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destroyed, and growth along fences removed. Any manmade devices that will help to replace the birds' dwindling supply of natural shelter will be a distinct benefit to them.
Successful bird attraction requires an adequate number of the right kind of birdhouses. Birdhouses must be built for speciflc types of birds, not just for birds in general, and they must be correctly located and maintained. The construction of birdhouses offers a dual pleasure: flrst, the enjoyment of making them; second, the adventure of attracting and sheltering birds with them.

know the birds you want to attract


common knowledge that wrens will build a nest in almost any type of shelter-an old tin can, a shoe, or a flowerpot. This fact has led many people to believe that all birds are no more selective in their choice of a shelter. This impression is far from the truth. Birds as a rule are very particular about where their nests are buitt and how they are made. For this reason you must plan a house for a speciflc bird, making sure that it is the correct size, has the proper opening, and is placed at a predetermined height above the ground. The birdhouses described in this book follow these specifi.cations, and in building them you can be assured that they meet the needs of the birds for which they are intended.

It is

two types of birds


The birds that the amateur bird fancier will want to attract to his birdhouse can be divided into two groups: the tree dwellers and the cavity dwellers. Tree dwellers will not live in a house or any kind of cavity. For example, the Baltimore Orio1e will never build a nest in a man-made or a naturemade box. The oriole always builds its own graceful nest out of hair and other weaving materials, suspending it from branches, such as those of the elm tree. On the other hand, woodpeckers always build their nests in the hollow of trees or in other cavities.

A report of the United


116

States Fish and Wildlife Service states that there are more than 50 species of birds that will occupy man-made houses. There should be little difficulty,

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nesting materials box


Very early in spring, perhaps right after the snow leaves, it is a good time to provide nesting materials for the birds. Here is a neat, handy box that stores the materials in one place, keeps them dry and ready for the birds to use, and when the nesting season is over, the box can be used as a
suet feeder.

The construction of this neat, handy box is simple. Nail together the stock for the two sides so that these two pieces can be cut in one operation. Drill the tA-inch holes for the dowels, making one right-hand and one left-hand. Cut all the other pieces. Nail the back to the bottom, and then nail on the sides after the dowels are inserted. Put brads through the dowels. Then fit the top or lid and attach it with a 1 by 1 inch hinge cut in half. Give the box a coat of weatherproof stain or paint want to.

if

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Gommercial birdhouses
Some excellent birdhouses made by reputable fi.rms are on the market. You will flnd the manufacturers listed in the better periodicals, such as the Audubon Magazine. While they will certainly meet the needs of the bird fancier, the manual training student and homecrafter can make houses that are just as good and cost a tot less. The houses shown on the following pages can be made by anyone. Other birdhouses are also sold that simply do not come up to basic requirements. Painted in bright colors to catch the customer's eye, they frequently are found on the shelves of roadside stands and novelty shops. As a rule they are not the right dimensions, have the wrong-size openings, are made of poor materials, and are constructed unsatisfactorily. They are designed for decoration rather than for bird attraction. This word of warning should be enough to steer you clear of them.

some practical building hints


Here are some suggestions for making any type of birdhouses. First, design it for the bird it is to shelter. Try to duplicate as closely as possible the natural shelter of the bird. A woodpecker, for example, will be more at home in a house covered with bark than one painted green. Second, construct your birdhouses with care, taking special pains to produce accurate, good fitting joints. Third, make the house pleasing in appearance but do not make a garden ornament out of it. You may like fancy designs and bright colors, but birds don't.
The houses on the following pages incorporate almost all of the following suggestions. There will be some variations in the specifications for a particular birdhouse, such as the use of tin or of rooflng paper for covering the roof joint. Such variations can be supplied to any of the designs. Use your own imagination to make changes as long as you d.o not depart from the basic speciflcations and size. fn most instances, the houses may be altered to accommodate other birds by changing the size of the opening and making the house deeper or shallower according to speciflcations for the species.

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books advise that the rough surfaces be located on the outside for rustic appearance. This suggestion is well intended

but impractical. Lumber that is rough on both sides will provide both a foothold for the birds on the inside and a rustic appearance on the outside.
6. Provide ventilation. If a small house, poorly ventilated, is located in the sun and occupied by four or flve baby birds, it can become so hot they will suffocate. You can provide adequate circulation by having vent holes at the top of the house below the extended roof boards. In some cases the sidepieces can be cut an eighth of an inch short so that there will be a vent along the upper side of the house.

