r a d i a t i o n . radiation

t h a t r e f l e c t e d from n a t u r a l s u r f a c e s .

t h e s e components i s u s u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e i n t e r v a l 0.3-3

The instrument f o r t h e measurement o f pyranometer prices. (PYR); the sensor

global

solar

radiation

is at

called lower All a

i t s e l f i s u s u a l l y a t h e r m o e l e c t r i c generator;

l e s s p r e c i s e sensors, based on p h o t o v o l t a i c c e l l s , a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e attempts t o use them a t d i f f e r e n t i n c l i n a t i o n s (e.g. vertically),

A l l these i n s t r u m e n t s a r e meant t o be used on a h o r i z o n t a l plane. without

previous specific c a l i b r a t i o n , w i l l lead t o large errors. The WMO (1971) has g i v e n a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f PYR a c c o r d i n g t o stability, temperature response and azimuth response. The Kipp and zonen ( c a l l e d s o l a r i m e t e r by i t s manufacturer) PYR used in Europe. effective
It

sensitivity,

dependence, s p e c t r a l s e l e c t i v i t y , t i m e c o n s t a n t , c o s i n e

is

widely domes second prevents

uses, as a transducer a M o l l t h e r m o p i l e ; range o f 0.3 t o 2.5 in.

f o r protection

a g a i n s t atmospheric i n f l u e n c e s t h i s t h e r m o p i l e i s mounted under two g l a s s with a n glass transmission p e r f e c t s t a b i l i t y r e g a r d l e s s of temperature changes o f t h e o u t e r dome, a t h e o u t e r dome i s i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n 'the o u t e r dome. t h e mounting from b e i n g heated by r a d i a t i o n .

I n o r d e r t o achieve

hemisphere which b l o c k s t h e r a d i a t i o n exchange between t h e t h e r m o p i l e and

A white

screen

of The Eppley PSP PYR comprises a c i r c u l a r m u l t i - f u n c t i o n ~ p ~ l e y , t h e r m o p i l e the be wire'

wound

type.

The

instrument

'

i s s u p p l i e d w i t h a p a i r o f removable

p r e c i s i o n ground and p o l i s h e d h e m i s p h e r e s o f Schott o p t i c a l W G 7 g l a s s , which can removed o r s u b s t i t u t e d by o t h e r Schott glasses and w i t h a s p i r i t l e v e l and a G 6 c l e a r glass i s t r a n s p a r e n t from a 0.285 t o 2.800 The W um. For desiccator.

s o l a r U V measurements, q u a r t z hemispheres a r e a v a i l a b l e . The d e t e c t o r i n t h e Eppley B W PYR i s a hotThe junction element is receivers of blackened radial wirewound differential plated thermopile with the

and t h e c o l d - j u n c t i o n r e c e i v e r s whitened.

construction.

Temperature energy from

compensation ' i s 0.285

p r o v i d e d by a b u i l t i n t h e r m i s t o r c i r c u i t .

A p r e c i s i o n ground

o p t i c a l g l a s s hemisphere o f Schott g l a s s WG2Y5 u n i f o r m l y t r a n s m i t s t o 2.800 um. b u t i s r e a d i l y removable f o r i n s t r u m e n t r e p a i r .

This hemispherical envelbpe s e a l s t h e PYR from t h e weather, Models designed now can be used

w i t h any t i l t and o r i e n t a t i o n a n g l e w i t h o u t any e f f e c t on s e n s i t i v i t y . Pyranometers based on P h o t o v o l t a i c c e l l s make use o f cells. output, silicon the photovoltalc high current and.the

They have some advantages a g a i n s t t h e p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d pyranometers: the direct proportionality between current and radiation

t h e low c o s t , s i m p l i c i t y , t h e almost instantaneous response,

III b - 6

s t a b i l i t y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t i m e and weather. The p r i n c i p a l d i s a d v a n t a g e accuracy, radiation. micrometers. due to the of these instruments the to is, cells however, to from 0.4 the to low

selective

response, o f

incident solar

Their s e n s i t i v i t y i s r e s t r i c t e d Therefore,

wavelengths

1.1

due t o t h e v a r i a b i l i t y of t h e s o l a r r a d i a t i o n spectrum, (Coulson, 20%,

t h e c a l i b r a t i o n i s n o t v e r y r e l i a b l e , and i t can l e a d t o an e r r o r o f perhaps 2%. Another source of i n a c c u r a c y i s t h e d e v i a t i o n f r o m t h e c o s i n e la;, at., p. 121-124) which, a t an a n g l e o f i n c i d e n c e o f 60' 50% a t 80'; this source of error is reaches

a.
and

already

i s however s t r o n g l y reduced by

mounting t h e c e l l below a p l a s t i c d i f f u s e r .

,
PYR a r e g e n e r a l l y c a l i b r a t e d (artificial sensitivity. this purpose instruments, by the operation i n t h e field, The and by exposure in an integrating hemisphere I n routine sky) w i t h a d i f f u s e r a d i a t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 700 w/m2. first on

t h e r e a r e two ways PYR-s c a n be checked f o r constancy of i s t o p r e s e r v e a s i m i l a r ( c a l i b r a t e d ) pyranometer f o r (once days. a year) The compare way it with the field clear second requires t h a t a well measured the

occasionally

ideally

calibrated pyrheliometer i s available: pyranometer, when calibration shaded from direct

d i r e c t s o l a r r a d i a t i o n Ib i s radiation, is measured.

p y r h e l i o m e t e r and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t h e decrease A V of t h e s i g n a l from t h e Hence, constant c o s ( z ) , where z i s k i s g i v e n by t h e r e l a t i o n k = bV/ Ib+

t h e z e n i t h a n g l e o f t h e sun. The s i t e f o r a PYR s h o u l d be f r e e from any s i g n i f i c a n t the plane of the o b j e c t r e f l e c t i n g s u n l i g h t onto it. obstructions above

sensing element, f r e e from shadows, and n o t be c l o s e t o any A f l a t r o o f i s generally t h e best location.

There a r e two main r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a PYR

p e r i o d i c v e r i f i c a t i o n of PYR c a l i b r a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n o f c o r r e c t i o n s , when h o r i z o n o b s t r u c t i o n has t o be c o n s i d e r e d The p r o c e d u r e t o make these c o r r e c t i o n s c o n s i s t s i n i s o l a t i n g the diffuse

r a d i a t i o n ( b y measurement o r e s t i m a t i o n ) , c o r r e c t i n g i t and then a d j u s t i n g t h e t o t a l short-wave g l o b a l r a d i a t i o n a c c o r d i n g l y . I n general, r a d i a t i o n caning f r o m a n g l e s l e s s t h e n 50. t o the t o t a l . i i i ) diffuse solar radiation above t h e h o r i z o n w i l l g i v e a n e g l i g i b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n

D i f f u s e s o l a r r a d i a t i o n i s caused by aerosol and the atmosphere,.and By p r e v e n t i n g d i r e c t s o l a r radiation from reaching


Of

molecular a

scattering one

in can

i t reaches t h e ground from a l l d i r e c t i o n s o f t h e sky v a u l t .

pyranometer, the

measure the d i f f u s e component. must be

The shading can be done i n a,very simple way, by course, both measurement and The problem o f

means o f a band stand, i n t e r c e p t i n g t h e sun beam. c o r r e c t i n g t h e pyranometer data should experimentally. be

c o r r e c t e d f o r t h e p o r t i o n o f sky screened by t h e band. approached cit.).

theoretically

The f r a c t i o n of d i f f u s e r a d i a t i o n shaded by t h e shadow band can

be c a l c u l a t e d t h e o r e t i c a l l y (see IEA, op. i v ) reflected solar radiation

The value'of t h e r e f l e c t e d s o l a r r a d i a t i o n (see ch. view factor between the ground and the surface,

Ib) and on

depends the

on

the

shortwave

r e f l e c t i v i t y o f t h e ground surface ( o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as albedo). I n order t o measure t h e shortwave s o l a r r a d i a t i o n balance over an a surface, the The

instrument

c a l l e d albedometer (ALB) i s used.

The Kipp and zonen ALB c o n s i s t s one measures

o f two i d e n t i c a l pyranometers mounted i n opposlte d i r e c t i o n s :

i n c i d e n t s o l a r r a d i a t i o n , t h e o t h e r t h e r a d i a t i o n r e f l e c t e d by t h e surface. t e c h n i c a l features of an ALE do not d i f f e r from those o f common pyranometers. v ) sunshine d u r a t i o n Sunshine d u r i t i o n i s t h e amount o f t i m e of s o l a r r a d i a t i o n i s h i g h e r than 200 W l m 2 purpose is the CampbellStokes the day during which

normal this

direct caled on a be the

The most common instrument f o r recorder

sunshine

h e l i o g r a p h ) , which has an average t h r e s h o l d o f about 210 W l m 2 c u t glass sphere which concentrates d i r e c t s o l a r r a d i a t i o n graduated accurately paper strip in b u r n t t r a c e on t h e paper. oriented a The CampbellStokes sunshine

(sometimes the spot

It consists o f a

on

corresponding t o t h e time of t h e day.

The rays leave a recorder must of

north-south d i r e c t i o n and t h e l a t i t u d e be adjusted. Manual interpretation

The paper s t r i p s must be s u b s t i t u t e d every day.

records i s the'drawback o f t h i s k i n d of sunshine recorders. There are o n l y a few e l e c t r i c a l sunshine recorders commercially They are generally based on i l l u m i n a t e d and shaded by a r o t a t i n g aperature. available.

p h o t o s e n s i t i v e elements which a r e a l t e r n a t i v e l y

A model o f sunshine m o n i t o r f o r automatic r e g i s t r a t i o n o f sunshine d u r a t i o n

has

b e e n i n t r o d u c e d (Thornblad 1975) and i s now commercially a v a i l a b l e . axis. and can


'

It has

no moving p a r t s , s i n c e sunshine i s monitored by 18 photodiodes placed central These the be are element r e c e i v i n g t h e vertically photodiodes, (200 w/m2). The inaccuracy o f t h i s strongest cylinder radiation. due to The the monitor selective is to be

around

connected t o a canmon o u t p u t which i s d r i v e n b y t h e mounted of the i n c l i n a t i o n must be equal t o t h e l o c a l l a t i t u d e . behaviour t o be 25% o r 5 m i n u t e s a t t h r e s h o l d i n t e n s i t y

instrument, considered

v i ) cloudiness Knowledge of c l o u d i n e s s (see ch. their height can lead to a Ib), o f the prevailing cloud type and

f i r s t e s t i m a t e o f s o l a r r a d i a t i o n by u s i n g , f o r

i n s t a n c e , t h e method developed by Kimura and Stephenson (1969). The measurement of c l o u d i n e s s i s performed clouds u s i n g a c e i l o m e t e r (based on l i g h t r e f l e c t i o n ) v i i ) atmospheric r a d i a t i o n For t h e d e f i n i t i o n of longwave atmospheric r a d i a t i o n , radiation measures is the called Infrared viewed Radiometer, (sky or, see ch. Ib. The
It

by

visual

observations.

The

base h e i g h t can be determined by means o f a i r c r a f t r e p o r t s , r a d a r and,by

i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h e measurement of longwave atmospheric ( a l s o c a l l e d t e r r e s t r i a l ) sometimes, In the Pyrgeometer. case of a exchange o f r a d i a t i o n between a h o r i z o n t a l blackened s u r f a c e ( t h e

d e t e c t o r ) and t h e t a r g e t the detector.

o r ground).

net

radiometer, t h e i n s t r u m e n t can be designed t o e l i m i n a t e t h e r a d i a t i o n e m i t t e d by

A common t y p e o f
Radiometer. radiation.

Pyrgeometer

(PYRG)

is

the

Eppley

Precision

Infrared

T h i s r a d i o m e t e r i s a development from t h e Eppley PSP, i n t e n d e d f o r terrestrial Temperature .compensation of the detector i s a l s o -incorporated:

u n i d i r e c t i o n a l o p e r a t i o n i n t h e measurement o f incoming o r o u t g o i n g r a d i a t i o n e m i t t e d by t h e d e t e c t o r i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y compensated.

For t h e measurement o f longwave r a d i a t i o n and f o r s e p a r a t i n g i t s f l u x the solar shortwave r a d i a t i o n i n d a y t i m e , t h e On i t s the inner interference filter; outer replaced by a hemisphere o f KRS5. deposited surface there is a

from

g l a s s hemisphere system has been vacuumsurface has a weather p r o t e c t i v e

coating. and

The composite envelope transmission shows a sharp t r a n s i t i o n between 3 micrometers, from complete opaqueness t o maximum transparency, and a

t r a n s m i t t a n c e o f about 0.50, decreasing t o 0.3- 0 . 4 around compensation.

50 micrometers.

t h e r m i s t o r - b a t t e r y - r e s i s t a n c e c i r c u i t i s i n c o r p o r a t e d f o r d e t e c t o r temperature

The fundamental c a l i b r a t i o n of d e t e c t o r s i s based on t h e i r exposure i d e a l blackbody r a d i a t o r . source periodic of a c a l i b r a t e d standard PYRG can a l s o be main r e q u i rements f o r PYRG maintenance: testing of battery o b s t r u c t i o n t o a f r e e horizon. v i i i ) Total r a d i a t i o n Total r a d i a t i o n comprises s o l a r and atmospheric r a d i a t i o n . for measurement of total radiation are total called radiation pyrradiometers measure t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f downward d i r e c t i o n s . in employed. In this instance, of that

to a

an good

However, t h e a l t e r n a t i v e method o f comparison a g a i n s t There are t h r e e calibration, t h e r e i s no

steadylong-wave radiance i s a c l o u d l e s s n i g h t sky. periodic verification and verification stability,

The instruments Net and the upward

pyrradiometers.

h o n g net pyrradiometers which can be used f o r continuous monitoring, hence provided cit., Eppley Ch. with shielded and sensors, t h e f o l l o w i n g can be mentioned (Coulson, op. Pyrradiometer, the
11) t h e CSIRO Net Pyrradiometer, t h e Schulze Net

Pyrradiometer

t h e Net Pyrradiometer o f t h e Physico- Meteorological

Observatory of Oavos.

A l l these instruments make use o f t h e n o j u n c t i o n s and d i f f e r m a i n l y f o r t h e


number o f j u n c t i o n s and t h e choice o f t h e thermocouple elements. of any wavelength. Calibration of The s h i e l d i n g and for net the o f t h e sensors i s obtained by means o f domes which a r e completely transparent.to radiation pyrradiometers procedures as pyrradiometers i s u s u a l l y performed f o l l o w i n g t h e s a l e o t h e r r a d i a t i o n instruments.

measurement o f wind

The i n f l u e n c e of wind on t h e b u i l d i n g energy out i n chapter Ib. A s u f f i c i e n t l y complete

budget has a l r e a d y

been

pointed

d e s c r i p t i o n o f weather

conditions

d u r i n g an experiment, r e q u i r e s t h e measurement o f

- wind
-

wind speed direction

wind p r e s s u r e on facades may be measured i n some cases. Most i n s t r u m e n t s f o r wind measurements cannot measure t h e t h r e e components

of wind wind

the

wind is

velocity measured

simultaneously. at a

Instead and

the

h o r i z o n t a l component i s In meteorology, but for

determined by measurements o f t h e wind speed speed r e p o r t e d i n m/s. measurements

direction.

h e i g h t o f 10 meters above open t e r r a i n , and i s fluid,. and r i g i d b u i l t i n s t r u m e n t s a r e necessary.

There a r e many ways t o measure t h e flow o f a weatherproof

Among them we f i n d :

1 ) d e f l e c t i n g vane anemometer
2) r e v o l v i n g wheel anemometer 3) cup anemometer

4) h o t w i r e anemometer
5 ) p r o p e l l e r anemometer 1 ) The d e f l e c t i n g vane anemometer c o n s i s t s o f a p i v o t e d vane enclosed i n case. scale. velocity. t o downstream. Three The i n s t r u m e n t g i v e s i n s t a n t a n t e o u s r e a d i n g s vanes can be combined 120 to m/s and its on an is a

A i r e x e r t s a p r e s s u i e on t h e vane passing through t h e I n s t r u m e n t upstream indicating 5%. Needs measure a l l components of t h e wind accuracy

I t s range i s from 1 t o

p e r i o d i c check o f c a l i b r a t i o n .

2) The r e v o l v i n g wheel anemometer


a measured. time.

consists

of

light

revolving and is

wheel usually'

connected t o a s e t o f r e c o r d i n g d i a l s which read l i n e a r meters of a i r passing i n T h i s i n s t r u m e n t has a very low sensitivity, employed i n t h e range o f 1-20 m/s. I t s accuracy v a r i e s between 5% and 20%. common A C or instrument D C for measuring is used, wind which

3) The cup anemometer i s t h e most speed. shaft.


It

consists

o f t h r e e o r f o u r hemispherical cups mounted on a v e r t i c a l an generator

For e l e c t r i c a l t r a n s m i s s i o n

c o n v e r t s t h e number of r e v o l u t i o n s (which a r e p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e wind v e l o c i t y )

i n t o analogous v o l t a g e values. to

T h i s t r a n s m i t t e r can be used i n t h e range from 0 t o +80.C, sensor. but the effective drawback of the the

60 m/s and w i t h i n a temperature range from -35.


types of cup anemometer

range depends on t h e mechanical f e a t u r e s o f heavier time.


4 ) For

i s i t s h i g h s t a r t i n g speed and low response

temporary

use

and

when

there

is

no

precipitation, and

hot

wire

anemome'ters to an air

can be employed. stream, the

T h i s i n s t r u m e n t i s based on t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t i f exposed a

a s u i t a b l e sensing element i s heated e l e c t r i c a l l y a t a f i x e d r a t e , sensing element i s a f u n c t i o n o f i t s v e l o c i t y . resistance high anemometer calibration frequency best of response fit this for and high In the hot wire makes

temperature d i f f e r e n c e between t h e a i r ' stream and t h e anemometer the hot I t s main advantages a r e wire

t h e n o m e t e r i s used as t h e sensing element. sensitivity, which low v e l o c i t i e s . requires

The disadvantages a r e t h a t i t i s an

expensive and s e n s i t i v e i n s t r u m e n t and r e q u i r e s frequent c a l i b r a t i o n . instrument consideration of

A correct

a i r h u m i d i t y and

p r e s s u r e and o f a l l f a c t o r s t h a t can a f f e c t t h e c o n v e c t i v e h e a t t r a n s f e r between t h e a i r and t h e sensor. 5) The p r o p e l l e r anemometer c o n s i s t s o f a l i g h t p l a s t i c on on an axle. wind v e l o c i t y component p a r a l l e l t o t h e a x l e ; axles it perpendicular possible to to wind v e l o c i t y . making error. propeller be mounted mounted time

The number o f r e v o l u t i o n s p e r u n i t o f t i m e i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e Three p r o p e l l e r s can one a n o t h e r t o measure a l l t h r e e components o f t h e t h e s h o r t response v e l o c i t y and l a r g e - s c a l e t u r b u l e n c e i n t h r e e

The advantages o f t h i s i n s t r u m e n t a r e : measure

dimensions ( H i c k s 1972), e.g.,

c l o s e t o e x t e r n a l w a l l s , and t h e r e l a t i v e l y small maintenance. This

T h i s i n s t r u m e n t has t h e r e f o r e become p o p u l a r i n m o n i t o r i n g o f b u i l d i n g s .

The disadvantages a r e t h e need f o r c a l i b r a t i o n and frequent

i n s t r u m e n t should n o t be used i n s t r o n g winds (above about 20 m/s). Wind d i r e c t i o n i s d e f i n e d as t h e d i r e c t i o n from which t h e wind i s The winddirection an of endless sensor is usually a wind vane c o n v e r s i o n o f wind d i r e c t i o n i n t o a l o g g a b l e v a l u e p r e s e n t s Sometimes indication f o r t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r i n c i p l e of the some blowing. The

o r a "wind f l a g " .

difficulties. axle. The

c o i l e d and 3 t i m e s tapped r i n g p o t e n t i o m e t e r i s s u p p l i e d electrical

d i r e c t i o n i s o f t e n noncontinuous, s i n c e i t i s g i v e n by a maximum voltage.

number o f 8 i n d i c a t o r s i n p a r a l l e l c o n n e c t i o n r e q u i r i n g a u x i l i a r y D.C.

Sometimes s p e c i a l r i n g p o t e n t i o m e t e r s w i t h b u i l t - i n for t h e 540' r e c o r d i n g of wind d i r e c t i o n ; t o 4 mA.

relays

are - a v a i l a b l e motors, one

the output i s a d i r e c t current of 0

F o r c o n t i n u o u s d i r e c t i o n r e c o r d i n g , two s e l f - s y n c h r o n o u s

a t t h e t r a n s m i t t e r vane and t h e o t h e r a t t h e r e c e i v e r , can be used. Wind v e l o c i t y and d i r e c t i o n a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e environment. The etc., from c o r r e c t procedure, suggested b y WHO, would r e q u i r e t h a t t h e i n s t r u m e n t s a r e and mounted on a mast 10 m h i g h . being free from from obstacles. it, However, i t w i l l g e n e r a l l y be u s e f u l t o p l a c e d i n an open s i t e , where t h e a i r stream i s u n d i s t u r b e d by b u i l d i n g s , t r e e s , know t h e w i n d c o n d i t i o n s c l o s e t o t h e b u i l d i n g , where t h e s i t e i s f r e q u e n t l y f a r As a g e n e r a l r u l e t h e i n s t r u m e n t s s h o u l d be mounted h i g h e r t h a n t h e t o p o f t h e b u i l d i n g , and, distance up-stream so . t h a t there indicated direction.
It i s g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r r a b l e t h a t a l l meteorological data are

if

possible,

at

certain

i s l i t t l e u n c e r t a i n t y about t h e

collected

on

the as hour of

same wind to

time basis.

Nonetheless, a s h o r t e r s a m p l i n g i n t e r v a l ( r a n g i n g from a F o r most models d e s c r i b i n g t h e energy b a l a n c e of an For more d e t a i l e d models frequency called Combinations o f wind polar graphs

few seconds t o a few m i n u t e s ) s h o u l d be used f o r r a p i d l y v a r y i n g q u a n t i t i e s such v e l o c i t y and d i r e c t i o n . o f t h e b u i l d i n g , t h e average v a l u e s o v e r a p e r i o d r a n g i n g f r o m a q u a r t e r f o u r hours (Day 1983). s h o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t . of various wind speeds o f v e n t i l a t i o n , r o o t mean squared v a l u e s o r s t a t i s t i c s d e s c r i b i n g t h e occurrence s h o u l d be used. d i r e c t i o n and v e l o c i t y a r e sometimes p r e s e n t e d i n t y p i c a l " w i n d roses". Wherever wind v e l o c i t y i s m o n i t o r e d f a r from elaboration the building site, v a preThe at a

o f d a t a t o e x t r a p o l a t e them t o t h e b u i l d i n g s i t e i s necessary. speed,

f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a i s sometimes used f o r c a l c u l a t i n g t h e w i n d height z a t the b u i l d i n g s i t e : v = vs'(dslZs)Bs*(Zldb)Bb where

i n d e x s s t a n d s f o r " m e t e o r o l o g i c a l s t a t i o n " and b f o r " b u i l d i n g " d i s t h e boundary l a y e r t h i c k n e s s B i s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c exponent o f t h e l o c a l b o u n d a r y l a y e r T y p i c a l v a l u e s of d and B can be found i n Jackman, 1978.

As has already been p o i n t e d o u t i n ch. especially The

Ib,

the

action

of

the

wind

is
it.

important from t h e p o i n t o f view o f n a t u r a l a i r i n f i l t r a t i o n through established de across Ton

t h e b u i l d i n g enclosure, due t o t h e pressure d i f f e r e n c e

r e l a t i o n . between wind pressure, wind v e l o c i t y , and wind d i r e c t i o n i s often Gids, and

d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t , as shown i n t h e experimental works by Schijndel.

It may t h e r e f o r e be useful t o d i r e c t l y monitor t h e wind pressure

over and Pa,

the van and

building Ackere). which are

external walls. Another fixed

T h i s c a n b e a c c m p l i s h e d by measuring t h e deformation makes use o f e l e c t r o n i c d i f f e r e n t i a l low pressure 0 to 100 Instruments f o r the

o f a t h i n pane o f glass by means o f an e s t e n s i m e t r i c transducer (Meert technique on transducers, which can go down t o 0.1 Pa i n t h e range from t h e two sides o f t h e b u i l d i n g walls.

measurement o f pressure d i f f e r e n c e s a r e i n general q u i t e expensive.

- measurement

of a i r enthalpy

Enthalpy can be defined as t h e " t o t a l heat", t h a t i s , b o t h sensible negligible and latent the heat, point possessed of by its a thermodynamic of water e v a l u a t i o n o f atmospheric a i r enthalpy from content

the system.

so

called In the almost

vapour,

view o f i t s percentage weight, t u r n s out t o be

q u i t e Important because of t h e high amount o f l a t e n t heat possessed by i t . Uhen measuring a i r enthalpy i t i s necessary t o measure separately i) ii) a i r temperature and a i r humidity season, when water vapour

the h u m i d i t y b e i n g o f t e n n e g l i g i b l e i n t h e h e a t i n g content o f t h e outdoor a i r i s low. i ) measurement o f temperature

The measurement of temperature i s made by u s i n g sensors which a r e based t h e same p h y s i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . (e.9.. f o r f u r t h e r exDlanations. H e r z f e l d and Brickwedde 1962, Omega Engineering, 1980). Ue r e f e r to

on
it

A very wide l i t e r a t u r e i s a v a i l a b l e on t h i s t o p i c

Any d e v i c e f o r measuring temperature i s a thermometer. detects features

The q u a n t i t y

which In their in

temperature v a r i a t i o n s i n a sensor i s c a l l e d thermometric q u a n t i t y . is given. Ill b-1. The

Table I 1 1 b-1 an overview o f t h e main temperature transducers and some of shown i n f i g . Table I 1 1 b-2. T h e i r main advantages and disadv$ntages a r e

sensors more w i d e l y used i n b u i l d i n g experiments are listed

A c o r r e c t s i t i n g o f temperature instruments i s v e r y important, due t o l a r g e temperature gradients infrared the radiation is in occuring the c l o s e t o surfaces exposed t o r a d i a t i o n . amount of solar radiation, H M O (1971) by ret i m e , . by These emitted that g r a d i e n t s a r e influenced by t h e

night1.25
m

the radiative properties o f the recommends be

surrounding surfaces, and by l o c a l a i r movements. instrument placed exposure t o t h e wind. before

above a surface covered by grass w i t h f r e e always performed (secondary

C a l i b r a t i o n o f thermometers should calibrated against some more

t h e instrument i s used f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e and then a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s . accurate

The instruments should be

standard) ' c a l i b r a t e d temperature sensor. For almost a l l purposes h o u r l y sampling of outdoor a i r be suff,icient, since a i r temperature i s n o t r a p i d l y varying. In temperature should be

For more accurate

measurements t h e sampling c o u l d be done every 5 minutes and an average value recorded hourly. b u t sampling should always be performed a t l e a s t every t h i r d hour. I n b u i l d i n g experiment; 1) thermocouples 2) r e s i s t a n c e thermometers (e.g.
3) t h e r m i s t o r s
4) i n t e g r a t e d c i r c u i t (1C) transducers

o t h e r cases even d a i l y o r weekly averages c o u l d be used,

t h e most

suitable

thermometers,

considering

the

p o s s i b i l i t y t o perform remote measurements, p r e c i s i o n , and c o s t a r e P t 100)

1) I n thermocouples t h e thermometric q u a n t i t y i s t h e e.m.f. the temperature difference leads, (Seebeck e f f e c t ) .


If one of t h e j u n c t i o n s i s kept a t

generated a constant

by

between t h e j u n c t i o n s of two d i s s i m i l a r e l e c t r i c a l known

temperature i t w i l l p o s s i b l e t o determine t h e temperature a t t h e o t h e r j u n c t i o n . To measure t h e v o l t a g e generated by t h e thermocouple, a h i g h p r e c i s i o n v b l t m e t e r w i t h h i g h impedance, t o a v q i d c u r r e n t flow, has t o be used.

TABLE 111 b-1

'

General f e a t u r e s of some temperature sensors (source: ASHRAE, 1977)

Measurement means 1) G I ass-stem thermometers mercury-glass A1 cohol-glass Jena o r q u a r t z mercury nitrogen 2) Thermocouples Chranel-alumel Iron-constantan Copper-constantan Chromel-constantan
(K)

Application

Range,

OC

Precision, K

Temp. o f gases and l i q u i d s by c o n t a c t

-391300 -73178 -391500

High temp., High temp., Low temp., Low temp.,

rem. read. < 1200 rem. read. < rem. read. rem. read. 800

(T) (T) (E)

< 400
< 400

3) Resistance thermometers Platinum-resistance Nickel-resistance High p r e c i s i o n , rem, read. by c o n t a c t Rem. read. by c o n t a c t -20011800 -1001 150

< 0.01 t o 3
0.2 0.05

4 ) Thermistors
5) I n t e g r a t e d - c i r c u i t thermometers

Rem. read. by c o n t a c t s < 300 Remote reading

< 200

6 ) B i m e t a l l i c thermometers
7) Pressure-bulb therm.. Gas-filled bulb Yapour-filled bulb L i q u i d - f i l l e d bulb 8) R a d i a t i o n pyrometers

For approx. temp.

01500

> 0.5

Remote t e s t i n g Remote t e s t i n g Remote t e s t i n g . For i n t e n s i t y o f t o t . h i g h temp. rad. (remote)

-701 500 -101 250 -5011200

1 1 1

any range

F i g . 111 b - I

Some r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t e m p e r a t u r e sensors. The sensors depicted here ( i f i n enlarged scale the a c t u a l s i z e i s i n d i c a t e d i n s i d e a frame) a r e from L e f t t o r i g h t : r e s i s t a n c e thermometers, thermocouples, a t h e r m i s t o r and I C temperature transducers.

Instruments o f t h i s type g e n e r a l l y c o n t a i n cold junction relieving tne user from the temperature. interval.

an need

automatically to a furnish limited

compensating a reference temperature

Such a compensation w i l l work o n l y w i t h i n Therefore t h e instrument must be c a l i b r a t e d .

This should be done by

comparison t o a reference having a constant temperature. Thermocouples a r e a v a i l a b l e i n d i f f e r e n t sizes. faster response than large ones. Small thermocouples have a Most of them may be

'

Some p r a c t i c a l precautions should be taken

when using thermocouples, t o avoid measurement e r r o r s . t r a c e d back t o one o f these sources:

- poor j u n c t i o n
-

connection

d e c a l i b r a t i o n o f thermocouple w i r e shunt impedance and g a l v a n i c a c t i o n thermal shunting Two thermocouple wires can b e c o n n e c t e d i n many ways: soldering, temperatures the junction silveron both be by

soldering,

welding

etc.

When

t h e thermocouple wires a r e soldered t o g e t h e r a

t h i r d metal i s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e i r c i r c u i t , b u t i f t h e Since the s o l d e r l i m i t s the' maximal temperature t o which subjected, performing at an high temperatures

sides of t h e thermocouple a r e t h e same, t h e s o l d e r does n o t introduce any e r r o r . . . can


i t i s convenient t o weld t h e j o i n t s .

A poor

welding o r s o l d e r i n g can r e s u l t i n an open connection, which can be detected d a t a loggers. D e c a l i b r a t i o n i s t h e a l t e r i n g o f t h e p h y s i c a l make- up of .the w i r e caused by temperature extremes.

"open thermocouple ,checkv, a common t e s t f u n c t i o n a v a i l a b l e w i t h

thermocouple

Atmospheric and thermal e f f e c t s can make t h e i n s u l a t i o n r e s i s t a n c e decrease t o the p o i n t t h a t it creates a " v i r t u a l junction". result. form an I f t h e leakage r e s i s t a n c e i s reading insulation Seebeck wires so low t h a t an a l t e r n a t i v e c i r c u i t i s closed, an improper v o l t a g e m e t a l l i c o r ceramic sheet. The dyes used i n some times shield greater the thermocouple than the

will
can

Atmospheric effects can be minimized by choosing t h e proper p r o t e c t i v e e l e c t r o l y t e i n t h e presence o f water; should be taken to t h i s creates a g a l v a n i c a c t i o n , effect. thermocouple fromharsh

w i t h a r e s u l t a n t output hundreds of Precautions atmospheres and l i q u i d s .

TABLE 111 b-2


Advantages a n d

disadvantages of some

thermometers

'(after Hewlett &Packard

1980, and

other'sources)

3
THERMOCOUPLE RTD THERMISTOR I.C. SENSOR

Self-powered Simple Rugged Inexpensive Wide v a r i e t y of physical forms Wide temperat u r e range

. .

. . . .
@

Most s t a b l e nost accurate Mare L i n e a r t h a n therrnacouple

High o u t p u t Fast Two-wire dims measurement

. .

Mort l i n e a r Highest o u t p u t Inexpensive

.
Elpensive Slou Current s o u r c e required Small r e s i stance change Lou a b s o l u t e resistance Self-heatinq

Large r e s i s t a n c e change a t Lou temperatures Inexpensive Accurate

e- Fast
Non L i n e a r
LON o u t p u t

Non l i n e a r

T
0

< 2oo0c
'

R e f e r e n c e junct i o n required
Least s t a b l e ~mplification required

L i m i t e d temperat u r e range Fragile Current s o u r c e required Setf-heating

Payer supply required

.
@

SLOW
Self-heating Limited configurations

Poor s t a b i l i t y

Thermal s h u n t i n q i s t h e a l t e r a t i o n of mea~uremed temperature insertion impedance. voltmeter. of To


It

. due t o t h e
and and shunt the

transducer. susceptible to

To a v o i d t h i s , small thermocouples a r e used, but contaminatiofl, the annealing, strain

small wires a r e

reduce these e f f e c t s , an "extension w i r e " can be used, which i s measuring thermocouple is g e n e r a l l y l a r g e r i n size, i t r o n g e r and cheaper than a small

intended t o cover long d i s t a n c e s between thermocouple wire.

Thermocouples can be arranged i n s e r i e s forming a thermopile. junction i s kept a t a cmmon temperature. f o r observing small temperature d i f f e r e n c e s . t h e measurement o f surface temperatures.
mV/K.

Every second for 0.04

An instrument o f t h i s t y p e i s u s e f u l Thermocouples a r e w e l l s u i t e d An advantage i s t h a t thermocouples are

cheap, a draw-back i s t h e i r low s e n s i t i v i t y .

t y p i c a l output

is

around

2) I n temperature. measurement; source o f

t h e thermometric q u a n t i t y i s the e l e c t r i c r e s i s t a n c e The RTD does not r e q u i r e two main reasons: any reference temperature

of

metal the

wire, u s u a l l y made of platinum, n i c k e l o r "Balco" (a n i c k e l a l l o y ) , v a r y i n g w i t h during


i t r e l i e s , however, on a constant c u r r e n t source.

This f a c t i s a

errors f o r

- power
-

i s d i s s i p a t e d by J o u l e e f f e c t and hence s e l f - heating occurs. cables, sensor supply, t h e measured resistance i s t h a t of t h e

i f t h e sensor i s connected t o t h e measurement system by means of two


used a l s o f o r power p l u s t h a t of t h e connection cables. To minimize these problems, i t i s necessary:

t o operate w i t h low c u r r e n t s through t h e sensor ( around 1 m A for e x c i t a t i o n , o r 25 mA f o r pulse measurements). t o know t h e r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e connecting arrangement) voltmeter exact e.m.f. i s shown i n f i g . current
111 b-2b.

continuous

cables i f these A similar A better

a r e used f o r power s o l u t i o n (3-wires impedance

supply and measurement t o g e t h e r ( f i g . 111 b-2a). w i r e s arrangement shown i n fig. avoids t h e

s o l u t i o n i s t o use t h e 4use o f a h i g h cables. I n t h i s way, t h e

111 b-Zc, where t h e

f l o w i n measurement

d i f f e r e n c e across t h e sensor i s known, and hence i t s , resistance. RTD w i l l its be high

With a c u r r e n t flow o f 1 m A t h e t y p i c a l output of a Platinum 0.385 thermal


mV/K,

about

ten

times

greater taken

than t h a t of thermocouples. account, together with

The g r e e t

f r a g i l i t y of t h e RTD should be shunting.

into

Platinum RTD-s can be used t o very h i g h temperatures, w h i l e

111 b-20

POWER SUPPLY + MEASUREMENT

= true voltage difference

RTD

V = measured v o l t a g e d i f f e r e n c e m R = cable resistance


C

= current i n t e n s i t y
C

V x E V m - R

,POWER

SUPPLY MEASUREMENT

RTD

POWER SUPPLY

I 1 1 b-2c

I
RTD

current i n t e n s i t y i n measurement c i r c u i t

:O m V 3 V

rn

F i g . 111 b-2

P o s s i b l e arrangements f o r measurements w i t h r e s i s t a n c e thermometers ( R T D ' s ) . From t o p t o bottom: 2-wire, 3-uire and 4 - w i r e RTD measurement.

p l a t i n u m f i l m thermometers a r e g e n e r a l l y u s e d . i n t h e range from -50C t o They a r e v e r y ' l i n e a r i n t h i s range. 3 ) A r e s i s t a n c e thermometer where t h e sensing element c o n s i s t s conductor compound i s c a l l e d a t h e r m i s t o r . t h e r m i s t o r s have some advantages: of a

150C.

semi

Compared t o thermocouples and RTD-s,

t h e temperature

c o e f f i c i e n t i s about t e n t o one

hundred

times g r e a t e r t h e n

t h a t o f RTO-s; t h i s f a c t i s a w a r r a n t y f o r h i g h s e n s i t i v i t y . a much h i g h e r r e s i s t a n c e than t h a t o f m e t a l s reduces e r r o r s due t o w i r e s and contact resistance. since t h e r m i s t o r s produce a h i g h o u t p u t f o r a low c u r r e n t d r i v e , t h e y can be used . w i t h b a t t e r y equipment. low c o s t o f t h e sensor small dimensions o f sensor, and t h e r e f o r e low thermal shunting.

