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Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al. I. Cuza Iai Tomul LVII, fasc. 2, s. II a.

Biologie vegetal, 2011

NEW CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT FLORA OF AGIGEA MARINE SAND DUNES NATURAL RESERVE M. FGRA*
Abstract: since founding of Agigea Marine Sand Dunes Reserve in 1939, the environmental conditions have changed significantly especially due to building of Constanta South Agigea Harbour. Microclimate and soil condition have changed in the last 70 years in the protected area and led to disappearance of significant number of plant species, many of them specific to littoral zone. The latest scientific paper which inventories the flora of the natural reserve (Mititelu et al. 1992) presents a list of 418 species of spontaneous plants, which actually represents an accumulation of the results of floristic studies accomplished in the natural reserve between years 1928 and 1992. The floristic inventory of Mititelu et al. includes numerous species that have disappeared many years ago from the natural reserve area. A critical revision of the floristic inventory is accomplished by Srbu et al. (2006) who eliminates 72 of the 418 taxa inventoried by Mititelu et al. (1992). Even if the number of taxa was reduced to 346, we believe that the number of plants is currently much smaller in the strict perimeter of the reserve (10,55 ha) which means that the floristic inventory needs revision. Our floristic study carried out in the natural reserve in the period of April 2010 - March 2011 led to identification of 241 vascular plant taxa (spontaneous, subspontaneous, naturalized or introduced accidentally or deliberated in the reservation). The paper presents both a floristic inventory of the reservation and brief considerations concerning rare and threatened plants and about invasive and potentially invasive alien plant species which threaten the specific flora of the sand dunes. Keywords: floristic study, vascular flora, threatened flora, invasive plants, sand dunes, natural reserve.

Introduction The Natural Reserve Marine sand dunes of Agigea (both botanical and zoological reserve) is the unique marine sand dunes reserve of Romania, located about 15 km south of Constanta in Agigea village, not very far from North Eforie (Fig. 1). Founded since 1939 it is situated inside the Biologic Marine Station Prof. Dr. Ioan Borcea where occupy an area of 10.55 ha. Since 1990, the natural reserve is managed by the University Alexandru Ioan Cuza of Iai. Inside the dune reservation there are some coastal habitats of European interest (habitats 2110 and 2130 *) and a lot of very rare plants at the national level (Alyssum borzaeanum, Convolvulus persicus, Silene thymifolia, Ephedra distachya). By building the Constanta South-Agigea Harbour, the reservation was cut off from the sea by a number of infrastructure works, which currently leaves it at approximately 200 meters from the seashore. In time, this led to modifications of the ecological conditions, followed by significant changes in the composition and structure of the vegetation. These modifications, accentuated by the near-by human activities, caused the disappearance in time of certain psammophile species and favored the penetration and proliferation of ruderal and steppe species. The dynamics of vegetation in the natural reserve Agigea Marine Sand Dunes requires the periodic update of the floral inventory in the perimeter of protected area, a goal that we set as a result of the floristic studies accomplished in the reserve between April 2010 and March 2011.
*

Ovidius University Constana, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, Aleea Universitii, Nr. 1B, Constana. marius_fagaras@yahoo.com

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Figure 1. Agigea Marine Sand Dunes Reserve

Materials and methods For each taxa of the floristic inventory the scientific and popular name, the biological forms, phytogeographical elements, ecological categories and the Red Data categories are mentioned. The nomenclature of plant taxa is according to Illustrated Flora of Romania. Pteridophyta et Spermatophyta [6], Critical list of Romanian vascular plants [15] and Flora Europaea[21, 22]. The biological forms, floristic elements and ecological categories are given in accordance with Illustrated Flora of Romania. Pteridophyta et Spermatophyta [6] and Conspectus of spontaneous higher flora of Romania [19]. The Red Data categories is in accordance with the Red Book vascular plant in Romania [8], Red List of higher plants in Romania [14], IUCN Red List of endangered species (2008) [25] or annexes of OUG no. 57/2007 [26], European Community Directive 92/43/EEC [24] and the Berne Convention [23]. The invasive and potentially invasive alien species from the natural reserve were considered according to Richardsons et al. [18] and Pyek et al. [17] definition. Results and discussions Study of the natural reserve flora carried out between April 2010 and March 2011 led to identification of 241 vascular taxa, from which 216 are spontaneous (89,62%) and 25 taxa (10,37%) are subspontaneous, cultivated and naturalized or introduced accidentally in the reservation area. The latest scientific paper which inventories the flora in the reserve [10] presents a list of 418 species of spontaneous plants, which actually represents an accumulation of the results of floristic research developed in the reserve between 1928 and 1992 [1, 13, 16, 9, 3, 4, 5, 11]. This floristic inventory includes also numerous species that have disappeared for dozens of years from the reserve.