7. Be sure that the house drains. If the bottom of the house is "glove-tight," any rain that seeps in or is driven in during a storm may accumulate and cause baby birds to drown. Drain holes in the bottom will prevent the house from flooding. All the houses in this book have swing-out bottoms for easy cleaning and are loosely fitted so that moisture cannot collect.

8. Have a tight roof. Generally, when the boards have been accurately cut and fi.tted, the roof will be waterproof. As an added precaution you can nail a tin strip over the ridge or cover it with roofi.ng paper. 9. Protect the opening. See to it that the roof boards extend well over the front or opening side of the house. This overhang prevents rain from being blown into the house.
10. Be sure the house is easy to clean. In the houses shown there is a pivot screw at each side of the bottom toward the rear. Another screw holds the bottom at the front of the house. When the front screw is rernoved, the bottom swings out so that the entire inside may be cleaned. This is a simple way to make a house easy to clean without the use of hinges and other unnecessary hardware. The houses should be cleaned each year, late .in fall or very early spring, to remove the old nest and any bugs or debris from the previous season. Do not wash out the house with soap and water unless you are positive that lice are present. If you like, you can put a very little, clean, new excelsior in the bottom of the house as a welcome for the new birds.

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11. Give the house a suitable flnish. Birdhouses can be painted and stained. A finish that will protect them against the weather may be preferred. However, select colors that are dull and drab; do not look for the brightest orange,

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Dimensions of Birdhouses and Height They Should Be Placed Above the Ground
Bird
Bewick's
'Wren

Depth Size of Entrance Height of Entrance Above Above House House Floor Ground Dimensions in Inches
Feet

Inside of

4x 4 4x4 4x4 4x 4x 4x 4x 5x 5x
5 4 4

6to 6to 6to

8 8

1 -/g

1to 1to 6to

6to10 6to10 6to15 6to20 6to10


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Carolina
'Wren Chickadee

8to10 8to10
8

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6 8

Woodpecker Wren Nuthatch Titmouse Bluebird TreoSwallow


House

Downy

4
4 5 5 5

8to10 8to10
8 o 6

tr/+

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L7/z

6to 8 1to 6 6to I 6to 8


6

to 20

6to15 5to10
10 10

1to 1to 6to

to to

15 15

Violet-Green
Crested

Swallow

x x x

L-/2

Flycatcher

8to10
12 12 tt 6 12 10 16 16 12

8to20
12 LZ

Golden-

Fronted

Woodpecker
Hairy
Woodpecker
House Finch

6 6 6 6 6

to to

15 15

9to12 9to12
4
I

to 20 to 20 to 20 to 20 to 20 to 25

6x 6x 6x 6x

tyz

8to12
15 12 12 10

Purple

Martin
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27/z

Woodpecker Saw-Whet Owl

to to to to to

15 12 18 18 15

9to12 8to10
14
14

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Flicker
Screech OwI

6x 6 6x 6 7x 7 8x I 8x 8 10x18 IOYB xlOYz 6x 6 6x 6 6x 8 6x 6

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to to

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6to20
10 10

9to12 9to12
4 20

to 30 to 30

Sparrow

Hawk
Barn Owl
Wood Duck SI{ELF NESTS

12to15 15to18
24
6 6

3
t)

12
10

to

18

to 25

Barn Swallow
Phoebe
Fobin

(A) (A)
(A) (B)

8
6

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A few suggestions are shown here for taking the boxes

apart. Never hit the side of thin boxes, or fruit boxes, with a hammer. Nine times out of ten you will split the wood. Instead, select a heavy wood block as long as the boards are wide. When this block is struck with the hammer, the entire end of the board is loosened. You can also take boxes apart by sawing off the board near the end. The small ends remaining are removed and the nails withdrawn easily.