Disadvantages and/or l i m i t a t i o n s a r e : h i g h non- l i n e a r i t y which r e q u i r e s a l i n y a r i s a t i o n apparatus o r an i n d i v i d u a l calibration. h i g h d i s p e r s i o n between i n d i v i d u a l sensors ( 20% ) , which r e q u i r e s i n d i v i d u a l ' c a l i b r a t i o n i f h i g h accuracy i s t o be achieved. A consequence of t h i s i s noninterchangeability t h e s t a b i l i t y o f c a l i b r a t i o n i s good i n a narrow range o f temperature. t o reduce s e l f - h e a t i n g o f t h e sensor, t h e e x c i t a t i o n t h a n 1 mA. t h e r m i s t o r s must be c a r e f u l l y mounted due t o t h e i r fragility, which i s even h i g h e r t h a n f o r RTD-s. I n scine cases t h e y need t o be encapsulated i n g l a s s o r o t h e r w i s e p r o t e c t e d , thus i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r thermal i n e r t i a . 4) The I C temperature t r a n s d u c e r uses a transistors temperature. temperaturethe to produce a voltage resistor. which fundamental is property ' o f to the of silicon absolute a lowabove, ln'the l i t e r a t u r e t h e b e s t s t a b i l i t y i s considered t o be found below 1 1 0 ~ ~ . c u r r e n t has t o be l e s s

proportional

T h i s v o l t a g e can be c o n v e r t e d i n t o a c u r r e n t by means coefficient Typical

IC

t r a n s d u c e r s a r e t h e Analogue discussed

Devices A0590 and t h e LM134Z. a b s o l u t e temperature. transducers resistance. linear over do a not

U n l i k e the o t h e r

thermometers 10 mV/K. accuracy

o u t p u t i s t h u s e i t h e r a c u r r e n t o r a voltage, b o t h l i n e a r l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o T y p i c a l values a r e 1 A/K and need, any reference

IC
to

temperature be almost

temperature

o r d e v i c e f o r measuring and

They can be c o n s t r u c t e d t o have h i g h limited

temperature range (Timko and S u t t l e r 1978, 0 - N e i l 1 and

D e r r i n g t o n 1979)'.

ever,

they have t h e f o l l o w i n g disadvantages:

s e l f - heating fragility need f o r e x t e r n a l power source. A i r temperature measurement requires particular

care, due

t o s o l a r and

i n f r a r e d r a d i a t i o n i m p i n g i n g on t h e sensor from t h e surroundings.To reduce t h i s source of e r r o r two techniques can be used:

s h i e l d i n g o f t h e sensor v e n t i l a t i n g t h e sensor The s h i e l d i n g can be performed by surrounding t h e sensor w i t h from one

<

up

t o t h r e e p o l i s h e d screens.

Aluminium, s t e e l o r wooden screens o f c y l i n d r i c a l o r

s p h e r i c a l shape a r e c m m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e . N a t u r a l a i r i n g should i n any case be provided. $his case m/s. type the of protection is often not But, as p r e v i o u s l y especially stated, In this 3.5 43760

sufficient,

when s t r o n g

r a d i a t i o n occurs, e v e n ' i f t h e whole apparatus i s a c c u r a t e l y screened. ventilator.

thermometer should be i n s e r t e d i n a p r o t e c t i v e c a s i n g w i t h e l e c t r i c a l The v e n t i l a t i o n speed a t t h e measuring b u l b should be a t l e a s t such DIN an apparatus i s s e t up, t h e measurement e r r o r can be reduced t o

If

0.1 K a t o O c when p l a t i n u m r e s i s t a n c e thermometers, according t o t h e Standaid, a r e used. i i ) measurement o f a i r h u m i d i t y

A i r humidyty should be measured o n l y when i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e q u r i e d about i t s effect on building interested heat in losses, air o r o n atmospheric r a d i a t i o n , o r when one i s and ventilation. humidity and Atmospheric Kondratijev cloudiness. o n l y some o f especially radiation There are 1969 and ch. conditioning

can be estimated from t h e e m p i r i c a l equations (see, e.g..

Ib), r e l a t i n g i t t o a i r
many

temperature,

methods . f o r measuring t h e a i r r e l a t i v e humidity;

them a r e s u i t a b l e f o r remote reading. The psychrometer'. temperature bulb or Wet and Dry bulb thermometer, consists of two The wet

sensors, . one

w i t h a c o t t o n sock wetted w i t h d i s t i l l e d water. the dry bulb and

sensor w i t h t h e sock w i l l r e g i s t e r a temperature c l o s e t o t h e thermodynamic temperature. Knowing b a r o m e t r i c pressure, t h e r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y can be determined.

wet b u l b temperatures and t h e

111 b-23

Some o f t h e requirements f o r psychrometers, as taken from WMO (1971) are:

t h e wet and d r y bulbs should be v e n t i l a t e d and p r o t e c t e d from r a d i a t i o n minimum of two p o l i s h e d metal s h i e l d s . a t sea- l e v e l a i r should be drawn 10 mls. measurements should be performed a t a h e i g h t ground 1eve1

by a

across t h e bulbs a t a r a t e between 2.5 and between 1.25 and 2 meters above They need

Psychrometers cannot be used

when t h e a i r

temperature i s below O'C.

frequent c l e a n i n g and replacement o f t h e c o t t o n sock. Dew p o i n t hygrometers measure absolute humidity by means of t h e temperature of the a so cooled called and a and polished "dewphotometal m i r r o r exposed t o e x t e r n a l a i r . point temperature". cell. The When t h e s u r f a c e reached is a is .begins t o be covered w i t h condensated water vapour, t h e temperature source electric measuring apparatus

Moisture i s detected u s i n g a l i g h t rather

complicated gas. Dew

expensive, due a l s o t o t h e necessity of c o o l i n g t h e surface by compressed at low water hygrometers are not suitable for measurements supercooled

means o f a t h e r m o e l e c t r i c d e v i c e o r by t h e a d i a b a t i c expansion of point temperatures i f one does n o t know whether dew is'composed o f or i c e crystals. Mechanical hygrometers materials (Pernix element, (Lambrecht, or human 1975) hair), air. make' use which The of

organic

fibrous is its is,

change

t h e i r dimensions variation

according t o t h e q u a n t i t y o f water i n t h e of a mechanical i n d i c a t o r . easy mounting and

dimesional

converted i n t o t h e analogue v a r i a t i o n o f an e l e c t r i c a l s i g n a l o r t h e o s c i l l a t i o n This measuring apparatus i s w i d e l y used,.due t o Furthermore, t h e instrument low c o s t ; i t s p r e c i s i o n i s , however, n o t h i g h and i t 'needs

p e r i o d i c a l (sometimes even d a i l y ) c a l i b r a t i o n .

extremely u n r e l i a b l e a t low temperatures (below -10'~). The L i t h i u m - C h l o r i d e c e l l hygrometers e x p l o i t lithiumsolution, temperature chloride (LiCl) The to become a electrically cell moisture from t h e a i r . sensor, t h e 'property conductive a of the salt

when absor6ing chloride This reduces t h e An equilibrium This hygrometer reached.

containing

lithium-

i's. heated by passing an A C between t h e electrodes. which is measured by a separate sensor, is

m o i s t u r e content and increases t h e r e s i s t a n c e of t h e s o l u t i o n . t e m p e r a t u r e can be converted i n t o a dew-point temperature. i s a simple and comparatively cheap instrument.

The LiCl

precipitation

There i s s t i l l l i t t l e knowledge about t h e b u i l d i n g energy- r e l a t e d performances,

influence

of

rainfall

on

the

e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e l o n g run.

An i n s t r u m e n t f o r measuring p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s c a l l e d a p l u v i o m e t e r , o r

w.

rain The h e i g h t o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s t h e h e i g h t of l i q u i d p r e c i p i t a t i o n , t h a t A w i d e l y used i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h e measurement of a r e c e i v i n g vessel cylinder. The can and of a measuring is the Hellman r a i n gauge, which consists.of

would cover t h e ground surface.

precipitation
collected

w i t h known surface, o f a c o l l e c t i n g precipitation

which may have t o be m e l t e d

w i l l be recorded by an

observer a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s . R a i n f a l l r e c o r d e r s can a l s o be used; which there a is the receiving a float vessel with a i s soldered. vertical t h e y c o n s i s t of a c y l i n d r i c a l case t o The r a i n - w a t e r e n t e r i n g t h e r e c e i v i n g I n s i d e t h e vessel. The pen arm reaches of level type casing.

'

vessel i s l e d t h r o u g h a metal p i p e i n t o a c y l i n d r i c a l vessel. b A a r i n g t h e r e c o r d i n g pen i s fastened t o t h e a x i s . When t h e This

hollow axle soldered t o it.

10

m,

water

i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y discharged by means of a g l a s s siphon i n t o t h e rainfall Electrical p r o v i d e d t h e y a r e equipped

c o l l e c t i n g can l o c a t e d a t t h e base o f t h e instrument. r e c o r d e r s can be used f o r temperatures down t o -25OC. w i t h h e a t i n g and w i t h a t h e r m a l l y i n s u l a t e d double

walled

t r a n s m i s s i o n o f r a i n f a l l i s f e a s i b l e b y means of r e s i s t a n c e t e l e t r a n s m i t t e r s , o r impulse t r a n s m i t t e r s u s i n g a " t i p p i n g bucket" d e v i c e . Combined wind and r a i n produce t h e so horizontal facades can component be of rain. with
It

called lead to

driving

rain

that of

is

the on

can

moistening

w a l l s and,

consequently,

t o t h e decrease of t h e i r i n s u l a t i o n performance. measured


=

Driving r a i n collector,

an i n s t r u m e n t d e s c r i b e d by Lyberg (1979) which

c o n s i s t s o f a c o l l a r of aluminium ( d i a m e t e r

200

m) as

and . a

t i p p i n g bucket system, and which i s mounted on t h e b u i l d i n g facade. I n t h e absence o f measuring d e v i c e s d r i v i n g r a i n can he c a l c u l a t e d the wind speed v, the t e r m i n a l v e l o c i t y of water drops vt Ih=C'v*l,lv,, r a d i u s ) and t h e v e r t i c a l i n t e n s i t y o f r a i n I , : d r i v i n g r a i n component and C i s a c o n s t a n t through the

(linked t o their where Ih i s

Bibliography

'

Schwerdtfeger, P. : Physical P r i n c i p l e s of Micro-Meteorological Measurements. E l s e v i e r S c i e n t i f i c Publ. Co (1976) References

ASHKAE Handbook of Fundamentals, Chapter 8, New York, 1977. Balcomb J.D. Energy e t al.. Passive Solar Design Handbook, U.S. 1980. Department o f

DOEICS-6127,

Coulson K.L., Day B.,

Solar and T e r r e s t r i a l Radiation, Acadaoic Press, New York, 1975.

Notebook on F i e l d Measurelnents f o r Energy i n B u i l d i n g s , t o b e

issued by SERC (Science.and Engineering Research Council), UK 1983. D u f f i e J.A. and Beckman U.A., Solar Energy Thermal Processes, U i l e y

I n t e r s c i e n c e , New ~ o r k ; 1974. Eppley Laboratories, Techn.Rep., I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n of t h e s o l a r 1975.

t r a c k e r and Normal Incidence Pyrheliometer, p. 1-3, Newport, R.I., Eppley Laboratories, Techn.Rep.,

Instrumentation f o r t h e Measurement o f t h e Newport, R.I.

components of s o l a r and t e r r e s t r i a l r a d i a t i o n , p.w, deGids W.F., Ton J.A., van Schijndel L.L.M.,

Investigation o f the reldtionship

between t h e n a t u r a l v e n t i l a t i o n o f a f l a t and meteorological c o n d i t i o n s , IG-TNO, pub1.620, H e r z f e l d C., D e l f t , Holland. Temperature Part

Brickwedde F.G.,

I t s Measurement and Control i n New York, 1962.

Science and i n d u s t r y , Yo1.3,

l.Reinhold,

Hewlett and Packard Techn. Rep. A N 290, P r a c t i c a l Temperature Measurements, 1980. Hicks, 0.0.:" P r o p e l l e r Anemometers as Sensors o f Atmospheric Turbulence".

Boundary-Layer Meteorology 3, pp 214-228 (1972).

IEA ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l Energy Agency): An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Meteorological Measurements and Data Handling f o r Solar Energy A p p l i c a t i o n , 1978. Kimura K. and Stephenson D.G., Vol .l, 1969. S o l a r R a d i a t i o n on Cloudy Days, ASHRAE Trans.,

Kipp and zonen, Techn.Rep.,

Albedometer, measurement o f shortwave s o l a r

r a d i a t i o n balance, D e l f t , Holland. Kipp and zonen, Techn.Rep., D i r e c t S o l a r Radiation, etc., Kipp and ionen, Techn.Rep., f o r use CM5-6-694, K o n d r a t i j e v K.Ya., Actinometer, measurement o f t h e Total Energy o f D e l f t , Holland. Solarimeter f o r Outdoor I n s t a l l a t i o n - D i r e c t i o n s

D e l f t , Bolland. R a d i a t i o n i n t h e Atmosphere, Academic Press, New York, 1969.

( t r a n s l a t e d from Russian) K r e i d e r J.F. and K r e i t h F., Solar Heating and Cooling, Hemisphere

Publ.Co.-McGraw

H i l l , Washington, 1977. Measuring Instruments

Lambrecht KG, Techn.Rep.,

Abridged General Catalogue,

p. 27-30, Goettingen, Nov. 1975.

Lyberg M.D.,

Review o f Micro-and B u i l d i n g Physical P r o p e r t i e s o f D r i v i n g Rain,

B u l l . M79:13E, Swedish I n s t i t u t e f o r B u i l d i n g Research (1979). Meert E., van Ackere G., Air-and watert'ightness of facades, CSTC, Bruxelles.

mega Engineering, Temperature Measurement Handbook, 1980. Stanford, Cu, 1980. 0 - N e i l l P., D e r r i n g t o n C., T r a n s i s t o r s , a h o t t i p f o r accurate temperature 1979.

sensing, E l e c t r o n i c s , Oct.11, Thornblad H.,

a Sunshine m o n i t o r w i t h e l e c t r i c a l output and w i t h o u t moving pp. 481-486.

p a r t s . Journal o f Physics E: S c i e n t i f i c Instruments, 1975, Vo1.8, Timko M., S u t t l e r G;,

Dialogue Vol

. 12,

1 uAIK I C Temperature-to Current Transducer. Analogue 1978.

No.1, - p.3,

WMO (World Meteorological Organization). Guide t o Meteorological Instruments and Observing Practices, Geneva, 1971.

CHAPTER 111 c I n d o o r c l i m a t e measurements

Contents

general i n f o r m a t i o n measurement o f i n d o o r temperature i) ii) iv) v) temperature d i s t r i b u t i o n i n a d w e l l i n g temperature measurements i n u n i n h a b i t e d rooms temperature measurements i n b u i l d i n g s sensors f o r i n d o o r temperature measurements

i i i ) temperature measurments i n i n h a b i t e d rooms

measurement o f a i r v e l o c i t y i n d o o r h u m i d i t y mesurements measurement o f a i r contaminants l i g h t i n g measurements measurement o f thermal comfort b i b l i o g r a p h y and r e f e r e n c e s

Keywords

a i r temperature, i n d o o r a i r velocity anemometer comfort, thermal comfort, human contaminants, day1 i g h t globe thermometer humidity, indoor l a b o r a t o r y experiments w i t h human beings lighting metabolic r a t e

occupants s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h temperature o f surroundings occupants s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h environment

indoor

heat p r o d u c t i o n by human body

nuclear radiation, indoor r a d i a n t temperature, indoor sensor p o s i t i o n i n g s i m u l a t i o n w i t h dummies temperature g r a d i e n t

average temperature o f surrounding surfaces

change o f temperature w i t h d i s t a n c e

111 c Indoor c l i m a t e measurements

general i n f o r m a t i o n

When d e f i n i n g indoor c l i m a t e i t can be advantageous t o make i n d o o r c l i m a t e , and as a f a c t o r i n human environment, t h e climate. The physical indoor climate can almost temperature.

distinction

between indoor c l i m a t e as a f a c t o r i n physical energy c a l c u l a t i o n s , t h e p h y s i c a l & r be reduced t o i n d o o r a i r physiological

The energy losses due t o heat conduction through e x t e r n a l w a l l s i s The energy losses due to infiltration and ventilation are

i n f i r s t approximation p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e temperature d i f f e r e n c e between i n d o o r ' and outdoor a i r . p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h i s temperature d i f f e r e n c e ' t i m e s t h e f l o w r a t e . Indoor c l i m a t e as a f a c t o r i n human environment i s much more complex.,..
,.

Here

indoor a i r temperature, i n t e r i o r surface temperatures, a i r v e l o c i t y and h u m i d i t y i n t e r a c t i n a c m p l i c a t e d way t o determine t h e thermal comfort of t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between e.g. thermal comfort. Still, c l i m a t e of t h e occupant. i n d o o r ' climate. of air climate. through ventilation. The contaminants, indoor a i r and floor are also important components resident.. for of by the the e.g. However, temperature g r a d i e n t s , temperatures changing w i t h time, and temperature thermal comfort alone does not c o n s t i t u t e t h e indoor Noise and l i g h t n i n g a r e important and dust, which directly can be

Another f a c t o r t h a t must be taken i n t o account i s t h e presence odour counteracted by the a i r exchange r a t e i s t h e r e f o r e a l s o important f o r t h e indoor experienced occupant Others, l i k e many a i r cpntaminants, can n o t , b u t may s t i l l

Many o f these f a c t o r s can be h i s sense;.

a f f e c t t h e h e a l t h and w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e occupant.
I t i s t h e combined,effect o f a l l these

factors

that

will

determine

the

p h y s i o l o g i c a l comfort o f t h e occupant. I n t h e sections o f t h i s discussed. air, surface of With and a few chapter exceptions the measurement of indoor that climate of is

only

instruments

permit

remote
indoor of the

measurements w i l l be described. resulting measurement humidity,

These s e c t i o n s describe measurement of air contaminants, is the only

r a d i a n t temperature, measurement of a i r ' v e l o c i t y , measurement one where The g r e a t e s t a t t e n t i o n i s given t o

measurement This

l i g h t i n g and measurement o f thermal comfort. t h e measurement o f temperature.

section

questions concerning

of

sensor p o s i t i o n i n g i s discussed i n some d e t a i l . 111, For a in fuller hot and treatment

For a d i s c u s s i o n of the topics

on e r r o r e v a l u a t i o n see App. however m a i n l y discuss indoor

i n d o o r c l i m t e we r e f e r t o Givoni (1976) and van Straaten (1967). who climate mediterranean Fundamentals and climates, (1981),

M c I n t y r e (1980) and Fanger Doebelin (1966). Neubert

V a l b j a r n (1978). (1977) and

For t o p i c s concerning instruments


ASHRAE

f o r t h e measurement o f indoor c l i m a t e we r e f e r t o Mclntyre standard (1980).

(1980)

t h e proposed IS0

measurement o f i n d o o r a i r and s u r f a c e temperature

i ) temperature d i s t r i b u t i o n i n a d w e l l i n g The thermal environment i n a room i s asymnetric radiation nearly radiate walls. gradient of the and air temperature. through which most o f t h e heat l o s s occurs i n t h e The e f f e c t o f t h i s heat l o s s i s t o less to the occupant produce than do large with respect time. Surface of air to This areas, the thermal may be

A t y p i c a l room has one o r two e x t e r i o r w a l l s


winter cold

a l l if t h e room i s a t an i n t e r m e d i a t e f l o o r o f a m u l t i - s t o r e y b u i l d i n g . which t h e i n t e r i o r p a r t i t i o n s , and a major length exterior

movement o f c o l d a i r towards t h e f l o o r along t h e f u l l temperature q r a d i e n t from f l o o r t o c e i l i n g from heat the cold wall e f f e c t i v i l y counteracts t h i s e f f e c t . terminals and a

This down draught a t t h e e x t e r i o r w a l l surfaces produces a v e r t i c a l a i r horizontal temperature t o t h e warn p a r t i t i o n unless t h e h e a t i n g system I n f a c t , t h e major performance requirement

i s t o canpensate f o r t h i s asyrmnetrical a i r and r a d i a n t

temperature p a t t e r n i n a room i n a r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g (Eberhard 1969) In fig. temperature fig. a r e given. The a s y n e t r y o f t h e thermal conditions i s caused by ne o r more exterior environment walls is even to greater outdoor under I 1 1 c-1 some q u a l i t a t i v e examples are given o f what stratification might the

vertical In

look l i k e f o r d i f f e r e n t heating systems.

I 1 1 c-2 some examples of t h e temperature d i s t r i b u t i o n on i n t e r i o r surfaces

suner to

where a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g i s contemplated. exposed

This unbalanced environment conditions,

7
Ceiling

Floor
Temp.

b
I
I

Ceiling

b T
Ceiling Floor

+ Temp.
Fig.

Ill c-I

Examples o f t h e v e r t i c a l t e m p e r a t u r e ' s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n t h e m i d d l e o f a room f o r d i f f e r e n t h e a t i n g systems. From t o p t o bottom: r a d i a t o r s , f l o o r h e a t i n g , c e i l i n g heating.

E l
Exterior wall Partition wall joining exterior wall Exterior wall with window

F i g . 111 c-2

Examples of

i s o t h e r m s on p a r t i t i o n u a l l s a n d

e x t e r i o r u a l l s i n a room.

The temperature i s o f t e n n o t t h e same i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e l i v i n g area of a flat o r a house. C l o s e t s and bathrooms may n o t be equipped w i t h h e a t i n g occupants spend much time can have a higher facilities. temperature Roams where t h e

t h a n o t h e r rooms, due t o t h e presence of t h e occupants, and t h e use The temperature o f t h e c e l l a r and t h e a t t i c i n a house I n a residential building with Flats at the

o f e l e c t r i c appliances.

i s o f t e n d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f t h e l i v i n g area. and the top floor

many f l a t s t h e r e w i l l o f t e n be a temperature d i f f e r e n c e between t h e bottam f l o o r

if t h e h e a t i n g system i s n o t v e r y e f f i c i e n t .

gable o f t e n have a l o w e r t e m p e r a t u r e t h a n o t h e r f l a t s .

The temperature can r i s e

i n rooms h a v i n g windows on a facade exposed t o s o l a r r a d i a t i o n . The l o c a l a i r o r s u r f a c e temperature w i l l a l s o f l u c t u a t e w i t h t i m e even a room where the temperature i s c o n t r o l l e d by a thermostat. c l e a r t h a t " t h e " i n d o o r a i r o r surface temperature does n o t s i n g l e room.
. '

ina

I t i s therefor'e

exist

even

for

For c a l c u l a t i o n s i n s i d e t h e framework o f a model i t i s i n general necessary t o d e f i n e a space-averaged temperature (and a l s o time-averaged if t h e model i s a s t a t i c one). ieveral T h i s can be done i f i t i s p o s s i b l e t o p l a c e temperature sensors a t But due t o th'b e x i s t e n c e o f temperature is always the limited, the a1 ways differ from " t r u e " spacelocations inside thedwelling. average temperature will

g r a d i e n t s , and t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e number o f sensors calculated averaged temperature.

For p r a c t i c a l reasons i t i s o f t e n p o s s i b l e t o p l a c e o n l y one sensor i n each room. The reading from this one sensor must then r e p r e s e n t t h e average of this sensor temperature of t h e room.
I t i s t h e n obvious t h a t t h e

placing

must be c a r e f u l l y considered. The v a r i a t i o n o f t h e i n d o o r surface performed temperature at only of one a t y p i c a l l y a t l e a s t 2-4 K. air temperature of and one the of variation these o f the is'

partition

w a l l o r e x t e r i o r w a l l i n a room b o t h ' a r e entities this p o i n t i s b a d l y chosen, t h e measured

If t h e
point,

measurement and

temperature w i l l d i f f e r from t h e average temperature by 1-2 K. Taking a time-average o f t h e temperature w i l l error than the space-av&raging read t h e temperature f r e q u e n t l y . d e t a i l below. These q u e s t i o n s often will introduce be , d i s c u s s e d a smaller
,

procedure because i t i s g e n e r a l l y p o s s i b l e t o in more

i i ) temperature measurements i n u n i n h a b i t e d rooms When measurements a r e performed i n an u n i n h a b i t e d measurement of air temperature can be placed openly. room,. sensors for is is the not not

A v e n t i l a t e d sensor i s

r e q u i r e d f o r an a c c u r a t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e a i r temperature. p o s s i b l e t o use a v e n t i l a t e d hindered. The v e r t i c a l 'temperature s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e a i r uninhabited temperature. gradient


'
'

If

it

sensor, t h e

sensor should a t l e a s t be s h i e l d e d from that air movement

h e a t r a d i a t i o n , which should be done i n such a way

is

often, stronger of the

in

rooms How before

than many in the

i n i n h a b i t e d ones. other vertical the 0.1 to get a sensors

It i s t h e r e f o r e customary t o p l a c e

several se?sors above changes

each

good

estimate should

average be

a r e needed w i l l depend on how the temperature direction. This therefore r e q u i r e d number o f sensors. Often one uses 0.1, 0.8, room

investigated room, and, 0.1 1.5, temperature radiators

deciding

t h r e e sensors placed, e.g.,

0.2 m above t h e f l o o r , To g e t a good estimate

a t medium h e i g h t o f t h e of the average of

the

0.2 m below t h e c e i l i n g , o r f o u r sensors placed, e.g., lateral cold

and 1.8 m above t h e f l o o r .

temperature g r a d i e n t a l s o must be taken i n t o account. presence windows, of the I n fig. 111 c-3 we g i v e a few examples qf estimate of the than

The magnitude o f t h i s g r a d i e n t w i l l be determined b y t h e annd o r hot walls.

,the r e q u i r e d minimum number o f measuring p o i n t s t o get a good average temperature. should be measured a t more than one h e i g h t . r a t e o f a i r change i s n o t t o o h i g h (i.e. change p e r hour). 'This arrangement

At a l l these l a t e r a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d p o i n t s , t h e temperature sensors 1 air

w i l l i n most cases g i v e a good e s t i m a t e of t h e average temperature, provid,ed t h e


not s u b s t a n t i a l l y l a r g e r

.
contact between

When measuring s u r f a c e temperatures, t h e r e should be good the the sensor sensor and by a the surface of in question. The r a d i a t i v e p r o p e r t i e s as t h e surface o f t h e w a l l . sheet c o l o u r as t h e surface. The temperature d i s t r i b u t i o n on t h e surface should be
it

sensor should have t h e same

One way t o do t h i s i s t o cover

t h i n metal f o i l which i s then p a i n t e d i n t h e same

investigated

before

is

decided be kept

how

many

sensors

should

be

used

and where t h e s e should be However, i t

positioned. must

T h i s can be done by u s i n g e.g.

thermographic methods. the

i n , mind t h a t t h i s temperature d i s t r i b u t i o n i s n o t a s t a t i c one. often strong diurnal variations o f surface - temperatures,

There are, e.g.,

s p e c i a l l y i f t h e r e i s a s t r o n g s o l a r r a d i a t i o n d u r i n g t h e day and c o l d c l o u d l e s s

Fig. 111 c-3a

Examples of p o s i t i o n i n g of sensors f o r t h e measurement of room a i r temperature i n d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f rooms. A t every p o s i t i o n t h e measurement should be performed a t more t h a n one h e i g h t .

nights. The measurement o f surface temperatures o f windows i s difficult. If the of

sensor i s placed i n c o n t a c t w i t h a window pane, i t i s i n general n o t p o s s i b l e t o s h i e l d t h e sensor from r a d i a t i o n which i n most cases w i l l cause a the measured degrees K.
I f t h e -window surface temperature i s measured using r a d i a t i v e methods,

deviation

temperature from t h e actual surface temperature of a t l e a s t a few

the

reading cause a

will
of

be a f f e c t e d by t h e r a d i a t i o n p e n e t r a t i n g t h e window and t h i s w i l l from the would actual make In value. and


it

deviation the the

In

this to

case of

simultaneous the surface

measurement

incoming ' r a d i a t i o n window.

knowledge

the transmittance

p r o p e r t i e s of t h e window temperature . o f u n c e r t a i n r e s u l t s (see ch.

possible

calculate

practice,

however, t h i s method gives r a t h e r

I11 f).

i i i ) temperature measurements i n i n h a b i t e d ropms The measurement o f t h e temperature i n an i n h a b i t e d room poses more problems in addition This to t o t h o s e encountered i n measurements i n an uninhabited room. The occupant w i l l n o t be l i k e l y t o accept more than a area. attached wall the creates problems especially for

few sensors
the

in

his

living

measurement o f i n d o o r a i r

temperature as i t w i l l not be p r a c t i c a l t o have a sensor p o s i t i o n e d anywhere but a p a r t i t i o n wall. I n t h i s case c o n t a c t between t h e sensor and t h e the partition in w a l l must be prevented by p l a c i n g an i n s u l a t i n g m a t e r i a l between and t h e sensor. vicinity from surfaces, b u t t h i s poses a more d i f f i c u l t problem as t h e of t h e sensor must n o t be prevented. air

The sensor should a l s o be shielded a g a i n s t heat r a d i a t i o n movement The sensor should be placed temperature Nor should t h e sensor be

on a p a r t i t i o n . w a l 1 f a r from r a d i a t o r s o r any o t h e r surfaces w i t h a t h a t i s n o t i c e a b l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e a i r temperature.

p o s i t i o n e d i n such a way t h a t i t faces a window o r a r a d i a t o r d i r e c t l y . Because o f t h e v e r t i c a l temperature s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , t h e sensor be positioned close of to the the floor or height. Because where insulation between the sensor and should the not

t h e c e i l i n g , b u t p r e f e r a b l y a t medium surface, no

instruments special

self-

h e a t l n g may be a problem are n o t w e l l suiked f o r t h i s with measurements i n i n h a b i t e d rooms compared t o

k i n d o f measurements. problems uninhabited ones.

For t h e measurement o f surface temperatures t h e r e a r e

connected

The l o c a l mean

radiant

temperature a t a p o i n t i n a room can a g l o b e thermometer.

be

calculated

i f t h e s u r f a c e temperatures a r e known.
t h e mean r a d i a n t t e m p e r a t u r e u s i n g , e.g.. this will least window. kind not

An e a s i e r way i s a d i r e c t measurement of A measurement o f I t can a l s o the surfasce at I n t h i s case i t performed

i s o f i n t e r e s t when c o n s i d e r i n g human c o m f o r t c r i t e r i a .

be used f o r energy balance c a l c u l a t i o n s (Lebrun be necessary points, to e.g., measure near the air temperature. at two

H a r r e t 1975). temperature and

For human c o m f o r t a p p l i c a t i o n s measurements must be

t h e c e n t r e o f t h e room and i n f r o n t o f t h e

i v ) t e m p e r a t u r e measurements i n b u i l d i n g s I n t h i s case t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a l l t h e rooms o f t h e l i v i n g area have a the same average average temperature must of be the be taken flat into can account. be at do not the that In a one

If

t e m p e r a t u r e i s . n o t measured i n e v e r y room, t h e sensors should be p l a c e d so representative temperature temperature obtained. least at multi-storey building the p o s i t i o n on each s t o r e y . should measured

I n model c a l c u l a t i o n s o f a house, i t i s o f t e n necessary t o t r e a t t h e l i v i n g area, ch. t h e c e l l a r , and t h e a t t i c as separate components of t h e house. Ib). For a l a r g e r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g w i t h many f l a t s , i t practical be to measure with number of f l a t s . considered will in general be Therefore (see t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e c e l l a r and t h e a t t i c should be measured separately

t h e i n d o o r temperature o n l y a t one p o s i t i o n i n a l i m i t e d t h e same c a r e as discussed above. The c h o i c e o f t h e f l a t s means

The p o s i t i o n i n g o f t h i s s i n g l e sensor i n a f l a t must of course

where a sensor i s t o be i n s t a l l e d should be determined by s t a t i s t i c a l one wants t o o b t a i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n d o o r a i r temperature. Suppose one i s i n t e r e s t e d i n residential building the flats, building wlth those a t t h e t o p f l o o r , o r a t t h e determining gable, of a the average

if

temperature epiped

of

ma'ny f l a t s .

I f one suspects t h a t some f l a t s , e.g.,


long parallel shaped 111).

have an a i r o r i n t e r i o r s u r f a c e temperature d i f f e r e n t from t h e r e s t o f t h e f l a t s can be d i v i d e d i n t e two o r more g r a b s , (see App.

v) sensors f o r indoor temperature measurements Thermometers o f d i f f e r e n t c o n s t r u c t i o n c a n be used t o air and surface of temperatures. However, their measure the depend indoor upon An
It

properties

c o n s t r u c t i o n and some are more s u i t e d than o t h e r s f o r a given instrument i s t h e r e f o r e o f t e n p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n an instrument that is

measurement. well suited

a c e r t a i n k i n d i s o f t e n a v a i l a b l e i n many d i f f e r e n t designs.

for

e x a c t l y t h e k i n d of measurements one wants t o perform. The sensors thermocouples, (IC-transducers). used for indoor temperature measurements or integrated are most often

resistance

thermometers,

circuit

transducers,

For a d e s c r i p t i o n o f these sensors see ch.

111 b and I 1 1 g.

I n p h y s i o l o g i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s i t 1 s o f t e n o f i n t e r e s t t o determine t h e heat balance of the at human body a t a p o i n t i n a dwe'lling. one of point.


I t i s then conunon t o use

instruments which measure a combination of a i r temperature and t h e mean temperature at the

radiant
It

One such instrument i s t h e globe thermometer.

u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s o f a t h i n - w a l l e d sphere painted b l a c k w i t h a temperature sensor centre the sphere. The globe thermometer i s suspended a t t h e t e s t Over a p o i n t and allowed t o come t o thermal e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h i t s surrounding. a l i n e a r combination o f t h e l o c a l a i r and mean r a d i a n t temperature. The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e l o c a l a i r temperature on t h e reading air flow past t h e sphere. then p o s s i b l e t o c a l c u l a t e thermometer equilibrium the local mean radiant

l i m i t e d tempecature i n t e r v a l , t h e globe thermometer can be considered t o measure

will

depend The

on

I f t h e a i r temperature i s measured separately, i t i s temperature. globe


'

i s a simple instrument, b u t t h e c a l i b r a t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t e s p e c i a l l y with the Graves surroundings can vary from 5 t o 20 minutes f o r d i f f e r e n t several globe thermometers Such an has been (1974). The performance o f a globe thermometer can be instrument
?

if i t i s necessary t o c o r r e c t f o r a i r flow.
globe thermometers. investigated b y The performance o f

The time necessary t o reach thermal

improved by e n c l o s i n g t h e globe i n a polyethylene enielope. has been 'described ( M c I n t y r e 1976).

- measurement

o f a i r velocity

The measurement o f a i r f l o w i n a d w e l l i n g i s i n general

difficult

because The air. the

t h e flow p a t t e r n i s seldom s t a b l e and t h e a i r v e l o c i t y i s r e l a t i v e l y small. v e l o c i t y f l u c t u a t i o n s a r e o f t e n o f t h e same magnitude as t h e speed o f This instrument. The thermal comfort o f an occupant exposed t o the fluctuations i n a i r velocity. "d raught" w i l l depend

makes i t very d i f f i c u l t t o p e r f o r m measurements w i t h v i s u a l r e a d i n g o f t h e

not to To

o n l y on t h e average speed o f t h e a i r , b u t a l s o on t h e magnitude and frequency o f


I t i s t h e r e f o r e i n general n o t s u f f i c i e n t

measure o n l y t h e average a i r speed i f t h e aim o f t h e measurement i s t o determine t h e thermal comfort (Olesen- Thorshauge obtain a stable 1978 and LebrunMarret 1978). average v a l u e o f t h e a i r speed, i t i s i n general necessary t o perform

e x t e n d t h e measurement over a t i m e o f a t l e a s t s e v e r a l minutes and then t h e a v e r a g i n g over t h i s t i m e i n t e r v a l . The magnitude o f t h e a i r speed likely there for which depends complaints about

draught

are mls fig.

to
are

be

made

by

the

occupants

on t h e i n d o o r a i r and surface

temperatures (see ch. seldom any

Ic).