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Since its setup in 1939, the Agigea Marine Sand Dunes Reserve has suffered significant modifications of the ecological conditions, as a result of the Constanta SouthAgigea Harbour building. This led to the disappearance of a considerable number of plant species that are specific to the littoral zone. This situation was worsened by the desertion of the reservation after the Romanian Institute for Marine Research moved to Constana (this Institute integrated the Marine biological Station) and by the lack of an adequate management until it was taken over by Al. I. Cuza University in 1990. During this period, the reserve became grazing land and it was then transformed into an instruction field for the military, which led to an accentuated degradation of the dunes habitats and to an intense process of transformation of the vegetation into a ruderal and steppe one. A most welcomed revision of the floristic inventory in the protected area is accomplished in 2006 by Srbu et al. [20], who eliminates 72 of the 418 taxa inventoried by Mititelu et al. (1992)[10]. Even if the number of taxa is reduced to 346, we believe that the number of plants is currently much smaller in the strict perimeter of the reserve (10,55 ha), which means that the floristic inventory needs revision. The floristic inventory of vascular flora of Agigea Marine Sand Dunes Natural Reserve
Acer campestre L. subsp. campestre Ph (tree), Eur.; U2,5 T3 R3; 2n = 26; Querco-Fagetea; cultivated in the reservation; Acer platanoides L. Ph (tree), Eur.; U3 T3 R3; 2n = 26, 39; Fagetalia, Car. Moehringio muscosae-Acerenion, Querco-Fagetea; cultivated in the reservation; Acer pseudoplatanus L. Ph (tree), Eur.; U3,5 T3 R3; Fagetalia, Car. Moehringio muscosae-Acerenion, Querco-Fagetea; cultivated in the reservation; Achillea pannonica Scheele H, Eur. (Cont.); U2 T4 R3,5; 2n = 72; Festucetalia valesiacae; on the sand dunes, in the meadows; Achillea setacea Waldst. et Kit. H, Eua. (Cont.); U2 T3 R5; Festucion pseudovinae, Sedo-Scleranthetea, Festucetalia valesiacae; on the sand dunes, in ruderal places; Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. subsp. pectinatum (M. Bieb.) Tzvelev [syn. Agropyron pectiniforme Roem. et Schult.] H, Euc.-Pont.-Anat.; U2 T4 R4,5; 2n = 14, 28; Agropyro-Kochion, Festucion rupicolae; on the sand dunes, in ruderal places; Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle Ph (tree), Adv. (China); U0 T0 R0; 2n = 64; Ailanthetum altissimae; invasive plant on the sand dunes and in the green spaces of Marine Biological Station; Ajuga chamaepytis (L.) Schreber subsp. chamaepytis Th, Med.; U2,5 T4 R3; 2n = 28; Secalietea, Festucion rupicolae; sporadic on the fixed sand dunes; Alcea rosea L. [syn. Althaea rosea (L.) Cav.] H, Adv.; 2n = 42; sub-spontaneous in the meadows near administrative buildings; Allium flavum L. subsp. tauricum (Besser ex Rchb.) Stearn [syn. Allium tauricum (Besser ex Rchb.) Grossh.] G, Pont.; U1,5 T4 R4; 2n = 16; Festucetalia valesiacae; on the sand dunes; Allium rotundum L. subsp. rotundum (Pur) G, Euc. (Med.); U2 T4 R4; 2n = 16, 32, 40, 48; Festucetalia valesiacae, Festucetalia vaginatae, Car. Festuco-Brometea; on the sand dunes, in the ruderal meadows near administrative buildings; Allium sphaerocephalon L. subsp. sphaerocephalon G, Euc.; U1,5 T3,5 R4; 2n = 16, 18; Festucetalia valesiacae, Festucetalia vaginatae, Car. Festuco-Brometea; in shrubs, on the fixed dunes; Althaea hirsuta L. Th, Pont.-Med.; U2,5 T3,5 R4,5; Festucion rupicolae, Car. Polygono-Chenopodietalia; in shrubs, near administrative buildings; Alyssum borzaeanum Nyr. (Ciucuoara de nisipuri) Ch, Lit. (Black Sea); U1,5 T4 R5; Scabiosion argenteae; abundant on the sand dunes in the NW and SE area of reservation; very rare on the Romanian seacoast; E [7], V [2], E/R [12, 14], Bern Convention (Annex I) [23]; Alyssum hirsutum M. Bieb. Th, E-subMed.; U2 T4 R4,5; 2n = 46; Festucion rupicolae, Festucion vaginatae; abundant on the sand dunes; Amaranthus retroflexus L. Th, Adv. (Am.); U3 T3 R0; 2n = 32; Car. Chenopodietea; on fixed sand dunes, in ruderal places; Amorpha fruticosa L. Ph (shrub), Adv. (Am.); U3 T4 R0; 2n = 40; Salicion albae; invasive species accidentally introduced in the reservation, cultivated as ornamental plant out of dunes reserve area; Anagallis arvensis L. Th, Cosm.; U3 T3,5 R0; 2n = 40; Secalietea; in meadows, in shrubs and ruderal places; Anchusa officinalis L. subsp. procera (Besser) Ciocrlan H, Eur. (Med.); U2 T3 R0; 2n = 16; Festucion rupicolae, Onopordion; on the sand dunes and in ruderal places; Anthemis ruthenica Bieb. Th, Eur. (Cont.); U2 T4 R4; 2n = 18; Corinephoretalia, Festucion vaginatae, Sisymbrion, Onopordion; on the sand dunes, in ruderal places; Anthemis tinctoria L. subsp. tinctoria H, Eua. (Cont.); U1,5 T3 R3; Festucetalia valesiacae; on the sand dunes, in xerophylous meadows; Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. subsp. trichosperma Nyman Th, subMed.; U2,5 T4 R4; Alliarion; in the shrubs and trees area; Apera spica-venti (L.) Beauv. subsp. maritima (Klokov)