Do not try to take boxes aPart by hitting the sides with a ham-

mer-the
uset ess.

wood will sPlit and be

In studying the plans for the house you are going to build, look for parts that have the same dimensions, such as the front and back. Nail together the two pieces of stock for such parts, mark one of them, and cut out both at the same time. This not only saves time but also insures cutting the pieces to the same size. They can be cut by hand with a cross-cut saw or with a power jig saw. In drilling the entrance hole, use an expansive bit and set it accurately. To prevent splintering the wood on the far side, clamp the stock in the bench vise, using a back-up block as shown on pagel?7. The bit will enter the second block, cut a clean sharp hole in the front of the house, and there will be no
ragged edge.

Vent holes are usually made with a l/+-inc}n drill. A drill press or ordinary portable drill can be used instead of a hand drill. As a rule, the grain of the front and back pieces
Note the correct way: place a block on the side so that blows of the hammer loosen the entire side without splitting.

To make duplicate pieces, brad them together and saw both at the same time.

Saw off the sides of the box next

to the nails. This method insures

good pieces

of

wood without

splits or hammer marks.

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ro] posn s; sserd lllrp


.

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close to serve as a perch. If possible, mount the birdhouse on a metal pole, preferably a 1-inch or 17q-inch pipe. Set the pipe in the ground in either a rock-lined hole or in concrete. a typical birdhouse. If the house is to be suspended, use an eye bolt that extends through the roof and hang it by a long wire to provide protection from cats. If the house is mounted on pipe, screur a pipe flange the size of the pipe to the bottom of the house. For a flat mounting method, screw a strip to the back of the house, or drill a hole through the back opposite the front opening, and insert a long screw through the back.

Shown here are four practical, simple ways of mounting

EYE

HANGING

POST BOTTOM

3/4u
PIPE

FLANGE

3/4,PIPE
GALV,

:=:7--SCREW

t/
tI

TREE

FLAT MOUNTING SCREW THRU BACK

Lza

OF

HOUSE

6ZT

'lsod oql

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poo^ Jnol aleui
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eql uo esnoq uruPLu pooM eql ueise] ol


sr3vcvul

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9NrINnOn 3lod

BEND UP AND FiT TO POST

NAIL HOLE

I,/2"LAP AND
SOLDER

---1

FOR

T'

BOLT ON

Shown and detailed is a typical installation. For mounting on pipe, the opening in the center must be smaller. To get an accurate fi.t, make a template out of paper or cardboard and then transfer it to the metal. Solder the ends of the metal together to avoid any ridges that would provide a foothold for squirrels.

tree guard
When hanging feeders or houses on tree branches, place a piece of split rubber garden house about the branch to prevent injury to the bark.

teeter-totter squirrel guard


The principle of this effective squirrel guard is that it "floats" on three evenly spaced supports. If a squirrel gets on the edge, the guard tips and he finds himself back on the ground! The tin must be lightweight-if it is too heavy, a squirrel can get onto it, for a moment, which is just long enough for it to jump to the feeder above. If the guard is light he cannot get a foothold. The diameter of the guard should be at least 20 inches. The hole in the center of the

130

I8I

'a>Iru o1 l(so pu oldruTs sI 1I pu olqil^ su8Tsop prn8 +soq oqt Jo ouo sT sIqI 'soor5ap q? ot stIT+ 1I uortr/la JapaoJ arl+ Jo ruo+loq oq+ qcno+ lou soop +r +tI+ eJns eq lnq 'repeeJ er{l .{!r.oloq isnf s1 lsod eq1 uo plen8 orll Jo uo111sod lsoq oq 'soqcul-gT/g-1 'edrd qcul-T roJ pu soqcul -a7r1 'ed1d qcrrl-u/e roJ :qcur-e/ 'ad1d qcul-zh rop :eq plnoqs Suluedo Joluoc eq3 '8u1uedo .reluec eql olur sepn.rlo.rd 1eq1 /lreJcs poo.rra aql Jo sueru r(q edrd eql ol ploq sT 8ur.r aq; 'ur\.oqs s poo/r.\pJq Jo 3u1.r e lno +nc 'poJ Jo edld 1e1eur e uo 8u11unour Jod 'olqlssod se JJ s lno puolxo rueqt eAH 'e1e1d eq1 lroddns o1 lq8r.rdn eql punoJ peceds ztluerre qcq-g sselpeq eorql esn '1sod e uo 8u11unotu Jod
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a house for your bluebird lane


Recent studies and counts by the National Audubon Society and the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service show that there is a marked decrease in the bluebird population. Bluebirds may even be faced with extinction if nothing is done to help this beneflcial and beautiful species.