However, f o r a i r speeds s m a l l e r t h a n 0.1 a t a normal room temperature. exceed 0.15 mls are illustrated

0.2 in

complaints

Some t y p i c a l

s i t u a t i o n s when t h e a i r speed can

I I I c - 4 ( E r i k s s o n - L o f s t e d t - V a l b j B r n 1979). Before measurements o f t h e a i r v e l o c i t y i n a d w e l l i n g a r e performed, important frequent. to get a T h i s can be done r a t h e r q u i c k l y u s i n g a smokepuffer o r a 111 e ) . it is

p i c t u r e o f where i n t h e d w e l l i n g l a r g e a i r v e l o c i t i e s a r e smoke-stick.

(see a l s o ch.

For measurements o f a i r speed i n a d w e l l i n g i t may seem advantageous t o use a non-directional anemometer (an anemometer t h a t can measure o n l y t h e speed o f in a room is usually The i n s t r u m e n t s t h a t can be used i n p r a c t i c e a r e l i k e t h e h o t w i r e anemometer, o r d i f f i c u l t t o make small directional dependence can be has done (1979). One t h e r e f o r e has t o determine t h e main This t h e a i r stream, n o t t h e d i r e c t i o n ) , s i n c e t h e a i r f l o w neither direction been e.g. v i s i b l e n o r constant. of the a i r flow), by JBrgensen

however e i t h e r completely d i r e c t i o n a l ( t h e response of t h e sensor depends on t h e non-directional. discribed An i n s t r u m e n t w i t h o n l y a

d i r e c t i o n o f t h e a i r stream b e f o r e t h e i n s t r u m e n t i s used. u s i n g a s i m p l e hand-held

smoke- puffer.

Window

+Radiator

Fig.

I11 c-4

Examples o f a s i t u a t i o n when t h e a i r v e l o c i t v may e x c e e d

0.15

m/s.

( A f t e r Erikson-

L a f s t e d t - V a l b j g r n 1979)

The sensor o f a h o t w i r e anemometer c o n s i s t s o f a t h i n m e t a l w i r e h a v i n g length voltage has a of 1-2 mm. across the e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t through the w i r e i s kept drop the constant. In either case

The w i i e i s e i t h e r k e p t a t a c o n s t a n t temperature, o r e l s e the w i r e w i l l be a f u n c t i o n o f , t h e a i r v e l o c i t y o v e r t h e The h o t w i r e anemometer, It a


It

w i r e and t h e angle,between t h e w i r e and t h e a i r stream. i s t h e b a s i c r e s e a r c h t o o l used i n c o s t l y instrument. wind-tunnel studies.

v e r y h i g h accuracy and can measure v e r y r a p i d v e l o c i t y f l u c t u a t i o n s . is, however,

O t h e r anemometers use t h e r a t e o f c o o l i n g o f a heated body as head. type

the

sensing of this

If
are

the more

heated

body

i s s p h e r i c a l i n shape such an anemometer would i n However, i n p r a c t i c e most instruments Often t h e heated body i s o f a shape o t h e r

~rinciple be n o n - d i r e c t i o n a l . than spherical. The of the

or, less directional.

The response t o a change o f a i r speed i s O f t e n slow. thermocouple anemometer i s c a l i b r a t e d t o g i v e v e l o c i t y i n stream. type for of air This anemometer should has only a rather be used terms slow for The

heated

difference

i n e l e c t r o m o t i v e f o r c e between t h e two t h e r m o j u n c t i o n s o f a

thermocouple exposed t o an a i r velocities. steady-state Therefore, this and

response t o r a p i d v e l o c i t y f l u c t u a t i o n s , and i s r a t h e r i n s e n s i t i v e f o r s m a l l a i r instrument velocities measurements g r e a t e r t h a n 5 cm/s.

heated thermocouple anemometer i s a c o m p a r a t i v e l y cheap i n s t r u m e n t . I n a t h e r m i s t o r anemometer a t h e r m i s t o r i s coupled i n s e r i e s w i t h resistance. The s u p p l y v o l t a g e i s k e p t c o n s t a n t . heated t h e r m i s t o r , i t s t e m p e r a t u r e and t h u s i t s as sensor i s o f t e n g i v e n an e l i i p s o i d a l compensation, the air temperature shape. be resistance
If t h e r e

fixed The
'

When an a i r stream passes t h e will is change. no The t h e r m i s t o r used temperature Thermistor and to

v o l t a g e across t h e t h e r m i s t o r i s a measure o f t h e v e l o c i t y . must

measured s e p a r a t e l y .

anemometers can be designed t o be r a t h e r i n s e n s i t i v e t o h e a t have a s m a l l t i m e c o n s t a n t ( ~ H r d e m a n 1974). been c r i t i c a l l y r e v i e w e d b y F i n k e l s t e i n e t a l . (1973).

radiation

Several t h e r m i s t o r anemometers have

A s i m u l t a n e o u s d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a i r speed and d i r e c t i o n can be performed if


directional Determination practice. sensors, of the e.g. air hot flow wire the in anemometers, data must are be used. But t h i s w i l l processed. r e q u i r e t h e use o f s i x sensors and numerically

t h i s way i s t h e r e f o r e seldom performed i n

When t h e i n s t r u m e n t s d i s c u s s e d above a r e c a l i b r a t e d , account carried the out temperature, in humidity, and atmospheric accurate c a l i b r a t i o n s a t regular intervals. r e l e v a n t temperature.

one

must

take

into

pressure.

They r e q u i r e

These c a l i b r a t i o n s s h o u l d always be

a m i n i a t u r e wind t u n n e l , o r some o t h e r s u i t a b l e d e v i c e , a t t h e

Measurements o f a i r f l o w v e l o c i t i e s a r e l i k e l y t o be r a t h e r r a r e , . indoor airflow i n f l u e n c e on t h e b e h a v i o u r o f occupants, f o r t h e information about the measurement of air Pankhurst (1977). energy consumption.

and

the

i s o f i n t e r e s t f o r t h e comfort, b u t o n l y i n d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h t h e General v e l o c i t i e s can be found i n Ower

-.indoor

h u m i d i t y measurements

The h u m i d i t y i n s i d e a humidity kitchen' humidity. mechanical is than of This and substantially in other includes the 111 b.

dwelling higher rooms. the

is in

not

evenly

distributed. that are used

Often for cell,

the the the

t h e bathroom,and somewhat h i g h e r i n t h e instruments the

Often

measurement

o u t d o o r h u m i d i t y can be used a l s o f o r t h e measurement o f i n d o o r psychrometer, hygrometer., lithium-chloride dewpoint For a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of these

i n s t r u m e n t s see ch.

H u m i d i t y values i n a d w e l l i n g consumption used. point of view,

are

not

very

important

from

the

energy only
if

e x c e p t ' p o s s i b l y w h e n . c e r t a i n heat-exchangers a r e

H u m i d i t y i s i m p o r t a n t m o s t l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o human c o m f o r t , and

some upper o r l o w e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n l i m i t s a r e exceeded. I n d o o r h u m i d i t y can l e a d t o condensation on p a r t s o f t h e b u i l d i n g s t r u c t u r e which after in a turn can damage It the huilding material. There i s a r i s k t h a t t h e occurence o f such damages w i l l i n c r e a s e when a b u i l d i n g becomes b e t t e r i n s u l a t e d retrofit. i s t h e r e f o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a t a r e t r o f i t i s performed i n such a way t h a t t h e r i s k o f c o n d e n s a t i o n i s minimized.

I 1 1 c-16

- measurement o f

a i r contaminants

As measurements o f a i r contaminant c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a r e o f i n t e r e s t determine

only

to

if

some

absolute

limit

of

concentration,

unacceptable f o r human o n l y .be discussed

w e l l b e i n g and h e a l t h , has been exceeded, t h i s s u b j e c t here b r i e f l y .

will

can often be determined obtained The For by sample field

The i d e n t i t y and c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f gaseous contaminants through collected meaurements analytical

methods.

The

analytical

data

are

accumulation i n c o l l e c t o r s c o n t a i n i n g o r g a n i c polymer o r mass spectroscopy (see e.g. absorb i n f r a r e d l i g h t .

absorbents.

i n s i t u can then be analyzed i n a l a b o r a t o r y u s i n g gas-chromatography Dravnieks, W h i t f i e l d and Shah 1979). simple i n s t r u m e n t s are' a v a i l a b l e which use t h e p r o p e r t y o f gases t o But these i n s t r u m e n t s can o n l y be c a l i b r a t e d t o measure

t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f one gas a t a time. The first method also described be above for for the the determination identification of gaseous odour a is

contaminants contanimants. known, this

.can

applied

of'odourous

However, even i f t h e i d e n t i t y and c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e

does n o t adequately c h a r a c t e r i z e ' t h e r e s u l t i n g odour and t h e human odour. Instead one has to rely on sensory

response t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r

e v a l u a t i o n i n o r d e r t o q u a n t i f y t h e odour e f f e c t s i n i n d o o r a i r . A s u b j e c t i v e d e t e r m i n a t i o n can be o b t a i n e d by u s i n g a 'scentometer. o f t h e nose i s r e q u i r e d . c l e a n a i r as reference. makes an experienced panel The c l e a n a i r i s o b t a i n e d by f i l t e r i n g . 1s used, the method gives good The The use observer

The method c o n s i s t s o f making an odour comparison w i t h

t h e comparison by s n i f f i n g a l t e r n a t e l y and e s t i m a t i n g an odour l e v e l . results for

If
the

d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f odour t h r e s h o l d . For t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f odour supra a reference. threshbld intensities, there exist

s t a n d a r d i z e d methods (ASTM 1978) using a r e f e r e n c e odour i n s t e a d o f f r e s h a i r as For a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e above t o p i c s see Dravnieks (1978). detected using The ionization
G.M.

Nuclear r a d i a t i o n can be i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y counters or s c i n t i l l a t i o n counters.

type

The i o n i z a t i o n t y p e ~ e i g e r - M u l l e rc o u n t e r counter

(G-M-counter) meaures r a d i a t i o n from b e t a o r gamma sources. i s s e n s i t i v e and inexpensive. The e l e c t r i c a l Output i s high.

When i o n i z i n g p a r t i c l e s pass t h r o u g h c e r t a i n c r y s t a l s , e.g., through coupled a to NaJ ' c r y s t a l the crystal, doped the are by f l a s h e s o f l i g h t produced i n t h e c r y s t a l .

a gamma-photon optically

t a l l i u m , a s c i n t i l l a t i o n d e t e c t o r can sense
If a p h o t o m u l t i p l i c a t o r i s

l i g h t i s amplifi,ed and c o n v e r t e d t o an e l e c t r i c more effective than G.M. counters f o r gama

s i g n a l , which can g i v e i n f o m a t i o n about t h e number o f photons and t h e i r energy. Scintillation counting. use instruments They a r e e x p e n s i v e and r e q u i r e f r e q u e n t ~naintenance. Other d e t e c t o r s These d e t e c t o r s p r o v i d e a

p h o t o g r a p h i c emulsions t o d e t e c t a l f a p a r t i c l e s .

permanent r e c o r d b u t r e q u i r e exposure o v e r a prolonged p e r i o d . The number of p a r t i c l e s o f collection of such p a r t i c l e s . the indoor The air amount can of be determined can after then a be

The p a r t i c l e s a r e g e n e r a l l y c o l l e c t e d b y l e t t i n g particles

an a i r stream pass t h r o u g h a f i l t e r .

determined by o p t i c a l methods, c o u n t i n g p a r t i c l e s b y t h e use o f a microscope, o r by w e i g h i n g t h e f i l t e r b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f p a r t i c l e s .

l i g h t i n g measurements

L i g h t i n g measurement t r a d i t i o n a l l y means'measuring t h e i l l u m i n a n c e i n There have are the simple designed t o have t h e salne s p e c t r a l s e n s i t i v i t y as t h e eye and a l s o c a l l e d cosine-correction. For more e l a b o r a t e measurements o f t h e v i s u a l environment one measure t h e luminance of the room surfaces. There are luminancemeters on t h e market. Measurement of t h e d a y l i g h t simultaneous the in same measurement as In the some of u n o b s t r u i t e d o v e r c a s t sky. time constant. factor is more Complex as
it

lux. to

and more s o p h i s t i c a t e d l u x - m e t e r s a v a i l a b l e w i t h a p h o t o c e l l arranged

expected v a r i a t i o n i n s e n s i t i v i t y w i t h t h e a n g l e of i n c i d e n c e , t h e so

should fairly

also feu

involves are made

a at

d a y l i g h t i l l u m i n a n c e i n d o o r s and o u t d o o r s from an varies a certain rapidly even when i t a p p e a r s t o b e of ways sunshine i s a l s o in different

I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e measurements daylight cases are

' I n many c o u n t r i e s t h e r e a r e standards o r recommendations f o r d a y l i g h t availability in different The standards expressed

dwellings.

requested.

F i g . 111 c - 5

Examples o f r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s f o r d e f i n i t i o n o f the daylight factor.


B i s the darkest point.

C gives

g i v e s more o f a mean v a l u e w i t h some g u a r a n t e e t h a t t h e d a y l i g h t i s n o t t o o uneven.


D i s right i n

i n f r o n t o f t h e window and t h e r e i s a r i s k o f v e r y dark p a r t s o f t h e room.

A t h e o r e t i c a l d a y l i g h t f a c t o r i s g e n e r a l l y c a l c u l d t e d based on
of the building. b l i n d s o r p o t t e d p l a n t s a r e supposed t o reduce t h e d a y l i g h t measuring factor a l l shadings.

the

design When

The windows are .assumed c l e a n and no shadings l i k e c u r t a i n s , penetration. the

t h e d a y l i g h t i n an occupied d w e l l i n g , i t i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o remove

A c o n t r o l i s t h e r e f o r e b e s t . d o n e by c a l c u l a t i o n o f
retrofit.

daylight

a f t e r , the

What d a y l i g h t l e v e l t h e occupants have i n r e a l i t y

then depends on i n d i v i d u a l h a b i t s , i n t e r i o r d e c o r a t i o n s etc. The f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e change i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l d a y l i g h t mainly the windows, and t h e g l a s s area. Which method o f c a l c u l a t i o n t o use i s g e n e r a l l y s t a t e d i n t h e standard. no method is given, the factor are

t r a n s m i s s i o n f a c t o r of the g l a s s , f i x e d shading d e v i c e s o u t s i d e t h e

If
are been

-8RS

Daylight

P r o t r a c t o r s - ' (Longmore

1968)
has

suggested.

For v e r t i c a l double glazed windows a corresponding method

presented ( F r i t z e l l - L 6 f b e r g

1970).

measurement of thermal comfort

Observations o f behaviour and survey of e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . unexpected even give experiment, techniques, gradation home in a of rise in to which incorrect one

of

energy

consumption' i n t h e and

home often

gain quite field

immensely i n value i f they form p a r t o f a f i e l d experiment r a t h e r t h a n a passive I n t h e l a t t e r case, secondary interpretation. l i n k a g e s between f a c t o r s can negate t h e value o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s o r

properly

designed

o r moie f a c t o r s a r e v a r i e d w i t h o u t regard t o o t h e r , randomization merely a cut the The comparisons and an unequivocal i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . the field and The the laboratory, participants. choice is home governed of can be more o r l e s s by the practical over the The aim The b e s t field

p o s s i b l y more i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r s , t h e i r l i n k a g e broken by p r o p e r yields clearfor There need be no dichotomy between realism laboratory.

converted i n t o a l a b o r a t o r y , o r p a r t i c i p a n t s can be made t o feel more o r l e s s a t usually d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n g a i n i n g t h e r e q u i r e d factors while degree control the

t o be s t u d i e d , o r i n a c h i e v i n g t h e r e q u i r e d degree of realism. achieving of the necessary degree can of c o n t r o l and measurement. often be incorporated

should always be t o p r o v i d e t h e maximum amount o f r e a l i s m f o r features laboratory experiments

participants intz

experiments.

F i e l d measurements o f human comfort. variety of ways.


It

Thermal comfort can be d e f i n e d zone that permits a

in

is

u s u a l l y d e f i n e d as t h e absence o f discomfort. a nocomplaints

This certain

negative d e f i n i t i o n defines

l a t i t u d e f o r v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e thermal c l i m a t e even f o r an i n d i v i d u a l . thermal comfort i s sometimes d e f i n e d as t h e s t a t e where a s u b j e c t cannot whether he

However, decide This The differs arbitrary group

would l i k e t h e temperature r a i s e d o r lowered even i f pressed. exactly by experiment. where a Unfortunately certain, quite
it

p o i n t can be found f a i r l y

g r e a t l y between i n d i v i d u a l s even i f they a r e a l l under t h e same c o n d i t i o n s . c o m f o r t zone i s then d e f i n e d as t h e r e g i o n proportion of people a r e i n exact thermal comfort.

This p r o v i d e s v e r y l i t t l e

i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e consequences, f o r an i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r t h a n a l a r g e o f people, o f d e v i a t i o n s from t h e i d e a l . Complaints o f thermal d i s c o m f o r t a r e unsuitable human body: and combination rate.
uf

caused

in

the

first

place

by

an

t h e s i x f a c t o r s d e t e r m i n i n g t h e heat balance o f t h e velocity, by have to do humidity, to be clothing thermally of what alone. are also he caused would a n i s m a t c h between what the

temperature, thermal r a d i a t i o n , a i r They and what

metabolic

occupant i s t r y i n g t o do, comfortablethe subject shiver i f i t i s cold. is doing be

undress, s t o p work o r sweat if i t i s h o t , dress up, work harder o r Any study o f thermal comfort must t a k e and would l i k e t o be doing. environmental account factors Thermal comfort cannot be

measured as if i t was some i n e v i t a b l e p r o d u c t o f Occupants must given supposed t o be c o m f o r t a b l e

an i d e a of t h e a c t i v i t y f o r which t h e environment i s

Thermal comfort responses can be o b t a i n e d by means o f labelled categories of response. The 7-point scale universally 7 Much t o o h o t Too h o t Comfortably warm I d e a l l y comfortable Comfortably cool Too c o l d Much t o o c o l d

questionnaires below

with

i s used almost

6
5

4 3

2
1

if possible,
questions,

the replies by

should

be

obtained

by

verbal

sequence
it.

of This
If

starting

asking

whether

t h e temperature i s c o m f o r t a b l e .

' p l a c e s t h e response u n e q u i v o c a l l y i n t h e 345 "comfort zone" o r o u t s i d e

-~

the

analysis

l a t e r c a l l s f o r an assessment o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n " t o o h o t " o r " t o o where to draw the line: the subjects

c o l d ' ' , t h e r e i s t h e n no d o u b t a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s have done so.


,

Mean s k i n t e m p e r a t u r e i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e r m a l c o m f o r t hardly idea


it

in

the

cold, is a

but good where

all to

in

t h e h e a t , where s k i n - w e t t e d n e s s i s t h e b e s t p r e d i c t o r . I n most e n e r g y c o n s e r v a t i o n work' i t obtain a measure o f hand o r f i n g e r s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e . t o regulate the heat because a of its

T h i s i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o measure. merely

T h i s p r o v i d e s good i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e t h e r m a l s t a t e o f t h e body i n t h e r e g i o n vasodilatation and vasoconstriction are sufficient b a l a n c e o f t h e body. influence Finger temperature i s i t s e l f of i n t e r e s t

on f i n g e r - t i p s e n s i t i v i t y and manual d e x t e r i t y , u s u a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n better

d w e l l i n g s a s w e l l a s w o r k p l a c e s , whereas hand t e m p e r a t u r e i s p r o b a b l y predictor o f g r i p strength.

S t u d i e s u s i n g s k i n t e m p e r a t u r e as a c r i t e r i o n c a n i n v o l v e r e p e a t e d measures with 'for be no too limitation. frequent to also it U s e f u l d a t a c a n i n t h i s c a s e b e o b t a i n e d from a mere 5-10 to ask will ,This to subjects.
I f t h e r m a l c o m f o r t r e s p o n s e s a r e t o be s t u d i e d , i t i s u n w i s e

assesslnents, and o f t e n b e t t e r t o u s e an i n d e p e n d e n t measures I n t h i s case, 10-20 conditions once subjects only. distinguish appropriate is not reliably for between d i f f e r i n g b y a few

d e s i g n t o a v o i d r o u t i n e answers o r boredom. required is d e g r e e s K, i.e. number be measurements. obtained,

10-20 s u b j e c t s t o e x p e r i e n c e e a c h c o n d i t i o n independent to use

comparisons of s k i n temperature r e p e a t e d measures because o f t h e

I f b e h a v i o u r a l measures, f o r example o f work p e r f o r m a n c e , a r e

advisable between

learning t h a t takes place designs involving

repeated

exposures. even

Independent between

measures conditions

work . p e r f o r m a n c e

u s u a i l y requi,re 20-30 s u b j e c t s u n d e r each

c o n d i t i o n i f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a r e t o be shown, that c l e a r l y d i f f e r subjectively. It i s u s u a l l y a l s o thermal worth supplementing the

information

obtained

by

q u e s t i o n n a i r e b y a s k i n g f o r a s i m p l e 3 - c a t e g o r y ( t o o l o w /OK/ t o o h i g h ) floor temperature,

assessment o f t h e r m a l r a d i a t i o n , a i r v e l o c i t y , h u m i d i t y and

i f a p p r o p r i a t e , f o r d i a g n o s t i c p u r p o s e s and r e m e d i a l act.ion.
An assessment o f a i r q u a l i t y ( s t u f f y /normal / f r e s h ) and e a s y t o o b t a i n a t t h e same t i m e . is also informative

Human b e i n g s i n c o n t r o l l e d l a b o r a t o r y experiments. for this approach

The usual j u s t i f i c a t i o n to which for the the the the

i s t h a t extraneous f a c t o r s w i l l be absent o r under c o n t r o l ,

b u t i t i s o f t e n so t h a t t h e measurement techniques o r procedures participants well, participant experiment, o r humidity. real using life f o r convenience, be performed i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y , would be low. even presenting in a the second field. i.e. the as

a r e t o be s u b j e c t e d a r e so i n t r u s i v e t h a t t h e experiments m i g h t as realism One way o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s purpose . o f noise, as such

problem i s t o d e l i b e r a t e l y m i s l e a d t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s as t o perhaps factor,

independent v a r i a b l e of i n t e r e s t w h i l e i n f a c t s t u d y i n g responses t o temperature I n t h i s way t h e s u b j e c t s - r e a c t i o n s t o t h e concealed, t r u e f a c t o r s outside the laboratory. emphasis on Ethical the true committees employ and this requiring method factors f u l l and by o f the may be more n a i v e and t h e r e f o r e approximate b e t t e r t o t h e r e a c t i o n s o c c u r r i n g i n i n f o r m e d consent can make i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o subtly different experiment. The measures t a k e n i n l a b o r a t o r y experiments on human r e q u i r e m e n t s environment behavioural. body systems, fall man under three headings: physiolological, of the and except

-decoy-

subjective

These r e f e r t o t h e t h r e e 1 e v e l s . o f t h e system h i e r a r c h y c o m p r i s i n g as a u n i t , and t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h he a c t s as a component.

The c r i t e r i o n measures should be so d e f i n e d t h a t t h e y a r e r e l e v a n t t o t h e system o b j e c t i v e a t each l e v e l , and are i f p o s s i b l e measures of t h e degree t o which t h e o b j e c t i v e hasbeen attained. is body goal continued; systems undamaged Thus as t h e l o w e s t l e v e l , body systems, functioning. Environmental the goal are to the The aims. nominal as efficient factors

assessed a t t h i s l e v e l i n terms o f t h e impairment o f f u n c t i o n t h e y i n t r o d u c e

t h e damage done t o e a r s by n o i s e , t o eyes by l i g h t , t o c e n t r a l A t t h e n e x t l e v e l , man h i m s e i f . conditions to the on of the experiment. of these

nervous f u n c t i o n s by chemicals o r by heat. T h i s must b e determined o r subjective ,Whereas assessments set by the

may be comfort and w e l l - b e i n g o r i t may be performance d e s p i t e d i s c o m f o r t . obtained measures is for v e r b a l l y . o r o t h e r w i s e from t h e s u b j e c t can b e achievement can be made an i n t e r v a l o r r a t i o s c a l e . assessments are usually

designed t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t physiological scaling comparisons,

s u b j e c t i v e assessments should u s u a l l y be t r e a t e d as o r d i n a l , o r even as

if

category

used. example

Subjective

s t r e s s - s p e c i f i c as p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures cross-modal discomfort.

to

i t i s d i f i i c u l t f o r s u b j e c t s t o make

compare

heat d i s c o m f o r t w i t h n o i s e

Behavioural measures r e f e r t o t h e f u n c t i o n i n g of man as a u n i t i n interacting Physiological obtained subject task from does with his environment, can or and talk, with equipment, of made in may a are oh experimental measures demand a h i g h e r measures i n s t r k t e d not tomove degree realism of the and

context, Such

w i t h o t h e r people. prone, naked

experiment. subjects are a a the often what on

often

subjective sitting This

assessments ,can bare

bewildered i n a

subjects

room and w a i t i n g f o r

someth,ing, a n y t h i n g , t o happen. defined in performance o f a g i v e n task. really performed

Behavioural measures i n v o l v e o b s e r v i n g context.

o f t e n i n c l u d e measuring h i s modelled for This i s o b v i o u s l y t h e

The task should be chosen from o r t h e environment i n q u e s t i o n .

case i n workplace s t u d i e s , where t h e t a s k p r o v i d e s t h e - r a i s o n d - e t r e workplace.

ow ever,
study, Measures measures

numerous w e l l - d e f i n e d a c t i v i t i e s a r e performed i n t h e home reading, watching television, conversation, resting, of how w e l l these a c t i v i t i e s can be performed a r e r e l e v a n t They have t h e advantage over p h y s i o l o g i ~ a l and They a r e a l s o in many cases considerably that they a r e n o t s t r e s s - s p e c i f i c . b u t a r e a f f e c t e d b y a l l

housework,

sleeping. subjective

c r i t e r i a f o r energy consumption. manner o f environmental v a r i a b l e s .

more s e n s i t i v e t o sub-optimal environmental c o n d i t i o n s .

Simulation

with

dummies.

Physiological,

subjective conservation

and

behavioural They

measures must o b v i o u s l y be o b t a i n e d from r e a l people. Dummies s i m u l a t i n g people have a p l a c e i n energy can room. a simulate room. All

Not so p h y s i c a l measures. research.

t h e thermal and a c o u s t i c impact o f people on t h e environment o f a too o f t e n a heat source of t h e r e q u i r e d wattage i s used w i t h o u t Small, h o t sources lead to and . r a d i a t i o n exchange c o n d i t i o n s i n a room even

Care should be taken i n s i m u l a t i n g t h e thermal c o n t r i b u t i o n o f a human t o

regard t o i t s s i z e , shape and s u r f a c e temperature. quite different convective though t h e i r t o t a l heat c o n t r i b u t i o n may be c o r r e c t . P h y s i c a l measurements of t h e heat l o s s from extensively used to More measure the total

heated

mannequins

have

been Such

insulation

value o f clothing.

mannequins must f i t t h e c l o t h i n g and should a l s o have r e a l i s t i c s k i n temperature distributions. require influence mannequin. to move more of d e t a i l e d measurement o f heat l o s s from d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of asymmetric with radiation, etc. t h e body i n response t o c l o t h i n g , draughts, sophisticated even posture mannequins under temperature distributions

will
The and

physiologically thermal

correct. skin

sub-optimal

conditions.

on heat balance can s u i t a b l y be assessed u s i n g a thermal

I n t h e n e a r f u t u r e thermal mannequins w i t h t h e a b i l i t y t o sweat realistically

will

be developed f o r more s o p h i s t i c a t e d assessment o f

c l o t h i n g assemblies and ' t h e i r importance f o r energy conservation.

Bib1 iography

ASHRAE Handbook & Product D i r e c t o r y 1981. Fundamentals. American S o c i e t y o f Heating. R e f r i g e r a t i n g and A i r - c o n d i t i o n i n g Engineers Inc. New York (1981). Doebelin E.O.: Measurement Systems: A p p l i c a t i o n and Design. McGraw H i l l (1966)

Energy and B u i l d i n g s . Special Issue B u i l d i n g s " . Dec. 1982 Fanger P.O. 1979. Givoni 0.: and V a l b j i i r n 0. (Ed.)

"

Comfort and Energy Conservation i n

Indoor Climate. P ~ o c . from ~ i ' r s t

I n t e r n a t i o n a l Indoor Climate Symposium 1978. Danish B u i l d i n g Research I n s t i t u t e

Man, Climate 8 . A r c h i t e c t u r e . Applied Science P u b l i s h e r ~ t d ,London

(2nd ed. 1976). IS0 ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l Standard O r g a n i z a t i o n ) : "Thermal environment. S p e c i f i c a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e appliances and methods f o r measuring t h e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e environment". D r a f t ( J u l y 1980). ,McIntyre D.A.: Indoor Climate, A r c h i t e c t u r a l Science Series. Applied Science

P u b l i s h e r s (1980). Ower,

and Pankhurst R.C.:

The measurement o f a i r flaw, Pergamon Press

( 5 t h ed.. 1977). Van S t r a a l e n J.F.: Thermal Performance of B u i l d i n g s . F l s e v i e r A r c h i t e c t u r a l

Science Series (1967).

References

ASTM-13-1391-57,

Revision 1978. Standard Method f o r Measurement of Odor i n

Athmospheres ( D i l u t i o n Method). Dravnieks A., W h i t f i e l d J. and Shah Y.: ASHRAE Trans. 80. P a r t I (1974),

ASHRAE Trans. 81, p a r t 11 (1975). D r a v n i e k s A.:

Measurement o f Odors i n an I n d o o r Environment i n I n d o o r C l i m a t e

Proc. -(see Fanger Eberhard J.P.

Valbjorn).

( P r o j e c t D i r e c t o r ) i The performance Concept: A Study o f i t s 1. N a t i o n a l Bureau o f Standards Washington D.C.

A p p l i c a t i o n t o Housing, Vol.
<

Clearingshouse (1969). E r i k s s o n B;E., v e r s i o n 1979). L s f s t e d t 8. and V a l b j p r n 0.: Matning av t e r m i s k t i n n e k l i m a t .

Swedish C o u n c i l o f B u i l d i n g Research. I n f o r m a t i o n p r i n g B:5 1976 (Revised

F i n k e l s t e i n W.,

F i t z n e r K. and Moog W.:

Measurements of room a i r v e l o c i t y

i n a i r - c o n d i t i o n e d environment. Heizung, L u f t u n g Haustechnik, Vol. 24 pp 37-41 and pp 59-65 (1973). F r i t z e l l , 8. & Lofberg, H.A., D a g s l j u s inomhus. (Daylight indoors),

Swedish B u i l d i n g Research C o u n c i l , T l l : 1 9 7 0 (1970) Graves, K.V.: Globe thermometer e v a l u a t i o n . h e r . I n d u s t r i a l Hygiene

A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l Vol. 35, p. 30 (1974). ~a'rdeman, L . : Development o f a t h e r m i s t o r anemometer f o r t h e measurement of

a i r v e l o c i t i e s i n v e n t i l a t e d rooms. Swedish I n s t i t u t e f o r B u i l d i n g Research D2:1974 (1974). Jmrgensen, F.E.: An omni d i r e c t i o n a l T h i n - f i l m probe f o r I n d o o r C l i m a t e

Research. DISA I n f o r m a t i o n No 24, p. 24 (1979). , L e b r u n J. and M a r r e t D.: Comfort Thermique e t Consomnation D-Energie Dans

Les C o n d i t i o n s D-Hiver. C o l l e c t i o n des ' p u b l i c a t i o n s d e l a F a c u l t 6 des Sciences Appliquees d e 1 7 J n i v e r s i t 6 de Lihge, no 56 (1975). Lebrun J. and M a r r e t D.: ( s e e Fanger Longmore J.: D i f f e r e n c e s i n Comfort S e n s a t i o n s i n Spaces Heated I n d o o r C l i m a t e Proc. p 627

b y D i f f e r e n t Methods. B e l g i a n Experiments.

Valbjgrn). BRS D a y l i g h t P r o t r a c t o r s . HMSO, London 1968.

MClntyre D.A. : A p o l y e t h y l e n c e 'shielded globe thermometer, ECRC/N940. The E l e c t r i c i t y Council Research C e n t r e , Chester, U.K. Neubert'H.K.P.: Olesen B.W. (See Fanger Instrument Transducers, Claredon Press, Oxford ( 1 9 7 7 ) .

and Thorshauge J . : D i f f e r e n c e s i n Comfort Sensations i n Spaces

Heated by D i f f e r e n t Methods, Danish Experiments. Indoor C l i m a t e ~ i o c .p. 645

Valbjorn).

CHAPTER 111 d Thermal performance o f b u i l d i n g s

Contents

general i n f o r m a t i o n p r o p e r t i e s of m a t e r i a l s

- thermal
-

w a l l s : steady-state parameters i) ii) U-valueof walls surface heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t s p. 111 d- 7 p. 111 d-11
P. 111 d-11

i i i ) U-value o f windows

w a l l s : unsteady-state parameters i) ii) d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e parameters of t h e F o u r i e r transform a n a l y i i s t h e Envelope Thermal Test U n i t Method function coefficients

p. 111 d-13 p. 111 d-13

p. 111 d-14
p. 111 d-15

i i i ) experimental v a l i d a t i o n o f t h e t r a n s f e r

measurement o f r a d i a t i v e p r o p e r t i e s i) r a d i a t i v e p r o p e r t i e s of b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s -

p. 111 d-15 p. 111 d-15 p. I 1 1 d-17 p. I 1 1 d-21

ii ) thermography

references

Keywords

absorptance, a b s o r p t i v i t y conduction c o i d u c t i v i t y , thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y convection d i f f u s i v i t y , thermal d i f f u s i v i t y Envelope Thermal Test U n i t (ETTU) guarded h o t box method guarded h o t p l a t e method heated w i r e method heat f l o w , heat f l u x h e a t f l o w meter i n f r a r e d scanner radiation reflectance, r e f l e c t i v i t y response f a c t o r s method s t e a d y - s t a t e regime s u r f a c e heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t s temperature thermography, i n f r a r e d thermography t r a n s i e n t - s t a t e ( o r u n s t e a d y - s t a t e ) regime transmittance, transmissivity U-value, thermal t r a n s m i t t a n c e

I 1 1 d Thermal performance o f b u i l d i n g s

general information

The t h e r m a l performance o f a defining

building

appears

as

set

of

properties

t h e a b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n a p l e a s a n t i n d o o r c l i m a t e t h r o u g h o u t t h e year.

It i s , t h e r e f o r e , t h e t e c h n i c a l answer t o t h e u s e r - s requirements.

From a p h y s i c a l p o i n t of view, as t h e r e between building. These energy f l o w s w i l l depend on:

exists

temperature

difference

t h e outsi'de and t h e i n s i d e , energy f l o w s w i l l . c r o s s t h e envelope o f t h e

- the - the
-

c o m p o s i t i o n of components (window, w a l l , r o o f , basement ) o f t h e envelope o r d e r i n which t h e c o n s t i t u t i v e l a y e r s o f t h e w a l l a r e arranged

t h e m a t e r i a l used f o r each l a y e r .

A s h o r t r e v i e w o f c o n d u c t i v e h e a t t r a n s f e r problems i s g i v e n i n ch.
The measurement o f t h e r m a l p r o p e r t i e s o f m a t e r i a l s i s f i r s t d e s c r i b e d . I n t h e s t e a d y - s t a t e regime t h e m a t e r i a l c o n s i d e r e d i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y thermal conductivity A allowing
'

I b.

its the

d e s c r i p t i o n ;ill of this

be

given

o f the different either in

measurements

the

determination

quantity,

laboratory, o r i n s i t u . I n t h e t r a n s i e n t - s t a t e regime a m a t e r i a l i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d diffusivitya(see ch.


I b).

by

its

thermal for

The measurement o f t h i s p h y s i c a l q u a n t i t y can be following the methodology adopted

performed d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y (i.e., t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of c o n d u c t i v i t y ) . I n the field, properties of a

t h e problem i s g e n e r a l l y n o t t o given material,

find

the

relevant

thermal

b u t r a t h e r t o handle a m u l t i l a y e r w a l l , a l l

layers being different.

Here a g a i n one has t o d i s t i n g u i s h between s t e a d y - s t a t e


I

and t r a n s i e n t - s t a t e c o n d i t i o n s .

