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THERMAL PARAMETERS EVALUATION OF SHELL-AND-TUBE

HEAT EXCHANGERS WITH MULTIPLE COUNTER FLOW

Branislav Ja}imovi}

Srbislav Geni}
***
Mihai Nagi
ABSTRACT
This paper discusses a new way to improve heat transfer performances of shell-and-tube
heat exchangers, namely, heat transfer driving force. This could be achieved by using only
counter-current passes in heat exchanger, while outer tubes are added to turn fluid from one
side of apparatus to another. Given example show that apparatuses built in this manner can
overcome the major problem of heat exchangers used in district heating systems which is
small mean temperature difference.
1. INTRODUCTION
Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are still the most common used type of heat transfer
apparatus. Last few decades engineers spent trying to improve heat transfer performances and
their efforts were mainly based on additional agitation/turbulization of fluid flow in order to
magnify overall coefficient of heat transfer. This approach is known as internal heat transfer
augmentation technique.
Heat exchanger performances can also be improved using more sophisticated fluid flow
organization across the heat transfer surface. Roetzel and Spang suggested that the mean
temperature difference could be raised by using greater number of tubes for counter-current
than for co-current passes. In [1], they have derived performance evaluation equations in the
form ( ) P f R NTU ;
2
for heat exchanger with only one tube in co-current flow direction.
This paper discusses another possible solution: heat exchanger with only counter-
current passes, while outer tubes are added to turn fluid from one side of apparatus to another.

Professor at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Belgrade

Assistant at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Belgrade


***
Professor at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Politehnica Timisoara
2. DESCRIPTION OF THE MODIFIED E AND F TYPE OF HEAT EXCHANGER
Common classification of shell-and-tube heat exchanger types is given in TEMA
standards [2]. Heat exchanger type E (so called TEMA-E type) refers to heat exchanger with
one shell pass and type F (TEMA-F) is apparatus with two shell passes, both with, one or
multiple (usually even number) tube passes (figure 1). Multiple tube fluid flow arrangement
has both co-current and counter-current passes, which means that their thermal performance is
worse than for strictly counter flow apparatus.
Figure 1 TEMA-E and TEMA-F heat exchangers
A new solution (here designated as MOD type) for fluid flow organization is shown on
figure 2. MOD-E shell now has two counter-current passes due to addition of the outer tube
that returns tube side fluid to the front header. MOD-F type has four tube passes (two outer
tubes) and two shell passes.
Figure 2 MOD-E and MOD-F heat exchangers
3. THERMAL PARAMETERS OF MOD-E AND MOD-F HEAT EXCHANGERS
Commonly used methodology for the surface heat exchanger design is based on thermal
parameters: heat capacity ratio R , efficiency parameter P, number of transfer units NTU
and correction factor for mean temperature difference

. According to this approach in


thermal design, heat exchanger performance is completely defined if the one of the following
equations can be established [3]:
( ) F R P NTU ; ; 0 (1)
( ) F R P ; ; 0 (2)
Equations for evaluation of thermal parameters for MOD-E type of exchanger are:
for hot fluid on the tube side
( )
( )
P
R
NTU
R R
R
NTU
R
NTU
R
NTU
R
NTU
NTU
NTU
R

_
,

1
]
1
+

_
,

1
]
1
+

_
,

_
,

1
]
1

+
+ +

_
,

'

1 1
2
2 2
1 1
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
1 1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
exp
exp
exp
exp
exp
exp
for
for
(3)
for cold fluid on the tube side
( )
P
R NTU
R
R NTU
NTU
R NTU
R
NTU
NTU
NTU
R

_
,

1
]
1
+

_
,

1
]
1
+

_
,

1
]
1

_
,

+ +

_
,
+

_
,

1
]
1

'

1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
exp
exp
exp
exp
exp
exp
for
for

(4)
For theoretical case of infinite heat transfer surface, maximal temperature efficiency
depends only on heat capacity ratio. Equations for evaluation of
P
max
are:
for hot fluid on the tube side
P
R
R
+
R
R
max

<

'

1
2
1
1
2
2
for
for
(5)
for cold fluid on the tube side
P
R+
R
R
max

<

'