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Tzvelev Th, Pont.-Dobr.; U1,5 T3 R3; 2n = 14; Aperion spicae-venti, Aperetalia; on the sand dunes; Artemisia annua L. Th, Eua. (Cont.); U3 T4 R4; 2n = 18; Chenopodio-Scleranthetea, Car.Sisymbrion; at the edge of reservation, near administrative buildings; Artemisia austriaca Jacq. Ch, Eua. (Cont.); U2 T4 R4,5; 2n = 16; Festucion rupicolae; on the sand dunes, in xerophylous meadows; Asparagus pseudoscaber Grecescu H, Eur. (Pont.-Balc.); U2 T4 R4; 2n = 20; Aceri-Quercion; on the sand dunes; Asparagus verticillatus L. G, Pont.-Balc.; U1 T4,5 R4; Orno-Cotinetalia, Carpion orientalis; in shady bushes; R [14]; Asperugo procumbens L. Th, Eua. (Cont.); U2,5 T3,5 R4,5; 2n = 48; Sisymbrietalia; in the shrubs and trees area, near fences, in ruderal places; Asperula cynanchica L. H, Pont.-Med.; U2 T3 R5; Festucetalia, Car. Festuco-Brometea; on the sand dunes; Asperula tenella Heuff. H, Pont.-Balc.; U2 T4 R4; Festuco-Brometea, Syringo-Carpinion; on the sand dunes; Astragalus asper Wulfen ex Jacq. H, Pont.-Pan.; U2 T4 R4; 2n = 64; Festucion rupicolae; on fixed sand dunes; Astragalus varius S. G. Gmel. [syn. Astragalus virgatus Pall.] H, Eua. (Cont.); U1,5 T4 R4,5; Festucion vaginatae; on the sand dunes; V [7], R [12, 14]; Avena fatua L. Th, Adv.; U1,5 T4 R0; near fences, in the east side of reservation; Ballota nigra L. subsp. nigra H, Med.-Euc.; U2 T3,5 R4; 2n = 22; Chenopodietea, Car..Arction; in the shrubs, near fences; Bassia prostrata (L.) A. J. Scott [syn. Kochia prostrata (L.) Schrad.] Ch, Eua. (Cont.); U1,5 T4 R4,5; Agropyro-Kochion, Puccinellietalia; on fixed dunes, in the NE zone of reservation; Berteroa incana (L.) DC. Th, Eua. (Cont.); U2 T3 R4; 2n = 16; Festuco-Brometea, SedoScleranthetea, Sisymbrietalia; on fixed sand dunes; Bromus arvensis L. subsp. arvensis Th (TH), Eua. (Med.), U2,5 T3 R0; 2n = 14; Onopordetalia, Chenopodietea; in ruderal places (near fence, in shrubs); Bromus hordeaceus L. [syn. Bromus mollis L.] Th, Eua.; U0 T3 R0; 2n = 28; Festuco-Brometea, Arrhenatheretea, Sisymbrion; on the sand dunes, in ruderal places; Bromus inermis Leysser H, Eua. (Cont.); U2,5 T4 R4; 2n = 56; Arrhenatherion, Sisymbrion, Festuco-Brometea; on fixed sand dunes; Bromus squarrosus L. Th, Eua. (Cont.); U1,5 T4 R4; 2n = 14; Onopordion, Asplenietalia rutae-murariae, Corynephoretea, Festucetalia valesiacae; on the sand dunes, in ruderal places; Bromus sterilis L. Th, Eua. (Med.); U2 T4 R4; 2n = 14; Chenopodietea, Onopordetalia, Arction, Sisymbrion; in shrubs and trees area, in ruderal places; Bromus tectorum L. Th, Eua. (Cont.); U1,5 T3,5 R0; 2n = 56; Thero-Airion, Sisymbrion; on the sand dunes; Buglossoides arvensis (L.) I. M. Johnst. subsp. arvensis [Lithospermum arvense L.] Th, Eua.; U0 T0 R4; Festucetalia valesiacae, Secalietea; in shady places, in shrubs, between trees; Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br. H, Eua.; U5 T3 R4; 2n = 22, 24; Convolvuletalia, Calystegion, Arction, Salicion albae; in the reeds from NW side of reservation; Camelina microcarpa Andrz. ex DC. Th, Eua.; U3 T3 R0; Chenopodietea, Car. Aperetalia; in ruderal places; Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. Th, Cosm. (Med.); U3 T0 R0; 2n = 32; Chenopodietalia; in ruderal places; Cardaria draba (L.) Desv. subsp. draba [syn. Lepidium draba L.] H, Eua. (Med.); U2 T4 R4; 2n = 64; in shrubs and ruderal places; Carduus acanthoides L. TH, Eur. (Med.); U2 T3 R0, Car. Onopordion; in ruderal places; Carduus thoermeri Weinm. [C. leiophyllus Petrovi; C. nutans subsp. leiophyllus (Petrovic) Arenas] TH, Pont.Balc.; U2 T4 R4; 2n = 16; Onopordetalia; on the sand dunes, in ruderal places; Carex colchica J. Gay [C. ligerica J. Gay] G, Pont.; U2 T4 R4,5; 2n = 58; Scabiosion argenteae, Festucion vaginatae; abundant on the sand dunes and between dunes; Centaurea arenaria M. Bieb. ex Willd. subsp. borysthenica (Gruner) Dostl H, Pont.-Pan.Balc.; U2 T4 R4,5; Festucetalia valesiacae; on the sand dunes; Centaurea diffusa Lam. Th, Eua. (Cont.); U2 T4 R0; 2n = 18; Onopordetalia, Chenopodio-Scleranthetea, Car. Onopordion; on the sand dunes; Cerastium brachypetalum Pers. Th, Centr. Eur.; U3 T3 R0; 2n = 90; Alysso-Sedion; on fixed dunes, in the meadows; Cerastium pumilum Curtis subsp. pumilum Th, Eur.; U2 T3 R0; 2n = 90, 100; Festuco-Brometea, Festucion pseudovinae, Car. Alysso-Sedion; on the sand dunes; Cerastium semidecandrum L. Th, Eur.; U2 T3,5 R0; 2n = 18, 36; Festuco-Brometea, Corynephoretea, Car. Sedo-Scleranthetea; on the sand dunes; Chenopodium album L. Th, Cosm.; U3 T3 R0; 2n = 54; Chenopodietea; in ruderal places; Chondrilla juncea L. H, Eua.; U1,5 T3,5 R4; 2n = 15, 30; Festucion vaginatae, Festucetalia valesiacae, Car. Danthonio-Chrysopogonetalia; on the sand dunes; Cichorium intybus L. subsp. intybus H, Eua.; U3 T0 R3; 2n = 18; Arrhenatheretea, Agrostion, Puccinellio-Salicornietea, Car. Polygonion avicularis; in xerophilous meadows and ruderal places; Conium maculatum L. Th-TH, Eua.; U3 T3 R3; 2n = 16, 22; Chenopodietea, Car. Arction; near fences, in shrubs and in the ruderal places; Consolida regalis Gray subsp. regalis Th, Eua.; U2 T4 R4; Caucalidion; Convolvulus arvensis L. H(G), Cosm.; U2,5 T3,5 R3,5; 2n = 50; Chenopodio-Scleranthetea, Sisymbrion, Festuco-Brometea, Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, Caucalidion, Arction; on the edge of the paths, in ruderal places; Convolvulus persicus L. H, Pont.-Casp.; U2 T4,5 R4,5; on the sand dunes in the NW side of reservation; E [7], R [12, 14]; Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. [Erigeron canadensis L.] Th, Adv. (Am. N); U2,5 T0 R0; 2n = 18; Chenopodietea, Festucion vaginatae, Corynephoretea, Car. Sisymbrion; on fixed sand dunes and in ruderal places; potentially invasive plant; Cornus sanguinea L. Ph (shrub), Eua.; U3 T3 R4; 2n = 22; Querco-Fagetalia, Car. Prunetalia; sporadic in reservation area; Coronilla varia L. H, Euc. (Med.); U2 T3 R4; 2n = 24; Quercetea, FestucoBrometea, Car. Origanetalia; in ruderal places, near shrubs; Crambe maritima L. H, Atl.; U2 T4,5 R4,5; 2n = 30, 60; Cakiletalia maritimae; a single specimen introduced on the sand dunes in the NW side of reservation; V [2, 7, 12, 14]; Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Ph (shrub), Eur.; U2,5 T3,5 R3; 2n = 34; Querco-Fagetea, Car. Prunetalia;