I n s t e a d y - s t a t e c o n d i t i o n s t h e t h e r m a l performance o f a m u l t i l a y e r w a l l c a n be described by means of a single parameter: the thermal transmittance (U-value) o f t h e w a l l . The equipment t o measure t h i s q u a n t i t y i n t h e f l e l d w i l l

be

described.

Some

information

will

a l s o be g i v e n about t h e measurement o f

s u r f a c e heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t s and o f t h e U-value o f windows. For t r a n s i e n t - s t a t e c o n d i t i o n s ,


it

is

generally

impossible

to

measure obtained measured

d i r e c t l y t h e parameters i n t r o d u c e d by t h e d i f f e r e n t mathematical methods such as f i n i t e d i f f e r e n c e and response f a c t o r s . measuring values. When t h e F o u r i e r t r a n s f o r m m e t h o d i s used (see ch. "Fourier coefficients" building as a whole,, can be measured in in the I b ) , which solves the the the surface temperatures, the t e s t e d and f i n a l l y comparing An i n d i r e c t v a l i d a t i o n can be introducing heat fluxes with the them i n t h e a l g o r i t h m t o be

calculated

heat t r a n s f e r problem i n t h e s i m p l e r case of p e r i o d i c heat f l u x e s , t h e s o - c a l l e d laboratory. by its Regarding i t s - behaviour transients t a t e c o n d i t i o n s can be equivalent thermal

s y n t h e t i c a l l y , even though u n p r e c i s e l y , parameters (ETP-s) (see ch. The l a s t s e c t i o n emittance, described. of

described

I b).
this chapter analyzes the methods for measuring is

r e f l e c t a n c e and t r a n s m i t t a n c e o f b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s .

An a p p l i c a t i o n

o f growing importance i n t h e f i e l d o f b u i l d i n g science, namely thermography,

thermal p r o p e r t i e s o f m a t e r i a l

I t i s i m p o s s i b l e , except i n t h e case

of

gases

at

low

temperatures,

to on

predict

the

value

of

thermal

conductivity,

a , (see ch.

I b) t h e o r e t i c a l l y .

Therefore, a l l a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i s based measurements. I n general. materials

varies In

with a

temperature, manner,

but, the

at

least

for

building of

t h e change i s so small t h a t , i n most s i t u a t i o n s , thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y similar pressure dependence

can be assumed constant..

thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y may be ignored. Nevertheless, a f a c t o r which s t r o n g l y a f f e c t s thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y moisture i.e. includes content most of of t h e m a t e r i a l . the insulating is the

his

i s e s p e c i a l l y so f o r porous m a t e r i a l s , with small voids. This category Therefore, one s h o u l d always be

materials consisting o f s o l i d matter

materials.

conscious of t h i s f a c t when a p p l y i n g v a l u e s conductivity of b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s ,

from

standard

tables

of

thermal than

These v a l u e s g e n e r a l l y t a k e i n t o account a values

c e r t a i n m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t o f t h e m a t e r i a l and t h e r e f o r e g i v e h i g h e r t h o s e measured i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y on d r y samples. The two standard methods used i n t h e thermal conductivity be d e s c r i b e d t o s t r e s s t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s laboratory for the

measurement

of

i n t h e s t e a d y - s t a t e and f o r an oven-dry sample, w i l l h e r e involved. C177). is used for the

The guarded h o t p l a t e method ( d e s c r i b e d by ASTM determination consists of o f b u i l d i n g materials. an indicated i n fig.

of t h e e x i s t i n g t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y o f d r y homogeneous specimens I n i t s s i m p l e s t Form, t h e apparatus used i n t h i s heated plate and method electrically I 1 1 d-1. A cold plate The two l i q u i d - c o o l e d p l a t e s , as

Two s i m i l a r s l a b s a r e mounted on each s i d e of t h e h o t p l a t e . is then pressed against the heated p l a t e i s d i v i d e d i n t o two p o r t i o n s : and t h e o u t e r o r guard s e c t i o n . a t t h e same temperature, effects. knowing The electric c a r e f u l l y monitored. the energy guard the central minimizing heat the or

o u t s i d e o f each specimen b y a clamp screw. measuring errors due

section, to edge section i s

D u r i n g t e s t i n g , t h e two s e c t i o n s a r e m a i n t a i n e d section to required measuring

The t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y o f t h e m a t e r i a l can be c a l c u l a t e d

t h e energy r e q u i r e d , t h e a r e a o f t h e s e c t i o n , t h e t e m p e r a t u r e g r a d i e n t ,

and t h e s ~ e c i m e nt h i c k n e s s . The q u a r d e d h o t box method measurements device. by of which non-homogeneous and f l o o r s of b u i l d i n g s . (described in ASTM

C236),

is

designed IIId-2, is

for a

panels, e.g.,

components such as w a l l s , r o o f s

The h o t box apparatus, as shown i n f i g .

a c o n s t a n t t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e can be e s t a b l i s h e d a c r o s s a temperature electrically the panel. The apparatus c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e f i v e - s i d e d a hot box,

t e s t panel f o r t h e t i m e necessary t o ensure c o n s t a n t h e a t f l u x , and distribution, boxes: heated; we1 1. and across a a c o l d box c o o l e d b y a r e f r i g e r a t i n g machine; metering

box, enclosed i n t h e h o t box, e l e c t r i c a l l y heated as

The h o t box i s k e p t a t t h e same t e m p e r a t u r e as t h e m e t e r i n g box t o m i n i m i z e heat exchanges t o o r from it. the temperature

here fore,

t h e heat s u p p l i e d t o t h e m e t e r i n g box Knowledge o f t h e e l e c t r i c a l the specimen area energy the and affords

i s equal t o t h e h e a t f l u x across t h e panel. supply, difference,

c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y o r conductance of t h e t e s t panel.

Fig.

111 d - I

Guard=d h o t p l a t e a p p a r a t u s

A8-

c e n t r a l heater c e n t r a l surface p l a t e s

central section o f heating u n i t guard s e c t i o n o f heating u n i t

C- g u a r d h e a t e r D- g u a r d s u r f a c e p l a t e s

E- c o o l i n g u n i t s ES- c o o l i n g u n i t s b r f a c e p l a t e s F- d i f f e r e n t i a l t h e r m o c o u p l e s G- h e a t i n g u n i t s u r f a c e t h e r m o c o u p l e s H- c o o l i n g u n i t s u r f a c e t h e r m o c o u p l e s I- t e s t specimens

+guard

area

Fig.

metering area

I11 d-2

Guarded h o t box a p p a r a t u s

Unfortunately, t h e determine reality. materials. conditions, thermal The reason required for

two

methods of is

presented the

above

cannot of

be

applied steady

to

conductivity this the for

wet1 m a t e r i a l s , which a r e t h e ones used i n that establishment the state modifies humidity content of t h e

tests,

I n o r d e r t o perform measurements o f thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y the and the transient-state, Schreiner, face of

of 1979, fact,

materials

in

it

i s n o t necessary t o develop new experimental devices: al., In D-Eustachio the thermal on Hooper and Lepper, 1950).

t h e "guarded h o t p l a t e " apparatus may be used (Fuet et, 1952,

c o n d u c t i v i t y o f t h e sample i s obtained by analyzing t h e temperature r e a c t i o n t h e sample a f f e c t e d by an imposed f l u x . heat (see.. thus p o s s i b l e thanks t o t h e various s o l u t i o n s o f t h e boundary the and conditions and equation under the

Such an a n a l y s i s i s made specific of The use o f t h e duration

guarded h o t p l a t e i n t h e t r a n s i e n t - s t a t e reduces c o n s i d e r a b l y measurements the makes


it

e.g.,

Carslaw

and

Jaeger, 1959). to deal

possible

w i t h wet m a t e r i a l s .

However, t h i s r e q u i r e s an apparatus t h a t .can produce c y c l i c boundary c o n d i t i o n s , determined value of t h e c o n d u c t i v i t y w i l l be v a l i d o n l y f o r t h e c y c l i c frequency o f t h e boundary c o n d i t i o n s . Another t r a n s i e n t - s t a t e method, named " t h e heated developed by T.N.O. (Holland) and is based on temperature f i e l d s . w i r e embedded i n i t . position) is wire method" material as of has been a

t h e theory o f c y l i n d r i c a l through

A constant heat f l u x i s sent i n t o t h e

Then, t h e temperature g r a d i e n t i n t h e area around t h e w i r e t i m e .and As t h e temperature a t t h a t p o i n t v a r i e s l i n e a r l y w i t h

(a f u n c t i o n of t h e thermal p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e m a t e r i a l as w e l l measured. t h e l o g a r i t h m o f time, one can c a l c u l a t e t h e c o n d u c t i v i t y .

The main advantage of t h i s method i s t h a t i t i s the o n l y one which has lead t o the development o f a d e v i c e which can be used f o r i n s i t u measurements. d e v i c e i s c a l l e d the a needle-shaped
"

This

-probeu (Erkelen, 1960, Hooper and Chang, 1953).

It i s

instrument

t h a t can be i n s e r t e d i n t o a small h o l e d r i l l e d f o r This instrument makes i t p o s s i b l e t o monitor the One can then perform measurements had to be extracted

t h i s purpose through t h e w a l l . temperature

a t d i f f e r e n t depths i n t h e w a l l .

i n a non- d e s t r u c t i v e manner, whereas, formerly, samples from t h e w a l l .

A w i r e heater i s dwe'lled, t o g e t h e r w i t h a temperature


material under test. c e r t a i n t i m e i s used t o c a l c u l a t e thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y o f

transducer, the material.

in

the Fig.

Temperature measured near a constant heat source a f t e r a

g l a s s 4.0 3.0 mm P[ g l a s s 2.8 1.2 mm 0 mangani ne 0.1 mmB

Zxconstantan 0.3 mm 0 air

test material

jacket 'tube
0

tube o f A- probe

thermocouple

Fig.

111 d-3

The A- probe

IIId-3a m m thick. wire) in

shows t h e X the

-probe.

The heater i s a double-folded constantan w i r e 0.3, thermocouples save IlId-3b). (0.1

\Glued t o t h i s w i r e are constantan- manganine lengthwise direction. In order to

mm
is

space, each s e t of The whole

thermojunctions has a common constantan w i r e (see f i g .

then i n c o r p o r a t e d i n a small glass tube w i t h an e i t e r n a l diameter o f 2.8

mm.

w a l l s : steady-state parameters

This s e c t i o n i s devoted t o f i e l d meahrements of t h e . t h e r m a l performance of walls. In steady-state conditions, the parameters which and characterize the its overall Ib. to test. a the heat thermal behaviour of a w a l l a r e i t s thermal conductance transfer coefficient, also called

m. They a r e d e f i n e d i n Ch.
there are no air cavities

A method o f determining t h e U-value o f a b u i l d i n g component i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e c t i o n i n a guarded hot box: a r e g e n e r a l l y i n good agreement when construction.

t h e measured and c a l c u l a t e d values within

When t h e r e i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e composition o f

t h e w a l l , i t i s , however, b e t t e r t o perform o n - s i t e measurements. i ) U-value o f w a l l s

'

The most canmon method f o r t h e measurement o f t h e U-value use of special the devices called Heat Flow of an Uunkle, 1954): amplifying thermal c i r c u i t . Most HFM-s c o n s i s t o f a t h i n , t h e r m a l l y and e l e c t r i c a l l y which a c t s as a support t o a (e.g. the the cold two side faces of of t h i s sheet. the

of

walls

makes and

Meters (HFM) (ASTM C518, Gier and auxiliary layer inserted i n the

the' b a s i c p r i n c i p l e of t h i s apparatus c o n s i s t s i n d e t e c t i n g temperature gradient

insulating

layer

copper-constantan) t h e r m o e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t . These thermocouples, t h e r m a l l y i n . p a r a l l e l and temperature difference between The whole of

The s o l d e r i n g s o f t h e two metals are placed a l t e r n a t i v e l y on t h e h o t s i d e and on e l e c t r i c a l l y i n s e r i e s , d e t e c t and a m p l i f y t h e

l a y e r when i t i s crossed by a thermal f l u x .

probe i s g e n e r a l l y covered by an aluminium l a y e r t o improve t h e t h e thermal flow.

homogeneity

The h e a t f l o w meter must be c a l i b r a t e d (e.g., plate) 1979) to the make


it

by means While its

of

guarded and

hot

ready

for

on-site of its the two between

measurements: flow.

the output voltage i s (Devisme thermal Marechal, is

g e n e r a l l y a l i n e a r f u n c t i o n of t h e h e a t thermal for resistance between difference temperature responsible Therefore, difference the

h e a t f l o w meter i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e faces, the capacity high i n - and o u t - going heat fluxes. thermal

a m a t e r i a l has t o be chosen having b o t h a s u f f i c i e n t l y

r e s i s t a n c e and a low thermal c a p a c i t y . The d e f i n i t i o n o f therefore wall, is the U-value refers to steady-state energy conditions, across and the An a

n o t d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e t o f i e l d measurements, where s t e a d y - s t a t e However, i f t h e flowing recorded f o r a t i m e l o n g enough, t h e amount of energy s t o r e d i n t h e Outdoor r a d i a t i o n has a l s o t o be taken i n t o accou?t. Leaving t h e e x a c t d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e temperatures
till

c o n d i t i o n s can never be achieved.

4, i s

w a l l can be.neglected. approximate way of s o l - a i r temperature.

d o i n g t h i s i s t o i d e n t i f y t h e outdoor temperature w i t h t h e

l a t e r stage (see below), we have:

U =I": d t / ~ ~ (Ti ?
0

To) d t

(111 d-1)

where T i
= i n d o o r temperature = heat f l o w across t h e u n j t area

To = outdoor temperature

Measurements cannot a c t u a l l y be c a r r i e d on f o r an i n f i n i t e time. therefore well few as hours to study f o r the integration.

One

has

t h c e r r o r s which may occur because of t h e f i n i t e t i m e used These e r r o r s depend on t h e w a l l c o n s t r u c t i o n and weight as I I I d - 1 ) t o achieve a 10% p r e c i s i o n ranges ten from a

on t h e a m p l i t u d e of t h e temperature d i f f e r e n c e d u r i n g t h e measurement. up to almost days depending on t h e considered w a l l (see f i g .

The i n t e g r a t i o n t i m e ( i n eq. IIId-4).

Three q u a n t i t i e s have t o be measured i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n t h e U-value:

i n s i d e ( s u r f a c e ) temperature o u t s i d e ( s u r f a c e ) temperature i n s i d e heat f l u x

0 1 , O 2 4 6 8
TIME (DAYS)
Fig.

I 1 1 d-4

The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e r a t i o UIUo i n t i m e d u r i n g a measurement o f t h e U - v a l u e o f a w a l l u i t h a h e a t f l o w m e t e r . U i s t h e measured U - v a l u e a n d Uo i s t h e c o r r e c t U - v a l u e ( a f t e r EMPA 1 9 8 1 ) .

Table Ill d - 1 U-value and s p e c i f i c mass o f w a l l s examined i n F i g u r e I I I d - 4 .


~

N 1

Type o f w a l l Brick wall Brick wall Two-shell b r i c k w a l l Sandwich w a l l Concrete w a l l w i t h i n s i d e i n s . Concrete w a l l w i t h o u t s i d e i n s .

U (w/~"c) 1.i0 0.90 0.40 0.40 0.60 0.60

Massfarea (kg/m31 407

2
3 4 5 6

505 367 8 387 387

The measurement of t h e thermal run. conductance.

quantities

in

parantheses

yields

the in

value the

of long the

I n t h e o r y t h e h e a t f l u x c o u l d be measured o u t s i d e as w e l l

as i n s i d e , because t h e two i n t e g r a l s o f heat f l u x should c o i n c i d e a i r layer; difference moreover, t h e s t r o n g outdoor r a d i a t i o n between field would

However, t h i s i s very o f t e n n o t t r u e , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e w a l l i n c l u d e s an emphasize t h e HFM r a d i a t i v e p r o p e r t i e s and those of t h e w a l l on which

t h e HFM i s i n s e r t e d . Since t h e w a l l c o n s t r u c t i o n is not homogeneous,. temperatures and choose for chosen be heat the

f l u x e s w i l l n o t be c o n s t a n t over i t s surface. points

I n t h i s case, an i n f r a r e d scanner

can be e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l t o assess t h e thermal s t a t e o f t h e w a l l and P a r t i c u l a r c a r e shou,d be measurements, representative measured. a wall outdoor taken. when from installfng direct this, solar Ib, of the sensors:

where t h e measurements should be c a r r i e d o u t (Roberts and Reinke, 1982). U-value as the shaded r a d i a t i o n should be chosen. s h o u l d be course, cannot directly

Otherwise, s o l - a i r temperature, d e f i n e d i n Ch. temperature;

For conductance measurements, where t h e surface temperatures a r e r e q u i r e d , the temperature sensors should be as small as p o s s i b l e and should be embedded of plaster. In this way the short-term due t o t h e t u r b u l e n c e i n t h e boundary l a y e r , a d j a c e n t i n t o t h e w a l l , under a t h i n l a y e r temperature fluctuations, t o t h e w a l l surface,

a r e a u t o m a t i c a l l y averaged, and t h e problems r e l a t e d t o t h e

r e p r e s e n t a t i v i t y of t h e sensor p o s i t i o n a r e diminished. The use o f heat f l o w meters i n v o l v e s some s p e c i f i c problems, such as:

a d d i t i o n a l thermal r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e sensor i t s e l f ; a l t e r a t i o n o f t h e w a l l thermal f i e l d ; u n s t e a d y - s t a t e c o n d i t i o n s o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g t h e measurements, w h i l e t h e HFM has been c a l i b r a t e d i n s t e a d y - s t a t e c o n d i t i o n s ;

difference between r a d i a t i v e p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e HFM and t h e w a l l .


depends on t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e w a l l t h e HFM i s on the HFM is

;c a l i b r a t i o n

A way o f m i n i m i z i n g t h e second e f f e c t l i s t e d above i s t o surround


material. The t h i r d drawback can be by-passed i f a low-capacity

w i t h a m a t e r i a l h a v i n g t h e same t h i c k n e s s and thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y as t h e sensor material employed f o r t h e HFM, t h u s m i n i m i z i n g t h e h e a t s t o r e d by i t . t h e same p a i n t i n g as t h e w a l l . The f o u r t h problem

can be p a r t i a l l y avoided i f t h e HFM i s embedded i n t o t h e p l a s t e r and coated w i t h For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s e t o p i c s see e.g.

Lau and Norberg (1979), Flanders and Marshall (1982). i i ) s u r f a c e heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t s Surface heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t s , h , (SHTC) can b e ' measured u s i n g t h e q u a n t i t i e s are:

same experimental setup as f o r o f U-values. The measured

i n s i d e ( o r o u t s i d e ) a i r t e m p e r a t u r e , Ta i n s i d e ( o r o u t s i d e ) surface temperature, TS i n s i d e ( o r o u t s i d e ) heat f l u x ,

The ( r a d i a t i v e

c o n v e c t i v e ) SHTC i s g i v e n by:

Since t h e determined

boundary

layer

has On

no the

thermal other

capacity, hand, .the


it

the SHTC

SHTC is on

can not,

be as

instantaneously.

Counductance, a c o n s t a n t p r o p e r t y o f a w a l l , r a d i a t i o n , etc...

because

depends

variable physical radiation

boundary c o n d i t i o n s such as a i r temperature, a i r v e l o c i t y , s o l a r and atmospheric Moreover, as experience shows, t h e SHTC has other quantities, 1i t t l e meaning, s i n c e i t r e f e r s o n l y t o t h e a i r and surface temperatures, w h i l e s u r f a c e heat t r a n s f e r i s i n f l u e n c e d a l s o by from t h e surroundings. The accuracy w i t h which "h" can be determined depends m a i n l y on the radiative properties of the HFM a r e t o those of t h e w a l l . p r e c i s e sensors i s even s t r o n g e r , h e r e . t h a n f o r U-value measurements, temperature d i f f e r e n c e i n eq. i i i ) U-value o f windows The o n - s i t e measurement o f U-values of windows i s n o t a procedure t o be mainly because of t h e d i s t u r b a n c e i n t r o d u c e d b y r a d i a t i v e Mireover, glazings, reasons, the the U-value of windows depends greatly (and, for e x c l u s i v e l y ) on t h e s u r f a c e h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t s , v a r y i n g , i n t h e i r t u r n , w i t h time. In this case, procedure presented a b o v e can l e a d t o l a r g e e r r o r s ,
111 d-2 i s very small.

particularly

how since

close the

The need f o r

recanmended, exchanges. single-panel For the these

which a r e a f f e c t e d by m e t e o r o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s ,

e s p e c i a l l y when t h e window i s d i r e c t l y flooded by t h e s u n l i g h t . i t s e l f , especially not i t s transmissivity.

HFM w i l l never be a b l e t o reproduce t h e r a d i a t i v e p r o o e r t i e s o f t h e g l a z i n g

It i s t h u s a d v i s a b l e t o make use o f data from l a b o r a t o r y measurements o r

a and

theoretical Selkowitz

analysis. (1981). The

A mobile apparatus f o r d i r e c t measurement o f t h e energy developed by Klms so-called Mowitt (after Mobile Window Thermal Test)

performance of f e n e s t r a t i o n systems has been r e c e n t l y provides a number of c a p a b i l i t i e s , e.g.:

f u l l - s c a l e t e s t i n g o f windows o f various s i z e s and types; performance measurements u s i n g r e a l weather c o n d i t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g s o l a r gain; f l e x i b i l i t y i n s i m u l a t i n g i n t e r i o r b u i l d i n g environments o f d i f f e r e n t weight, i n s u l a t i o n . and leakiness. On t h e o t h e r hand, i t should be stressed t h a t t h e MOWITT does n o t .perform the of

- dynamic

field

measurements, is based that on

but
it

rather

operates

upon

full

s c a l e t e s t samples. of

An

i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e o f t h i s apparatus, based o n t h e calorimeter, sensor is heat-flow sensors (Klems and D i alternate Bartolomeo, current 1982).

principle This

guarded heat-flow

makes use o f p a r t i c u l a r large-area, h i g h - s e n s i t i v i t y kind resistance thermometry. The first of

prototypes, having s i z e of 0.09 m2, showed l i n e a r response, a s e n s i t i v i t y about 35-40mV/(W m- 2 ) , w i t h a minimal d e t e c t a b l e f l u x o f 0.08 W/m2.

The procedure adopted by Caluwaerts and Verougstraete (1979) f o r l a b o r a t o r y measurements different conditions. is also of presented. The experimental number apparatus of is of the "guarded-hot box" k i n d and has been used t o t e s t a number windows, having

g l a z i n g s and d i f f e r e n t frames, i n d i f f e r e n t environmental

The f o l l o w i n g q u a l i t a t i v e conclusions can be drawn:

t h e U-value i s influenced by outdoor c o n d i t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y by temperature and a i r v e l o c i t y ; t h e U-value i s s l i g h t l y affected by t h e h e a t i n g system, except i n t h e case when f l o o r heating i s used, where a r e l e v a n t decrease.has b e i n n o t i c e d . t h e U-value i s s t r o n g l y t y p e of frame; a f f e c t e d , beyond the number o f g l a z i n g s , by t h e PVC, wood and aluminium show r e s p e c t i v e l y growing U-values.

t h e window p o s i t i o n i n t h e w a l l opening seems t o be i r r e l e v a n t . A iupplementary heat r e s i s t a n c e i s provided by curtains (0.03 m2/W) and

outside glazed

roller

blinds

(about

0.25 m2/w).

When t h e r e i s a r a d i a t o r under t h e 1978) t h a t , compared t o a the singleradiator

window, one has observed t h e e f f e c t (oubbeld

window w i t h window s i l l , t h e U-value of t h e window increases w i t h 15% i f

t h e s i l l i s removed, decreases by 21% if t h e r e a r e c u r t a i n s above

Or

the

sill,

and

increases

by 8% i f t h e r e i s a l o n g c u r t a i n i n , f r o n t of t h e

radiator.

w a l l s : unsteady-state parameters

The a n a l y s i s of time-dependent thermal response useful loads. tool to determine their behaviour

of

building

walls to

is

under actual t r a n s i e n t - s t a t e heat some

Two d i f f e r e n t approaches can be adopted, b o t h making reference method

theoretical

y i e l d i ' n g t h e f l u x response of a w a l l once t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f

each l a y e r a r e known:

determine t h e unsteady-state parameters o f t h e w a l l . v a l i d a t e e x p e r i m e n t a l l y t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e method by comparing t h e measured f l u x and t h e c a l c u l a t e d one. Not a l l methods a r e s u i t a b l e f o r t h e first too approach; a and for of example, the are

response known. in

factor

method

makes. use

of

large

number

independent

parameters, compared w i t h the.accuracy w i t h which f l u x e s only i n d i r e c t i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e w a l l thermal performance.

temperatures The

On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e second approach can always be applied, b u t y i e l d s determination,

t h e l a b o r a t o r y , o f t h e parameters o f t h e F o u r i e r transform analysis, and t h e

"Envelope Thermal Test U n i t " method belong t o t h e f i r s t category. i ) d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e parameters of t h e F o u r i e r transform a n a l y s i s The F o u r i e r transform m t h o d provides four complex c o e f f i c i e n t s A", and air to
D,,

&,

CY,

(defined

by

Eq.

I b - 8 ) f a r every frequency considered i n t h e thermal

oscillations.

These c o e f f i c i e n t s depend on T ,i and on {iv developed and { , by

and To,,

t h e indoor and outdoor The according

temperature,. the procedure

t h e indoor and outdoor heat fluxes.

measurement o f these c o e f f i c i e n t s can be performed i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y , o u t l i n e d here. For t h e measurement o f parameter close of the to each walls. o t h e r so t h a t , e.g.,

Codegone, F e r r o and Sacchi (1966) and b r i e f l y

4,

two i d e n t i c a l w a l l elements a r e placed surface

t h e o u t s i d e surfaces a r e i n c l o s e contact, qo,


=

and equal temperature s i n u s o i d a l o s c i l l a t i o n s a r e imposed on t h e i n s i d e

h here fore,

since

0, t h e c o e f f i c i e n t A ,

i s given by

qt'Ti,/Tov.

For t h e measurement of parameter B ,, before, By

u s l n g t h e same experimental set-up with the

as

a t h i n l a y e r o f known thermal c a p a c i t y and h i g h d i f f u s i v i t y i s i n s e r t e d


outsides.

between the two symmetrical w a l l elements i n c l o s e c o n t a c t t h e surface temperatures, one gets:

imposing equal temperature o s c i l l a t i o n s on t h e i n s i d e surfaces and r e c o r d i n g

The two

wall

elementsare

reversed so t h a t t h e i n s i d e

surfaces a r e

in

c o n t a c t . I n t h i s case, s i n c e The l a s t c o e f f i c i e n t , ch.

iiv '0,

the coefficient D , i s , g i v e n by D,=ToJTiv.

C , ,

i s c a l c u l a t e d from t h e r e l a t i o n Av+D,

B , * C , = l

( see

I b ) , o r by i n s e r t i n g a t h i n l a y e r between t h e w a l l s , i n t h i s case i n

contact w i t h t h e insides. i i ) t h e Envelope Thermal Test U n i t Method The Envelope Thermal Test U n i t (ETTU) i s a "quarded for field hot and laboratory measurements.
It

portable provides

modification the dynamic

of

the

box" (Condon, C a r r o l l and Sonderegger 1980).

I t can be used b o t h

thermal

p r o p e r t i e s o f w a l l s , w i t h r e f e r e n c e e i t h e r t o a dynamic s i m p l i f i e d model u s i n g a s e t o f E q u i v a l e n t Thermal Parameters (ETP-s) (Sherman, Sonderegger and 'Adams, 1982). o r t o t h e F o u r i e r transform method d e s c r i b e d above. The b a s i c p r i n c i p l e on which ETTU i s based i s t h a t a r e g u l a t e d h e a t f l u x i s applied on one or both sides of the walls, and the resulting surface which of low temperatures a r e measured. The ETTU c o n s i s t s o f two i d e n t i c a l " b l a n k e t s " by are an insulating the layer

a r e p l a c e d i n c l o s e thermal c o n t a c t w i t h t h e w a l l t o be tested. made of a p a i r of e l e c t r i c h e a t e r s separated thermal capacity. Temperature transducers

Each b l a n k e t i s

p l a c e d i n each h e a t e r l a y e r . while outer (secondary)

Heat i s p r o v i d e d t o t h e i n n e r ( p r i m a r y ) h e a t e r s , h e a t e r s a c t as guards.

A m i c r o p r o c e s s o r - c o n t r o l l e d d a t a a c q u i s t i o n system i s system flow. and r e c o r d t h e system temperature responses. The secondary t o t h e c e n t r a l r e g i o n of t h e b l a n k e t t o reduce t h e effect

used of

to

drive

the heat heat

The a n a l y s i s i s r e s t r i c t e d transverse the

h e a t e r s a r e d r i v e n by a s e r v o - c o n t r o l which d r i v e s t h e i r minimizing

temperature towards t h e p r i m a r y h e a t e r s temperature, t h u s

p r o v i d e d by t h e b l a n k e t which i s n o t c o n t r i b u t i n g t o d r i v i n g t h e w a l l .

Using t h e response f a c t o r s method, t h e i n t e r n a l surface heat f l u x i s by eq. Ib-9. T h e unknowns are t h e sets o f c o e f f i c i e n t s c, b, d; q u a n t i t i e s can be measured using t h e procedure o u t l i n e d f o r t h e t h e U-value. There a r e several numerical methods t o solve t h e equations should be d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s f o r small v a r i a t i o n s o f t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s . ( C l i e t al., 1979) c o n s i s t s o f two steps: A above, better

given

a l l other

measurement. o f

but

it

stressed t h a t t h e system may be ill- conditioned, thus y i e l d i n g very, approach

the c, b, d c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e computed according t o t h e procedure M i t a l a s and Arseneault (1967) o r using t h e p r e - c a l c u l a t e d values t h e ASHKAE Handbook of Fundamentals (1981); t h e heat f l u x c o n v o l u t i o n , c a l c u l a t e d using t h e measured

o u t l i n e d by reported i n

temperatures i n eq.

I b- 9, i s compared t o t h e heat
p r e v i o u s l y described.

flux

values, measured by t h e

HFM technique

- measurement

o f radiative properties

i ) r a d i a t i v e p r o p e r t i e s of b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s The r a d i a t i v e p r o p e r t i e s o f b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , d e f i n e d i n Ch. differ cases significantly


it

I b , do some

not

from

one be

material

to

t h e other;

moreover, the values In special and

provided i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e may o f t e n be c o n f i d e n t l y applied. may, must however, be used useful In one p r o p e r t i e s of b u i l d i n g instruments radiation. materials. whether this case, different

t o determine e x p e r i m e n t a l l y t h e r a d i a t i v e approaches i s d e a l i n g w i t h shortwave o r longwave

The t r a n s m i t t a n c e o f shortwave ( s o l a r ) r a d i a t i o n (0-4 pm) can using the same instruments as those presented i n ch. measurements. f l u x outside I ,

be

measured

I I I b for solar radiation

With two s o l a r i m e t e r s (pyranometers) placed on t h e two sides o f a and i n s i d e li t h e window. Th? r a t i o li/Io c a n b e defined as

g l a z i n g , and p a r a l l e l t o i t , one can measure t h e incoming g l o b a l s o l a r r a d i a t i o n t h e shortwave t r a n s m i t t a n c e , . r S , o f t h e g l a z i n g .

Ill d - 1 6

R e f l e c t a n c e can be measured, as before, the

u s i n g two s o l a r i m e t e r s , one the

facing wall,

w a l l , and t h e o t h e r f a c i n g t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n .

If I , i s t h e shortwave

( s o l a r ) r a d i a t i o n r e f l e c t e d by t h e w a l l and lo t h e one i m p i n g i n g on we have p s = I r / l o The t h i r d r a d i a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , as from t h e r e l a t i o n pstastr,=l The v a l u e of t h e incidence t o (diffuse (see ch. ( a b s o r p t a n c e ) , can be

easily

deduced

Ib). coefficients will depend on the

shortwave

radiation

a n g l e of d i r e c t s o l a r r a d i a t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e on t h e r a t i o o f d i r e c t
t

reflected) solar radiation.

The t r a n s m i t t a n c e of longwave r a d i a t i o n ( 4 assumed to be negligible both for

100 um),

re , is

generally However, an

g l a z i n g s and opaque w a l l s :

The longwave

r e f l e c t a n c e , ~ e .i s d e f i n e d a n a l o g o u s l y t o s h o r t - wave r e f l e c t a n c e . read n o t o n l y t h e r e f l e c t e d component, b u t a l s o t h e


I e =

i n s t r u m e n t f o r longwave r a d i a t i o n measurement (pyrgeometer) f a c i n g t h e w a l l w i l l

emitted r a d i a t i o n ,

Ie :

%*T

where
E

= t h e e m i s s i v i t y of the surface
=

t h e Stefan-Boltzmann c o n s t a n t

If le+,
measurement get pe = ( I e + r As before, and p,=(~~+,-Eo

i s t h e v a l u e g i v e n by t h i s i n s t r u m e n t , and i f 1 , T~)/I,, Bnd, s.incepe + o e t r t = l and c


= at

i s known f r o m ,~h.

performed w i t h t h e same t y p e of i n s t r u m e n t , we have ,p = ( I e + r - I e ) / I o (see ~ b ) , we

o'T

) / (I,

a'T

applying p i

t at

t re =

1 . absorptance can be i m m e d i a t e l y found.

i i ) thermography

The term termography i s . used visible

to

characterize relation

the

process between

which the

makes surface

and q u a n t i f i e s t h e thermal s t a t e o f a given

object.

The basic physical

p r i n c i p l e on which i t i s based i s t h e

existing

temperature o f a body and t h e i n f r a r e d r a d i a t i o n i t emits. The instrument employed i s t h e i n f r a r e d scanner which, the These radiation two of wavelengths have been between chosen generally, correspond records to two

and 5.6pm, because they

o r between 8 and 14,um.

intervals

atmospherical

"windows'

where t h e transmission o f i n f r a r e d r a d i a t i o n i s n e a r l y

independent of t h e h u m i d i t y content o f t h e atmosphere. Once t h e r a d i a t i o n e m i t t e d by t h e o b j e c t under observation has crossed atmosphere, field, but
it

the

i s localized w i t h the help of suitable objectives ( j u s t l i k e i n its spatial resolution). The objectives silicium or must be made of germanium) and

photography, i t i s t h e o b j e c t i v e which determines n o t o n l y t h e s i z e o f t h e image also m a t e r i a l s t r a n s p a r e n t t o i n f r a r e d r a d i a t i o n (e.g.

a r e o p t i c a l l y t r e a t e d i n o r d e r t o increase t h e i r t r a n s m i s s i v e power. Once l o c a l i z e d , t h e e m i t t e d r a d i a t i o n detector by is projected on to the infrared

means o f a scanning mechanism ( 2 s i l i c i u m prisms o p t i c a l l y t r e a t e d

and d r i v e n by 2 synchronous motors i n t h e AGA camera). The d e t e c t o r i s a semi-conducting m a t e r i a l (indium antimonide the In Sb for of to with is

systems working i n t h e range from 2 t o 5.6 pm o r mercury cadmium t e l l u r i u m Hg Cd Te f o r those working i n t h e range from 8 t o 14 urn), which has converting guarantee liquid the a the incoming infrared radiation into an property In order e l e c t r i c a l signal, the

i n t e n s i t y o f which v a r i e s w i t h t h e energy o f t h e i n c i d e n t s i g n a l . high thermal r e s o l u t i o n (e.g. .Next, the electrical 0.1

K a t a temperature of 3 0 ' ~ f o r
emitted of by an detector

t h e AGA 780 camera) such d e t e c t o r s a r e placed i n a Dewar vessel and cooled nitrogen. signal e l e c t r o n i c a l l y t r e a t e d , i n order t o obtain, o n t h e screen thermal image o f t h e o b j e c t under consideration.

oscilloscope,

This thermal image can be

photographed w i t h an o r d i n a r y camera, thus o b t a i n i n g a thermogram. C e r t a i n types o f scanners reproduce t h e temperature d i s t r i b u t i o n b o t h on grey scale (ranging from black to white) and on a colourscale. in the grey black-and-white thermal image, p o r t i o n s , which are da'rker a

Inthe scale,

represent colour. temperature

surfaces

of

lower

temperature

than

p o r t i o n s o f a l i g h t e r grey a certain

I n a colour-thermogram, each shade o f c o l o u r corresponds t o interval.

A c l e a r p i c t u r e o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t e m p e r a t u r e o v e r

t h e surface i s obtained. The b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e between a thermal image and a photographic one i s t h a t the latter reproduces t h e r e f l e c t e d r a d i a t i o n w i t h i n t h e v i s i b l e range, w h i l e and part of t h e thermal image reprod"ces b o t h p a r t of t h e r e f l e c t e d r a d i a t i o n the e m i t t e d r a d i a t i o n .