The reasons for the decline of this species are many. First, our effort to "clean up" woods, fence rows, and fields have led to a reduction in nesting facilities. Hollow trees are cut down and old cedar fence posts are replaced by metal posts. These old posts and trees also are a source of food and as they are destroyed food is also destroyed. An additional }razard to all bird life is the ever-increasing use of sprays for insect control.

To help restore the bluebird population, you can build a dozen or so houses of the type shown here. Use any sort of wood available. Stain the houses a dark green or brown if you want. Then select a "route" or lane and install them. A fence row is an ideal location. Or, if you can, set them up along the edge of a woods with open flelds on one side. Mount them about 5 feet off the ground. Do not place them near barns or dwellings. Since each bird has a definite territory, place the houses about 500 yards apart.

Visit your "lane" from time to time and see how your tenants are getting along. You are sure to flnd families in several of them. If you do not succeed the first year, don't give up-they will be there the following year. At the end of the season clean out the houses and have them ready for spring. It will be a lot of fun.

63/4

TOP

BEVEL 600

L3.2

AtL

S'IOCK 3/4"

___{:_ __o___

SCREW

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ced ar-log wren house


holes around the outside; then drill out the rest of the wood the same way. cut the slant at the top and drill the entrance hole as well as the hole for the r/+-indn dowel perch. cut the roof and nail it in place.

For the cedar-log wren house, use a piece of green cedar post that does not have a tendency to check or crack when drying. To form t}ne 9Vz-inch nest, flrst drill a series of

The wren house can be left natural and the roof stained brown or green. Mount the house through the hole in the back of the house opposite the front opening.
Cedar log for the body: Roof: Dowel for perch:

bill

of

materials

1- 5-in. dia. x7t/z in. 1-/zx6x7in.


l-Ya-in.dia.xBin. WREN HOUSE

M'T'G goue-

TOP

vzil sTocK

USE CEDAR
POST

L34

98I

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house wren shelter


This house wren shelter has an ever popular design of pleasing proportions. The construction is relatively simple because all cuts are straight with only one angle, namely, that of the sidepieces.
Cut the pieces for the sides and top to size. Nail on the front and back and then nail on the roof. Cut the bottom last and flt in place. Round off the rear bottom edge of the bottom so that it will swing freely. Drill pivot holes in the sides and insert brass screws through the holes and drive them into the bottom. Then put in the front screw which holds the bottom in place. Next flt the mounting strip in the back and notch out the roof as indicated. Be sure to make vent holes in the sides as shown on the drawing.
The house wren shelter can be stained or painted.

Sides: Front: Back: Roof: Bottom:


136
Mounting

bill of materials

Z-lzx 5 L-lzx 6 [-/zx 6 t-Vz xLO L-lzx 5


1-s/+

x 6l+in. x 6t/zin. x 38/ein. x 9lz in. x 5 in. xl2


in.

strip:

lY+

LAT

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or

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bluebird house
Every bird fancier will want this house to attract bluebirds to his yard and garden. It has an attractive design and at the same time meets all the specifications for a bluebird house. The scrolled eaves lend charm to this flne bird dwelling. Make the front and back at the same time by nailing the stock for them together and cutting them to size in one operation. Drill the entrance hole in the front piece. Cut the perch supports and nail them on the front with the dowel cross bar before you start to assemble the house.
Cut the other pieces to size. Nail the front and back to the sidepieces. Now nail on the roof boards. Then cut the decorative eaves on the scroll saw or with a coping saw, two at a time. Note that the top must have the same pitch as the roof, namely, 60 degrees on each side of center line. Nail the eaves to the roof in front and ba,ck L/z inch from the
edge.

Now cut and fit the bottom. Round off the rear bottom edge of the bottom so it will swing clear for cleaning. Drill holes for the side pivot brass screws and then drive in these screws and the front holding screw. Use an eye bolt to mount this bluebird house as described on page 128"

Stain or paint the house as desired. The roof can be a contrasting color.