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compose shrubs in reservation; Crepis foetida L. subsp. rhoeadifolia (Bieb.) elak. Th, Pont.-Med.; U2,5 T3,5 R3; 2n = 10; Secalietea, Festuco-Brometea; sporadic on the sand dunes; Crepis pulchra L. Th, Eua. (Med.); U2 T4 R3, 2n= 8; Car. Chenopodietea; on fixed sands; Crepis sancta (L.) Bornm. [Lagoseris sancta (L.) Maly] TH, Pont.-Balc.; U1,5 T4 R4, 2n= 10; Festuco-Sedetalia, Festuco-Brometea; abundant in April-May on the sand dunes; Crocus pallasii Goldb. G, Pont.-Balc.; U1,5 T4,5 R4; 2n = 14; Festucetalia valesiacae; sporadic on fixed dunes in October-November; V [7], R [12, 14], EN [8]; Cuscuta europaea L. subsp. europaea Th, Eua.; U4 T0 R0; 2n = 14, Arction, Artemisietea, Car. Calystegion; on fixed sands; parasitic especially on Fabaceae; Cynanchum acutum L. H, Pont.-Med.; U2,5 T4 R0; 2n = 18; Scabiosion argenteae, Consolido-Eragrostion pooidis; on the sand dunes; Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. G (H), Cosm.; U2 T3,5 R0; 2n = 18, 27, 30, 36, 40; Festuco-Brometea, Polygonion avicularis; in ruderal places; Dactylis glomerata L. subsp. glomerata H, Eua. (Med.); U3 T0 R4; 2n = 28; Symphyto-Fagion, Car. Molinio-Arrhenatheretea; in ruderal places; Daucus carota L. subsp. carota TH, Eua. (Med.); U2,5 T3 R0; 2n = 18; Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, Car. Arrhenaterion; on the sand dunes; Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl [Sisymbrium sophia L.] Th, Eua.; U2,5 T4 R4; 2n = 28; Car. SisymbrionOnopordion; in shrubs and ruderal places; Dianthus leptopetalus Willd. H, Pont.-Balc.; U1,5 T4 R4,5; Festucetalia valesiacae, Syringo-Carpinion; on fixed sands; V [7], R [12, 14]; Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC. H (Ch), Med.; U2 T4 R0; 2n = 22; Secalietea, Car Sisymbrion; on fixed sand dunes; Echinops ritro L. subsp. ruthenicus (M. Bieb.) Nyman [Echinops ruthenicus M. Bieb.] H, Pont.-Pan.-Balc.; U1,5 T4 R4,5; 2n = 32; Festucetalia valesiacae, Festucion vaginatae; sporadic on the sand dunes; R [12, 14]; Echium italicum L. [E. altissimum Jacq.] H, Med.; U2,5 T4 R3; 2n = 16, 32; Sisymbrietalia, Festucetalia; on the sand dunes, in ruderal places; Elaeagnus angustifolia L. Ph (tree), Adv. (As. temp.); potentially invasive sub-spontaneous species; Elymus hispidus (Opiz) Melderis subsp. hispidus [Agropyron intermedium (Host) P. Beauv.] G, Eua. (Cont.); U2 T4,5 R4; 2n = 42; Car. Festucetalia valesiacae; in the edge of bushes; Elymus repens (L.) Gould [Agropyron repens (L.) P. Beauv.] G, Circ.; U0 T0 R0; 2n = 42; Artemisietea, Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, Car. AgropyroRumicion; in ruderal places, near fences; Ephedra distachya L. s.l. Ph (undershrub), Eua. (Cont.); U2 T4,5 R4,5; 2n = 24, 28, 36; Scabiosion argenteae, Festucion vaginatae; abundant on the sand dunes; Eragrostis minor Host [E. poaeoides P. Beauv.] Th, Euc. (Med.); U3 T3,5 R0; 2n = 40; Polygonion avicularis; on fixed dunes and in ruderal places; Erodium ciconium (L.) L'Hr. Th, Eua.; U2 T4 R4,5; 2n = 18, 20; Car. Sisymbrion; in meadows, near the shrubs; Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Hr. Th, Cosm.; U2,5 T0 R0; 2n = 20; Chenopodietea, Secalietea, Festuco-Brometea, Polygono-Chenopodietalia; in meadows, near the shrubs; Erophila verna (L.) Chevall. subsp. verna [Draba verna L.] Th, Eua (Med.); U2,5 T3,5 R0; Festuco-Brometea, Festuco-Sedetalia; on the sand dunes; Eryngium campestre L. H, Pont.-Med.; U1 T5 R4; 2n = 14, 28; Festuco-Brometea, Festucetalia valesiacae; sporadic on fixed dunes and in ruderal places; Erysimum diffusum Ehrh. Th, Eua. (Cont.); U1,5 T3 R4; 2n = 32, 72; Festucetalia vaginatae, Festucetalia valesiacae; on the sand dunes and in ruderal places; Euonymus europaea L. Ph (shrub), Eur.; U3 T3 R3; 2n = 64; Querco-Fagetea, Car. Prunetalia; compose shrubs in reservation; Euphorbia agraria Bieb. H, Pont.-Med.; U2 T4 R0; Festuco-Brometea; on fixed dunes, in ruderal places; Euphorbia glareosa Pall. ex. M. Bieb. subsp. glareaosa H, Euc.; on fixed dunes; Euphorbia helioscopia L. Th, Eua.; U3 T3 R0; 2n = 42; Secalietea, Polygono-Chenopodion; in the ruderal meadows, near fences and administrative buildings; Euphorbia seguieriana Neck. [Euphorbia gerardiana Jacq.] H, Eua.; U1 T3,5 R4; Festucetalia, Festucion vaginatae, Festuco-Brometea; abundant on the sand dunes; Euphorbia virgata Waldst. et Kit. H, Eua. (Cont.); U2 T4 R3; 2n = 20; Secalietea, Chenopodietea, Agrostion, Festucion rupicolae; on the sand dunes, especially near fences; Falcaria vulgaris Bernh. (Dornic) TH, Eua. (Med.); U2 T4 R4; Festucion rupicolae, Secalietea-Onopordetalia; on the sand dunes; Festuca pratensis Hudson subsp. pratensis H, Eua.; U3,5 T2 R0; 2n = 14; Agrostion, Molinio-Arrhenatheretea; in the ruderal meadows, in bushes; Festuca valesiaca Schleich. ex Gaudin H, Eua. (Cont.); U1 T5 R4; 2n = 14; Festucetalia valesiacae, Quercetea pubescenti-petraeae, Festucion valesiacae; on the sand dunes; Fraxinus americana L. Ph (tree), Adv. (Am.); potentially invasive species, probably sub-spontaneous; sporadic especially in the western side of the reservation; Fraxinus ornus L. Ph (tree), Med.; U1,5 T3,5 R5; 2n = 46; Orno-Cotinetalia; sporadic at the edge of reservation; Fumaria rostellata Knaf Th, Euc.-Balc.; U3 T0 R3,5; 2n = 14; Secalietea; near shrubs and between trees; Gagea pratensis (Pers.) Dumort. G, Euc.; U2 T3 R3; 2n = 24; Festucion rupicolae; Aceri-Quercion; on fixed sands, in early spring period; Galium aparine L. Th, Circ.; U3 T3 R3; 2n = 42, 44; Car. Convolvuletalia; in ruderal places, near fences and shrubs; Galium flavescens Borbs H, Daco-Balc.; U2 T4 R5; 2n = 44; Festucion rupicolae; on fixed sand dunes; Galium humifusum M. Bieb. [Asperula humifusa (M. Bieb.) Besser] H, Pont.-Balc.; U2 T4 R4,5; Festucetalia valesiacae; on the sand dunes, in meadows; Galium verum L. subsp. verum H, Eua; U2,5 T2,5 R0; Festuco-Brometea, Festuco-Sedetalia, Car. Origanetalia; on the sand dunes, in meadows; Geranium lucidum L. Th-TH, Eua. (Med.); U4 T2,5 R4; 2n = 20; Moehringio muscosae-Acerenion, Arction, Car. Alliarion; in shrubs and between trees; Geranium molle L. Th, Eua. (Med.); U2 T3,5 R3; 2n = 26; Festucion rupicolae, Car. Festuco-Sedetalia; in meadows and near shrubs; Geranium pusillum L. (Buchet) Th, Eur. (Med.); U2,5 T3 R0; 2n = 26; Chenopodietea, Secalietea, Plantaginetea, Festuco-Brometea, Car. Chenopodietea; in meadows and near