A thermal image o f t e n has a c o a r s e r s t r u c t u r e and


diffuse than those of a photographic the image. fact difference i n resolution, but also t o that

the the

contours boundaries

are of

more the

T h i s i s p r i m a r i l y due t o t h e

s u r f a c e a r e sometimes l e s s d e f i n i t e because o f thermal conduction. It i s e v i d e n t from t h e working process o f t h e i n f r a r e d relative the temperature scanner that to only -

d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e image f i e l d can be determined. of a reference

I f the
know the

a c t u a l temperature o f t h e s u r f a c e i s t o be determined, i t i s necessary actual temperature e m i s s i v i t y o f t h e r e f e r e n c e s u r f a c e and o f t h e e n t i r e o b j e c t , and temperature f u n c t i o n and c a l i b r a t i o n curves o f t h e camera.

p o i n t on t h e s u r f a c e under t e s t ; t h e finally,

A c o r r e c t i o n due t o t h e a t t e n u a t i o n of thermal r a d i a t i o n i n a i r
caused whenever 1IId-5). by the absorption dispersion are the for which which made occurs occurs in in made a b s o r p t i o n and Thus, particles) over the should be

(primarily necessary common in

t h e molecules o f gas, and by t h e

measurement;

over d i s t a n c e s g r e a t e r t h a n 10-20 m (see f i g . distances

measurements

thermography i n d o o r s , t h e i n f l u e n c e due t o t h e d i s t a n c e i s n e g l i g i b l e . According t o i n v e s t i g a t i o n s made i n Sweden ( P e t t e r s s o n and A x h ' 1980). probable components error in determining scanner i n t h e range o f room temperatures can, by 'assessing t h e temperature d i f f e r e n c e , b u t n o t b e t t e r than 0.5 errors. i n the the

d i f f e r e n c e s i n s u r f a c e temperatures w i t h an I R

a l o n g t h e c h a i n o f measurements, be e s t i m a t e d t o 10% of t h e measured

K.

F i n a l l y , i n o r d e r t o c o r r e c t a m i s l e a d i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , we want t o s t r e s s that to thermography does n o t d i r e c t l y g i v e t h e thermal r e s i s t a n c e o r a i r t i g h t n e s s I n cases where t h e thermal r e s i s t a n c e o r a i r t i g h t n e s s are be q u a n t i f i e d , a d d i t i o n a l measurements, as t h o s e i n d i c a t e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g of t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n .

s e c t i o n s , must be made.

F i g . 1 1 1 d-5

T r a n s m i s s i v i t y ( r ) f o r i n f r a r e d r a d i a t i o n iri a i r as a function of the distance (d). T y p i c a l curve.

The a l r e a d y mentioned p u b l i c a t i o n ( P e t t e r s s o n and AxCn s u b j e c t e d t o thermography. the interpretation of

1980)

developes

a for It the

complete a n a l y s i s o f t h e requirements which must be s a t i s f i e d when b u i l d i n g s a r e Moreover, t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n a l s o g i v e s t h e r u l e s the in only qua1 i t y the of thermograms and t h e use o f comparative thermograms.

d e a l s a l s o w i t h t h e problem o f c o r r e c t camera s e t t i n g f o r thermal image, and w i t h t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h i s method, i.e. l o c a t i n g and d e t e r m i n i n g w i t h s a t i s f a c t o r y accuracy d e f e c t s and airtightness of a building. Therefore we need recanmendations f o r t h e use of thermography. Thennography i s t o be c a r r i e d o u t i n such a way interference occurs due to external climatic t h e r e f o r e t a k e p l a c e indoors. that

t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of insulation r e p o r t t h e main

the

least

possible only for than

factors.

Measurements should applied

Outdoor thermography i s t o be

p r e l i m i n a r y measurements over l a r g e w a l l areas. that outdoors, these measurements

I n c e r t a i n cases, f o r i n s t a n c e

when thermal i n s u l a t i o n i s very bad o r when t h e p r e s s u r e i n d o o r s i s h i g h e r The f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s should be s a t i s f i e d :

outdoors can p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n .

1) For a t l e a s t a 24- hour p e r i o d b e f o r e s t a r t i n g thermography, and w h i l e i t i s i n progress, t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n a i r temperature across t h e b u i l d i n g between t h e element indoor must be a t l e a s t 10 K. A t t h e same time, t h e d i f f e r e n c e

and outdoor temperature should n o t v a r y by more tlian 30%. When 2) For a t l e a s t 12 hours b e f o r e shine t o starting

thermography

i s i n progress, t h e a i r . t e m p e r a t u r e i n d o o r should n o t v a r y by more than 2 K:


thermography, and a s long as t h i s i s s h a l l n o t be i n progress, t h e b u i l d i n g element i n q u e s t i o n

exposed t o sun-

such an e x t e n t t h a t i t can i n f l u e n c e t h e r e s u l t s .

3) The p r e s s u r e drop across t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s h a l l be


O f course, these r u l e s

5 Pa.

regarding conditions

d u r i n g measurement l i m i t t h e

p e r i o d wnen thermography can be c a r r i e d o u t .

References

ASHRAE (American S o c i e t y o f Heating, R e f r i g e r a t i n g and A i r C o n d i t i o n i n g Engineers,

ASHRAE

Handbook o f Fundamentals, New York, 1981.

ASTM ( h e r i c a n S o c i e t y f o r T e s t i n g and M a t e r i a l s ) , ASTM Standard C 177, 1971, ASTM Standard C 236, 1966, ASTM Standard C 518, 1970. B i l l i n g t o n , N.S., C a l i , M., B u i l d i n g P h y s i c s -Heat. F r a c a s t o r o , G.V., p. 6 2 Pergamon Press, London, 1965.

F e r r o , V.,

Masoero, M. and V a n n e l l i , G., DBRI,

E x p e r i ~ n e n t a l a n a l y s i s o f a t e s t room unsteady s t a t e thermal b e h a v i o u r , CIB Proc. I 1 CIB Symposium on Energy C o n s e r v a t i o n i n t h e B u i l t Environment. Copenhagen, 1979. Caluwaerts, P. and ~ e r o u g s t r a e t e , P., October 1Y79. Carslaw and Jaeger. Conduction of Heat i n S o l i d s , Oxford. Codegone, C., slabs. I.I.F. F e r r o , V. and Sacchi, A., 1959. U-value of Windows. CSTC, B r u x e l l e s ,

;I

Resonant Thermal Waves i n I n s u l a t i n g

I.I.R.,

Commission 2, Trondheim, 22-24 June 1966. Sacchi, A., Experiments on thermal o s c i l l a t i o n s Trondheim, 1966.

Codegone, C.,

F e r r o , V..

t h r o u g h i n s u l a t i n g m a t e r i a l s . Meeting o f Colmnission 2 I.I.F., Condon, P.E., B e r k e l e y , U.S. D-Eustachio, D. and S c h r e i n e r , R.E., Devisme, J.M. Dubbeld, M., 737, and ~ a r 6 c h a, l J.C., C a r r o l l , L., Sonderegger, R.C.,

A new measurement s t r a t e g y f o r i n June 1980,

s i t u t e s t i n g o f w a l l t h e r m a l performance. LBL-8822. EEB-ENV-79-3,

ASHVE T r a n s a c t i o n s , 58, 1952.

Annales d e 1-ITBTP,

369, 1979.

Energy Saving by t h e use o f c u r t a i n s and window s i l l . P u b l i c a t i o n

IMG-TNO, t h e Netherlands (1978).

EMPA (Swiss F e d e r a l L a b o r a t o r i e s f o r M a t e r i a l s T e s t i n g and Research), Measurements o f U-value i n B u i l d i n g s , 1981.

Erkelens, H.J., Flanders, S.N.

JIHVE, January 1960. and Marshall, S.J.,

I n S i t u Measurement o f masonry Wall Thermal


1982, Vol. 88, Part. 1.

Resistance. To be published on ASHRAE i r a n s . Fuet, J. e t al., Gier, J.T.

Materiaux e t c o n s t r u c t i o n s , ~ , 1979. R e f r i g e r a t i n g Engineering, 62, 1954. ASHVE Transaction, ASHVE Transaction;,

and Dunkle, R.V., and Chang, S.C.: and Lepper, F.R.,

Hooper, F.C. Hooper, F.C. Klems, J.H.

59,

1953. 1950.

56.

and D. D i Bartolomeo. Large-area, h i g h - s e n s i t i v i t y h e a t - f l o u

sensor, Rev. Sci. Instrum. Oct. 1982. Klems, J.H. and S.E. Selkowitz, The Mobile Uindow Test ~ a c i l i t y(MOUITT),

Proceedings o f t h e ASHRAEIDOE-ORNL Conference on t h e thermal performance of t h e E x t e r i o r Envelopes o f B u i l d i n g s , New York 1981. Lau, P. and Norberg, R., Research, (1978). M i t a l a s , G.P. and Arseneault, J.G., National Research Council of Canada, 1967. Report M78:3E, Swedish l n s t i t u t e f o r B u i l d i n g

Pettersson, B and ~ x 6 n 8., Stockholm, 1980. Roberts, C.C. P a r t 1.

Thermography. Swedish Council f o r B u i l d i n g Research,

and Reinke, K.,

Jr.,

Thermal Measurements o f B u i l d i n g Envelope

Components i n t h e F i e l d . To be pub1 ished i n ASHRAE Trans. 1982, Vol. 88,

Sonderegger, R.C. and Adams, J.U., The Determination o f t h e

Sherman, M.H., meeting 1982.

Dynamic Performance of w a l l s . Submitted f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n t o ASHRAE w i n t e r

Sonderegger, R.C., House. LBL-6856,

Diagnostic Tests determining t h e Thermal Response of a November 1977, Berkely, U.S.

CHAPTER I 1 1 e

Air infiltration

Contents

importance o f a i r i n f i l t r a t i o n t o r e t r o f i t s t r a c e r gas measurements p r o p e r t i e s o f t r a c e r gas t r a c e r gas t e c h n i q u e s


.

P. 111 e- 1

P. I 1 1 e- 7
P. 111 e - 7 , p. 111 e- 7
P.

i) ii)

i i i ) measurement equipment and Standards

I 1 1 e-14

pressurization of buildings references

p. I 1 1 e-16 p. 111 e-22

Keywords

a i r changes p e r hour ( A C H ) air infiltration airing bypasses c o n s t a n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n technique c o n s t a n t f l o w , technique c o n t a i n e r sampling decay technique gas a n a l y z e r h e a t recovery leakage area leakage s i t e pressurization s t a n d a r d i z e d techniques t r a c e r gas ventilation wind induced a i r i n f i l t r a t i o n

111 e

Air infiltration

importance o f a i r i n f i l t r a t i o n t o r e t r o f i t s

By a i r i n f i l t r a t i o n we w i l l h e r e mean t h e u n c o n t r o l l e d leakage o f a i r . i n t o a building through air openings in the building and envelope walls. such as c r a c k s and is the i n t e r s t i c e s , and t h r o u g h uncontrolled ceilings, floors Exfiltration

movement

o u t of t h e b u i l d i n g .

Generally a i r i n f i l t r a t i o n i s

a p p l i e d t o b o t h inward and outward u n c o n t r o l l e d a i r movement. By v e n t i l a t i o n i s h e r e meant t h e process of s u p p l y i n g and removing. a i r natural or mechanical means t o and from any space. conditioned. I n many cases one has t o c o n s i d e r a l s o a i r f l o w s i n building through bypasses. the interior of the by

Such a i r may o r may n o t be

By t h i s i s meant t h e u n i n t e n t i o n a l openings w i t h i n Examples i n c l u d e air infiltration

t h e b u i l d i n g t h a t a l l o w a i r t o move from one space t o another. a i r t o enter the a t t i c . component. Reviewing t h e s t u d i e s o f i n f i l t r a t i o n i n Europe and N o r t h losses s t a t e d t o amount t o between 20 and 40% o f t h e energy ~ n f i l t r e t i o n rates (Grot 1979) in the housing vary from used for Such openings are often a main

openings around plumbing and exhaust s t a c k s t h a t p r o v i d e a p a t h f o r l i n i n g space

America, space

energy heating. data

due t o a i r i n f i l t r a t i o n and v e n t i l a t i o n i n e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g i s g e n e r a l l y a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0.1 ACH f o r t h e Recent

t i g h t e s t o f new housing t o s e v e r a l ACH f o r l e a k y , o l d e r d w e l l i n g s . collected

i n s e v e r a l hundred low income, o l d e r r e s i d e n t i a l houses However, t h e house and

l o c a t e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n d i c a t e an a i r exchange r a t e v e r y c l o s e t o dne a i r change p e r h o u r (ACH), t h e v a l u e used i n many ASHRAE c a l c u l a t i o n s . air infiltration level can vary significantly from housetolocation- to- location. N o r m a l i z i n g f o r leakage area, f i g .

111 e-1 i l l u s t r a t e s

t h e v a r i a t i o n s across t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s due t o w e a t h e r l l o c a t i o n f a c t o r s . The a i r i n f i l t r a t i o n component effective Simple


I

of

heat

loss

is

often with

the

most

cost-

t o c o r r e c t i n an o v e r a l l r e t r o f i t s t r a t e g y , p r o v i d e d p r o p e r d e t e c t i o n scanning combined depressurization). may o f t e n be t a k e n t o reduce a i r i n f i l t r a t i o n l e v e l s t o t h o s e

methods a r e used ( s u c h as i n f r a r e d measures

Fig.

111 e-1

H e a t i n g season average i n f i l t r a t i o n f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s (48 o f 50) ex ressed as a i r f l o w per e q u i v a l e n t Leakage area, ELA (m I h,cm2). Data from t h e contour may be t r a n s l a t e d t o ACH f o r an i n d i v i d u a l house by m u l t i p l y i n g by t h e ELA and d i v i d i n g by t h e house volume, 3 (150 m2) e.g. 0.30 t r a n s l a t e s t o 0.83 ACH f o r a 360 m house w i t h a 1000 cm2 ELA.

a s s o c i a t e d w i t h reasonable energy l o s s and t h e maintenance of a i r quality. A i r i n f i l t r a t i o n often takes present the because as buildings they age. place through cracks windows and and

desirable ,indoor

holes doors

that have

are been 1979)

of poor b u i l d i n g components and p r a c t i c e s , and t h e s e t t l i n g o f Traditionally, However, t e s t i n g ,

considered has

t h e most i m p o r t a n t s i t e s o f such a i r i n f i l t r a t i o n .

by s e v e r a l groups (Tamura 1975, Caffey 1979, C o l l i n s 1979, H a r r j e e t a l . w i t h t h e s e components t e n d s t o c o n s t i t u t e equivalent leakage otherwise t i g h t extremely. t i g h t envelope). masonry Construction construction a fourth using or less of the

r e v e a l e d t h a t , a l t h o u g h i m p o r t a n t , leakage i n frame c o n s t r u c t i o n a s s o c i a t e d overall and area (an area t h a t would p r o v i d e e q u i v a l e n t f l o w t h r o u g h an plastic vapor barriers would t e n d t o a l t e r t h i s breakdown and

p l a c e more emphasis on d o o r and window leakage. Construction features t h a t are associated w i t h ceilings pass through t h e envelope, have been proven t o q u e s t i o n s need t o be r e s o l v e d : 1 ) where a r e t h e s p e c i f i c leakage s i t e s i n each housing s t y l e w i t h i n a c o u n t r y ? 2) how can t h e u n d e s i r e d a i r leakage be reduced t o an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l an economical and s t r u c t u r a l l y sound r e t r o f i t procedure? Without such r e t r o f i t t i n g t h e a i r i n f i l t r a t i o n i n the homes will 1 1 1 e-2. sites the have floor but been -wall the These remain through be the even way more in which walls, Two

and f l o o r s j o i n each o t h e r , and how e l e c t r i c a l and plumbing components important.

v e r y s u s c e p t i b l e t o changing weather c o n d i t i o n s as shown i n f i g . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ' and r e l a t i v e magnitude o f t h e leakage investigated 1979) as shown i n t a b l e s I11 e - 1 and 2. d u c t systems. Here t h e leakage seems of

i n a number o f new and o l d American houses (Tamura 1975 and C a f f e y

j o i n t i s v e r y e v i d e n t as a r e t h e problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e l e c t r i c a l o u t l e t s and (The e l e c t r i c o u t l e t leakage unnaturally high, t a b l e i s used t o i l l u s t r a t e t h a t many components can p r o v i d e a i r leakage.

components c o u l d a l s o b e grouped d i f f e r e n t l y s i n c e openings where i n t e r i o r w a l l s meet c e i l i n g a r e n o t e d as s o l e p l a t e and e l e c t r i c a l o u t l e t leakage, f o r example). These d a t a a r e shown as an i . l l u s t r a t i o n t h a t variety of s i t e s i n c l u d i n g doors and windows. leakage may result a from a

C o n t r o l o f such leakage must be healthy

achieved if t h e t r i p l e g o a l s of l o w energy use, s u i t a b l e c o m f o r t and i n d o o r environmet a r e t o be a t t a i n e d .

a >

1.6.

04.-=
az--I

Temperature d i f f e r e n c e

00 01 02

04

06

08
i

1 0

I2

14

1 6

1 8

20

22

HOURS

F i g . I11 e-2

Wind ( v ) and temperature (AT)

induced i n f i l t r a t i o n

recorded on automated monitoring equipment.

TABLE 111 e - 1 I n f i l t r a t i o n t e s t r e s u l t s ( a f t e r C a f f e y 1979)

L o c a t i o n o f Leak

Leakage p e r i t e m Number o f (m3/h,unit) units 53 m c r a c k 65 o u t l e t s


1 system

Total

Percent o f total 24.6 20.3

Cummulative

-- -

1070 883 587 513 239 200 122 74 56 152 4348 m./h

leakage

24.6 44.9

Soleplate Electrical wall. outlets AIC d u c t system E x t e r i o r window Fireplace Range Vent E x t e r i o r door Dryer vent S l i d i n g glass door Bath vent Other Total

20.2lm c r a c k 13.61outlet 587lsystem 39.5lwindow 239lfireplace 226/range v e n t 66.7ldoor 122Idryer vent 74ldOOr 56lbath vent

13 windows

1 fireplace
4 lights 3 doors

1 range v e n t 226

Recessed s p o t l i g h t 5 6 l l i g h t

5.2 4.6 2.8 -1.7 1.3 3.5

86.1 90.7 93.5 95.2 96.3 100.0

1 d r y e r v e n t 122 1 door 1 bath vent

TABLE I 1 1 e-2 T o t a l l e a k a g e r a t e s o f t y p i c a l houses ( a f t e r Tamura 1975)

House t y p e l E x t e r i o r f i n i s h o f house One s t o r y s t u c c o One s t o r y s t u c c o One s t o r y b r i c k One s t o r y b r i c k Two s t o r y b r i c k Two s t o r y b r i c k

T o t a l Leakage (m3Ih)

Ceiling

Outer w a l l s

65 57 16 34 8

(%)

(%)
16 21 65 42 77 66

11

The p l o t i n f i g . season that are average

I 1 1 e-1 i s i n d i c a t i v e o f v a r i a t i o n s p r e d i c t e d f o r h e a t i n g Where d e t a i l e d a i r i n f i l t r a t i o n measurements is evident

a i r infiltration.

have been conducted b o t h d u r i n g t h e h e a t i n g and c o o l i n g seasons, i t the winter rates). reduced T h i s i s because t h e i n s i d e - o u t s i d e temperature only This highly average poses tightness the vital on can experience provide

summer a i r i n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e s t e n d t o be s u b s t a n t i a l l y l e s s ( o r d e r o f h a l f differences low air as w e l l as t h e average wind i n many i n s t a n c e s . rates. levels, question: weather, Under m i l d weather very the

conditions.housing o f infiltration infiltration

can such v a r i a b l e a i r necessary

dependent

v e n t i l a t i o n and p r o p e r i n d o o r a i r q u a l i t y throughout a t y p i c a l year? The documentation o f t o t a l a i r change r a t e i n c l u d i n g a i r a p a r t from a few s t u d i e s (Owen Corning and de Gids 1977). The r o l e o f t h e occupant o f t h e b u i l d i n g on t h e a i r exchange r a t e cannot be overlooked doors in ch. as an energy flow making item. full Occupant a t t e n t i o n t o those house items Questions of arise: Are windows and use l a t c h i n g mechanisms? Are vents Thus, c o n t r o l l i n g v e n t i l a t i o n i s c r i t i c a l here. closed properly, p e r i o d i c a l l y checked f o r proper c l o s u r e ? bath, k i t c h e n and window areas? infiltration and

v e n t i l a t i o n through t h e f u l l h e a t i n g (and c o o l i n g ) season i s almost n o n e x i s t a n t ,

What a r e t h e use p a t t e r n s o f vent fans

I s a i r i n g excessive o r unnecessary? 1980).

t h e house has a v a r i a b l e leakage r a t e from t h e occupant- r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s (see 11 e, I V c and Socolow e t a l . A m a j o r concern o f those who

have

studied

air

infiltration Excessive

is

whether ; in is

t i g h t e n i n g t h e envelope o f e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s o r improving t h e t i g h t n e s s of new b u i l d i n g s w i l l r e s u l t i n i n d o o r a i r q u a l i t y proble!ns. humidity problems may inadequate. When result, moisture e.g., levels of saturate insulations etc. For a increases be a warning s i g n t h a t v e n t i l a t i o n , whether n a t u r a l o r forced, building materials, properties, further rotting discussion loss Ic. of on

additional wood air

s t r u c t u r e , mold and odour problems, q u a l i t y problems see ch.

t r a c e r gas measurements

i ) p r o p e r t i e s of t r a c e r gas The use of t r a c e r gas, as t h e name i m p l i e s , p r o v i d e s a method by which air in the how much o u t s l d e a i r r e p l a c e s i t . ventilation rate T h i s method is then used to measure the the with

b u i l d i n g ' c a n be i d e n t i f i e d s o t h a t an a c c o u n t i n g can b e made as t o i n b u i l d i n g s o r p a r t s of a b u i l d i n g .


A wide c h o i c e o f t r a c e r

gases i s a v a i l a b l e , b u t t h e c h o i c e i s s t r o n g l y reduced when t h e t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a (Bar%yetzi 1977. Honma 1975) i s checked:

agreement

t h e gas c o n c e n t r a t i o n must be measurable w i t h good accuracy, even when h i g h l y diluted t h e gases p r e s e n t i n t h e i n d o o r a i r should n o t a f f e c t t h e t r a c e r . g a s a n a l y s i s t h e gas s h o u l d be cheap and e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e t h e gas s h o u l d n o t be hazardous when b r e a t h e d i n t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s used measurements t h e gas must n o t be flammable o r e x p l o s i v e t h e gas d e n s i t y should be a s c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o t h a t of t h e a i r ( u n l e s s one can demonstrate t h a t t h e achievment o f u n i f o r m m i x i n g i s n o t a problem) t h e gas s h o u l d n o t be n o r m a l l y p r e s e n t i n t h e ambient a i r The most common c h o i c e s ; a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r e v i o u s l y l i s t e d c r i t e r i a , are for

s u l p h u r h e x a f l u o r i d e (SF6) and n i t r o u s o x i d e i i ) t r i c e r gas t e c h n i q u e s

(Np),

a l s o known as l a u g h i n g gas.

The general e q u a t i o n o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n versus t i m e o f a gas a i r o f a l i m i t e d sDace i s : C ( t ) = C b + Ft(l-exp(-n't))/(n'V) where C ( t ) = concentration, function o f time t ( i n hours) Cb F n
V
= background c o n c e n t r a t i o n of t r a c e r gas i n ambient a i r = t r a c e r gas f l o w , m 3/ h = r a t e o f v e n t i l a t i o n , a i r changesfh = volume o f t h e space, m 3 = i n i t i a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n of t r a c e r gas

d i l u t e d i n the

+ Co'exp(-n't)

(Ille-1)

Cg

The r a t e o f v e n t i l a t i o n i s t h e unknown o f eq. I I I e - 1 , which can be s o l v e d a f t e r


i t has been s i m p l i f i e d u s i n g t h r e e d i f f e r e n t experimental procedures:

1) decay t e c h n i q u e

2) c o n s t a n t f l o w technique 3) c o n s t a n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n technique 1) When t h e decay technique i s a p p l i e d , a small q u a n t i t y o f t r a c e r added the


If Cb

gas

is in

and home,
=

mixed etc.

w i t h t h e a i r i n t h e b u i l d i n g , c i r c u l a t i n g t h e a i r by waving a air system A f t e r seeding, t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n decay i s observed over time. 111 e-1 y i e l d s :

f i b r e board sheet, u s i n g one o r more f l o o r fans, u s i n g t h e warm 0 and s i n c e F = 0 d u r i n g t h e measurements, eq.

n = ( I n Co

In C(t))/t

(111 e-2) n r e p r e s e n t s t h e slope of a s t r a i g h t l i n e when I n C ( t ) obtained

The r a t e of v e n t i l a t i o n

i s p l o t t e d a g a i n s t t i m e . However, i t has been demonstrated t h a t a more accurate way o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a i r i n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e i s t o use t h e expression by i n t e g r a t i n g t h e ( e x p o n e n t i a t e d ) eq. n = (Co 111 e-2 (Sandberg 1982):

t C(t))/Io C(t)dt

where t lo C ( t ) d t i s t h e area below t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n c u r v e i n a ( t , C ( t ) ) p l o t . The use o f t r a c e r gas techniques can i n v o l v e a n y t h i n g check more. (after of an hour with or from to a the short site term and

so, t o l o n g term m o n i t o r i n g o f a week o r even a y e a r o r the appropriate amount o f t r a c e r gas) t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n

-_
or manner. allows are identical

For t h e s h o r t term t e s t s , t h e d e t e c t o r can be b r o u g h t seeding

decay monitored over a p e r i o d o f two hours. Another approach i s t o seed and t h e n g a t h e r samples o f t h e b u i l d i n g a i r , i n bottles. Sampling before and after r e t r o f i t s can be done i n t h i s lab". This approach details almost These c o n t a i n e r s a r e then analyzed "back a t t h e

sampling on

a t a number of f i e l d l o c a t i o n s ( o v e r t h e same t i m e and weather Additional sampling fig. is t h i s technique because o f i t s s i m p l i c i t y i n the e v a l u a t i o n o f The method used i n t h e case o f b o t t l e The step- by s t e p process used i n 111 e-3.

p e r i o d i f d e s i r e d ) w i t h one l a b o r a t o r y m a i n t a i n e d d e t e c t o r . provided building retrofits.

t o t h a t used w i t h t h e bag samples.

the N a t i o n a l Bureau o f Standard study ( G r o t , 1979) i s shown i n

One v a r i a t i o n i s t h a t t h e t r a c e r gas, SF6 i n t h i s case, may be a l s o p r o v i d e d i n

STEP 1 INJECTION

STEP 2 MIXING 1/2 - 1 hr

STEP 3 F I L L SAMPLE BAG

STEP 4 . WAIT 1/2 hr

;TEP 5 .:ILL 2nd SAMPLE BAG

STEP 6

i t

& in

El

CONCENTRATIONS I N LABORATORY EQUIPMENT

SF6 DETECTOR

SYRINGES OF TRACER GAS SF6

HAND SAMPLE PUMP

AIR SAMPLE BAGS (2 per floor)

Fig.
I

111 e - 3

Procedure f o r bag s a m p l i n g ( a f t e r Grot 1979)

b o t t l e form t o g e t h e r w i t h empty sample b o t t l e s . One can proceed as f o l l o w s : only walk l o o s e n i n g t h e . c a p on t h e SF6 b o t t l e o n e ' need low are normally chosen for the test.

around t h e house squeezing t h e b o t t l e t o achieve seeding of t h e SF.. With a warm

P e r i o d s when wind speed tends t o be

Outside and i n s i d e temperatures a r e recorded as w e l l as wind speed. ducting with rate. system

a i r system one can use t h e furnace blower t o f i n i s h - t h e m i x i n g process. used throughout t h e t e s t p e r i o d . furnace The blower

If

the

does n o t couple w i t h t h e o u t s i d e a i r , t h e furnace blower may be

I f such c o u p l i n g i s suspected,
or on an over the elevated air

measurement infiltration uniform gas

on, i n t e r m i t t e n t l y ,

t e s t period, w i l l

immediately reveal such c o u p l i n g by r e g i s t e r i n g n o r m a l on c y c l e s (e.g., be in more the than house. One have proven t o concentrations adequate or to

20 minutes o u t o f t h e hour) o f t h e f u r n a c e maintain reasonably more f l o o r fans may be necessary w i t h

h y d r o n i c a r e l e c t r i c baseboard heating. Following the i n i t i a l mixing period, b o t t l e s are with noted). squeezes, necessary, e-4. been reuses avoid filled every away, by half for mail cap with hour ten

r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . a i r samples ( s i x numbered b o t t l e s over 112 hours w i t h times Squeezing t h e b o t t l e s f i r s t from one s i d e and then 90' fills one the b o t t l e s w i t h room a i r . Returning the b o t t l e s to the One c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n i n t h e house lab,

has u s u a l l y proven adequate.

if
111 has many

i s ready f o r a n a l y s i s u s i n g t h e equipment as shown i n f i g . plastic so t h a t t h e SF6

Each o f t h e b o t t l e s has a n a t u r a l rubber gasket and t h e drilled

d e t e c t o r probe, which i s adapted t o a hypodermic

needle, can be i n s e r t e d i n t o t h e b o t t l e ( t h e gasket a c t s as a septum possible). injestion can measured b y a s e n s i t i v e f l o w meter), p r e s s u r e must be e x e r t e d o f , room be air. as This is achieved on a

As a i r i s withdrawn from t h e b o t t l e a t a c o n t r o l l e d r a t e (as bottle. to SF6 by a weighted clamp.

c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a r e recorded f o r each o f t h e s i x sample b o t t l e s (double o r t r i p l e readings also taken a check on p o s s i b l e e r r o r ) t o g e t h e r w i t h the A simple handheld calculator noted t i m e and temperature data.

program p r o v i d e s t h e a i r exchange r a t e s over t h e f i v e p e r i o d s . Automated m o n i t o r i n g r e q u i r e s more complex equipment.


it

Such

equipment,

if

uses be has

discrete recorded been

sampling on

to

observe

the

tracer

gas c o n c e n t r a t i o n decay,

r e q u i r e s t h a t p e r i o d i c a l l y new t r a c e r gas must be i n j e c t e d and t h a t t h e r e a d i n g s must that a r e g u l a r basis. for a An example of such an automated system of air a infiltration micro-computer measurement The most control to 1975 and 1977). developed variety

a p p l i c a t i o n s i s shown i n f i g .

111 e-5 ( H a r r j e e t a l .

r e c e n t developmet i n t h i s t y p e of equipment uses

Fig.

I11 e-4

Equipment f o r b o t t l e sample a n a l y s i s f o r a i r i n f i l t r a t i o n . B o t t l e squeezer, f l o u meter, SF6 d e t e c t o r .

1 1 1 e- 12

sampling from a v a r i e t y , o f b u i l d i n g l o c a t i o n s ( G r o t e t a l , 1980). The main advantage of t h e decay t e c h n i q u e i s i t s ease simplicity both
in

the

of p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e t e s t and i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e s u l t s .

To p r o v i d e

a c c u r a t e r e s u l t s , however, u n i f o r m m i x i n g o f t h e t r a c e r gas w i t h a i r i n t h e t e s t volume must be provided. However, t h i s i s t r u e f o r - a l l t h r e e techniques. a constant flow technique

2 ) Another approach u s i n g t r a c e r gas u t i l i z e s


(see Harrje, et al., the 1977).

T h i s means t h e t r a c e r gas i s s t e a d i l y i n j e c t e d , i s n o t c o n s t a n t , a volume term w i l l be

t h e r e b y m i n i m i z i n g m i x i n g problems between t r a c e r gas and t h e house volume under measurement. Since concentration p r e s e n t and t h e eq. c ( t ) = F*(1 n = F/(C*V)

I 1 1 e - 1 becomes:
)/(n'V)

exp(-n't)

which y i e l d s :

exp(-n*t)/(C*V) appropriate represents a

The t i m e r a t e o f t r a c e r gas c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s recorded u s i n g an detector. small of r e p r e s e n t s t h e c o n d i t i o n where t h e second t e r m i n correction. The system can run for i n f i l t r a t i o n measurements. t h e d a t a (Sherman e t a l . As p r e v i o u s l y necessary al. a 1980). eq.

That p o r t i o n o f t h e r e c o r d where t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n changes a r e small

I11

e-3

days

a n d thus g i v e continuous

One disadvantage o f t h e system i s t h a t l a r g e changes 1480). long term - a v e r a g i n g o f air infiltration is et

t h e a i r i n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e w i l l d r i v e t h e gas a n a l y z e r o f f s c a l e t h u s l o o s i n g

discussed,

f o r p r o p e r a c c o u n t i n g o f a s s o c i a t e d energy l o s s . The system makes use o f two sampling pumps.

A simpler, low-cost

v e r s i o n o f t h e c o n s t a n t f l o w system i s ' b e i n g used t o meet t h i s need (Sherman o f t r a c e r gas (SF6) i n t o t h e home o v e r a p e r i o d days; o f t h e detector. Measurements of S F 6

One s l o w l y pumps a bag

a n o t h e r pump s l o w l y f i l l s

bag w i t h house a i r c o n t a i n i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n w i t h i n t h e range t o 0.001 ppm a l l o w h i g h s e n s i t i v i t y and a


1

l a r g e dynamic range. Adding a m i c r o - p r o c e s s o r t o a c o n s t a n t f l o w avoid tracer t h e o f f - s c a l e problem p r e v i o u s l y mentioned. system allows


dl.

adjustment As i n

to the

Grot e t

(1980) r e f e r t o

" c o n t i n u o u s f l o w " i n f i l t r a t i o n m o n i t o r i n g i n d e s c r i b i n g t h i s system. c a l c u l a t e d v a l u e s a r e stored.

gas decay automated s y s t e m , t h e m i c r o - p r o c e s s o r p l a y s an a c t i v e r o l e and

Sampling I 2

Fig. 111 e-5

~ u t b m a t e da i r i n f i l t r a t i o n u n i t

The main advantage i n t h e use of c o n s t a n t f l o w t e c h n i q u e i s t h a t i t for the t e c h n i q u e p r o v i d e s . a n average v a l u e o v e r a p e r i o d ( a p e r i o d t h a n one m i n u t e , however). Among t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e c o n s t a n t f l o w t e c h n i q u e one the estimate i n f i l t r a t i o n rdtes t o s u i t a b l e bounds. keep the tracer concentration should levels that can be

allows less

c o n t i n u o u s measurement of t h e a i r i n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e , whereas t h e decay

mention within

l a r g e r amount o f gas consumed d u r i n g t h e measurements, and a r e q u i r e m e n t t o

3) The u l t i m a t e system f o r a i r i n f i l t r a t i o n measurement


constant However, concentration of In tracer this gas. case This eq. concentration technique. 111 e-1

would

maintain n
=

i s r e f e r r e d t o as t h e c o n s t a n t becomes: FICV.

t h i s r e q u i r e s a feedback-type d e s i g n where t h e r a t e o f i n j e c t e d t r a c e r

gas i s d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e b u i l d i n g a i r exchange r a t e . This is

difficult have to

problem

to

solve.

Developments is

on to

such

new

measurements constant

systems

been r e p o r t e d (AIC 1980). analyze as ten multi-chamber zones

I n multi-zone buildings, necessary An maintain interactions. Some o f t h e alternative

whether zoned houses o r more complex s t r u c t u r e s , i t concentrations systems a r e measuring as many

simultaneously.

s o l u t i o n i s t o use a v a r i e t y of t r a c e r gases and d e t e c t o r s . i i i ) measurement equipment and Standards A l l t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t a l procedures p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d need t h e same b a s i c equipment, n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a t t h e t e s t s i t e , t h a t i s :

a c y l i n d e r w i t h t r a c e r gas, p r o v i d e d w i t h a v a l v e a gas a n a l y z e r t u b e s ( r u b b e r o r p l a s t i c ) f o r s u c t i o n a n d l o r i n j e c t i o n o f gas a r e c o r d i n g d e v i c e , o r , a t l e a s t , a watch. The gas a n a l y z e r i t s e l f i s by far the to most detect sophisticated SF6 one the part version SFs the from of the

experimental detection information

apparatus. system. as to The the

For gas actual

example,

of the capture other

equipment i n c l u d e s a p o r t a b l e gas chromatograph, coupled t o an e l e c t r o n chromatograph separates detector ppm, background gases, i n c l u d i n g oxygen, and t h e equipment a l l o w s concentrations below supplies thus the

quantitive of SF

gas c o n c e n t r a t i o n . 0.001

The s e n s i t i v i t y o f c u r r e n t amount

necessary

to

seed

a t y p i c a l house i s l e s s t h a n 40 cm3

( H a r r j e e t al.,

1975).

Such equipment i s r a t h e r expensive. I n c o n t r a s t , t h e gas a n a l y z e r used w i t h N20 i s based on measuring mixture; the the principle of

change i n t h e i n f r a - r e d a b s o r p t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e a i r I N 2 J

i t u s u a l l y works w i t h t r a c e r gas c o n c e n t r a t i o n s up t o 1000 ppm.