1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
for
for
(6)
Correction factors for mean temperature difference for MOD-E exchanger are shown on
figures 3 and 4.
Figure 3

for MOD-E exchanger - hot fluid on the tube side


0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
0.1
0.2
0.5
1
2
5
R=10

P
Figure 4

for MOD-E exchanger - cold fluid on the tube side


For MOD-F exchanger thermal parameters can be evaluated by multiplying MOD-E
type equations in usual manner [4].
4. EXAMPLE
Heat exchanger in the substation of district heating system operates under following
conditions:
heat duty 1000 kW;
hot fluid inlet temperature
t
in 1
150
,
C
;
hot fluid outlet temperature
t
out 1
75
,
C
;
cold fluid inlet temperature
t
in 2
70
,
C
;
cold fluid outlet temperature
t
out 2
90
,
C
;
maximal allowable pressure drop for both fluids is 20 kPa.
Heat capacity ratio, for this case, is
R 3 75 ,
and temperature efficiency is
P 0 25 ,
.
E-type heat exchangers can not fulfill these demands, so various F types of heat exchangers
will be discussed. Overall heat transfer coefficient is calculated upon Bell-Delaware method
[5] and all exchangers are designed upon following conditions:
shell diameter 500 mm;
tube outside/inside diameter 18/16 mm;
tube pitch 24 mm;
shell side optimized by methodology given in [5];
fouling factor 0 25 10
3
,

m K/ W
2
for each fluid.
Design results for various types of apparatuses are presented in table 1.
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
0.1
0.2
0.5
1
2
5
R=10

P
Table 1 F type exchanger characteristic parameters
HE type tube side fluid NTU
2
k, W/ (m K)
2
S, m
2
S S
cf
counter flow cold, 2 passes 0,904 779 58,0 1
TEMA-F cold, 4 passes 1,075 895 60,1 1,036
MOD-F cold, 4 passes 0,973 895 54,4 0,937
counter flow hot, 2 passes 0,904 552 81,9 1
TEMA-F hot, 4 passes 1,075 783 68,6 0,838
MOD-F hot, 4 passes 0,967 783 61,7 0,753
According to results presented in table 1, F type of heat exchanger has greater number
of transfer units than counter-current apparatus. In addition, it is obvious that overall heat
transfer coefficient is greater when cold fluid flows on the tube side.
Due to increase of the overall heat transfer coefficient (greater number of passes
through tubes), MOD-F type requires smaller heat transfer surface. TEMA-F type exchanger
has smaller heat transfer surface in case of hot fluid is on the tube side, but greater surface
when cold fluid is placed on shell side.
5. CONCLUSION
The increase of heat performances of shell-and-tube heat exchangers can be achieved by
adding an outer tube/tubes that force tube side fluid to flow in quasi-counter flow. In thiss
manner, heat transfer driving force is increased compared to common TEMA-E or TEMA-F
apparatuses. Given example show that apparatuses built in this manner can overcome the
major problem of heat exchangers used in district heating systems, which is small mean
temperature difference.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Roetzel, W., Spang, B.: Thermal calculation of multipass shell and tube heat
exchangers, Chem. Eng. Res. Dev., Vol. 67, March 1989.
2. ***: Standards of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, Tubular Exchanger
Manufacturers Association Inc., New York, 1978.
3. Ja}imovi}, B., Geni}, S.: Toplotne operacije i aparati (Heat transfer operations and
equipment, in Serbian), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Belgrade, 1992.
4. Ja}imovi}, B., Geni}, S.: Toplotne performanse izmenjiva~ke stanice sa rednom
vezom izmenjiva~a toplote, Medjunarodni simpozijum Energetika i energetske
tehnologije, Novi Sad, 1995.
5. ***: Heat Exchanger Design Handbook, Hemisphere, Washington, 1984.
Notation
c
p2
, J / (kg K)
, cold fluid specific heat capacity
k, W/ (m K)
2
, overall heat transfer coefficient
m
2
, kg / s
, cold fluid mass flow rate
NTU
2
, number of transfer units for cold fluid
NTU
k S
m c
p
2
2 2

P
, efficiency parameter
P
t t
t t
out in
in in

2 2
1 2
, ,
, ,
R
, heat capacity ratio
R
t t
t t
in out
out in

1 1
2 2
, ,
, ,
S, m
2
, heat exchanger heat transfer surface
t
in 1,
, C
o
, hot fluid inlet temperature
t
out 1,
, C
o
, hot fluid outlet temperature
t
in 2,
, C
o
, cold fluid inlet temperature
t
out 2,
, C
o
, cold fluid outlet temperature

, correction factor for mean temperature difference


t
lm
, C
o
, is mean logarithmic temperature difference for counter-current heat exchanger
( ) ( )
t
t t t t
t t
t t
lm
in out out in
in out
out in

1 2 1 2
1 2
1 2
, , , ,
, ,
, ,
ln
t
m
, C
o
, mean temperature difference for counter flow
t t
m lm