Front and

bill of materials

back: Sides:

22L-

1/z 1/z 1/z

x5 x 8 xP x

xgl/z x

IOd/e

in.
in.

Perch

Dowel for

supports: 2-

4/z in.

138

/+-in. dia. dowel x 7 in. long Roof: 2- t/z xTVz x IO in. Bottom: I-4yz x 5 in. Scroll eaves: 2- yz xSlz x IOlz in.

perch:

68I

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house for a tree swallow or violet green swallow


The house shown on the opposite page offers a challenge to the craftsman since it requires compound angles at all the corners. If made by hand the sides must be beveled at angles of 54 degrees for the wall joints and 51 degrees for the roof. Square up the pieces and then bevel the edges. saw is available, you can expedite the job by setting the saw and miter gauge as indicated and sawing the pieces on a production basis. For the side walls, tilt the saw 473/+ degrees and set the miter gauge 717+ degrees if the gauge in the normal position reads 90 degrees. Boards 7 inches wide can then be beveled to the correct angle. Repeat this operation for the four roof boards but set the saw and the miter gauge at the required angles. It is suggested that you run through a piece of scrap wood as a check before making the flnal cuts.

If a circular

Drill the entrance in one side. Assemble the body of the house part and then the roof and nail together. Then cut and flt the bottom. Dritl the holes for the brass pivot screws on both sides and screw them in place. Then drive in the front holding screw.
Mount the house by using a screw bolt with washers top and bottom as explained on page 1pg. The house can be painted or stained.

L4o.

bill of materials Sides: -lzxtos/+x 7 in. Fl,oof: 4-/z x L?s/e x IZs/+ in. Bottom: L-L/zx 5 x 5 in. Screw bolt: l-Y+-in. dia. x 4 in.

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f licker

house
The design and dimensions of this flicker house are especially tailored to meet the requirements of this interesting bird. The swing-out bottom makes it easy to clean. The

building.

roof is flush in back for mounting against a tree or

Only the front has the ornamental design. Make the front flrst and then the back, taking care that the roof angles are the same. Then cut the other pieces. Nail the back to the side pieces. Then nail on the front after the perch brackets have been nailed on from the inside. Keep the house square. NaiI on the two roof boards and then the orna,mental scroll eaves at the front. The roof is flush with the back. The eaves set back 1 inch from the front edge.

Cut and flt the bottom. Drill a hole on both sides for the pivot screw. Round off the bottom back edge of the bottom so that it swings free. Hold it in place with two brass pivot screws, one on each side, and the holding screw in front. Mount the house through a hole in the back or by means of a mounting strip extending from the top to the bottom
and screwed on from the back.

Stain the house a deep brown or dark green.

L42

1-1/z x9Vz x1.8.vz in. !-L/z x 63/+ x L5 in. 2-t/z x 6L/z x 13 in. Sides: 2-L/z x7t/z x IO in. Roof: I-1/z x1s/e x 6L/z in. Bottom: Perch brackets: Z_Vz x IB/+ x 4t/z iD' Dowel for perch: I-Y+-in. dia. x 7 in. Ornamental

bill of materials

Front: Back:

eave:

L-/z xSlz xtjVz in.

avT

ol

xf,v

Nl

I I

HSnIJ INnOW z 3yvn-Jood zttt

z 3yv^ - H3u3d

?o-o-9--1-313--

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BOJ

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ffi

chickadee split-log house


Shop students and homecraftsmen have a lot of fun constructing a split-log chickadee house, although it requires a considerable amount of handwork. However, when this model is made with care, the final product is a unique house that is well worth the effort.
Select any solid check-free log about 6 inches in diameter and 12 inches long. Use elm, pine, spruce, or any similar wood. Do not use one of the hardwoods because it would be difficult to gouge out the inside.