Oetectors f o r other conductivity or

tracer

gases
.

can In

use

such p r i n c i p l e s as
it

thermal

chemiluminescence.

general

can

be

stated that'.all

d e t e c t o r s a r e o f comparable c o m p l e x i t y and c o s t . D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e a i r leakage r a t e g e n e r a t i o n o f standards as t o methods. change rate in building has necessitated the

I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s such a s t a n d a r d has

been developed (ASTM. 1980). ' T h i s i s a " s t a n d a r d i z e d t e c h n i q u e f o r measuring a i r i n b u i l d i n g s under n a t u r a l m e t e o r o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s by t r a c e r gas The Standard c a u t i o n s t h a t i t does contributions "current from state to air change rates not and cover that individual a building knowledge o f t h e dilution". component out that

p r i n c i p l e s o f gas a n a l y s i s and i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d . e x t r a p o l a t e p r e c i s e l y measured a i r different order those prevailing change during rate to

The Standard p o i n t s conditions precautions In of

o f t h e a r t does n o t possess a n a l y t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s t o meteorological Safety measurement".

c o n c e r n i n g t h e maximum a l l o w a b l e c o n c e n t r a t i u n of t r d c e r gas a r e

stressed. quarter

t o i n s u r e t h a t maximum c o n c e n t r a t i o n allowances a r e n o t exceeded l o c a l l y ,

t h e Standard suggests c o n c e n t r a t i o n s be t a r g e t e d no h i g h e r t h a n one t h e maximum. The Standard i n d i c a t e s t h a t r e l e a s e of t h e gas, i n o r d e r t o mixing, be a is dictated by the

insure

proper

b u i l d i n g and a i r h a n d l i n g system(s).

Forced a i r

systems h e l p promote good m i x i n g , w h i l e i n many o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s f l o o r fans must deployed. number Homogeneity o f m i x i n g determines when sampling f o r a i r exchange In are blend r a t e can begin. The Standard s t a t e s t h a t m i x i n g i s s u f f i c i e n t when samples fran

o f l o c a t i o n s i n t h e volume t o be measured d i f f e r by l e s s t h a n 5%. In multi-storey

r e s i d e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e s "two o r more samples from w i d e l y separated l o c a t i o n s required. are required". Sampling networks a r e a l s o d e s c r i b e d which a l l o w one to

s t r u c t u r e s , two w i d e l y separated samples p e r f l o o r

a i r samples p r i o r t o c o n c e n t r a t i o n analyses. C a l i b r a t i o n of t h e "standard mixtures of anticipated for the gas at analyzer least test, two is emphasized in the Standard using allow

different

concentrations

i n t h e range

actual

unless

manufacturer-s

specification

single point calibration". According t o precision the Standard "insufficient of data the exists order of for purposes of

and accuracy d e t e r m i n a t i o n . temperature difference

A 'reasonable e s t i m a t e o f t h e u n c e r t a i n t y 10% o r account less". "when and wind speed and d i r e c t i o n a r e 'often

i n a g i v e n a i r change r a t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n i s Indoor-outdoor

s t r o n g f u n c t i o n s o f t h e a i r change r a t e and should be taken i n t o i n t e r p r e t i n g o r comparing a i r change r a t e data".

pressurization of buildings

An approach t o , r a t i n g t h e t i g h t n e s s o f a b u i l d i n g pressurizing, or depressurizing, r a t e under t h e s e a r t i f i c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . Several countries use this approach. Efforts

envelope

makes

use

of

t h e b u i l d i n g , and measuring t h e a i r exchange

to

correlate

these

measurement w i t h t r a c e r gas measurements have been made (Blomsterberg and H a r r j e 1979, K r o n v a l l 1980, Sherman and Grimsrud.1980, Nylund 1980). rating method, the Used as a leakage

p r e ~ s u r i z a t i o n ~ t e c h n i q up er o v i d e s a p r e s s u r e vs f l o w graph

f o r t h e b u i l d i n g b e i n g i n s p e c t e d and achieves t h i s goal i n minutes. This may be done a t any t i m e o f t h e y e a r s i n c e plays a minor role under these artificial test natural infiltration only

conditions. I 1 1 e-6). or and

For r e t r o f i t

performance t e s t i n g t h i s i s an i m p o r t a n t advantage ( f i g . A powerful fan structure. pressure The or blower is used in to the pressurize laboratory

depressurize fan use speeds the

the and door

v a r i a t i o n s i n c l u d e fans w i t h c a l i b r a t i o n s e c t i o n s i n c l u d e d and are translated i n t o a i r flow rates. Some of t h e designs

o t h e r s where t h e c a l i b r a t i o n i s done differences

make use o f the windows as an access p o i n t whereas o t h e r designs opening as a means f o r mounting t h e "blower door". Sweden has made use o f p r e s s u r i z a t i o n techniques t o new housing. These t h e t h r e e ACH " s t a n d a r d " a t 50 Pa effects. pressure difference monitor level to

tightness

in

samples p r o v i d e d a t a t o show t h a t leakage does n o t exceed r a t e houses

a l t h o u g h i t i s recognized t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s f a r removed from any n a t u r a l weather

8 . 0ATMRWM CLOSET DOOR CLOSED FIREPLACE COVERED


C

D E
F

. . .

iTAPED
+ TAPED + TAPED

WINDOWS BATHROOM CLOSET WATER MANIFOLD DOOR

+TAPED CEILING LIGHT AND EXHAUST FAN IN KITCHEN

1 0

20

30

40

. 50

60 pa

Fig. 111 e-6

A i r Leakage vs p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n c e i l l u s t r a t i n g s t e p s t o reduce a i r i n f i l t r a t i o n .

One such equipment design, t h e Blower Door, i s shown i n f i g . important feature that was previously mentioned is

111 e-7.

An

t h a t n o t o n l y can t h i s

approach p o i n t o u t when a h o m e i s t o o l e a k y and m o n i t o r t h e improvements, i t can a l s o p o i n t o u t when t h e house i s t o o t i g h t . Values of t i g h t n e s s approaching 'ventilation. i s moisture. F o l l o w i n g t h e p r o p o s a l f o r t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f a Standard (SP 1977), some necessary to the Swedish Standard mean that

forced

a v o i d problems o f i n d o o r p o l l u t i o n and e x c e s s i v e

. f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n i s h e r e g i v e n , b o t h on t h e c e s t equipment and c o n d i t i o n s : t h e fan must be c o n t r o l l a b l e and have s u f f i c i e n t pressure difference a f l o w meter t o measure t h e a i r f l o w t h r o u g h t h e fan i s r e q u i r e d u n i t s such as t h e blower, d o o r use rpm t o d e t e r m i n e a i r f l o w ) a micromanometer f o r measuring p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n c e s between 0 and 55 Pa an accuracy o f 2 Pa i s r e q u i r e d t h e fan and f l o w m e t e r s h o u l d be a b l e t o be r e v e r s e d t h e i n d o o r and o u t d o o r temperatures s h o u l d be measured, a l o n g w i t h t h e w i n d d i r e c t i o n and v e l o c i t y . Extremal v a l u e s f o r p e r f o r m i n g t h e t e s t a r e 8 m/s f o r wind v e l o c i t y and 30 K f o r t h e t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e a l l v e n t i l a t i o n openings should be s e a l e d b e f o r e t h e t e s t ( i n c l u d i n g f i r e p l a c e s and d r a i n t a p s ) . I n c o n t r a s t , the.U.S. openings. T h i s s h o u l d be t a k e n i n t o t e s t i n g has allowed vents values and s t a c k s t o remain open s i n c e n a t u r a l v e n t i l a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e t h r o u g h t h e s e account i n comparing tightness from one c o u n t r y t o t h e o t h e r . a l l d o o r s and windows f a c i n g o u t s i d e s h o u j d be c l o s e d a l l i n t e r n a l d o o r s s h o u l d be k e p t open d u r i n g t h e t e s t . I t s h o u l d be a l s o pressure in the taken into account that tests berformed with A over canmon with (calibrated c a p a c i t y t o produce a 55 Pa

b u i l d i n g w i l l g e n e r a l l y g i v e d i f f e r e n t (and o f t e n h i g h e r ) a i r Finally, corrections outdoor temperatures

change r a t e s compared t o t e s t s when t h e b u i l d i n g i s u n d e r p r e s s u r i z e d . s o l u t i o n i s t h a t o f t a k i n g t h e average o f t h e two r e s u l t s . s h o u l d be made on t h e (Kronvall volume flow due to indoor and

1980). s i t e s . makes use of the abilities to

The l o c a t i o n o f a i r i n f i l t r a t i o n p r e s s u r i z e and d e p r e s s u r i z e t h e house.

U s i n g p r e s s u r i z a t i o n i n t h e l i v i n g space

infared and f o r c i n g warm a i r i n t o t h e a t t i c ( h e a t i n g season example)' one can use -

detail of width odiustment

p -l
: ;

PLYWOOD

: . :

Fig.

111 e-7

B l o w e r door and c o n t r o l panel

scanning t o d e t e c t t h e leakage s i t e s . partitions leakage of can leak a i r t o the a t t i c . are two the

Often these locations a r e associated w i t h However, even 8b, interior heat are D e p r e s s u r i z i n g t h e house draws c o l d a i r

plumbiny and e l e c t r i c a l p e n e t r a t i o n s o f t h e envelope. t h r o u g h c r a c k s i n t h e envelope, as shown i n f i g . areas just a c r o s s t h e c e i l i n g between f l o o r s ( f i g . course illustrations of

Ill e-8a and

these These

r e s u l t o f c o l d a i r moving i n t o t h e w a l l s ( f i g . 8 b ) ( R u r i e l and Rudy, 1980). h e a t leaks.

8a) o r

Many o f t h e leakage s i t e s A handbook

l i s t e d i n Tables 111 e-1 and 2 can be e a s i l y d e t e c t e d w i t h i n f r a r e d .

has been produced i l l u s t r a t i n g such leakage problems ( P e t t e r s s o n and Axen 1980). Where temperature d i f f e r e n c e s a r e inadequate f o r proper (less The than smoke
5

infrared the

scanning I f one opening. the

K),

one can s u b s t i t u t e smoke t r a c e r s t o seek o u t l e a k s .

p r e s s u r i z e s t h e house, any l e a k causes t h e smoke t o stream toward tracers

work w e l l i n e v a l u a t i n g window leak s i t e s , a l o c a t i o n where

i n f r a r e d scanning i s sometimes d i f f i c u l t because o f e m i s s i v i t y v a r i a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s i n v o l v e d (aluminium, g l a s s , p l a s t i c , etc.)

If t h e g e n e r a t i o n of an i n d o o r a i r b o r n e p o l l u t a n t i s known
may be used as o f f e r t h i s opportunity. possibilities (Turiel C02 generated by and Rudy, 1980). the occupants the may

over also

time, hold new air

it

a natural tracer f o r determininy a i r i n f i l t r a t i o n . Indeed, proposed outside

Radon may out based ASHRAE

v e n t i l a t i o n g u i d e l i A e s a l l o w s a c h o i c e as t o when t o supply upon s t a y i n g below p r e s c r i b e d p o l l u t a n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . necessary i n t h i s approach. Use of methods t h a t would i n t e g r a t e t h e e f f e c t o f a i r time could prove useful after a retrofit. described. a

M o n i t o r i n g i s o f course

exchange

rate

over been

i n p r o v i d i n g an average a i r exchange r a t e b e f o r e and already f o r t h i s t e c h n i q u e t o work t h e g e n e r a t i o n r a t e radon t h i s i s n o t l i k e l y as radon o u t g a s s i n g

One s i m p l e i n j e c t i o n - c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e has however, For

Remember,

and e x t i n c t i o n of t h e p o l l u t a n t must be a c o n s t a n t o r , a t t h e v e r y l e a s t , f o l l o w well-prescribed pattern. from s o i l i s widely variant.

Fig.

I11 e-8a

Heat Leakage p a t h from a t t i c shoun behind i n t e r i o r w a l l .

Fig.

111 e-8b

Heat Leakage from across c e i l i n g (betueen 1 s t and 2nd f l o o r ) shoun as h e a t e r duct path.

- also

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A I C ( A i r I n f i l t r a t i o n C e n t r e ) : Proc. from t h e 1 s t A I C Conf.,


Windsor, England, 1980 (1980) ASTM (America1 S o c i e t y f o r T e s t i n g and M a t e r i a l s ) : ASTM Standard E741-80. B a r g e t z i ,S e t a l . , "Messung des n a t u r l i c h e n l u f t w e c h s e l s i n n i c h t k l i m a t i s i e r e n pp. 202-206, Zurich

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--

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and P e r s i l y , A.,

I n f i l t r a t i o n Fur t o Window and Door R e t r o f i t s i n an Older Home' P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Center f o r Environmental Studies, Rpt. No.85, Honma, H., No.63, 1979.

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Heating and V e n t i l a t i n g , Royal I n s t i t u t e o f Technology, Stockholm, Techn.Bul1'. 1975:2,

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--

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--

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and A i r t i g h t n e s s of Buildings',

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Sherman, M.H.

--

Pressure C o r r e l a t i o n : P a r t 2, 1980.

" S i m p l i f i e d Physical Modeling", ASHRAE Transactions 1980, Vo1.86, Sherman, M.H., Grimsrud, D.T.,

con don,'^.^.,

and Smith, B.V.,

"Air Infiltration

Measurement Techniques"., F i r s t A i r I n f i l t r a t i o n Centre Conference, Uindsor, England, October 1980. ( A l s o LBL Report No. 10705, A p r i l 1980). Socolow, R. H. (Ed.): Saving Energy i n t h e Home. b a l l i n g e r , Cambridge MA, 1978. 1, No.3, A p r i l 1978.

Also appeared as t h e i s s u e of Energy and B u i l d i n g s , Vol. Socolow, R.H., Dutt, G . S ; , and Lavine, M..

" P r e l i m i n a r y Results o f t h e Modular

R e t r o f i t Experiment: Tests of t h e House Ooctor Concept by New Jersey-s Gas U t i l i t i e s " . I n t . Conf. on Energy Resources and Conservation Related t o B u i l t Enviromnent, Miami Beach, F l o r i d a , 1980. S P ( N a t i o n a l Swedish A u t h o r i t y f o r Testing, I n s p e c t i o n and Metrology): "Standard Method D e s c r i p t i o n S P 1977:l"

Tamura, Geore T. "Measurement o f A i r Leakage C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f House Enclosures", ASHRAE Transactions 1975, Vo1 . 8 1 , P a r t 1 , 1975, pp. 202-211. Turiel, I.,. and Rudy, J . , "Occupant Generated CO. a s a Means o f Measuring V e n t i l a t i o n R a t e " , Lawrence Berketey Laboratory R e p o r t , B e r k e l e y , C a l i f . , 1980.

CHAPTER 111 f
'

Energy conversion and energy flow i n h e a t i n g systems

Contents

general' introduction energy consumption conversion o f t h e b o i l e r steady- s t a t e e f f i c i e n c y

- energy
i)

i i ) e f f i c i e n c y o f use

energy flow i n w a t e r h e a t i n g systems energy flow i n a i r h e a t i n g and v e n t i l a t i o n systems t h e c o n t r o l system references

Key words

a i r flow boiler boiler efficiency combustion e f f i c i e n c y c o n t r o l system e f f i c i e n c y o f use ( p a r t l o a d , . a v e r a g e , c y c l i c , o r seasonal e f f i c i e n c y ) energy consumption energy conversion furnace heat d e l i v e r y heat d i s t r i b u t i o n h e a t emission heat t e r m i n a l s mass flow temperature thermostat v e n t i l a t i o n systems volume flow meter

111 f Energy conversion and energy f l o w i n h e a t i n g systems

general i n t r o d u c t i o n

T h i s c h a p t e r analyzes the measurement o f t h o s e q u a n t i t i e s , r e l a t e d energy conversion and relevant for the r e t r o f i t e f f e c t evaluation. Measurements o f the energy conversion e f f i c i e n c i e s , d e f i n e d i n are not.
,

to

the

d i s t r i b u t i o n i n h e a t i n g systems, which a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y

ch.

I d,
for the and

always by

very

i m p o r t a n t , whether t h e h e a t i n g system has been r e t r o f i t t e d o r demand of a building the has been of diminished, the Consequently, altered, the insulation, system capacity e x i s t i n g . heat

Whenever t h e h e a t i n g improving of the

example, efficiency

g e n e r a t i n g equipment ( b o i l e r t b u r n e r ) heating

becomes

excessive.

w i l l g e n e r a l l y decrease.

Furthermore, t h e

d i s t r i b u t i o n of heat t o the i n d i v i d u a l rooms o r d w e l l i n g s w i l l be may become inadequate f r a n t h e c o m f o r t p o i n t o f view. The above c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p o i n t o u t t h e need and c o m f o r t - wise, from house r e t r o f i t s . for readjusting

the

heating -

system c a p a c i t y and c o n t r o l s i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a f u l l b e n e f i t b o t h energy- wise

The measurement of energy d i s t r i b u t i o n i n a h e a t i n g system may be i m p o r t a n t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g types o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n : 1) s t u d i e s on t h e behaviour o f occupants 2) s t u d i e s on t h e c o n t r o l system

3) v a l i d a t i o n of computer models i n which t h e h e a t i n g demand o f each d w e l l i n g '


o r room i s c a l c u l a t e d .

4 ) assessment of t h e e f f e c t s o f r e t r o f i t s (e.g.,
r a d i a t o r v a l v e s ) on t h e h e a t i n g system.

i n s t a l l a t i o n o f thermostatic

A general c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e t y p e s o f measurement of i n t e r e s t i s
i n f i g . I 1 1 f-1 and Table I 1 1 f-1. 1) the t y p e ' o f measurements 2) t h e d u r a t i o n and sampling t i m e of t h e measurement

shown

The aim of t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l determine:

111 f - 2

A Measurement o f t h e t o t a l e n e r g y consumption

B Measurement o f t h e t o t a l e n e r g y consumption and


h e a t supply t o t h e d u e l l i n g ( s )

B I

B 11 a

B I1 b
each d u e l l i n g

1 duelling

n duellings

C Measurement o f t h e t o t a l e n e r g y consumption,
t o each d u e l l i n g and h e a t s u p p l y t o each room

heat supply

C I
m rooms

C I1

rooms

Fig. 111 f - I

S c h e m a t i c a l d i v i s i o n o f t h e measurements

TABLE 111 f - 1 P o s s i b l e measurements on h e a t i n g systems, depending on t h e aim o f t h e s t u d y a i m o f .the i n v e s t i g a t i o n t y p e o f measurements duration of the A1 A11 B I B I I a B l l b C I C I l investigation Maximal

time 112 heating season

sampling

t o t a l di;ect

effect+
t t

112
t
t t t t

indirectconservation+ occupant i n f l u e n c e measurement o f b o i l e r efficiency measurement o f h e a t supply t o a d w e l l i n g occupant b e h a v i o u r i n a dwelling occupant b e h a v i o u r i n a room measurement o f s e p a r a t e e f f e c t s o f d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t conservation check on c o n t r o l system operation check on dynamic oneroom d w e l l i n g model check on dynamic m u l t i room d w e l l i n g model N o t a t i o n as i n f i g .

tieating season

1 month

- -

- -

1 week

1 minute

1 hour

I11 f-l

f e a s i b l e measurement n o t f e a s i b l e measurement

energy consumption

To d e t e r m i n e t h e energy c o n v e r s i o n o f t h e b o i l e r , t h e energy s u p p l y as a f u n c t i o n o f t i m e i s always necessary. energy s u p p l y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f o r each t y p e o f f u e l . f u e l has always t o ~ b e known.

measurement

of

the

The measurement o f t h e The h e a t i n g v a l u e o f t h e

The s u p p l y o f e l e c t r i c energy can be measured w i t h a kwh m e t e r ( a l i o c a l l e d electricity in meter). E l e c t r i c i t y meters a r e e l e c t r o - mechanical d e v i c e s , which They can m u l t i p l y c u r r e n t and v o l t a g e i n phase and t h e n i n t e g r a t e t h e r e s u l t . a l s o be found. directly, using C a l i b r a t i o n can be pe;formed a dynamometer. For

general be bought from t h e l o c a l E l e c t r i c i t y Board, r e c o n d i t i o n e d meters can by t h e l o c a l e l e c t r i c i t y board, o r , recordings opto- e l e c t r o n i c The accuracy i s about 2 g depending on continuous

d e v i c e s , as f o r gas m e t e r s , can be used. t h e s t a t u s o f t h e kWh meter.

If e l e c t r i c i t y i s , m e a s u r e d i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e h e a t
electric about 2%. terminal, measure t h e on- t i m e w i t h an e l e c t r i c hour o r m i n u t e c o u n t e r .

emission The

of

an is

and t h e heat e m i s s i o n i s c o n s t a n t w i t h t i m e , i t s u f f i c e s t o accuracy

Whenever a rough e v a l u a t i o n o f o i l consumption i s r e q u i r e d , t h i s can be d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g a measuring beaker o r tank. F o r more a c c u r a t e measurements, volume f l o w meters e s p e c i a l l y designed f o r o i l a r e a v a i l a b l e , h a v i n g an accuracy of 2 to

5%.

F o r c o n t i n u o u s r e c o r d i n g s semi- p o s i t i v e d i s p l a c e m e n t m e t e r s a r e

w i d e l y used, because t h e y a r e cheap, r o b u s t , and a c c u r a t e . Gas meters the p r o v i d e d by t h e , l o c a l Gas Supply a u t h o r i t i e s are generally of

reciprocating of in

diaphragm t y p e , and h a v e a mechanical meter. of for

For c o n t i n u o u s

r e c o r d i n g , t h e y can be m o d i f i e d u s i n g o p t o - e l e c t r o n i c d e v i c e s t h a t can read t h e number used, revolutions some cases, t h e d i a l mechanism by c o u n t i n g t h e r e f l e c t i o n s from Since gas is also s a n i t a r y water h e a t i n g and c o o k i n g , an e x t r a meter p a i n t e d marks o r t h e passage o f h o l e s d r i l l e d i n t h e d i s c . c o u l d be needed. The accuracy o f gas meters ranges from 2 t o 5% depending things, boiler. the By variation running in the gas temperature. on, among of other the

Whenever t h e gas m e t e r cannot be

a p p l i e d , t h e gas consumption may be determined by measuring t h e o n - t i m e

b o i l e r a t f u l l load f o r a c e r t a i n time, t h e r e l a t i o n

between gas consumption and t i m e can be determined. measured by an b o i l e r thermostat. The mass o f c o a l used over a , g i v e n p'eriod can be Special coal. attention must be Continuous r e c o r d i n g i s impossible.

The

elapsed

time

can

be

h o u r o r m i n u t e c o u n t e r o p e r a t e d b y t h e space t h e r m o s t a t o r t h e

determined

by

weighing.

g i v e n t o t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e h e a t i n g v a l u e o f The accuracy ranges from 5 t o la. determined encountered by weighing. when waste -

The mass o f wood used o v e r a g i v e n p e r i o d can be


i s , therefore,

The h e a t i n g v a l u e o f wood depends on t h e t y p e o f wood and i t s water c o n t e n t , and h a r d t o determine. The same problem i s : ~ r o d u c t sa r e burned.

energy c o n v e r s i o n i n t h e b o i l e r

The energy c o n v e r s i o n e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e b o i l e r ( b r f u r n a c e ) can be d e f i n e d by two d i f f e r e n t parameters: i) ii) steady-state e f f i c i e n c y e f f i c i e n c y o f use (average o r c y c l i c e f f i c i e n c y )

i ) s t e a d y s t a t e efficient) The s t e a d y - s t a t e e f f i c i e n c y o f a b o i l e r i s g i v e n b y (see eq. I d-2):

II =

(H,-H4)/Ui

(111 f-1)

where HI H4
Qi

= e n t h a l p y o f heated f l u i d l e a v i n g t h e b o i l e r
= =

e n t h a l p y o f heated f l u i d e n t e r i n g t h e b o i l e r heat content o f f u e l

o r as

= 1- Q . / Q . J 1

(Hf

Ha)/Qi

where
Q . = c o n v e c t i v e and r a d i a t i v e h e a t l o s s e s from t h e h e a t g e n e r a t o r J Hf = e n t h a l p y o f combustion gases and vapour e n t e r i n g t h e chimney

Ha = e n t h a l p y o f a i r e n t e r i n g t h e b o i l e r i si o f t e n denoted b y L . ( t h e j a c k e t l o s s f a c t o r ) , w h i l e t h e The t e r m Q j / Q J term

(Hf-Ha)/Qi incomplete Thus,

( t h e f l u e l o s s f a c t o r ) i s denoted by Lf. combustion, and i s

The l a t t e r i s p a r t l y due t o

often f u r t h e r divided i n t o

Lint

( t h e incomplete

combustion l o s s f a c t o r ) , and LC, t h e remainder o f L f ( t h e chimnev l o s s f a c t o r ) .

L,=Lf-Lint.

The e f f i c i e n c y can now be w r i t t e n :

n = 1- L j - L C -

Lint

(111 f - 2 )

The two expressions 111 f-1 and 111 f - 2 correspond t o two d i f f e r e n t ways t o determine t h e s t e a d y - s t a t e e f f i c i e n c y o f a b o i l e r :

- d i r e c t balance method - i n d i r e c t balance method


Whenthe d i r e c t balance method i s used, one s t a r t s by expressing H, and H4 of eq. 111 f-1 as:

HI = 6 c p
and where

iTI

dt = c

m T

H 4 = j c p r i T q d t = c p m T4

= mass flow r a t e o f heated f l u i d

c p = heat c a p a c i t y p e r u n i t lnass of heated f l u i d TI = temperature o f f l u i d l e a v i n g t h e b o i l e r To = temperature o f f l u i d e n t e r i n g t h e b o i l e r and


Qi = 1ii H d t = m..1 H

where
mi = mass of f u e l

=.heat

c o n t e n t of f u e l temperature (TI) and t h e r e t u r n water ( o r a i r ) temperature other

The supply water ( o r a i r )

temperature (To) should be measured, as w e l l as t h e q u a n t i t y o f water ( o r a i r ) , m, f l o w i n g through t h e b o i l e r and t h e measurements and f l o w - r a t e sections of t h i s chapter. When t h e i n d i r e c t indirectly balance method i s applied, the l o s s e s (see eq. boiler efficiency i s quantity o f fuel, m .i are discussed Fluid measurements separately i n

determined t h r o u g h i t s energy

I11 f - 2 ) . Since f o r

tuned- up h e a t g e n e r a t o r s the' losses due t o incomplete combustion a r e g e n e r a l l y

n e g l i g i b l e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o apply a combustion, f o r t h e c a l c u l a t i o n of LC: LC = (A where Tf Ta CO 2


= f l u e gases temperature = a i r temperature

formula (Gumz 1962), v a l i d f o r

complete

B/C02

C*W)'(Tf

Ta)

(%)

= volume c o n t e n t o f carbon d i o x i d e i n % = mass water c o n t e n t o f f u e l p e r u n i t mass o f f u e l

W
and A,B,

and C a r e constants, depending on one o r more o f t h e v a r i a b l e s c a n p o s i t i o n heat of water and a i r (dependent on t h e dependent), e t c . For 8.0.49, content o f t h e f l u i d (temperature

and mass o f t h e f l u e gases, s p e c i f i c temperature), e n t h a l p y and C= 0.0044. For s o l i d and l i q u i d f u e l s ,

o i l . t h e f o l l o w i n g average values have been.given (Gumz 1962):A- 0.0064.

t h e C02 and O 2 volume

c o n t e n t s a r e r e l a t e d by r e l a t i o n may

( w i t h an e r r o r o f a few per cent, f o r gas t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s r e s u l t i n e r r o r s o f 20 % o r more): C02 = ( 1 - 0 2 / 2 0 . 8 ) + ( C 0 2 ) max where (C02) max i s t h e maximum volume content ,of CO 2' The q u a n t i t y n , = 1

- L C i s often

r e f e r r e d t o as "combustion

efficiency".

Summing up, t h e q u a n t i t i e s which have t o be measured are:

a i r temperature f l u e gases temperature C02 o r 0 2 c o n t e n t i n f l u e gases For temperature measurements see f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s i n t h i s chapter.As t h e C02 c o n t e n t , t h e f o l l o w i n g methods can be employed f o r the a n a l y s i s : for

chemical methods ( O r s a t measurement equipment, p o r t a b l e a b s o r p t i o n a n a l y z e r s ) p h y s i c a l methods ( c o n d u c t i v i t y method, paramagnetic method' ( f o r 02!, method ( f o r GO), etc.) The Orsat equipment i s n o t s u i t a b l e f o r q u i c k analyses i n the field. On infrared

the

other

hand, t h e p o r t a b l e analyzer, based on t h e a b s o r p t i o n o f C02

( o r 02) The most

by a s o l u t i o n , p r o v i d e s a r a p i d a n d s u f f i c i e n t l y r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n .

suitable

instruments

are,

however,

the

so

c a l l e d f u e l - e f f i c i e n c y monitors temperature

(FEM), which a l l o w t h e instantaneous measurement o f b o t h f l u e gases and 0 2 c o n t e n t by means o f e l e c t r i c transducers.

The j a c k e t l o s s f a c t o r (L.) c a n be e s t i m a t e d from Table 111 f-2 J f u n c t i o n of t h e b o i l e r nominal power Qn ( A n d r e i n i and P i e r i n i , 1980).

as

TABLE 111 f-2 J a c k e t l o s s f a c t o r a t f u l l l o a d f o r small b o i l e r s

ii)

e f f i c i e n c y o f use Since t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f use i s n o t constant in the heating season,


it

should

be determined a t d i f f e r e n t loads.

Accuracy o s c i l l a t e s between 2 and 10%

depending on t h e p r e c i s i o n of t h e measuring d e v i c e s used. t h e degree o f use o f the b o i l e r and from values of the

If t h e volume f l o w o f
efficiency of use

t h e h e a t i n g medium cannot be measured, t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f use may be d e r i v e d from determined i n a l a b o r a t o r y as a f u n c t i o n o f l o a d . The degree o f use i s t h e f r a c t i o n o f t i m e i n which t h e b o i l e r full load. The determination of the c a r r i e d o u t u s i n g a method ( D i t t r i c h 1972) ( d i r e c t method), which measurement o f e f f i c i e n c y and standby losses. Standby l o s s e s can be measured by c h a n n e l i n g t h e .water f l o w from t h e b o i l e r through an i n s u l a t e d bypass c l o s e t o t h e b o i l e r . Therefore, heat i s d e l i v e r e d of the boiler and the by t h e b o i l e r o n l y t o m a i n t a i n t h e water temperature is used at the

e f f i c i e n c y o f use i n t h e f i e l d can be requires

energy consumption i s equal t o t h e standby losses. The measurements must be done a t t h e standby boiler. losses, LS, normal operating temperature. The

w i l l be expressed as a percentage o f t h e f u l l l o a d o f t h e

I f t h e f u e l s u p p l y i s c o n s t a n t i n t i m e then:

L s = (burner "on" time/ t o t a l time)'100 The e f f i c i e n c y o f use i s now (Uyttenbroek, 1980): nu = ( 1 where

Ls/B)/(l

Ls/100) 'nd

B = degree o f use i n % o f t i m e o f t h e h e a t i n g season

= b o i l e r e f f i c i e n c y (determined through t h e d i r e c t method)

nu = e f f i c i e n c y o f use
T h i s method i s s u i t a b l e f o r b o i l e r s temperature, but operating at constant supply water between

cannot be a p p l i e d t o b o i l e r s c o n t r o l l e d by a room thermostat.

l n general, experimental data i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s a small d i f f e r e n c e

e f f i c i e n c y of use and steady-state e f f i c i e n c y above a degree o f use o f 30%. For a lower degree o f use a g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e can be countries Fig. r e t r o f i t , B w i l l be even lower. IIIf-2 (Bergen, t h r e e types of b o i l e r s . situations: 1 ) p e r i o d s w i t n a B value l e s s than 30%;
2 ) modulating burners f o r decreasing B values w i l l show:

expected.

In

many.

an average B value o f 304 over t h e h e a t i n g season i s normal. Therefore t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f use w i l l attention must be paid in the 1980) shows t y p i c a l curves of e f f i c i e n c y vs. Special

After a decrease. load, f o r following.

lower nu f o r induced

draught burner and

higher

f o r v e n t i l a t o r burner (Anglesio, 1980);


U

3) v e n t i l a t o r burnzr d i t h condensation: f o r lower water temperature h i g h e r q

- enerpy

f l o w i n water h e a t i n g systems

The t o t a l heat supply t o t h e p i p e s c a n be d e r i v e d by volume such flow cases and water the heat temperature

measuring

the

water In

increase across t h e b o i l e r .

Such measuring

equipment i s already included i n some i n s t a l l a t i o n s f o r c o l l e c t i v e heating. f l o w meters are used. flow and temperature s e p a r a t e l y a r e described below. For volume f l o w measurements, volume flow distribution system are used. introduced, which reduces t h e water flow r a t e . meters inserted in the

Techniques f o r measuring volume

water

This i m p l i e s t h a t an e x t r a flow r e s i s t a n c e i s To l i m i t t h i s e f f e c t a type

of'

flow head.

meter

with

low r e s i s t a n c e should be chosen..

I t i s p o s s i b l e , however, t o

compensate t h e pressure l o s s due t o t h e volume f l o w meter by i n c r e a s i n g t h e pump One may than proceed as f o l l o w s : 1) measure t h e water temperature d i f f e r e n c e ( A T ) across t h e b o i l e r arid outflowing water temperature (TI) (e.g., when t h e b o i l e r i s on; the

by a thermometer placed i n t h e b o i l e r )

2 ) f i t t h e volume f l o w meter i n t h e r e t u r n p i p e upstream t h e pump;


3) keep t h e b o i l e r on u n t i l t h e water temperature has reached t h e value again. or.by bypass r e g u l a t i o n , u n t i l t h e pressure regains t h e same value as before. By using this for procedure the pressure loss over the flow meter is By such of TI

Measure AT once more and r e g u l a t e t h e pump pressure by v a r y i n g i t s speed

compensated setting pressure

only

one given volume flow.

D i f f e r e n t water f l o w r a t e s cause

d i f f e r e n t pressure l o s s e s and, consequently, r e q u i r e a d i f f e r e n t pump head. pressure l o s s across the flow meter i s minimized. w i t h t h e volume f l o w meter may be used (see revolutions of the pump fig. I n order t o I 11 f - 3 ) . compensate The number

t h e r a d i a t o r valves i n the normal p o s i t i o n s , the measuring e r r o r due t o l o s s c o r r e c t l y i n a l l circumstances, a second pump connected i n s e r i e s i s always c o n t r o l l e d i n such a way t h a t t h e pressure

d i f f e r e n c e across flow meter and pump remains zero. The accuracy of volume f l o w meters i s about 2 minimal volume flow rate. to

.lo%,

depending

on

the of

Since t h e water d i s t r i b u t i o n system i s o f t e n very

d i r t y , i t should be p o s s i b l e t o c l e a n t h e volume f l o w meter d u r i n g o p e r a t i o n t h e h e a t i n g p l a n t o r t o i n s t a l l a f i l t e r upstream t h e measuring device. During temperature measurements temperature of hot in the w a t e r distribution system,

the may

water f l o w i n g through a p i p e i s n o t constant over t h e p i p e The h i g h e s t I 1 1 f-4). the more temperature

s e c t i o n because o f c o o l i n g down a t t h e p i p e w a l l . be expected i n t h e c e n t r e o f t h e p i p e (see f i g .

For exact measurements of t h e water temperature, a sensor i s placed i n pipes. By producing temperature In this a strong g r a d i e n t becomes smaller and a more accurate measurement i s homogeneous pipe wall. distribution obtained.

t u r b u l e n t flow a t t h e sensor, t h e temperature

may be expected i f t h e p i p e i s i n s u l a t e d

e x t e r n a l l y upstream over a g r e a t length, thus decreasing t h e c o o l i n g down a t t h e case, i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o measure t h e temperature o f t h e

o u t s i d e p i p e surface underneath t h e i n s u l a t i o n . used, f-4).


it

If a possible should

thennometer into be the

socket socket.
It

is 111
If

is

in wire

small is to

diameter pipes u s u a l l y placed i n a bend (see f i g . as far as used, prevent I 1 1 f-4). galvanic contdct avoided.

The sensor must be placed

thermocouple into the

is
it

recanmended t o k i n k t h e thermocouple w i r e a couple.of times before socket, thermocouple (see f i g .

bringing

heat conduction through t h e supply wires t o t h e

I f t h e temperature i s measured by means of thermocouples a t t h e pipe, f i r s t

insulate

the

pipe

with

tape, then p l a c e t h e thermocouple and wind t h e w i r e a cover once more with insulating tape and

couple o f times around t h e pipe, f i n a l l y i n s u l a t e t h e pipe.