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shrubs; Geum urbanum L. H, Eua. (Med.); U3 T3 R4; 2n = 42; Prunetalia, Carpinion, Alno-padion, Car. Querco-Fagetea; in shrubs and between trees; Gleditsia triacanthos L. Ph (tree), Adv. (Am.); 2n = 28; cultivated on the edge of reservation fences; Goniolimon besseranum (Schult. ex Rchb.) Kusn. H, Pont.; U1,5 T4,5 R4; Festucion rupicolae; on fixed sand dunes; Hedera helix L. Ph (liana), Atl.-Med.; U3 T3 R3; 2n = 48; Fagetalia, Acerion; in shady places, in shrubs and trees area; Hesperis tristis L. H, Pont.; U2 T3,5 R3; 2n = 14, 28; Festucion rupicolae; sporadic on the sand dunes; Holosteum umbellatum L. subsp. umbellatum Th, Eua. (Med.); U2 T3,5 R0; 2n = 20; Festuco-Brometea, Secalietea; on the sand dunes, in ruderal meadows; Hordeum murinum L. subsp. murinum Th, Eua. (Med.); U2,5 T4 R0; 2n = 28; Chenopodietea, Sisymbrion; in ruderal places; Hypericum elegans Stephan ex Willd. H, Eua. (Cont.); U3 T3 R0; 2n = 32; Sedo-Scleranthetea, Origanetalia, Festuco-Brometea; sporadic in meadows; Inula germanica L. H, Pont.-Pan.; U1,5 T3,5 R4; 2n = 16; Festucion rupicolae, Aceri-Quercion; in meadows, on the sand dunes; Iris pallida Lam. W and central former Jugoslavia; cultivated in reservation; probably sub-spontaneous on the sand dunes in the NW area of reservation; Juglans regia L. Ph (tree), Balc.-Cauc.-Anat.; U3 T4 R4; Quercetea robori-petraeae ; cultivated and naturalized in the reservation; Juniperus virginiana L. Ph (tree), Adv. (Am. de N); naturalized in the reservation; Lactuca saligna Th-TH, Med.; U1,5 T4 R4, 2n = 18; Chenopodio-Scleranthetea, Sisymbrietalia; in shrubs and ruderal places; Lactuca serriola L. TH, Eua. (Med.); U1,5 T3,5 R0; 2n = 18; Chenopodietea, Artemisietea, Sisymbrietalia; in shrubs and ruderal places; Lamium amplexicaule L. Th, Eua. (Med.); U2,5 T3,5 R0; 2n = 18; in meadows and shrubs; Lamium purpureum L. Th, Eua.; U3 T0 R0; 2n = 18; Secalietea, Polygono-Chenopodietalia; in meadows and shrubs; Lappula squarrosa (Retz.) Dumort [L. echinata Gilib., L. myosotis Moench.] Th, Eua., U1,5 T3,5 R4; Chenopodietea, Sisymbrietalia; on the sand dunes; Lathyrus tuberosus L. H, Eua. (Med.); U2 T4 R4; 2n = 14; Secalietea, Car. Caucalidion; in shrubs and trees area; Lavatera thuringiaca L. H, Eua. (Cont.), U2,5 T3 R0; 2n = 40,44; Onopordetalia, Arction; between shrubs; Lepidium perfoliatum L. Th-TH, Eua. (Cont.); U2 T4 R3; 2n = 16; Salicornietea, Secalietea, Car. AgropyroRumicion; in ruderal places; Leymus racemosus (Lam.) Tzvelev subsp. sabulosus (Bieb.) Tzvelev. [Elymus sabulosus Bieb., E. arenarius Lam.] H, Pont. (Vest); U1,5 T4 R5; 2n = 28; Elymion gigantei; abundant on the sand dunes; V/R [12, 14]; Ligustrum vulgare L. Ph (shrub), Eua. (Med.); U2,5 T3 R3; 2n = 46; Querco-Fagetea, Berberidion, Quercion pubescentis, Carpinion, Erico-Pinion, Car. Ligustro-Prunetum; compose bushes; Linaria genistifolia (L.) Mill. subsp. genistifolia [L. euxina Velen.] H, Eua. (Cont.); U1 T3,5 R5; 2n = 12; FestucoBrometea, Quercetea, Festucetalia valesiacae; on the sand dunes; Linum austriacum L. H, Eua. (Cont.); U1,5 T3,5 R4; 2n = 18, 27; Festucion rupicolae, Festuco-Brometea, Car. Cirsio-Brachypodion; on fixed sand dunes; Lolium perenne L. H, Cosm.; U3 T3 R0; 2n = 14; Cynusorion, Plantaginetea; in meadows, near fences; Lotus corniculatus L. H, Eua.; U2,5 T0 R0; 2n = 24; Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, Festucetalia valesiacae, Festucetalia vaginatae, Secalietea, Plantaginetea; on fixed dunes, in bushes and ruderal places; Lycopsis arvensis L. subsp. orientalis (L.) Kuntze Th, Eua.; U2,5 T4 R4; Polygono-Chenopodion; sporadic on the sand dunes; Malus domestica Borkh. Ph (tree), Eur.; U3,5 T3 R4; sporadic on the sand dunes and along the fences; cultivated species in the Marine Biological Station, accidentally introduced in reservation; Malva sylvestris L. subsp. sylvestris TH (H), Eua. (Cosm.); U3 T3 R0; 2n = 42; Sisymbrietalia, Car. Onopordetalia; in the edge of shrubs and between trees; Marrubium peregrinum L. H, Eua. (Med.); U2 T4 R0; 2n = 34; Festucion rupicolae, Car. Onopordion; on the sand dunes; Medicago lupulina L. TH (H), Eua.; U2,5 T3 R4; 2n = 16, 32; MolinioArrhenatheretea, Chenopodietea, Plantaginetea, Festuco-Brometea, Car. Alysso-Sedion; on fixed dunes, in shrubs and ruderal places; Medicago minima (L.) L. Th, Eua. (Med.); U1,5 T4 R4; 2n = 16; Festucetalia valesiacae, Festuco-Brometea, Car. Sedo-Scleranthetea; on fixed dunes; Medicago sativa L. subsp. falcata (L.) Arcang. H, Eua.; U2 T3 R5; 2n = 16, 32; Festuco-Brometea; on the sand dunes; Melica ciliata L. subsp. ciliata H, Eur. (Med.); U1,5 T4 R4; 2n = 18; Festucetalia valesiacae, Asplenio-Festucion palentis, Alysso-sedion, Seslerion rigidae; on the sand dunes, in the shrubs; Morus alba L. Ph (tree), Adv. (Asia); U2 T3,5 R4; 2n = 28; cultivated and naturalized in the reservation; Muscari neglectum Guss. ex Ten. [M. racemosum (L.) Lam. et DC.] G, Euc. (Med.); U1,5 T4 R5; 2n = 18, 36, 45, 54, 72; Festuco-Brometea, Polygono-Chenopodion, Mesobromion; on fixed dunes, in early spring season; Myosotis stricta Link ex Roem. et Schult. [M. micrantha auct., non Pall. ex Lehm.] Th, Eua. (Med.); U2 T0 R2,5; 2n = 36, 48; Festuco-Brometea, Sedo-Scleranthetea, Corynephoretea, FestucoSedetalia; on stabilized sand dunes; Nepeta cataria L. H, Eua. (Med.); U3 T3 R4; 2n = 36; Chenopodietea, Arction, Sisymbrietalia; in shrubs; Nigella arvensis L. Th, Pont.-Med.; U2 T4 R4; 2n = 12; Secalietea, Caucalidion; in ruderal places, near fences; Onobrychis arenaria (Kit.) DC. H, Eua.; U2 T3,5 R5; 22n = 14, 28; Festucion vaginatae, Festucion rupicolae, Car. Festucetalia valesiacae; sporadic on the sand dunes; Onobrychis gracilis Besser H, Pont.-Balc.; U1,5 T4 R0; Festuco-Brometea; on fixed sand dunes; R [14]; Ornithogalum refractum Kit. G, Pont.-Pan.-Balc.-Anat., U2 T3,5 R4; 2n = 54, 56, 72; Festucion rupicolae; on the sand dunes, in early spring season; Orobanche lutea Baumg. G, Eua. (Med.); U2 T3 R4; 2n = 38; Trifolio-Medicaginion, Festucion rupicolae, Car. Origanetalia; on fixed sands, parasitic on Medicago, Trifolium and other Fabaceae species; Papaver dubium L. subsp. dubium Th, Med.; U2 T3,5 R3; 2n = 42; Festucion rupicolae, Aperion,

