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UFPPC ( Digging Deeper: May 22, 2006, 7:00 p.m.

Nikki R. Keddie, Modern Iran: Roots and Results of Revolution (New Haven &
London: Yale University Press, 2003). With a section by Yann Richard.
Revised, updated ed. of Roots of Revolution (1981).

List of Illustrations. (30-33). Religious minorities (33).

Growing influence of foreigners (34-36).
Preface. New edition contains “three
new chapters covering events since Ch. 3: Continuity and Change under
1979, correction of a few points . . ., and the Qajars: 1796-1890. The Zands
a new conclusion, preface, and revised preceded the Qajars (37). Napoleonic
bibliography and footnotes” (xi). “I try wars lead to British & French alliances;
for balance but make no secret of my Qajars want Georgia (38). Qanats (39-
dislike of clerical rule but also of any plan 40). Qa’em Maqam’s linguistic
for outside intervention to overthrow it. I simplification (40). Failure of army
have confidence in the Iranian people’s modernization (40-41). Russo-Iranian
abilities to manage their own affairs in Treaty of Turkomanchai, 1828 (41-42).
the long run” (xii). Killing of Griboyedov & his mission shows
anti-foreign passions (42-43). Death of
Preface to the [March] 1981 edition Abbas Mirza in 1833; foreign influence
of Roots of Revolution. Graduate grows (42-45). Babi movement (45-47).
assistants; publisher; fellowships; Azalis and Baha’is (48). Amir Kabir,
reforming minister (49). Economic
Ch. 1: Religion and Society to 1800. changes (50-53). European drive for
—Background. Geographic, ethnic, concessions, esp. in 1872 to “the British
religious (1-3). subject Baron Julius de Reuter” for RRs,
—Islam and Society. Origins of Shi’ism minerals, irrigation works, a national
(3-6). Three lines: “Fivers,” “Seveners,” bank, and industrial & agricultural
and “Twelvers” (7). The “doctrine of projects (54-57).
occultation” (7-8). Development of
mujtahids, scholars trained to make Ch. 4: Protest and Revolution: 1890-
judgments (9). The Safavid dynasty, 1914. Ulama emerges as effective
which “largely created” the antagonism opposition to foreign exploitation (58-60).
between Sunnism & Twelver Shi’ism (10- Revolutionary movement, 1891-92,
14). The role of ulama (clergy) (15-17). forces cancellation of tobacco concession
A “virtually uninterrupted philosophical to a Briton, Wolff (61-62). Opposition to
tradition” (17-18). Economic & shah grows (63-67). Constitutional
agricultural decline in 18th c. revolution, 1906-11 (67-71). Oil
accompanies growth of religious concession to William Knox D’Arcy (72).
influence (19-20). Rich cultural tradition
(21). Ch. 5: War and Reza Shah: 1914-
Ch. 2: Foundations of Nineteenth- —1914-1921. Russians dominate north,
Century Iran. Western trade (22). British the south, giving impetus to
Qajars; incursions of Turkish tribes (23- nationalism (73-75). Iranian demands
24). Titles purchased, not inherited (25). ignored at Versailles Peace Conference
Bureaucracy & taxes (26). Military (27- (76). British act as if unratified Anglo-
28). The Shi’i ulama, with strong ties to Persian Treaty of 1919 in force (77-78).
the bazaaris (28-30). Position of women Iran appeals to U.S. for backing and aid
—1921-1925. Sepahdar govt. development (137-39). Pseudo-two-party
overthrown; Russo-Iranian Treaty of 1921 system (140).
signed (80-81). Reza Khan, Cossack —1960-1963. Fraudulent elections;
leader, emerges as strong man (82-83). political problems; U.S. pressures for
U.S./Standard Oil influence (83-84). Reza reform (141-45). Ayatollah Khomeini &
Khan overthrows Qajar dynasty (85-87). the 1963 riots; developing religious
—1925-1941. Authoritarian opposition neither entirely reactionary
modernization & reform, but no agrarian nor entirely progressive (146-48).
reform (88-99). Force unveiling of —Reform, Boom, and Bust: 1963-1977.
women, 1936 (100). Continued British “Building up of a predominant state
influence; growing German influence, capitalism, undermining of semifeudal
and Reza Shah “not averse” to Nazis forms of landownership . . . and
(101). Modern bourgeoisie created encouragement and subsidy to private
(102). Presiding ethos: “a militant form capitalists” (148-61). Changes in wealth
of secular nationalism” (103-04). distribution; oil grows in importance
(161-63; 165). Shah made “policeman of
Ch. 6: World War II and Mosaddeq: the Gulf” (163-64). Social developments
1941-1953. (166-69). [24 photographs.]
—World War II, 1941-1945. Allies force
Reza Shah to cede kingdom to son, Ch. 8: Modern Iranian Political
Mohammad Reza (105). U.S. expands Thought.
influence (106-09). Oil (109-10). Period —Intellectual and Literary Trends to 1960
of ferment (110). (N. Keddie). Pahlavi period produced
—Postwar Socioeconomic Problems. “two-cultures” (elite/mass) phenomenon
Radical movements grow in north: the (170). Ta’ziyeh, or “passion plays” (170-
Tudeh (‘masses’) party, opposed by anti- 72). Poetry (172). Iran has always had
Communism (111-14). Taxes; social reformist thinking (172-73). Cultural
injustice (114-17). Economic influence of travelers (174). Secularism
backwardness (118-19). Intelligentsia within the religious tradition (175-77).
(119). Dissatisfied social groups (119- Idealization of past as nationalist theme
20). The Seven Year Plan (121-23). (177-78). And Westernization (178-79).
—The Oil Crisis and Mosaddeq. Anti-Western ulama (179-80).
Renegotiations with Anglo-Iranian Oil Constitutionalism (180-81). Left thought
Company; emergence of Mossadeq, who (181). Literature as a vehicle for social &
nationalizes oil (123-26). Failed attempt political thought (182-84). Political
to dismiss Mossadeq (126-27). MI6- & philosophy (185-87). “Thus we arrive at
CIA-engineered coup; U.S. seen not only the perhaps startling conclusion that the
as an enemy but as a betrayer (128-31). main lines of Iran’s literature and political
thought in the past century have been
Ch. 7: Royal Dictatorship: 1953- radically different from the culture most
1977. visible after 1979” (187).
—General Character of the Period. U.S. —Contemporary Shi’i Thought (Yann
power grows, but Iranians’ faith in U.S. Richard). Denunciation of
declines (132-33). Shah grow more “Westoxication” by Jalal Al-e Ahmad
dictatorial and more of a modernizer (1923-1969) (189-90). Khomeini (191-
(133-34). SAVAK set up in 1957 (134). 93). Ayatollah Shariatmadari, a
Growing gap between masses and the moderate constitutionalist (193-95).
elite (135). Progressive tendencies in Mahmud
—1954-1960. Opposition persecuted Taleqani (d. 1979) (195-98). Lay
(135-36). Int’l oil consortium agrees to thinkers: Mehdi Bazargan (198-200);
share profits 50-50 (136-37). Economic books by Ali Shariati, regarding Western
democracy as rotten in practice (money) Women’s rights show all the
and in principle (false promise of contradictions of the revolution (292-97).
equality), sold by hundreds of thousands Arts have excelled especially in cinema:
(200-08); Abolhasan Bani Sadr (208-12). Kiarostami, Makhmalbaf, etc. (297-301).
—Conclusion (N. Keddie). Themes Intellectual life dominated by critique of
frequently reappearing in Iranian political status quo (302-04). Abdolkarim
thought: anti-imperialism, a simplistic Soroush, eclectic thinker (b. 1945) (305-
tendency, secularism and anticlericalism 06). Mohammad Shabestari (b. 1936),
in tension with Islamic thought (212-13). stresses interpretation (307). Mohsen
Kadivar criticizes velayat-e faqih (308-
Ch. 9: The Revolution. 09). Criticism of clerical rule now
—Secular and Guerilla Opposition Forces. common even among clerics, at every
Open opposition emerges, 1977 (214- level (310-11). Minorities (311-15).
17). Students (218-19). Guerrilla groups Conclusion: Iran exemplifies the
(219-22). phenomenon of unintended
—The “Religious Opposition” and the consequences: “Secular ideas are
Revolution. Analysis of events and probably stronger in Iran than anywhere
actors in the Iranian Revolution (222-39). else in the Muslim world” (316).