Uhen measuring t h e heat emission

from

terminals,

the

following

general

r e l a t i o n holds f o r t h e heat emission of a r a d i a t o r o r convector:

6
0

K*

AT*^

(111 f-3)

where
= d i f f e r e n c e between themean t e r m i n a l temperature and t h e room temperature = mass f l o w through r a d i a t o r o r convector = heat c a p a c i t y p e r u n i t mass o f water = heat emission
=

m
c q
K

AT = temperature d i f f e r e n c e between supply and r e t u r n water

nominal heat emission for r a d i a t o r o r convector (WIKB )

= exponent, u s u a l l y t a k i n g a value around 1.3

For e we may use


8

= (Ts + Tr)/2

Ta

if

(Tr

- Ta)/(TS - Ta)
Ta)l(Ts

>

0.7

and

( I 1 1 f-4)
-,

e = (Ts
where

T r ) l l n ( (Ts-Tr)l(Tr-Ta)

i f (Tr

Ta) < 0.7

Ts = temperature of supply water. Tr = temperature of r e t u r n water Ta = temperature of room a i r From eq. the radiator, 111 f - 4 i t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e mass flow and t h e or convector, heat emission of

can be d e r i v e d from t h e room temperature and t h e

temperature o f t h e supply and r e t u r n water i f K i s known.

.-.-.80

a i r h e a t e r w i t h condensation 1 2 k W

.-.-

.-._.-. _.-

v e n t i l a t o r burner

1000-kW

F i g . 1 1 1 f-2

E f f i c i e n c y o f use

(nu)

f o r s e v e r a l t y p e s of

b o i l e r s ( a f t e r B e r g e n 1980)

Fib. I 1 1

f-3

Volume f l o w m e t e r w i t h p r e s s u r e compensation

This different heat


5y

measurement radiator

only

gives

an

approximate

result,

because,

due

to

heat

emission, t h e v a l u e o f K may i n p r a c t i c e be d i f f e r e n t

from t h e g i v e n value, i f i t has been determined i m t h e l a b o r a t o r y .

I f the t o t a l

emission i s determined s e p a r a t e l y , however, t h e heat d i s t r i b u t i o n over t h e the boiler, which i s equal t o t h e t o t a l heat emission of a l l r a d i a t o r s o r

d i f f e r e n t r a d i a t o r s o r convectors can a l s o be found from t h e t o t a l heat s u p p l i e d convect.ors gtot, v h i c h can be determined frum t h e r e l a t i o n :

index x r e f e r s t o a s i n g i e t e r m i n a l As i n t h i s approximation i t i s assumed t h a t equally cases,


K"
B",

the

total

heat

emission

is

d i s t r i b u t e d among a l l r a d i a t o r s o r convectors, i t i s i m p l i c i t l y assumed I n some s p e c i a l the heat output

t h a t t h e heat emission o f t h e p i p e s i s a'lso e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d .

will

change,

for

'

lower

water temperatures, t o

where K.

i s a new value of K, and 8' may t a k e a. v a l u e up t o 1.5. over a of long heat

For t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e heat d i s t r i b u t i o n i n a d w e l l i n g period, emitted the same heat emission meters a r e a l s o used. measure accuracy in a given period. the The a capsule p l a c e d on t h e r a d i a t o r i s a
,

The amount o f evaporated l i q u i d i n of is the t o t a l ' amou'nt 10 t o i5%. Depending on t h e

measuring p e r i o d d e s i r e d , a more r a p i d l y e v a p o r a t i n g f l u i d may be used,, which a t time increases accuracy. Even

if

no h e a t i s e m i t t e d by t h e is determined by the

r a d i a t o r t h e r e w i l l b e ' e v a p o r a t i o n , t h e e x t e n t o f which room temperature. g i v e n by t h e e v a p o r a t i o n meter. Generally, f o r f l o o r h e a t i n g , a amount be on of heat by emitted must d i f f e r e n c e measurement. determined modulaking

T h i s "background" e v a p o r a t i o n must be deduced from t h e f i g u r e

regulation

is

applied.

The can

be d e r i v e d from a volume f l o w and a temperature 111 d ) . The measurement 111 f - 5 ) and T2 is in

The heat d i s t r i b u t i o n t o t h e rooms above and below

means o f heat f l o w meters (see ch. or

may be c a r r i e d o u t b e f o r e o r a f t e r t h e threeway m i x i n g v a l v e (see f i g .

t1

and

T I

i 2 and
Qi

T2, r e s p e c t i v e l y . higher value

Measurement of than

t2

p r e f e r r e d , because results

h2

has always a

The

measurement

will

show whether

depends on t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e v a l v e o r n o t ;

t h e l a t t e r case a measurement of Tf

w i l l suffice.

Fig.

111 f - 4

Thermocouple i n a t h e r m o m e t e r s o c k e t i n a p i p e and t h e t e m p e r a t u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e p i p e . The r a t i o L I D s h o u l d b e t a k e n g r e a t e r t h a n 10.

Fig.

111 f - 5

Measurement o f h e a t e m i s s i o n f r o m f l o o r h e a t i n g . The f l o w V, or V and t h e t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e c a n be measured.

AT,

and

AT2

-'energy

flow i n a i r h e a t i n g and v e n t i l a t i o n systems

I n t h i s s e c t i o n we w i l l t r e a t t h e measurement o f flow a i r h e a t i n g systems.

and

temperature measurements

in of

However, t h e methods d e s c r i b e d here can i n general a l s o be

a p p l i e d t o measurements i n mechanical v e n t i l a t i o n systems ( f o r a i r flow r a t e s see a l s o Svensson 1983). The heat supply t o an a i r system can measurement exchanger. in a duct and a be determined from

volume

flow

temperature d i f f e r e n c e measurement over a heat following sensors

For temperature measurements i n a i r systems, t h e

a r e considered:

f l u i d thermometers r e s i s t a ? c e thermometers thermocouoles. For r e c o r d i n g s , o r f o r t h e ' d e t e r m i n a t i o n of mean values value. over Illb). To a longer Chemical for p o i n t s are

period,

only

the

l a s t twu sensors can be a p p l i e d . in the pipe section

(See ch.

i n t e g r a t o r s may be used f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f mean temperature differences r e q u i r e d f o r each section.

account

several

measuring

There a r e several methods f o r measuring t h e a i r f l o w them is are the f i e l d . not

in

ducts.

Some

of

s p e c i a l l y designed f o r l a b o r a t o r y measurements and a r e seldom used i n However, as t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y of these methods t o f i e l d experiments generally assessable, we w i l l g i v e a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f a l l of them.

Depending on t h e experimental setup, t h e f o l l o w i n g methods can'be used:


1) t r a v e r s e a i r v e l o c i t y measurements

2) p r e s s u r e drop measuresents
3) t r a c e r gas method

1) The f i r s t method i s based on t h e w e l l known equation V = ~ * A


where

V = . a i r volume flow r a t e

;=

average a i r v e l o c i t y over t h e c r o s s s e c t i o n

A = c r o s s s e c t i o n area

Provided t h a t A i s known i n advance, t h i s method r e q u i r e s of to a r e l i a b l e e v a l u a t i o n of i t s average value 5. be representative of equal surface

the

measurement either of

a i r v e l o c i t y i n a number of p o i n t s over t h e d u c t s e c t i o n i n o r d e r t o achieve The p o i n t s can be chosen areas ( i n t h i s case, t h e g r e a t e r t h e representative

number of areas, t h e b e t t e r t h e accuracy), o r t o be d i r e c t l y t h e mean v e l o c i t y i n t h e d u c t (see Fig. 111 f - 6 ) . the duct


will

I n b o t h cases t h e averaqe v e l o c i t y . i n arithmetic and be total used. mean of

be

given both

by

the

t h e measured values a t each p o i n t . (also called Prandtl tube);

The recommended sensor measuring static wire alternatively hot

f o r t h e a i r v e l o c i t y measurement i s a P i t o t s t a t i c tube pressures Elbows,

anemometers, c a l i b r a t e d t o t a k e i n t o account t h e e f f e c t s o f a i r temperature, can wyes o r dampers w i l l d i s t u r b t h e flow. Therefore t i e P i t o t tube should always be l o c a t e d a t some d i s t a n c e ( 3 t o 7.5 d i a m e t e r s ) downstream. A l a r g e number o f commercially group. They equipment. available devices belong to the second

a r e u s u a l l y based on the s t a t i c p r e s s u r e drop across a c a l i b r a t e d

Cross t u b i n g and c a l i b r a t e d diaphragm flohmeters a r e some examples. technique duct is the and one the in which
0

2) An e a s i l y a p p l i c a b l e and i n e x p e n s i v e pressure elbow (see is measured Fig. I11 f-7). Kwding the

a t two p o i n t s on t h e e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l s i d e o f a 90 diameter

pressure

d i f f e r e n c e one can from a s u i t a b l e flow diagram read the a i r volume f l o w r a t e . 3 ) The t r a c e r gas method has been r e c e n t l y developped (see f i g . A by t r a c e r gas (e.g. N20) i s i n j e c t e d a t a c o n s t a n t r a t e 111 f - 8 ) . Its t h e n given

i n t o the duct.

c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s t h e n measured downstreams.

The a i r f l o w r a t e

ia is

where C S i s t h e measured c o n c e n t r a t i o n and C

i s t h e background c o n c e n t r a t i o n . sampling a points ranges the

The d i s t a n c e between t h e t r a c e r gas i n j e c t i o n and from

10

t o 80 times t h e d u c t diameter, depending on how many flow d i s t u r b a n c e s the greater the disturbance (e.g. ventilator),

there are present;

s m a l l e r t h e d i s t a n c e has t o be. For t h e measurement o f a i r f l o w r a t e across exhaust openings ( o u t l e t s ) f o l l o w i n g methods can be used: the

F i g . I l l f-6

Measuring p o i n t s ( x ) duct s e c t i o n s .
'

i n r e c t a n g u l a r and c i r c u l a r

Fig.

111 f-7

Placement of p r e s s u r e probes a t a 90'

elbow.

1) t r a v e r s e a i r v e l o c i t y measurements 2) pressure drop measurements

3) a i r v e l o c i t y measurements w i t h c a l i b r a t e d hoods
1 ) I n t h i s case, a i r v e l o c i t y i s measured a t a c e r t a i n g r i l l e ( g e n e r a l l y 2- 3 cm) a t a small section. The volume a i r f l o w , V,
V = k*i'A

distance points

from t h e over t h e

number

( u s u a l l y 4) o f

i s given by:

where k i s a c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r , t h e cross- s e c t i o n a l area. The

i s t h e average measured a i r v e l o c i t y and A i s factor depends on t h e

value o f t h e c o r r e c t i o n

damper p o s i t i o n as w e l l as on t h e g r i l l e size. 2)The second method i s used for' c i r c u l a r i n l e t s . (a capillary ,measures t h e pressure drop across t h e tube. as a parameter. 3) S p e c i a l l y shaped hoods a r e c a n m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e i n which anemometer is placed. The hood can be a p p l i e d t o c i r c u l a r i n l e t s . 111 f - g ). (i n l e t s ) the a hot by wire means
It makes use o f

probe

tube) which i s i n s e r t e d behind t h e g r i l l e .

A micromanometer then

The volume a i r f l o w can be obtained

f r i m t h e pressure drop u s i n g s u i t a b l e diagrams, i n which t h e s l i t w i d t h appears,

The volume

a i r f l o w can be determined as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e measured a i r v e l o c i t y of a diagram e s t a b l i s h e d by p r e v i o u s c a l i b r a t i o n (see f i g .


F a r the measurement

of

air

flow

across

supply

openings

f o l l o w i n g methods can be used: 1) p l a s t i c bag methods 2) pressure d i f f e r e n c e measurements


3 ) a i r v e l o c i t y measurements w l t h c a l i b r a t e d hoods

1) The f i r s t method i s very r e l i a b l e and y e t quick and simple. bag is tightly applied t o t h e o u t l e t (see f i g . 3 Pa). 111 f-10). i n t o i t , t h e bag s t a r t s s w e l l i n g u n t i l t h e teaches
a s u i t a b l e value (e.g.,

plastic.

As t h e a i r flows difference

inside-outside

pressure

A t t h a t moment t h e volume a i r f l o w w i l l

be given by t h e simple equation:


V = V/t

where V i s t h e bag volume a t the corresponding pressure d i f f e r e n c e and t i s t h e time elapsed from t h e beginning o f t h e s w e l l i n g . A reliable device f o r t i m e

n
qs

Fan

Flowmeter IRotamererI

Gar analyzer
Reduclion valve

Fig. 111 f-8 Flow measurement w i t h t r a c e r gas t e c h n i q u e . q = a i r flov rate C i = i n i t i a l t r a c e r gas concentration i n the duct C s = gas c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t h e sampling c r o s s s e c t i o n q s = i n j e c t e d t r a c e r gas f l o w rate

Valve for fins


pressure

Gar cylinder, N 2 0

Fig.

Ill f - 9

Measurement o f a i r f l o v i n o u t l e t u i t h c a l i b r a t e d hood. 1) s e a l i n g 2 ) measurjng hood 3 ) i n d i c a t o r i n s t r u m e n t 4 ) c a l i b r a t i o n c u r v e o f a i r f l o u r a t e q vs v e l o c i t y v

4
Fig.

111 f - I 0

Measurement o f a i r f l o v r a t e a t i n l e t u i t h bag method. 1) s e a l i n g 2) frame t o which t h e p l a s t i c bag i s f a s t e n e d 3 ) measuring tube (5 mm) connected t o microanemometer 4 ) microanemometer 5) p l a s t i c bag u i t h t h i c k n e s s 0.03 rnm

measurement i s needed. To achieve a good accuracy, t h e ' e l a ~ s e d t i m e s h o u l d be s m a l l e r than. 10 seconds. 2), 3 ) The methods based similar to those described un pressure extension difference duct measurelnents can than. 3 are times

not

very (he

above.

Calibrated

hoods (longer

a l s o be used f o r

o u t l e t s , provided t h e t a s t r a i g h t

d i a m e t e r ) i s a p p l i e d between t h e g r i l l e and t h e measurement device. The r a t e o f heat s u p p l y t o a room by an a i r system i s g i v e n b y :

= ,V'p'cp*(Ti

Tr)

where

= r a t e o f heat s u p p l i e d by t h e a i r system = a i r volume f l o w t h r o u g h t h e g r i l l e ( s )


=

d e n s i t y o f supply a i r

cp = heat c a p a c i t y o f a i r Ti
= supply a i r temperature

Tr = room temperature I n o r d e r t o determine t h e r a t e of heat s u p p l y t o a room, V and (Timeasured. Tr) must be

t h e c o n t r o l system

I n a two- o r m u l t i p o s i t i o n c o n t r o l system, a t h e r m o s t a t onfoff in one signals or more through steps. one It is or more also control contacts r e p r e s e n t a t i v e room o f t h e d w e l l i n g .

emitting is

electric in a

placed

T h i s t h e r m o s t a t t u r n s t h e b u r n e r on o r o f f p o s s i b l e t h a t i n each room, o r i n each is controlled by an

d w e l l i n g of a m u l t i s t o r e y b u i l d i n g , t h e h o t water s u p p l y e l e c t r i c shut- off valve. I n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e t h e c o n t r o l c a p a b i l i t y , two, genetally o;er by: provided with p a r a l l e l t o t h e l o a d (see f i g . I 1 1 f - l l a and 11 b).

p o s i t i o n thermostats By mea;uring can the be

are

a thermal feed back r e s i s t a n c e connected i n s e r i e s o r pressure processed

t h e e x c i t a t i o n c o i l , i t can b e determined whether o r n o t heat i s s u p p l i e d .

Depending upon t h e a i m o f t h e measurement, t h e o u t p u t . s i g n a 1

1) c o n t i n u o u s l y r e c o r d i n g equipment

2 ) impulse c o u n t e r s 3) m i n u t e c o u n t e r s
I f one wants t o know how a b o i l e r t h e r m o s t a t connected i n s e r i e s

wjth

the

room t h e r m o s t a t works, two measuring s i g n a l s may be used (see f i g . By measuring t h e f u e l consumed d u r i n g one p e r i o d , can be directly derived by measuring the burner the energy

111 f-14). consumptiun F o r a thermal that back. the parallel


It

on- time.

feedback r e s i s t a n c e connected i n s e r i e s , i t should be considered fig. 111 f-13a). to T h i s causes an i n c r e a s e i n t h e use thermal feed

c o n n e c t i o n of a measuring d e v i c e t o t h e l o a d induces an i n c r e a s e of c u r r e n t (see is reconnlended a measuring i n s t r u m e n t w i t h a h i g h i n p u t isipedance so t h a t To be a b l e t o check operation

t h e e x t r a l o a d c u r r e n t i s n e g l i g i b l y small.

of t h e thermal feed back, one may proceed as f o l l o w s :

1 ) a d j u s t t h e t h e r m o s t a t a t a low temperature and l e t i t c o o l down f o r about 30 minutes, so t h a t t h e sensor c o o l s down t o room, temperature. 2) t u r n t h e t h e r m o s t a t s l o w l y up t o a p o s i t i o n where i t j u s t switches on. The value a t t h i s p o s i t i o n corresponds t o t h e room t e m p e r a t u r e a t t h a t moment. 3) a temperature r i s e o f t h e sensor w i l l t h e n o n l y thermal feed- back r e s i s t a n c e . At t h i s heated by i n t e r n a l sources. 4) d e t e r m i n e t h e t i m e b e f o r e t h e t h e r m o s t a t use o f t h e b o i l e r i s sufficiently switches off.
I f the efficiency o f

o c c u r by e x c i t a t i o n of t h e may not be

stage, t h e t h e r m o s t a t

high, t h i s time

may n o t be s h o r t e r t h a n than about 15

about 5 minutes. For c o m f o r t reasons t h i s time, depending on b o i l e r c a p a c i t y and.the s i z e of t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n as w e l l , may minutes. If t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r e n o t s a t i s f i e d , have t o be a d j u s t e d once more. M o d u l a t i n g c o n t r o l works w i t h c o n t i n u o u s l y v a r i a b l e s i g n a l s i n t h e circuit. used, signal used. The measurement of t h e s i g n a l i s n o t easy r a d i a t o r valves).
if

n o t be l o n g e r t h e thermal

feed- back w i l l

control are

Generally, should When be

t h e s e s i g n a l s can e a s i l y be measured and recorded i f t h e y pneumatically. that to the prevent When electrical of signals the remembered input impedance weakening of t h e measuring measuring

are transmitted e l e c t r i c a l l y o r
it

i n s t r u m e n t must be s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h

pneumatic s i g n a l s a r e used, pneumatic-el e c t r i c c o n v e r t e r s may be

the

sensor,

the

automatic the whole

c o n t r o l d e v i c e , and t h e c o r r e c t i n g v a l v e a r e b u i l t as a u n i t (as i n t h e r m o s t a t i c I n t h i s case, o n l y t h e i n p u t and o u t p u t s i g n a l o f

f o r h e a t supply

II I I I

thermal feed back r e s i s t a n c e

a)

i n series (two- w i r e )

b) p a r a l l e l (three- wire)

Fig. 111 f-11

Connection p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a room thermostat with thermal feed back.

measuring s i g n a l

measuring s i g n a l

thermostat

~ i g .111 f-12

Measurement of thermostat signal

control heat of

circuit

can rate

be of

measured.

For

a . t h e r m o s t a t i c r a d i a t o r valve, room or rate Control s t r a t e g i e s flow

temperature and water temperature are t h e i n p u t s i g n a l s , and water f l o w r a t e emission t h e r a d i a t o r i s t h e output s i g n a l


.'

i n c l u d e m i x i n g c o n t r o l and q u a n t i t y c o n t r o l . . I n m i x i n g control,, t h e t h e h e a t i n g medium i s v i r t u a l l y constant. o f t h e heating.medium ( o r o f t h e f u e l supply) i s v a r i a b l e . I n weather- dependent c o n t r o l , outdoor conditions water temperature outdoor is

I n q u a n t i t y c o n t r o l t h e flow r a t e

controlled sensor(s)

by

the by

(sun, wind,.temperature,

precipitation).

The o p e r a t i o n can and/or

be checked by measuring t h e output s i g n a l o f t h e measuring t h e water temperature.

Night s e t back i s r e a l i z e d by lowering t h e value supply a i r temperature below t h e daytime s e t p o i n t . a u t o m a t i c a l l y by means dependent achieved control, of a time switch. In

of

the

room, with

water

or

This,can be done manually o r installations weather-

n i g h t set back can be a t t a i n e d by reducing t h e f i r i n g l i n e .

I n i n s t a l l a t i o n s w i t h room temperature c o n t r o l , automatic n i g h t r e d u c t i o n can be by e x c i t a t i o n o f a h e a t i n g element i n t h e thermostat o r by adjustment of a special n i g h t thermostat. The occupants- operations on s e t p o i n t as w e l l as are in p r i n c i p l e ~neasurablew i t h t e c h n i c a l devices. occupant-s unknown a c t i o n gained necessary t o monitor t h e the weather
It

conditions is the often water or

However, i t i s n o t always directly. by For example, i n f o r m a t i o n measuring drop across t h e r a d i a t o r . thermostat position,

s u f f i c i e n t t o measure t h e e f f e c t caused by t h e a c t i o n . on t h e p o s i t i o n of ' t h e r a d i a t o r valves can be temperature about by behind the valve or the temperature

I n f o r m a t i o n about t h e b o i l e r thermostat, and. t h e room temperature. measuring

t h e use o f n i g h t temperature set-back can be gained from t h e supply water I n f o r m a t i o n on t h e number o f r a d i a t o r valves opened can be d e r i v e d either the rate of increase o f t h e water temperature when t h e

burner i s on, o r the temperature r i s e across t h e b o i l e r .

References

A n d r e i n i , P. and P i e r i n i , F.: A n g l e s i o , P.:

G e n e r a t o r i d i vdpore. HOEPLI, Milano, 1980

E f f i c i e n c y as a f u n c t i o n o f l o a d i n b u r n e r - b o i l e r h e a t i n g systems

La R i v i s t a d e i C o m b u s t i b i l i , Vol. v. Bergen F.M. et al

34, 9-12 sept-dec.

1980, .p. 462.

.: Onderzoek

n a a r h e t gebruiksrendement van

v e r w a r m i n g s t o e s t e l l e n . Verwarming en V e n t i l a t i e , nov. 1980, O i t t r i c h , A.: Heizung Gumz, W.:

11,p.

717.'

Zum J a h r e s w i r k u n g s g r a d von E i n - und Mehrkeiselanlagen.

Llftung

Haustechnik 23

,12,

p. 381 (1972)

Kurzes Handbuch d e r B r e n n s t o f f und Feuerunystechnik.


(It

S p r i n g e r V e r l a g (1962)

Heeneman, O.F. : D e f i n i t i e s en bepal i n g van de renhemente van c . v . - t o e s t e l 100 sept. 1980, p. 465. Gas Svensson, A.: The Bul l t i n u

len.

Methods f o r measurement o f a i r f l o w r a t e s i n v e n t i l a t i o n systems. 1 (1983) Seasonal e f f i c i e n c y o f a b o i l e r . C.S.T.C.

N o r d i c V e n t i l a t i o n Group. Swedish I n s t i t u t e f o r B u i l d i n g Research,

U y t t e n b r o e c k , J.: Yaverbaum, L.H.: c o r p o r a t i o n 1979.

Belgium, may 1980 Noyes d a t a

Energy s a v i n g s by i n c r e a s i n g b o i l e r e f f i c i e n c y . Park Ridge. New Yersey, U.S.A. (1979)

CHAPTER 111 g

Data a c q u i s i t i o n systems and I n s t a l l a t i o n r u l e s

Contents

general i n t r o d u c t i o n sensors and transducers s i g n a l , condi t i o n i n g scanners p. 111 g- 3 p. 111 g- 4 p. I 1 1 g- 6

- data
-

data converters data recorders

p. I 1 1 g- 7
p. 111 g- 7

computer based d a t a a c q u i s i t i o n systems sensor connection interference references

p. 111 g-10 p. I 1 1 9-12 p. 111 g-18

111 g

Oata a c q u i s i t i o n systems and I n s t a l l a t i o n r u l e s

general i n t r o d u c t i o n

The modern data c o l ! e c t i o n

system used i n b u i l d i n g energy m o n i t o r i n g can be T h i s c h a p t e r discusses t h e i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n costs while

expected t o be e l e c t r o n i c i n n a t u r e .

o f t h e system components so as t o m i n i m i z e e r r o r , i n t e r f e r e n c e and p r o v i d i n g an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l of r e l i a b i l i t y . The major components of a d a t a a c q u i s i t i o n system a r e :

1) sensors o r t r a n s d u c e r s ,
2) s i g n a l c o n d i t i o n e r s

3) m u l t i p l e x e r s o r scanners
4) d a t a form c o n v e r t e r s

5) r e c o r d e r s 6) d a t a p r o c e s s o r s

A l l d a t a a c q u i s i t i o n systems possess each of these components t o one degree


or another. .The Though the level all of data s o p h i s t i c a t i o n t h a t one employs i n a c q u i r i n g d a t a of the of experimental efforts the final project data which is being system gathering must have each o f t h e above acquisition F a c t o r s t o be c o n s i d e r e d depends e n t i r e l y on t h e d e s i g n undertaken. depends include: on conponents, t h e act.ral goals

configuration

and resources o f t h e p r o j e c t .

1) number of d a t a p o i n t s
2) frequency o f readings
3 ) s i z e and n a t u r e o f t h e s t r u c t u r e

4) s e p a r a t i o n of t h e system components
5) whether o r n o t t h e system i s c a n p u t e r based 6 ) end-use and u l t i m a t e d e s t i n a t i o n of t h e d a t a

7 ) v a r i a b l e s t o be ~neasured
8) sources o f i n t e r f e r e n c e
9) r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e power l i n e s

Many i n s t a l l a t i o n problems can be precluded

by

judicious

overview

of
fran

system d e s i g n p h i l o s o p h y and s e l e c t i o n o f system components, e s p e c i a l l y sensors. Furthermore, c a r e must be e x e r c i s e d t o a v o i d c r e a t i n g i n t e r f e r e n c e sources system c o n t r o l r e l a y s , s o l e n o i d s e t c .

sensors and t r a n s d u c e r s

The purpose o f sensors and t r a n s d u c e r s i s t o produce detectable and corresponds to

an

output

which

is The are

t h e p h y s i c a l q u a n t i t y which i s t o be measured. nature. etc. or

The o u t p u t o f sensors can be v i s u a l , mechanical, o r e l e c t r i c a l i n s t r i p thermometers, commonly used


.

v i s u a l and mechanical o u t p u t sensors such as b u l b thermometers, d i a l b i - m e t a l l i c gas meters, water meters, ' e l e c t r i c to provide meters, pulsed for manual d a t a a c q u i s i t i o n and as backup t o automated systems. digital gas and Pulse o u t p u t sensors a r e u s u a l l y q u a n t i t y measuring d e v i c e s anenometers, automated

Some of t h e s e t y p e s o f sensors can be m o d i f i e d

e l e c t r i c a l outputs. water meters;

such as t u r b i n e meters, t o t a l i z i n g wind speed

t i p p i n g bucket r a i n gauges and automated e l e c t r i c meters. have outputs solar or which flux are changes (certain (certain in voltage pressure pressure

E l e c t r i c a l t r a n s d u c e r s can (thermocoupless, anenometer), transducers, heat flow resistance

meters,

meters, current

g e n e r a t o r t y p e wind

thermistors,(RTD~s), cells),

electro-chemical

capacitance

t r a n s d u c e r s , m o i s t u r e meters). The general problem o f d e s i g n i n g a d a t a a c q u i s i t i o n system i s t o be a b l e t o interface or t h i s wide v a r i e t y of sensors t o a r e c o r d i n g system. Simple r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e u s u a l l y p r e f e r a b l e . transducer, is The r e l a t i o n s h i p linear and the
It i s important t o

between t h e p h y s i c a l q u a n t i t y and t h e o u t p u t o f t h e sens0.r can be e i t h e r nonlinear. of the a s c e r t a i n whether t h e r e l a t i o n between t h e p h y s i c a l q u a n t i t y measured, output temperature). The c h o i c e o f a sensor should be based on

dependent on environmental f a c t o r s ( e s p e c i a l l y

1) accuracy
2) r e l i a b i l i t y

3) a b i l i t y t o be i n t e r f a c e d w i t h scanning equipment

4) i n i t i a l c o s t 5) cost o f i n s t a l l a t i o n

I I I g-3

signal conditioning

j.

The type, can be

of some t r a n s d u c e r s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e

of

the

self. excitation before. t h e y required selecting

d i r e c t l y . i n t e r f a c e d t o t h e d a t a l o g g e r o r d a t a scanning system;

however, most transducers r e q u i r e some s o r t o f ' s i g n a l c o n d i t i o n i n g can be i n t e r f a c e d t o

p d a t a logger.
output

The most common t y p e o f s i g n a l c o n d i t i o n i n g This i s the t r a n s d u c e r i s too low t o be a c c u r a t e l y '

i s a m p l i f i c a t i o n and t h i s i s o f t e n i n c l u d e d i n a data logger.

if t h e

level

of

the

of

r e g i s t e r e d by t h e r e c o r d i n g system. level o f amplification.

Some systems i n c o r p o r a t e a s e l f -

a m p l i f i c a t i o n sherne, c a l l e d autoranging, i n which t h e system s e l e c t s t h e optimal T h i s i s u s u a l l y done a t the expense o f speed and c o s t . a viable This i s converter

Where several decades of i n p u t s i g n a l l e v e l must be accomodated, alternative i s t o use a l o g a r i t h m i c a m p l i f i e r f o r s i g n a l c o n d i t i o n i n g . by an A/D e s p e c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e when t h e d a t a a r e t o be d i g i t a l i z e d

a f t e r m u l t i p l e x i n g , 'and u l t i m a t e l y processed by a d i g i t a l computer. Tm, o t h e r t y p e s of s i g n a l c o n d i t i o n i n g o f t e n r e q u i r e d a r e t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f resistance converted changes to a of certain transducers t o v o l t a g e s , and t h e conversion o f a pulse output, these are must be most data loggers. T h i s can be accomplished by desired, is more c u r r e n t s t o voltages.
I f the t r a n s d u c e r has

voltage ' f o r

e i t h e r a frequency- t o - v o l t a g e c o n v e r t e r , i f instantaneous r a t e s d e s i g n of t h e p r o j e c t . desired, this can be


Ift h e

o r by c o u n t e r c i r c u i t and 0-0 c o n v e r t e r i f a t o t a l i z e d o u t p u t i s d i c t a t e d b y t h e

average

value

of

an

analogue is no

transducer need for

accomplished

by an i n t e g r a t o r .

T h i s technique g r e a t l y

reduces t h e amount o f d a t a processing r e q u i r e d if t h e r e f r e q u e n t data. An e l e c t r o n i c i n t e g r a t o r produces an o u t p u t which i s time tointegral frequency of the input and signal. a counter. An t r a n s d u c e r has a l i n e a r output. converter bounce c i r c u i t , a contact counting c i r c u i t . the data logger must be employed. pu1se:'train

proportional of a

to

the

i n t e g r a t o r c a n be used o n l y if t h e voltagefrom A c o u n t e r c o n s i s t s o f a p u l s e shaper designed to accept input digital.

An i n t e g r a t o r u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s (when

suppressor

mechanical c o n t a c t s ) , and sometimes a p r e d i v i d e r t o reduce t h e p u l s e r a t e , and a The o u t p u t o f t h e c o u n t i n g c i r c u i t i s cannot usually

If
a

accept d i g i t a l i n p u t , a d i g i t a l t o analogue c o n v e r t e r A t i m e r gates

A s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n of a counter i s a timer.

o f f i x e d frequency i n t o a c o u n t e r when a s w i t c h c l o s u r e o r d i g i t a l

voltage i s applied t o i t s input.

For t h e monitoring.of used

t h e s t a t u s o f d i s c r e t e events, an devices to be monitored

encoder on only

is one

Often data

if t h e data l o g g e r does n o t d i r e c t l y accept d i g i t a l s i g n a l s .

This a l l o w s

t h e s t a t u s o f several d i f f e r e n t channel.

d a t a scanners

In

order

to

convert

the

signals

from

each by

transducer,

or Today

signal most

c o n d i t i o n e r , t h e o u t p u t o f each d e v i c e must be d i r e c t e d t o t h e data c o n v e r t e r o r r e a d i n g device. multiplexers The reed are The s w i t c h i n g i s one accomplished multiplexers. and of t h r e e types: can more reed m u l t i p l e x e r s , FET m u l t i p l e x e r s and disadvantages. The The FET
CMOS

CMOS m u l t i p l e x e r s . however, t n e y multiplexers the closed multiplexers have state, are

Each t y p e has i t s p a r t i c u l a r advantages a limited operational readings on life other and

multiplexers

s u s t a i n h i g h common mode voltages and do n o t leak; speed.

have a l o n g e r l i f e , b u t a r e s u s c e p t i b l e t o leakage and may f a i l i n thus affecting channels. are q u i t e popular; they a r e l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e t o leakage and w i l l They however more

f a i l i n t h e open s t a t e , n o t a f f e c t i n g o t h e r channels. e a s i l y damaged by excessive voltages. The number o f devices which a scanner can number o f channels i t has. t h e number of channels i t has b u t a l s o : monitor

is

determined

by

the

I n s e l e c t i n g a scanner, one should consider n o t o n l y

1) t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n t r o l of t h e accessing sequence 2) t h e t y p e o f c l o c k used

3) t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f remote c o n t r o l
4 ) t h e e x p a n d a b i l i t y o f t h e number o f channels a t a l a t e r d a t e w i t h o u t f a c t o r y

modification

5) t h e ease o f o p e r a t i o n

6 ) t h e l e v e l o f t h e s i g n a l s i t can handle
7 ) i t s e f f e c t on t h e o u t p u t o f t h e transducers

8) t h e environment i n which i t can be used. The manner i n which p e r i o d i c o r continuous. at the channels are accessed can be either are random, selected

I n t h e random mode a group o f channels w i l l be s e l e c t e d

on command from t h e o p e r a t o r , i n t h e p e r i o d i c mode these channels

a f i x e d i n t e r v a l o f time, i n t h e continuous mode t h e channels are scanned as

f a s t as t h e system a l l o w s . stability. In most

The c l o c k should be judged as t o monitoring applications

its

accuracy

and

energy

t h e c l o c k s h o u l d have a

c a l e n d a r o r a J u l i a n day counter. The p r o v i s i o n f o r power- f a i l u r e p r o t e c t i o n s h o u l d are times several can be and ways . t o p r o v i d e t h i s p r o t e c t i o n . a has source few of power failure can be used f o r t h e whole system. be considered. expensive There and at

An u n i n t e r r u p t i b l e power supply itself. I n one wants power f a i l

However, t h i s can be v e r y

p r o t e c t i o n , one s h o u l d f i r s t choose a t o t a l system which uses as l i t t l e power as possible critical. power for h i g h power consuming d e v i c e s which a r e used f r e q u e n t l y . is Another s t r a t e g y i s t o p r o t e c t o n l y t h o s e p a r t s o f t h e system whose f u n c t ' i o n computer c o u l d be power- f a i l p r o t e c t e d . an destroyed. A power -up r o u t i n e c a n then be used t o resume d a t a a c q u i s i t i o n when s t a b l e line short short power is restored. and on it the
I t s h o u l d a l s o be decided i f ' m e a n i n g f u l d a t a can be

F o r example, t h e c l o c k c o u l d have a b a t t e r y backup o r t h e memory o f a Another s t r a t e g y i s t o p r o v i d e enough o r d e r l y power- down i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t r e c o r d e d d a t a f r o m b e i n g

c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g a power f a i l u r e . duration, transients t h i s c l a s s of f a i l u r e s .

A l s o t h e most f r e q u e n t power f a i l u r e s a r e from

of very

i s u s u a l l y o n l y economical t o p r o t e c t t h e system from I n a l l cases t h e system s h o u l d b e p r o t e c t e d power line. Before

installation

the q u a l i t y of the

e l e c t r i c a l s e r v i c e s h o u l d be check&. connected and stop.


It i s also advisable t o

The d a t a a c q u i i i t i o n system sho'uld n o t be install line filters on power lines to

t o c i r c u i t s which have heavy equipment on them which f r e q u e n t l y s t a r t

minimize the effects o f l i n e transients. Many scanners can be c o n t r o l l e d interfaces. though there These is a allow later use larger limit e x p a n d i b i l i t y o f t h e scanner t o practical connected t o one scanner. remotely of for the by either parallel with or serial The

scanner

a computer.

c o n f i g u r a t i o n s s h o u l d be determined; E t h e number o f sensors which can b e accuracy

Iflow l e v e l s i g n a l s a r e b e i n g scanned, t h e
the bias currents

w i t h which t h e s e can be switched by t h e scanners must be determined. w i t h h i g h o u t p u t impedance a r e used, t h e e f f e c t of m u l t i p l e x e r s (and d a t a c o n v e r t e r s ) must be assessed.