If a band saw is available, split the log as shown or cut it by hand with a ripsaw. To keep the log from rolling while you are sawing, nail two 45-degree strips on the bottom as shown. Be sure the nails are not in the path of the saw. The saw blade will not pinch and cutting will be made safe.
Gouge out the two halves after they have been marked. In one half drill the LL/e-inch entrance hole. In the other half, opposite the entrance hole, drill the hole for the mounting screw. Now tie the two halves together with a piece of

rope and put them

in

accurate alignment.

screw holes and screw the two pieces together, using brass screws. The holes may be plugged if desired. Cut the top even and nail the roof on the rear hatf of the house. Do not nail it onto the front because the front may be removed by loosening the four scre!\rs for cleaning the house.
No stain or paint is needed.

Drill the four

L44

bill of materials Log for body: 1-6-in. dia. x 12 in. Roof (slab with bark): 1-7in.x7in. Brass screws: 4-Zt/z in. long

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downy woodpecker

rustic log house


This downy woodpecker house is another split log house that is quite simple to make but requires a little more handwork than the average birdhouse. Ifowever, these rustic houses always lend a special charm to the yard or garden
where they are used. Select a softwood log such as pine, spruce, or cedar that is solid and free of checks and has the bark adhering to it. The log should be 6 inches in diameter and 14 inches long. Split it on a band saw as shown on page L45 or cut it by hand with the ripsaw. With a gouge and mallet hollow out both halves from top to bottom, making the depression about 4 inches in diameter.

Now put the two halves together and tie rope around them so they cannot move. Drill the four holes and fasten the pieces together with brass screws 2 t/zinc}:.es long. Remove the rope. Then fit in a 3/e-inch round wood bottom held in place with wood screws so that it can be easily removed for cleaning. Drill the entrance hole and the hole for the 3/e-inch dowel perch. Cut the top for the roof at a 55-degree angle and nail on the roof boards.

The roof can be stained dark brown or green. Mount the house by means of screws driven through the back and into a block nailed to a tree. The block is necessary to accommodate the roof which has an overhang in the back.

body: Bottom: Roof:


Dowel for L46,

Log for

bill of materials
1-3/+

1-6 in. in dia. x 14 in. x approx. 4-in. dia.

2-3/qx8x8in.

perch: t-B/e in. dia. x 3t/z in. Brass screws: 4-2r/z in. Iong

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red-headed and hairy woodpecker six-sided house


A power jointer facilitates the building of this woodpecker house since the 60-degree bevel on the sides can be accurately and easily produced on this machine. However, good joints can be made by hand and it is a proof of skill to make
the beveled edges even and fit snugly.

Cut the six sidepieces to the same dimensions and bevel the edges. fn one piece, which will be the front, bore the 2-inch diameter entrance hole. Nail the six pieces together by double toenailing. Cut and fit in the six-sided bottom. Hold it in place with three brass wood screws, 1 inch long. This method of attachment allows it to be removed for easy cleaning.

Now set the house down on its back and mark off the 60degree pitch of the roof on the front. Cut the sides to this slant for the roof. Make the roof boards and nail them in
place.

Stain the house dark brown with weatherproof stain. Since the roof is flush in back, it can be mounted by screw

through the back as shown on the drawing.

t4a

bill of materials Sides: 6-3/+ x 43/e x L8 in. Bottom: I-3/+x6 x 67/ein. Roof: 2-s/+x9 x 9 in.

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titmouse house
The pleasing lines of this titmouse house have made it the favorite of many bird attractors. This house is an excellent one to adapt for other birds by altering the size of the opening, the depth, and the inside dimensions to accommodate them.

Nail together the stock for the front and back pieces, and cut these parts at the same time. Make the entrance hole in the front. Now carefully lay out the side pieces, duplicating the scroll design on the front edge. These parts, too, can be nailed together for cutting in order to produce
exactly matching pieces. Nait the sides onto the back and then nail the front in place. Next nail on the roof boards. Cut the bottom and round off the bottom top edge so that the bottom will swing free for cleaning. Drill the holes for the pivot screws in the sides. Use brass screws to hold the bottom in place. Put another brass screw in the front. Screw the mounting bracket on the back.
Give the house a coat of waterproof brown stain.

150

bitl of materials Front and back: 2-1/zx4 xt0Yzin. Sides: 2-/2x68/+x 9 in. Roof: Z-L/z x 6L/z x 7L/+ in. Bottom: 1-t/zx4 x 4 in. Mounting bre,cket: I-3/+ x Lt/z x 78 in. Dowel for perch: I-7/+ in. dia. x 9 in.