Ch. 10: Politics and Economics Conclusion. Modernization began in the

under Khomeini: 1979-1989. 19th century and continued more rapidly
Domination of institutions by in the 20th, including under the Islamic
Khomeinists, 1979-1983 (241-50). War; Republic, in a country that first found
social & political developments; “relative unity” in the 16th century under
“[i]ncreasingly in the postrevolution the Safavid dynasty (317-18). The rise of
period, political and economic power was Islamism “was largely in reaction to the
concentrated n the hands of the failures of nationalism and communism
Khomeinist clergy and the bazaar as foci of opposition” (319). Iran’s
bourgeoisie” (251-56). Women (257). strategic position and oil wealth have
Foreign policy (258-60). Khomeini made “outside powers” a crucial theme
dismisses designated successor of modern history (320). Attitudes
Montazeri, acts to strengthen state, toward heir role, and the development of
revising constitution in 1989 to increase thought about political Islam, will be
the political and decrease the religious crucial for future events (320-21). “It
nature of the faqih (260-61). Khomeini seems probable that secularism . . . is
died June 3, 1989 (261). Khamenei’s more popular than it appears under
succession (261-62). current limits on free speech . . . The
largely negative experience of clerical
Ch. 11: Politics and Economics in government summarized in this book has
Post-Khomeini Iran. Rafsanjani, a created a change, or even reversal, of
pragmatist (263-67). Khatami and the former attitudes among many Iranians”
reform movement (268-76). Reaction (321). “While political predictions are
(277-81). Reformist movement “in usually wrong and the current Iranian
transition”; uncertain future (281-82). situation is so complex both internally
(U.S. hostility (282-83). and externally that very little can be
predicted with confidence, past Iranian
Ch. 12: Society, Gender, Culture, experience indicates that Iranians are
and Intellectual Life. Record of unlikely in the long run either to tolerate
success in education and public health a vastly unpopular government or to let
(285-90). Repressive puritanism (290). foreigners control Iran’s destiny. Iran’s
Young people: frustrations (291). history of increasing modernization,
comprising industrialization,
urbanization, the great spread of modern Notes. 31 pp.
education and health systems and of
awareness of a variety of ideas, and new Select Bibliography. General (31
independence for girls and women books); Iran: 1400-1796 (13); The Qajar
despite external controls, along with Period: 1796-1925 (37); The Pahlavi
Iran’s extraordinary modern history of Period: 1925-1979 (77); Intellectual
effective popular movements, give Trends: Political, Religious, and Literary
reason to hope that better government is (30); 1979-2003 (55); Supplement (3).
in Iran’s future. U.S. intervention would
risk tainting internal processes that Index. 13 pp.
should be given time to play out” (322).