Ifsensors
of the

data converters

The conversion o f t h e s i g n a l from t h e t r a n s d u c e r t o a form i n which i t be of The only read, and recorded, i s accomplished by a d a t a c o n v e r t e r the ,sensor digital signal and the recorder input.

can

e i t h e r an analogue

t o d i g i t a l c o n v e r t e r o r a d i g i t a l t o analogue c o n v e r t e r , depending on t h e n a t u r e , The most t y p i c a l t y p e o f d a t a digital converter. c o n v e r t e r . u s e d i n b u i l d i n g energy s t u d i e s i s an analogue t o d i s p l a y functions. add D I A c o n v e r t e r s multiplexing dual slope and

t o analogue c o n v e r t e r i s u s u a l l y reserved f o r c o n t r o l and analogue One n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n occurs i n d a t a c o l l e c t i o n systems when The c o s t e f f e c t i v e approach i s t o instead o f .providing separate and the
AID
it

a few channels c o n s i s t o f d i g i t a l data. to the digital channels

i n t e r f a c i n g t o t h e few d i g i t a l s i g n a l s .
AID

The two most p o p u l a r approximation however,

t y p e s o f A I D c o n v e r t e r s a r e t h e s u c c e s s i v e approximation A I D c o n v e r t e r integrating a converter. The successive c o n v e r t e r i s f a s t e r t h a n t h e dual s l o p e i n t e g r a t i n g A I D c o n v e r t e r ; usually requires sample and h o l d a m p l i f i e r . c o n v e r t e r has i n h e r e n t l y ' m o r e n o i s e r e j e c t i o n . The d a t a r a t e i n most enough to building perfonance monitoring systems converter.

The d u a l s l o p e i n t e g r a t i n g A I D

is

slow the

p e r m i t t h e use o f t h e d u a l s l o p e i n t e g r a t i n g AID time

Besides

t h e i n h e r e n t advantages o f a u t o m a t i c z e r o and n o i s e r e j e c t i o n , s e l e c t i o n o f integration n o i s e pickup.

t o equal an i n t e g e r number ( 1 o r ,more) o f c y c l e s o f t h e power

l i n e frequency can achieve a 40 t o 60 dB r e j e c t i o n r a t i o o f power l i n e frequency Even h i g h e r r e j e c t i o n r a t i o s can be a t t a i n e d f o r harmonics o f t h e P r a c t i c a l throughput r a t e s o f 4 to 8 conversions per power l i n e frequency. second can be a t t a i n e d . I n s e l e c t i n g an A I D c o n v e r t e r , one must judge
L

its

precision, normal .mode

resolution, rejection

d r i f t , i n p u t impedance, b i a s c u r r e n t s , i t s a b i l i t y t o accept b i p o l a r i n p u t s , i t s ability digits. to accept diffe.rentia1 signal's, its c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i t s common mode r e j e c t i o n a b i l i t y and t h e number o f s i g n i f i c a n t I f an A I D c o n v e r t e r has a readout, i t i s . c a l l e d a d i g i t a l v o l t m e t e r . all or or data some of the

A t p r e s e n t t h e r e a r e many systems which i n c o r p o r a t e functions above. of signal These systems a r e r e f e r r e d to as data loggers

c o n d i t i o n e r s , d a t a scanners and data c o n v e r t e r s d e s c r i b e d acquisition

systems. Many o f t h e s e now have microprocessors and p e r m i t a wide v a r i e t y of s i g n a l c o n d i t i o n i n g , a c e r t a i n amount o f d a t a r e d u c t i o n , and some progrbmming o f its functions. If such a system s a t i s f i e s t h e requirements o f a m o n i t o r i n g

p r o j e c t , i t i s u s u a l l y advisable instead of attempting to

to

incorporate

it

in

the

data

monitoring therefore

interface

i n d i v i d u a l components.

However. none o f

these systems a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y designed f o r b u i l d i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s and u s u a l l y r e q u i r e some adaption t o s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s .

data recorders

The output o f a data a c q u i s i t i o n system can be tape, general any media recording analogue However, at data

stored vast are

on

analogue amounts best of

paper In data for

analogue magnetic tape, d i g i t a l paper tape and d i g i t a l magnetic tape. requires they

r e j e c t i o n , o f t e n much o f t h i s by hand. primary data storage means.

Such media have been used i n t h e past as present suited

a p p l i c a t i o n as a backup medium t o be employed i n case o f f a i l u r e o f t h e primary, s u i t e d f o r s i n g l e channel operations which r e q u i r e h i g h speed and dynamic range. The most commonly used storage medium.in modern data a c q u i s i t i o n systems i s the digital seven magnetic tape; though with the advent o f computer based data Magnetic tape records can be systems t h i s c o u l d be replaced by magnetic discs. either c a r t r i d g e o r c a s s e t t e recorders. reliability the and the existence

o r n i n e t r a c k tapes used on l a r g e main frame computers o r d i g i t a l The important c r i t e r i a f o r these recorders are of a reader f o r t h e media on t h e main frame
It i s important t o c o n s u l t

computer on which t h e data are t o be analyzed.

with and

operators o f t h e computer on which t h e data a r e t o be analyzed t o determine with existing devices

t h e c o m p a t i b i l i t y of t h e media and t h e data format software on t h e computer.

computer based data a c q u i s i t i o n systems

The adequately data are

data

acquisition the than

approaches

described of

above

have

been however,

used

to more to a

measure collected

energy is

performace

buildings;

certain

d e f i c i e n c i e s should be recognized. processing costs. develop lower

The system i s r e l a t i v e l y expensive and


i t i s now

needed f o r most a p p l i c a t i o n s , adding t o t h e d a t a possible

With t h e advent o f the.microcomputer,

b u i l d i n g m o n i t o r i n g systems which perform r e a l t i m e a n a l y s i s o f t h e data data processing4 costs. There are several schemes f o r i n t e r f a c i n g a

c o l l e c t e d and, t h e r e f o r e , produce p h y s i c a l l y meaningful r e s u l t s f a s t e r and a t

microcomputer

to

data

gathering

system.

Standard with for and

parallel the a

and

serial of of of

i n t e r f a c e s can be used t o i n t e r f a c e counters, data scanners, s i g n a l c o n d i t i o n e r s and data l o g g e r s t o the standard sensors. allows t h e microcomputer. However, establishment large the variety data busses f o r microcomputers, such as t h e 5-100 buss, i t i s p o s s i b l e The addition of a microcomputer t o a data a c q u i s i t i o n scheme a l s o of the experiment possibility

t o use standard i n t e r f a c e cards on t h e computer buss intelligent control

r e c o r d i n g and m o n i t o r i n g o n l y what i s o f i n t e r e s t a t a s p e c i f i c time. Figure acquisition includes building. a 111 9-1 system tracer shows which gas a configuration' not only energy this of use level microcomputer-based and the of environment, air monitoring but data also a

provides building for system

t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d on t h e i n f i l t r a t i o n o f the without

standard components o f . t h e

monitoring do

I t would b e d i f f i c u l t t o

microcanputer. Another approach using t h e canputer as p a r t of t h e been built developed a t P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y . in display to allows the for data a d a t a a c q u i s i t i o n system seemed a l o g i c a l and c o s t t h e .instantaneous monitoring. homeowner 'The system uses programming w i t h simple restart monitoring system has The the

The adoption o f t h e home computer i n t o effective readout commands direction. that allow of data and system

t a k i n g a f t e r a major power f a i l u r e w i t h a few

simple commands typed i n t o t h e b u i l t - i n keyboard. There a r e numerous ways t o l i n k linked together by hard-wire sensors to signal or conditioners, by signal In to

c o n d i t i o n e r s t o scanners, scanners t o data c o n v e r t e r s etc. comnunication path

These devices can be telemetering. For l i n k i n g

p r i n c i p l e , t h e simplest and l e a s t complicated means should be used. l i n k remote subsystems t o a c e n t r a l f a c i l i t y . There are advantages t o t h i s type of system if i t i s f u n c t i o n i n g However,' been on the failure of one or system t o a h a l t . toward -site

systems together, t h e r e a r e many slave and master concepts which can be used

properly. has The

two c r i t i c a l components can b r i n g t h e whole

With t h e advent o f low p r i c e d microprocessors, t h e t r e n d ability, and being able field for a to function for alone. an

d i s t r i b u t e d systems w i t h t h e l o c a l data a c q u i s i t i o n systems having of many s m a l l e r systems t o a c e n t r a l data system can present many proven extended

calculational

interfacing period

unforeseen problems i f t h e system has n o t been o f time. r e l i a b l e data can be c o l l e c t e d is quite long

Also t h e t i m e from which t h e f i r s t sensor i s i n s t a l l e d t o when complex


'

interdependent

PRESSURE TEMP. EVENT DATA

.---------- --<

AIRFLOW STATUS OF MECHANICAL SYSTEM

CHANNEL I 1 0 CARD

INJECTION CONTROL U N I T SF 6

-1 -1 -1 -1
I

- - - - -I - - -'--'--J
I

- r J - - J --.I
I

l
I

l I

-rJ

CLOCK ARGON PARALLEL I 1 0 CARD

-.--.-

8 B I T PARALLEL I 1 0

- - - -- - , 1
,
I

2 RS232C I 1 0

I
DISC DRIVE "A" 173K
mu8,,

I
DISC DRIVE 173K

.r
I
OCTAL - COUNTER CARD

-- ------ - J
PULSE DATA GAS ELECTRIC
I

I I I

I
I

WATER

Fig.
111 g-1

CONDENSATE RAIN ETC.

, -- - - - -

- - - -1 . !

B l o c k d i a g r a m o f t h e i n t e r f a c i n g o f each component w i t h t h e computer

system.

For

independent

distributed

systems,

much meaningful

data can be

c o l l e c t e d and t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and f u n c t i o n i n g o f many p a r t s o f t h e system proven as each subsystem i s a c t i v a t e d . There a r e data a c q u i s i t i o n channels. reevaluated. an experiment r e q u i r e s more than systems 100 which data can handle its over design and 1 000 should data be

This t y p e o f system should be avoided i f possible. channels,

I n general, once

I f t h a t number o f data p o i n t s are required, the experiment should

be d i v i d e d i n t o subgroups o f b a s i c a l l y

independent

submodules

individual

data a c q u i s i t i o n should be considered f o r each submodule.

sensor connection

Various types o f sensors are a v a i l a b e f o r measuring v a r i a b l e s . widely in cost, accuracy, precision, response time, size,

They

'

range

excitation

requirements (none t o p r e c i s i o n OCIAC v o l t a g e l c u r r e n t ) , output l e v e l ( m i l l i v o l t s t o v o l t s ) and output t y p e ( d i g i t a l , c o n t a c t c l o s u r e , p h o t o - i n t e r r u p t e r , analogue vol t a g e l c u r r e n t and anslogue frequencylpul se) variety of signals from the where they can be processed and recorded.

It w i l l be necessary t o b r i n g

v a r i o u s l y l o c a t e d sensors t o a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n I n a d d i t i o n , sensor excitation


will

h a v e . t o be s u p p l i e d from t h a t l o c a t i o n as required.. C e r t a i n i n t r o d u c t o r y remarks can be b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d 6y the sensor selection for one t y p e o f measurement. closely examining

A d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of

sensor s e l e c t i o n f o r a l l t h e v a r i a b l e s i s beyond t h e scope o f t h i s section. As an example, temperature has been choosen, since i t 112 or more of High l e v e l output types,'such processing types that o f t h e sensor alone. do not f o u r types remains. generally used comprises in various

t h e t o t a l measurements i n b u i l d i n g energy m o n i t o r i n g systems. as t h e s e n s o r l t r a n s m i t t e r types

i n d u s t r i e s , are precluded because t h e i r c o s t i s about t e n times t h a t When sensor s e l e c t i o n i s l i m i t e d t o c o m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e r e q u i r ? i n d i v i d u a l c a l i b r a t i o n by t h e user, a c h o i c e among These types are thermocouple, thermistor, integrated

c i r c u i t ( I C ) transducer and r e s i s t a n c e thermometer d e t e c t o r (RTO). A d e t a i l e d comparison of t h e t e c h n i c a l charact'erics o f t h e various t y p e can be found in t h e l i t e r a t u r e ( s e e H a r r j e and Cooper 1979 and a l s o ch. Illb). A for l i n e a r i z i n g network, e i t h e r as hardware, software, o r firmware, i s r e q u i r e d

a l l types except t h e t h e r m o l i n e a r . t h e r m i s t o r composite. For thermocouples a low required package junctions package. to work required before the signal e x t e n s i o n w i r e must be used t o level can multiplexer be fed the each to bring to and high gain to the then amplifier is

an A I D c o n v e r t e r .

Thermocouple electronics standard

connect to

thenocouple

if

a common r e f e r e n c e j u n c t i o n i s t o be used. are provided cable adjacent be in used may the

Ifi n d i v i d u a l reference
s i g n a l t o the e l e c t r o n i c s I n e l e c t r i c a l l y noisy Where d i s c o n n e c t s a r e and connectors can above

thermocouple,

instrumentation with, special

Thermocouple e x t e n s i o n w i r e i s expensive, d i f f i c u l t and t i m e consuming resulting high, i n s t a l l a t i o n costs. metal connectors

environments i t should be s h i e l d e d and/or r u n i n c o n d u i t . thermocouple d i f f i c u l t t o work w i t h . Both thermocouple e x t e n s i o n wire

a r e necessary which a r e a l s o

i n t r o d u c e a d d i t i o n a l e r r o r , so t h a t an o v e r a l l worst-case l i m i t o f accuracy (and i n t e r c h a n g e a b i l i t y ) o f 2 t o 4 K can r e s u l t . the justified. Bead t h e r m i s t o r s must be read by a r e s i s t a n c e measurement. package. in required. fixed The r e s u l t a n t s i g n a l l e v e l i s 0.4 t o 0.5 system economies.
VOC,

Only when h i g h temperatures,

range of o t h e r sensors, a r e encountered does t h e use o f thermocouple appear

This to

requires result with a

t h a t e x c i t a t i o n i n t h e form o f a c o n s t a n t c u r r e n t be s u p p l i e d by t h e e l e c t r o n i c s l a r g e enough level significant signal

special

low

multiplexer i s not type to

I f t h e A/D c o n v e r t e r : i s o f t h e dual s l o p e

integrating used

i n t e g r a t i o n time, and t h a t t i m e equals one o r more p e r i o d s o f t h e connect

A C power l i n e , then o r d i n a r y 2 conduction speaker w i r e can be t h e t h e r m i s t o r t o t h e e l e c t r o n i c s package. The w i r e gauge should be s e l e c t e d speaker so that the loop

resistance

of to

the keep

w i r e ( a t i t s h i g h e s t temperature) i s s u f f i c i e n t l y small compared t o t h e

t h e r m i s t o r r e s i s t a n c e a t t h e h i g h e s t temperature t o be measured so' as t h e r e s u l t a n t e r r o r w i t h i n acceptable l i m i t s . correction can be made for known, and the approximate temperature o f t h e w i r e i s the wire resistance. r e s i s t a n c e measurement w i l l have t o be made. cable (2-signal, and A I D c o n v e r t e r (see a l s o ch. I11 b). known, then a 4 a

I f the d a t a a c q u i s i t i o n system i s
software conductor Otherwise, a f o u r t e r m i n a l

This w i l l , r e q u i r e

2-constant c u r r e n t suppl'y) and a d i f f e r e n t i a l i n p u t m u l t i p l e x e r

interference

B u i l d i n g energy m o n i t o r i n g interference from or s p a t i a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d nature. electranagnetic interference is conducted, to

systems

may

be

subjected

to

all.

types

of

a v a r i e t y o f sources and p h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n s because o f t h e i r I n t e r f e r e n c e i s c l a s s i f i e d as e l e c t r i c , magnetic, t h u s d e s c r i b i n g t h e m a j o r means of c o u p l i n g t h e Although e l e c t r i c and magnetic all four nearby sources, t h e e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c and conducted Y h i l e most sources generate

i n t e r f e r e n c e i n t o t h e d a t a a c q u i s i t i o n system. limited t y p e s may o r i g i n a t e from remote sources.

types s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , most o f t h e i r energy i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n one o r two types. Comnon sources o f i n t e r f e r e n c e power in buildings include fluorescent lamps,

w i r i n g , e l e c t r i c i g n i t i o n f o r combustion d e v i c e s , u n i v e r s a l motors, power machines, data processing equipment, medical equipment, radio wireless

d i s t r i b u t i o n t r a n s f o r m e r s , r e l a y s and s o l e n o i d s , b u i l d i n g c o n t r o l s , , appliances, business electric i n t e r c a n s , telephone equipment, w a l k i e - t a l k i e s , a r c welders, neon s i g n s e t c . and o b v i o u s l y c o n t a i n more v a r i e d higher CB and HAM transmitters, sources than

Commercial and i n d u s t r i a l b u i l d i n g s w i l l powered interference

r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s and p r i v a t e homes. Many sources o f i n t e r f e r e n c e can o r i g i n a t e from o u t s i d e t h e b u i l d i n g monitored. connected t o t h e same power l i n e , as w e l l as any h i g h power sources nearby s t r u c t u r e s . Mobile radio transmitters (police, must emergency, also be commercial, considered as C B etc.), potential being in

These may i n c l u d e any sources p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, e s p e c i a l l y when located

Walkie-Talkies

(security. patrol)

as w e l l as commercial b r o a d c a s t antennas and

h i g h v o l t a g e power t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s i n t e r f e r e n c e sources. E l e c t r i c i n t e r f e r e n c e can voltages, exposed and/or circuitry frequencies. i n t o exposed c i r c u i t r y . be


\

expected

from

devices

operating

at

high

It

i s c a p a c i t y coupled v i a t h e e l e c t r i c f i e l d

Reduction i s achieved by e l e c t r o s t a t i c s h i e l d i n g o f t h e the desired spatially

w i t h a h i g h c o n d u c t i v i t y m e t a l , u s u a l l y aluminium o r copper. of t h e innermost s h i e l d t o t h e s i g n a l common o r s i g n a l the electronic package because of the

Often successive l a y e r s o f i n s u l a t e d s h i e l d i n g a r e used t o a c h i e v e isolation. Connection ground must t a k e p l a c e a t

d i s t r i b u t e d n a t u r e o f a m u l t i p l e i n p u t system.

Magnetic i n t e r f e r e n c e can current frequency such as and/or frequencies, is

be

expected

from

devices

operating

at

high low

o r c o n t a i n i n g c o i l s wound on ferro-magnetic cores. Reduction o f of the achieved by magnetic shielding high exposed alloys, DC/low

Power d i s t r i b u t i o n w i r i n g i s , o f course, a l s o a prime source. interference P-metal or c i r c u i t r y with soft i r o n or steel. permalloy,
1965) l i s t s t h e a t t e n u a t i o n

Grain-oriented

permeability provide for

may sometimes be used.


'

Table 1119- 1 ( N a l l e '

various s h i e l d i n g

materials

frequency magnetic f i e l d s .

TABLE 111 g-1 Magnetic f i e l d r e d u c t i o n by s h i e l d s Shield material NO s h i e l d 112 i n c h OD aluminium tube 112 i n c h OD copper tube
1 inch r i g i d steel conduit

Ratio

F i e l d reduction 0 dB 0 dB 0 dB 42.8 dB 28.8 dB 27.0 dB

1:l
1:l

138:l 28:l 22:l

1 inch I D B X armor-steel
314 i n c h I D B X armor-steel

Where c o u p l i n g attenuation can be

between achieved fields

coils by

or

transformers their shields induced are

is

involved,

additional high

orienting the

magnetic eddy

axes i n m u t u a l l y against The give r i s e t o external is to

perpendicular directions. frequency m a g n e t i c magnetic defined

Electrostatic because

effective currents

magnetic f i e l d s t h a t cancel t h e e x t e r n a l f i e l d w i t h i n t h e s h i e l d . t h e d i s t a n c e from t h e surface. as The depth o f The penetration, skin depth d or has

f i e l d and t h e induced eddy c u r r e n t d e n s i t y decrease e x p o n e n t i a l l y w i t h skin been depth, given t h e d i s t a n c e i n t o t h e conductor a t which t h e eddy c u r r e n t d e n s i t y =

l / e times t h e d e n s i t y a t t h e surface. (Belden Corporation)' d = 5033~-) where

r i s t h e r e s i s t i v i t y i n ohmlcm

p i s the r e l a t i v e permeability

f i s t h e frequency i n H e r t z A t 2 0 ' ~ t h i s becomes 6 . 6 2 h f


aluminium. t h a n 10*d, not The above cm for cQpper and 8.16/& cm for and power pure does line

equations assume t h a t t h e conductor ( s h i e l d . ) i s t h i c k e r Thus, an aluminium s h i e l d would have t o be magnetic shielding at

t h e r a d i u s o f c u r v a t u r e o f t h e s u r f a c e i s g r e a t e r t h a n 10'd effective

vary r a p i d l y a l o n g t h e surface.

a t ' l e a s t 11 cm t h i c k t o p r o v i d e

f r e q u e n c i e s , b u t o n l y .0017 cm t h i c k a t 1 MHz. E l e c t r o m a g n e t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e can be expected t o be r a d i a t e d from any d e v i c e containing an electronic oscillator. In addition, any d e v i c e c o n t a i n i g an contacts) can be e l e c t r i c a r c (gas, lamps, welders, expected t o r a d i a t e . The lumped and d i s t r i b u t e d c i r c u i t c o n s t a n t s o f t h e d e v i c e , a l o n g w i t h compared t o t h e wavelength(s) w i l l Properly grounded determine its efficiency as a the commutators, mechanical

modulation, w i l l determine t h e frequency spectrum, w h i l e i t s p h y s i c a l dimensions radiator. e l e c t r o s t a t i c s h i e l d i n g , as w e l l as RF bypassing of c r i t i c a l

c i r c u i t elements. a r e used f o r r e d u c t i o n o f t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e . CAUTION: by in the acting dirty as or Long ground leads can i n c r e a s e t h e antenna systems i n themselves,. corroded metal electromagnetic interference

I n some s i t u a t i o n s , t h e u l t i m a t e D e t e c t i o n can t a k e p l a c e After detection, response of

s o l u t i o n may have t o be determined by t r i a l and e r r o r .

t o metal c o n t a c t p o i n t s (such as c o n n e c t i o n o f a

ground w i r e t o a p i p e ) as w e l l as semiconductor p-n j u n c t i o n s . interference

can appear as t h e average v a l u e of t h e half-wave r e c t i f i e d RF

s i g n a l o r as t h e m o d u l a t i o n envelope, depending upon t h e frequency t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n system f o l l o w i n g d e t e c t i o n . Conducted i n t e r f e r e n c e can be expected from t h e b u i l d i n g and they can are originate of the from plugany in device type, achieved by i n s t a l l i n g power l i n e f i l t e r s f o r t h e d a t a shielded a p p r o p r i a t e system components. Conducted i n t e r f e r e n c e can a l s o be i n t r o d u c e d by p h y s i c a l l y data collection complex. system Their a t more than one p o i n t . can exist exact character r a n g i n g from t e n t h s of a v o l t t o v o l t s ; building throughout vary, a

AC

power

lines,
If

operated from t h o s e l i n e s . collection

Reduction i s system.

l i n e cords should be used on t h e

grounding building upon

the or what

Ground p o t e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s , depending

will

e l e c t r i c a l equipment (and where) i s i n o p e r a t i o n simultaneously. m e t a l s used i n t h e plumbing system(s). Care should be e x c e r c i s e d d u r i n g i n s t a l l a t i o n t o insure that

In

addition,

D C p o t e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s can e x i s t through t h e g a l L a n i c a c t i o n o f any d i s s i m i l a r

inadvertant

. .

grounding

of s h i e l d s , s i g n a l common leads, sensors etc.

does n o t occur through

e i t h e r d i r e c t (hdgh o r low r e s i s t a n c e ) connection o r h i g h s t r a y c a p a c i t i e s . I n t e r f e r e n c e can e n t e r v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e data a c q u i s i t i o n sensors, link (if instrumentation present). 1i n e s , electronics of the package system (signal are m u l t i p l e x e r , A I D c o n v e r t e r , d a t a r e c o r d e r etc.) Various parts d i f f e r e n t types o f i n t e r f e r e n c e : o r data ( d i g i t a l ) system: the

conditioners, communication

more s u s c e p t i b l e t o

1) sensors: conducted, e l e c t r i c , magnetic.


2. analogue d a t a l i n e s : a l l

3. e l e c t r o n i c s package: conducted, electromagnetic.


Sensors a r e o f t e n t h e e n t r y p o i n t accidental ground. shielding ailoys. grounding Low of level during output mounting, sensors are of conducted thus loops by interference capacitive because coupling of High to

creating

a "ground loop".

impedance sensors can a l s o i n t r o d u c e ground

t h e most v u l n e r a b l e , and modern d a t a situation. of widths, to, Yhere magnetic and

a m p l i f i e r s i n c l u d e guard c i r u i t s t o cope w i t h t h i s a sensor i s r e q u i r e d , s h i e l d It i s a v a i l a b l e or in a s h i e l d in-place. variety

u tape can o f t e n be used t o , f o r m a


thicknesses but

If e l e c t r o s t a t i c

electromagnetic shielding i s also required, the bonded electrically

t a p e can be o b t a i n e d w i t h copper f o i l p h y s i c a l l y i n s u l a t e d from, t h e magnetic a l l o y . Analogue data l i n e s overall shields. This for type insulating Braided of generally use

twisted-pair to 60% t o

shielded B O X for and

wire most easy

with

an

jacket.

Aluminium- p o l y e s t e r s h i e l d i n g i s used e x t e n s i v e l y compared braided to work.

because of i t s 100% coverage, as

s h i e l d i n g i s t i m e consuming and d i f f i c u l t t o work, w h i l e t h e fast twisted provides e x c e l l e n t p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t e l e c t r i c and pair conduit construction to obtain Y i t h low s i g n a l l e v e i s . Table 111 9-2 compares

bare d r a i n w i r e of aluminium- p o l y e s t e r s h i e l d i n g i s construction e i e c t r m a g n e t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e w h i l e r e l y i n g upon t h e protection

a g a i n s t low frequency magnetic f i e l d s .

i t may be necessary t o enclose t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n c a b l e i n adequate low frequency magnetic i n t e r f e r e n c e r e j e c t i o n . t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of v a r i o u s methods ( N a l l e 1965).

TABLE I 1 1 9-2 Magnetic n o i s e r e d u c t i o n by w i r e t w i s t i n g

Test Para1 l e l w i r e s Twisted-wires,


10 . cm l a y

Ratio

Magnetic Noise Reduction 0 dB

14:l 71:l 112:l 141:l 22:l

23 dB 37 dB
4 1 dB

Twisted w i r e s , 7.5 cm l a y Twisted w i r e s , 5 Twisted wires, 2.5 r i g i d steel conduit cm l a y cm l a y cm

43 dB 27 dB

P a r a l l e l w i r e s i n 2.5

T h i s t y p e o f c a b l e i s a v a i l a b l e i n many combinations o f inqulating m a t e r i a l s , gauges and double s h i e l d i n g . can be found types o f i n s u l a t i o n s and s h i e l d i n g Corporation). in the

pairs,

shielding, (Belden

A d i s c u s s i o n of t h e v a r i o u s literature

At t h e i n p u t t o t h e E l e c t r o n i c Package low-pass f i l t e r i n g should be used t o restrict section the bandwith o f t h e incoming s i g n a l s t o minimum r e q u i r e d by t h e data. be noise. Simple single the' filters can be e f f e c t i v e i n reducing t h e conducted i n t e r f e r e n c e High o u t p u t impedance sensors may, with S i g n a l s o u t s i d e t h i s range can, by d e f i n i t i o n , o n l y

R-C

e n t e r i n g t h e e l e c t r o n i c s package.

c a b l e capacitance, form a s u i t a b l e f i l t e r . Most i n t e r f e r e n c e conducted i n t o t h e E l e c t r o n i c s Package w i l l come from t h e A C power l i n e s . regulation, T h i s can be removed by i n s t a l l i n g s u i t a b l e power 1 i n e f i l t e r s . These are While should h i g h v o l t a g e s p i k e s , and l a c k of i n t e g r i t y . only A l l of t h e s e can (UPS). line Other v a g a r i e s o f t h e power l i n e can cause poor system performance. poor be overcome w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f an U n i n t e r r u p t a b l e Power System originally available low power r a t i n g s f o r t h e microcomputer market. A d e d i c a t e d power

f o r h i g h power systems, UPS a r e now manufactured i n

a l s o be used t o p r e v e n t unnecessary power i n t e r r u p t i o n s . The i d e a l way t o e l i m i n a t e i n t e r f e r e n c e i s t o suppress i t This approach is not w i t h one o r two g r o s s l y o f f e n d i n g devices, The economic and at its

source.
reasons

f e a s i b l e i n b u i l d i n g energy m o n i t o r i n g except, perhaps, political

f o r t h i s a r e obvious. interference reduction

From a t e c h n i c a l standpoint, t h e b a s i c device design w i l l I n p r a c t i c e , an of ahout an order of magnitude might be achieved by

be d i f f e r e n t i f i n t e r f e r e n c e suppression i s a design o b j e c t i v e . r e t r o f i t t i n g an e x i s t i n g device.

This w i l l u s u a l l y c o n s i s t o f adding power I i n e Occasionally, u n i t s may be found w i t h

f i l t e r s t o reduce conducted i n t e r f e r e n c e .

t h e i r grounding connection broken, badly corroded o r absent.

A second way t o
installation. potential components

minimize sources.

interference of the I n that

is way,

by

judicious close

layout of

of

the

walk-through

b u i l d i n g should be conducted t o l o c a t e proximity system Where in the

interference

t o these sources can be avoided d u r i n g i n i t i a l system l a y o u t .

unavoidable, a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r f e r e n c e r e d u c t i o n methods can be included i n i t i a l planning.

References

Beiden C o r p o r a t i o n : " E l e c t r o n i c Wire and Cable", Catalogue 1878. Belden Corp, Richmond, I n d i a n a ~ a r r j e , ~ . T . and Cooper J.B.: P r i n c e t o n , N.J. H a r r j e D.T. (1979) " I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n f o r M o n i t o r i n g Energy Usage i n " I n s t r u m e n t i n g Energy A u d i t s " , Report PU/CEES

.91, Center f o r Energy and Environmental Studies, P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y ,

and Grot, R.A.:

B u i l d i n g s ' a t Twin R i v e r s " , Energy and B u i l d i n g s , Vol. 1, 3 A p r i l 1978, E l s e v i e r Sequoia S.A., N a l l e . D.: Lausanne, S w i t z e r l a n d (1978) I S A J o u r n a l , Aug. 1965

" E l i m i n a t i o n o f Noise i n Lou Level C i r c u i t s " , (Ed.): S a v i n g E n e r g y i n t h e Home., Cambridge, Mass. (1978)

Socolow, R.H.

PP. 18 and 171.

B a l l i n g e r P u b l i s h i n g Co.. Terman, F.E.:

Radio Engineers Handbook. McGrau-Hill Book Co.,

New York and London, F i r s t e d i t i o n (1943)

APPENDIX 111 E r r o r s , R e p r e s e n t a t i v i t y and s a d p i i n g o f measurement p o i n t s

Contents

e r r o r s i n d i r e c t measurements e r r o r s and r e p r e s e n t a t i v i t y i n non d i r e c t measurements sampling of measurement p o i n t s


,

P. App. Ill- 1

p. App. 111- 3 p. App. 111- 4 p. App. 111- 8

references

App 111-1

App,

111 E r r o r s , R e p r e s e n t a t i v i t y and Sampling o f measurement p o i n t s

e r r o r s i n d i r e c t measurements

It w i l l n o t be p o s s i b l e t o g i v e an account of a l l p o s s i b l e sources o f e r r o r that are i n h e r e n t when u s i n g a l l t h e sensors d e s c r i b e d i n ch. 111. Here w i l l o n l y be g i v e n an example o f e r r o r s t h a t may o c c u r i n t e m p e r a t u r e measurements i n the b u i l d i n g i n t e r i o r .
. .

For t h e e r r o r e v a l u a t i o n one has t o d i s t i n g u i s h between t h r e e k i n d s o f e r r o r :

1) t h e e r r o r o f t h e measured t e m p e r a t u r e a t one c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n 2) t h e e r r o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v i t y o f t h e s e p o s i t i o n s
3) sampling e r r o r s due t o t e m p e r a t u r e f l u c t u a t i o n s w i t h t i m e a t t h e s e p o s i t i o n s

1) The e r r o r of t h e f i r s t k i n d

is

due,

to

properties the error.

of

the

measuring is not

d e v i c e . . F o r some e r r o r s o f t h i s k i n d i t i s , i n p r i n c i p l e , p o s s i b l e t o c a l c u l a t e a correction f a c t o r and t h u s reduce t h e s i z e of possible', one can in done p r o v i d e d one knows, e.g.:

If t h i s

some cases e s t i m a t e t h e s i z e o f t h e e r r o r .

T h i s can b e

t h e accuracy o f t h e sensor t h e r e s o l u t i o n of t h e v o l t m e t e r o r amperemeter e r r o r s caused by h e a t c o n d u c t i o n a l o n g w i r e s t h e e r r o r r e s u l t i n g from n o n - l i n e a r i t y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t

,For

other

e r r o r s t h e r e i s i n General no way of p e r f o r m i n g a c o r r e c t i o n o r

e s t i m a t e t h e s i z e of t h e e r r o r . E r r o r s o f t h i s k i n d i n c l u d e :

- e r r o r s due t o a
-

falty calibration d i f f e r e n t from t h e one

e r r o r s due t o use o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t i n an environment where t h e c a l i b r a t i o n was performed (see below) t h e e r r o r caused by s e l f - h e a t i n g t h e e r r o r caused by h e a t r a d i a t i o n from s u r f a c e s

t h e e r r o r caused by i n s t a b i l i t y i n t h e o u t p u t v o l t a g e o f t h e b a t t e r y included i n the instrument

App 111-2

f o r surface temperature measurements the e r r o r caused by heat conduction. i n t e r f e r e n c e between measurement system and e l e c t r o - magnetic environment The e r r o r o f t h e f i r s t k i n d w i l l have a s y s t e m a t i c as w e l l as a s t a t i s t i c a l

component.

The

systematic

canponent o f t h e e r r o r can be reduced i n two ways.

One p o s s i b i l i t y i s t o p e r f o r m t h e c a l i b r a t i o n i n an environment t h a t as much as p o s s i b l e .resembles t h e environment a t t h e p o s i t i o n where t h e a c t u a l measurment w i l l t a k e place. .surfaces are The i n s t r u m e n t can, e.g., be c a l i b r a t e d i n a In this room way where the the error k e p t a t t h e temperature one expects t h a t t h e s u r f a c e s o f the roan

s t u d i e d w i l l have when t h e measurement i s performed. caused by h e a t r a d i a t i o n f r a n surfaces w i l l be reduced. The o t h e r way i s t o c a l i b r a t e the i n s t r u m e n t i n an influence measurement value. disappear. of case t h e c o r r e c t i o n o f through a the measured value has to

environment be performed but


it

where after

the the not

t h e f a c t o r s l i s t e d above i s reduced as much,as p o s s i b l e . calculation

In this

o f t h e e s t i m a t e d d e v i a t i o n from t h e " t r u e " reduced,

I n b o t h cases t h e s y s t e m a t i c e r r o r w i l l be
'

will

Ift h e remaining systematic e r r o r s ( o r t h e i r upper l i m i t ) , can be


(after calibration and/or c o r r e c t i o n , ;as
,

estimated remaining

d e.s c r i b e d ,above) i t i s p o s s i b i e t o

a s s i g n an i n a c c u r a c y t o t h e measurement procedure. error s d e f i n e d as

If t h e i n d i v i d u a l
..

e r r o r s a r e denoted b y c i , two usual measures.of t h i s i n a c c u r a c y a r e t h e probable

o r t h e maximal e r r o r +ax

d e f i n e d as

.
systematic the and a at statistical a certain average

2) The e r r o r o f t h e second k i n d a l s o has $


component. position a sample o f t h e sensors. from a Assume t h a t n o b s e r v a t i o n s o f nonally by distributed

The s y s t e m a t i c canponent i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c h o i c e o f p o s i t i o n s temperature The have been made. multiplied F u r t h e n o r e assume t h a t these o b s e r v a t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e population. normalized n w i l l then follow Student-s t - d i s t r i b u t i o n t(n-1).

temperature

T h i s can be used t o c a l c u l a t e a c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l o f t h e average temperature.

App 111-3

The same method can be used t o t r e a t m simultaneous t h e same a t e v e r y such. p o s i t i o n , e.g., on a partition

observations wall. The

at

the

d i f f e r e n t sensor p o s i t i o n s , if i t can be assumed,that t h e average t e m p e r a t u r e i s normalized average t e m p e r a t u r e w i l l t h e n f o l l o w t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n t(m-1). 3)