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Caucalidion; on the sand dunes; Papaver rhoeas L. subsp. rhoeas Th, Cosm.; U3 T3,5 R4; 2n = 14; Secalietea; on the sand dunes and in the meadows; Petrorhagia prolifera (L.) P. W. Ball et Heywood [Kohlrauschia prolifera (L.) Kunth., Tunica prolifera (L.) Scop.] Th, Atl.-Med.; U1,5 T4 R3; 2n = 30, 60; Festuco-Brometea, Corynephoretea, Festuco-Sedetalia; on the sand dunes; Phleum phleoides (L.) H. Karst. H, Eua. (Cont.); U2 T3 R4; 2n = 14, 28; Festuco-Brometea, Car.Festuco-Sedetalia; in the shrubs and on the sand dunes; Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. s.l. HH, Cosm.; U6 T0 R4; 2n = 36, 48, 54, 84, 96; Car. Phragmition; in a small marshy area from the NW zone of reservation; Plantago arenaria Waldst. et Kit. [P. scabra Moench, P. indica L.] Th, Balc.; U2 T4 R0; 2n = 12; Festucion vaginatae, Bromion tectorum, Car. Sisymbrietalia; on the sand dunes; Plantago lanceolata L. subsp. lanceolata H, Eua.; U3 T0 R0; 2n = 12; Festuco-Brometea, Car. MolinioArrhenatheretea; on the sands, in the meadows; Plantago major L. subsp. major H, Eua.; U3 T0 R0; 2n = 12; Plantaginetea, Nanocyperion; in the meadows and in shrubs; Poa angustifolia L. [P. pratensis L. subsp. angustifolia (L.) Gaudin] H, Eua.; U2 T3 R0; 2n = 46-63; Car. Festuco-Brometea; on the sand dunes, in ruderal meadows; Poa bulbosa L. [P. bulbosa L. subsp. vivipara (Koeler) Arcang.] H, Eua.; U1,5 T3,5 R4; 2n = 14, 21, 28, 39, 42; Sedo-Scleranthetea, Festucetalia valesiacae; on the sand dunes, in meadows, in shrubs; Populus nigra L. Ph (tree), Eua.; U4 T3 R4; 2n = 38; Salicetalia, Car. Carici-Populetum; cultivated in reservation; Populus x canadensis Moench s.l. [ Populus deltoides x P. nigra] Ph (tree), cultivated ; 2n = 38 ; few specimens in the western part of reservation; Portulaca oleracea L. subsp. oleracea Th, Cosm.; U3 T0 R0; 2n = 18, 54; Car. Polygono-Chenopodietalia; on the sand dunes and in ruderal places, near administrative buildings; Potentilla argentea L. subsp. argentea H, Eua.; U2 T4 R2; 2n = 28; Festuco-Brometea, Onopordetalia, Car. SedoSclerantetea; on fixed dunes; Potentilla recta L. subsp. recta H, Eur. (Cont.); U1,5 T3,5 R4; 2n = 28, 42; Festucetalia valesiacae, Festuco-Sedetalia, Brometalia, Festuco-Brometea; on fixed sands; Prunus armeniaca L. [Armeniaca vulgaris Lam.] Ph (tree), Adv. (As.); accidentally introduced tree in the reservation area; Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. var. cerasifera Ph (tree), Pont.-Balc.; U2 T4 R0; 2n = 16; accidentally introduced tree in the reservation area; Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. var. pissardi (Cariere) C. K. Schneid. Ph (tree), Pont.-Balc.; U2 T4 R0; 2n = 16; cultivated tree in the reservation; Prunus mahaleb L. [Cerasus mahaleb (L.) Mill., Padus mahaleb (L.) Borkh.] Ph (tree), Med.; U2 T3 R4,5; 2n = 16; Car. Quercetalia pubescenti-petraeae; introduced species in the reservation; Prunus spinosa L. subsp. spinosa Ph (shrub), Eur. (Med.); U2 T3 R3; 2n = 32; Car. Prunetalia; compose bushes in the reservation; Reseda lutea L. TH (H), Eua. (Med.); U2 T3 R0; 2n = 48; Festucion rupicolae, Car. Onopordion; sporadic on fixed sand dunes; Robinia pseudoacacia L. Ph (tree), Adv. (Am. N); U2,5 T4 R0; 2n = 20, 22; Car. Robinion pseudacaciae; cultivated tree in the green areas of Marine Biological Station and invasive in the reservation area; Rosa canina L. Ph (shrub), Eur.; U2 T3 R3; 2n = 35; Quercetea, Prunion spinosae, Prunetalia; in the shrubs area; Rubus caesius L. Ph (undershrub), Eur.; U4,5 T3 R4; 2n = 28; Alno-Padion, Salicetea, Secalietea, Convolvuletalia; in the shrubs and trees area; Rumex crispus L. H, Eua.; U4 T3 R0, 2n = 60; U4 T3 R0; Bidentetea, Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, Agropyro-Rumicion; in the NW part of reservation; Salvia aethiopis L. TH (H), Pont.-Med.; U2 T5 R0; 2n = 24; Festucion rupicolae, Car. Sisymbrion; sporadic in reservation, on the sand dunes; E/R [12, 14]; Salvia austriaca Jacq. H, Pont.-Pan.; U2 T3,5 R4, 2n = 18, 20; Festucion rupicolae; on the sand dunes; Salvia nemorosa L. subsp. nemorosa H, Euc.; U2,5 T4 R3; Festuco-Brometea, Chenopodietea, Mesobromion-Onopordion; on fixed sand dunes; Sanguisorba minor Scop. subsp. minor H, Eua.; U2 T3,5 R4,5; 2n = 28; Festuco-Brometea, Festucetalia valesiacae; on the sand dunes; Scabiosa argentea L. [S. ucranica L.] Th, Pont.-Balc.; U1 T4,5 R4; 2n = 16; Scabiosion argenteae, Aperion, Festucion vaginatae; abundent on the sand dunes; Scirpus holoschoenus L. [Scirpoides holoschoenoides (L.) Sojk, Holoschoenus vulgaris Link] G, Eua. (Med.); U3,5 T3,5 R4; 2n = cca. 164; Festucion vaginatae; on fixed sand dunes; Secale sylvestre Host Th, Eua. (Cont.); U0 T3,5 R5; 2n = 14; Bromion tectorum; abundant on the sand dunes; Senecio erucifolius L. subsp. erucifolius H, Eua.; U3 T3 R0; 2n = 40; Molinion, Agrostion, Mesobromion, Cirsio-Brachypodion; in shrubs, between trees; Senecio jacobaea L. subsp. jacobaea H, Eua.; U2,5 T3 R3; 2n = 40-80; Arrhenatheretea, Festucetalia valesiacae, Quercetea; on the sand dunes, in meadows; Senecio vernalis Waldst. et Kit. Th, Eua. (Cont.); U2,5 T4 R0; 2n = 40; Chenopodio-Scleranthetea, Secalietea, Car. Chenopodietea; on the sand dunes, in meadows; Seseli campestre Besser H, Pont.; U2,5 T4 R4; Festucetalia valesiacae; on fixed sand dunes; R [12, 14]; Seseli tortuosum L. TH (H), Pont.-Med.; U2,5 T4 R4; Festucetalia valesiacae; on the sand dunes; R [7, 12, 14]; Setaria verticillata (L.) Beauv. Th, Med.; U2 T4 R0; 2n = 18, 36, 54; Secalietea, Car. Polygono-Chenopodietalia; sporadic on the sand dunes and in ruderal places; Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. Th, Eua.; U2 T3,5 R0; 2n = 18; Car. Polygono-Chenopodietalia; on the sand dunes and in ruderal places; Sideritis montana L. Th, Eua.; U2 T4 R4; 2n = 16; Festucetalia valesiacae, Festucion rupicolae, Car. Sisymbrietalia; on the sand dunes; Silene borysthenica (Gruner) Walters [S. otites (L.) Wibel subsp. parviflora (Ehrh.) Hayek)] H, Eua. (cont.); U1,5 T4 R4,5; 2n = 24, Festucion vaginatae; on the sand dunes; E [7], R [12, 14]; Silene conica L. subsp. conica Th, Eua. (Med.); U1 T3,5 R4; 2n = 20; Festucion vaginatae, Bromion tectorum; on the sand dunes; Silene exaltata Friv. H, Balc; U1,5 T4 R4,5; 2n = 24; on the sand dunes; R [12, 14]; Silene latifolia Poir. subsp. alba (Mill.) Greuter et Burdet [Melandrium album (Mill.) Garcke] Th (TH),

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Eua.; U3,5 T2 R3; Chenopodio-Scleranthea, Onopordion, Origanetalia; near shrubs and threes; Silene thymifolia Sm. [S. pontica Brndza] H, Med. (Est); U2 T4 R4,5; Festucetalia vaginatae; on the sand dunes; E [7], V [2, 12], R [14], OUG 57/2007 An. 4B [26]; Sinapis arvensis L. Th, Cosm.; U3 T3 R3; 2n = 18; Car. Secalietea, Bidentetalia; in ruderal places; Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. Th, Eua. (Med.); U2,5 T3 R3; 2n = 14; Chenopodietea, Car. Sisymbrion; on the sand dunes; Solanum nigrum L. subsp. nigrum [S. vulgare L.] Th, Cosm.; U3 T4 R0; 2n = 72; in shrubs and trees area; Sonchus oleraceus L. Th, Cosm.; U3 T0 R0; 2n = 32; Car. Chenopodietea; in shrubs and meadows; Stachys annua (L.) L. [S. neglecta Klokov] Th, Eua.; U3 T3,5 R3; 2n = 10; Secalietea, Consolido-Eragrostion, Car. Caucalidion; on the sand dunes; Stachys atherocalyx K. Koch [S. patula Griseb.] H, Balc.; U2 T4 R4,5; Festuco-Brometea, Festucion rupicolae; sporadic on the sand dunes; Stellaria graminea L. H, Eua.; U2,5 T2 R3; 2n = 26; Arrhenatheretalia, Molinio-Arrhenatheretea; near shrubs and trees; Stellaria media (L.) Vill. s.l. Th, Cosm.; U3 T0 R0; 2n = 40, 42, 44; Chenopodietea; in shady ruderal places, near bushes and trees; Stipa capillata L. H, Eua. (Cont.); U1 T5 R4; 2n = 44; Festucetalia valesiacae, Festucetalia vaginatae; on the sand dunes; Syrenia montana (Pall.) Klokov TH, Pont.-Dobr.; U1,5 T4 R4; Scabiosion argenteae, Festucion vaginatae; on the sand dunes; very rare; V [7, 12], R [14]; Taraxacum officinale Weber ex Wiggers H, Eua. (Cosm.); U3 T0 R0; 2n = 24; Arrhenatheretalia, Plantaginetea, Artemisietea; in shrubs and ruderal places; Taraxacum serotinum (Waldst. et Kit.) Poir. H, Pont.-Pan.; U2 T4 R4,5; 2n = 16; Festucion rupicolae; on fixed dunes; Teucrium chamaedrys L. Ch, Euc. (Med.); U2 T4 R4; 2n = 60, 64; SedoScleranthetalia, Festuco-Brometea, Quercetea pubescenti-petraeae; on the sand dunes and in xerophilous meadows; Teucrium polium L. subsp. capitatum (L.) Arcang. Ch, Med.; U1,5 T4 R4,5; 2n = 26, 52, 78; Festucion rupicolae; sporadic on the sand dunes; Thalictrum minus L. subsp. minus H, Eua.; U2 T4 R4; 2n = 42; Festuco-Brometea, Quercetea, Car. Geranion sanguinei, Quercion pubescentis; on the sand dunes and in meadows; Thlaspi perfoliatum L. Th-TH, Eua.; U2,5 T3,5 R4,5; 2n = 14, 42, 70; Festuco-Brometea, Secalietea, Car. Alysso-Sedion; in ruderal meadows; Thuja plicata D. Don Ph (tree), Adv. (V. Am. N.); 2n = 22; along the western border of reservation, in front of administrative buildings; cultivated and naturalized species; Thymelaea passerina (L.) Coss. et Germ. Th, Eua. (Cont.); U1 T4 R3; Festucion rupicolae, Caucalidion; in ruderal places, near the reservation acces paths; Thymus glabrescens Willd. Ch, Pont.-Pan.; U2 T4 R0; Festuco-Brometea; on fixed sand dunes; Thymus pannonicus All. [T. marschallianus Willd.] Ch, Pont.-Pan.; U1,5 T3,5 R4; 2n = 28; Festuco-Brometea, Festucetalia valesiacae; on the sand dunes; Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link subsp. arvensis Th, Euc. (Med.); U2,5 T3,5 R4; 2n = 12; Caucalidion, Onopordion; in shrubs, between trees; Tragopogon dubius Scop. TH, Euc. (Med.); U2,5 T3,5 R0; 2n = 12; Festuco-Brometea, Car. Sisymbrion; on the sand dunes; Tragus racemosus (L.) All. Th, Med.; U0 T0 R4; 2n = 40; Festucion vaginatae, Tribulo-Eragrostion, Bromion tectorum, Sisymbrion; on the sand dunes; Tribulus terrestris L. Th, Euc. (Med.); U0 T4 R4; 2n = 12, 24, 36, 48; Festucion vaginatae, Tribulo-Eragrostion; on the sand dunes and in ruderal places; Ulmus minor Mill. Ph (tree), Eua.; U3 T3 R4; 2n = 28; Querco-Fagetea, Carpinion, Berberidion; cultivated and naturalized in the reservation; Ulmus procera Salisb. Ph (tree), Eur.; U2 T3 R3,5; 2n = 28; Querco-Fagetea; cultivated and naturalized in the reservation; Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr. [V. olitoria (L.) Pollich] Th, Euc. (Med.); U3 T3,5 R4; 2n = 16; Festucion rupicolae, Caucalidion, Car.Secalietea; on the sand dunes, in the meadows; Verbascum banaticum Schrad. TH, Pont.-Balc.; U2 T4 R4; Festucetalia valesiacae; on the sand dunes; Veronica hederifolia L. s.l. Th, Eua.; U2 T3 R4; 2n = 54; Secalietea, Polygono-Chenopodion; on the sand dunes, near bushes; Veronica polita Fr. Th, Eua. (Med.); U2 T3 R4; 2n = 14, 18; Secalietea, Polygono-Chenopodietalia; on the sand dunes; Veronica prostrata L. Ch, Eua. (Cont.); U2 T4 R3, 2n = 16; Festucetalia valesiacae; on the fixed sands; Vicia cracca L. H, Eua.; U3 T0 R3; 2n = 12, 14, 24, 28; Car. Molinio-Arrhenatheretea; ruderal places, in bushes, near fences; Vicia peregrina L. Th, Med.; U2 T4 R4; 2n = 12, 14; Secalinion; on fixed dunes; Vicia sativa L. subsp. sativa Th, Med.; U0 T3 R0; Secalietea; sub-spontaneous in reservation; near fences, near bushes and trees; Vicia villosa Roth s.l. Th, Eur.; U2,5 T3,5 R2,5; 2n = 14; Secalietea; in ruderal places; Vinca herbacea Waldst. et Kit. H, Pont.; U2 T5 R4; 2n = 46; Festucion rupicolae; on the sand dunes, in the bushes area; Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medik. [Cynanchum vincetoxicum (L.) Pers.] H, Eua.; U2 T4 R4; 2n = 22; Festucetalia valesiacae, Geranion sanguinei; on the sand dunes; Viola arvensis Murray Th, Cosm.; U3 T3 R0; 2n = 34; Festucetalia valesiacae, Secalietea, Aperetalia; on fixed dunes; Vitis vinifera L. Ph (liana), Adv. (Asia SE); 2n = 38, 57, 76; potentially invasive species, sub-spontaneous in the reservation, on the sand dunes, near bushes and trees; Vulpia myuros (L.) C. C. Gmel. Th, Eua. (Cosm.); U1 T3,5 R2; Car. Thero-Airion; near fences, in ruderal places; Xeranthemum annuum L. Th, Pont.-subMed.; U2 T4 R3; 2n = 12; Festucion rupicolae; on the sand dunes.

Only 11 plants within natural reserve are specific to maritime origine sand dunes: Alyssum borzaeanum, Secale sylvestre, Silene thymifolia, Convolvulus persicus, Ephedra distachya, Carex colchica, Leymus racemosus subsp. sabulosus, Astragalus varius, Crambe maritima (introduced in the reservation), Syrenia montana, Apera spica-venti subsp.

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maritima. Many other psammophile plants within reservation can be found in Romania both on the marine and continental sands and have a wide spreading area. Most of species from the reservation are ruderal or steppic and they penetrated the area naturally or as a result of the human activities that took place around the reserve. The problem is posed not by their presence, but by their abundance especially in some parts of the reservation where they limit the development and extension of psammophile plants. The presence and quick dissemination of certain alien invasive or potentially invasive plant species is another threat address to the psammophile vegetation. Some of these species entered in the reserve naturally, while others are subspontaneous or introduced accidentally from the area of administrative spaces. Species such as Robinia pseudacacia, Ailanthus altissima, Fraxinus americana, Amorpha fruticosa, Eleagnus angustifolia or other herbaceous invasive or potentially invasive alien plants already occupies appreciable surfaces in the reserve and measures must be taken to cut them away in order to allow the dunes habitats to be restored. Among inventoried taxa, 8 species are mentioned in the Romanian Red Book of vascular plants [8] and 19 taxa (7,88%) in the most comprehensive Romanian Red Lists [14, 12, 2] (Tab. I). One of the most important plant species of the natural reserve is Alyssum borzaeanum (Fig. 2), very rare plant at national level, critically endangered in Romania [8] and endangered in Europe according to IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [25]. Other endangered and vulnerable plants of reservation which need a high level of protection in Romania are the following: Silene thymifolia (Fig. 3) included in the Annex 4B of OUG 57/2007 [26], Convolvulus persicus (Fig. 4), Astragalus varius (Fig. 5), Syrenia montana, Silene borysthenica, Crambe maritima, Crocus pallasii, Ephedra distachya (Figs. 6, 7).
Table I. Rare and threatened plants of Agigea marine sand dunes Natural Reserve (CR - critically endangered, EN and E - endangered, VU and V- vulnerabile, R - rare)
No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Rare and threatened taxa within Agigea Marine sand dunes reservation Alyssum borzaeanum Convolvulus persicus Silene thymifolia Astragalus varius Crambe maritima Silene borysthenica Crocus pallasii Syrenia montana Salvia aethiopis Ephedra distachya Leymus racemosus ssp. sabulosus Vicia peregrina Silene exaltata Seseli campestre Seseli tortuosum Onobrychis gracilis Echinops ruthenicus Dianthus leptopetalus Asparagus verticillatus Red Data categories (Dihoru et Negrean, 2009) CR CR VU VU EN EN EN EN Red Data categories (Oltean et al., 1994) E/R; R R R V/R R R R E/R R V/R R R R R R R R R IUCN Red List 2008 E -

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Figure 2. Alyssum borzaeanum

Figure 3. Sylene thymifolia

Figure 4. Convolvulus persicus

Figure 5. Astragalus varius

Figure 6. Ephedra distachya

Figure 7. Ephedra distachya

Conclusions Our floristic study led to identification of 241 vascular taxa, from which 216 are spontaneous and 25 are naturalized, subspontaneous or accidentally introduced in the reservation from the area of administrative spaces of Marine Biological Station.

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The floristic inventory includes 177 taxa less than the list elaborated by Mititelu et colab. (1992) [10], a list which we consider exaggerated; many of the species mentioned in this list disappeared dozens of years ago from the reservation. The risk of new steppe, ruderal or even cultivated species from the surrounding areas to penetrate the natural reserve is permanent, which makes the number of inventoried taxa relative. However, we believe that a future inventory of the flora in the reservation will not modify considerably the number of taxa identified during our research. A number of 19 rare and threatened plants were inventoried in the sand dunes area; 8 of them have a high conservative value at the national and/or European Comunity level. Main risk factors for the psammophile flora of the dunes are the accentuated process of steppization and ruderalization of the dunes habitats and the quick dissemination of the invasive species in the natural reservation. The reservation management must be first oriented towards the removal or at least the reduction of the risk factors. REFERENCES
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17. PYEK P., RICHARDSON D. M., REJMNEK M., WEBSTER G. L., WILLIAMSON M., KIRSCHNER J., 2004 Alien plants in checklists and floras: towards better communication between taxonomists and ecologists. Taxon, 51, 1: 131 143. 18. RICHARDSON D. M., PYEK P., REJMNEK M., BARBOUR M. G., PANETTA F. D., WEST C. J., 2000 Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: concepts and definitions. Diversity and Distribution, 6: 93 107. 19. POPESCU A., SANDA V., 1998 Conspectul florei cormofitelor spontane din Romnia, Acta Botanica Horti Bucurestiensis, Lucr. Grd. Bot., Edit. Univ. din Bucureti. 20. SRBU I., TEFAN N., OPREA A., 2006 Actualisation of the floristical diversity from the Nature Reserve Agigea (Constanta County). Lucrrile Conferinei Naionale Biodiversitate i impact antropic n Marea Neagr i n ecosistemele litorale ale Mrii Negre, An. t. Univ. Al. I. Cuza Iai, s. Biologie animal (supl.): 111 113. 21. TUTIN T. G., HEYWOOD V. H., BURGES N. A., MOORE D. M., VALENTINE D. H., WALTERS S. M., WEBB D. A. (Eds.), 1964-1980 Flora Europaea, 1-5. Cambridge University Press. 22. TUTIN T. G., HEYWOOD V. H., BURGES N. A., MOORE D. M., VALENTINE D. H., WALTERS S. M., WEBB D. A. (Eds., assist. by AKEROYD J. R., NEWTON M. E.; appendices ed. by MILL R. R.), 1993 (reprinted 1996) Flora Europaea, 2nd ed., 1. Cambridge University Press. 23. *** 1979. Bern Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats and all further recommendations and resolutions. 24. *** HABITATS DIRECTIVE 92/43/EEC. Council Directive 92/43/EEC on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild Fauna and flora. 25. *** IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008 http://www.iucnredlist.org 26. *** OUG nr. 57/ 20 iunie 2007 privind regimul ariilor naturale protejate, conservarea habitatelor naturale, a florei i faunei slbatice.

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