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The question

is often asked: where is the best place to

mount and locate a bird house? The answer is: never locate it in deep shade or thick foliage. Place the house in partial shade so that it is kept cool, out of the sun's hot rays' However, do not select heavy foliage because enemies of birds may hide there and the birds will be wary of it. A few dead branches near the house will afford good perches.

robin shelf
Anyone can make a robin shelf which is as simple in construction as the one shown here. Although the supporting brackets are scrolled, they can be made straight if you do not want the curved cuts. Make all the pieces according to the speciflcations on the drawing. Nail the roof on the back and then nail in the roof supporting brackets from the back and top. Next nail on the bottom and then the side brackets to complete the shelf.
Give the robin shelf a coat of weatherproof stain. also be painted dark green or brown.

It might

This robin shelf can be mounted under the eaves of a house or garage or in some other protected place. Never place it in the direct sun or in the open. As an added feature, small pegs can be installed in the top surface of the bottom to act as anchors for the nest. These pegs can be L/+-inch dowels extending s/e inches to 1 inch above the floor.

L5.2

bill of materials I-Vz x8r/z x 9t/z in. Back: L-lz x7/z xlOYz in. Roof: I-t/z xSYz x 7r/z in. Bottom: Top supporting 2-lz x 4r/+ x 61/z tn. brackets: Side braekets: 2_r/z xp x 61/z in.

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uthatch house
This nuthatch house is of an old design but it is one that is always well liked. Perhaps the reason for its popularity is due to the fact that while the house has an elaborate appearance it is very simple to build. It requires a minimum of stock and consists of only a few parts.

Nail together the stock for the front and the back and cut the pieces at the same time. Then bore the entrance hole in the front piece. Next make the roof and nail on the front
a,nd back.

cleaned. The house can be mounted on a g/a-ir:.ch pipe flange and on a pipe as shown on page 128, or the screw-bolt mounting method may be used.

Cut and flt the bottom accurately. Hold it in place with two brass screws in front and two in back as indicated. If screws are used for this purpose, the house can be easily

Stain or paint house but use a dark color.

Front and L5'4

bill of materials

back: Z-lzx 9L/ex 8 in. Roof: 2-Yz x LLlz x tLr/z in. Bottom: l-1/z x 8Yz x 8Vz in.

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house finch-shelter I
Although this flnch house is quite simple to assemble, the roof notches in the front and back pieces must be accurately made and do present a challenge to the builder. Lay out the front full size on a piece of paper. Transfer this layout to the stock either by tracing or by attaching the paper to the stock with cellophane tape. Nail together the stock for the front and back and cut them out at the same time so that the roof and side pieces will flt tight. Bore the hole in the frontpiece. Now cut the other pieces.
To assemble, flrst nail the front and back to the side pieces. Now nail on the lower roof pieces and flnish with the beveled ridge pieces. Drill holes for the brass pivot screws on both sides. Round ofl the bottom rear edge of bottom so that it will swing clear for cleaning. Screw in the pivot screws. Install another brass holding screw in the front after drilling a hole for it.

Stain or paint the house using dull, dark colors. The flnch house can be mounted on a pipe flange and galvanized pipe.

bill Front and


back: Sides: Roof: Ridge: Bottom:

of

materials

156

z 9r/e in. 2-t/zx6 x 6 in. 6-1/z x2Vz xlo in. 2-1/zx2 x10 in. 1-7/zx6 x 6 in.
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II

The squat appearance of this fi.nch house is sure to attract attention. The house is simple to build although the angles of the front and back pieces must be accurately cut.

Nail the stock for the front and back pieces together so

that you can cut them out at the same time. Bore the entrance hole in the front piece. Then make the other parts. Now nail the front and back to the side pieces; then nail on the roof. The bottom swings out on two pivot screws on the sides. Drill the sides for the brass pivot screws as indicated. Round off the bottom rear edge of the bottom to provide clearance. Next put another brass screw in the front to
hold the bottom. The house can be painted or stained as desired. Mount a pipe flange and galvanized pipe as indicated.

it on

bitl

Front and
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of

materials

Z-Yzx 8 x12in. Z-t/zx 43/+x 7in.


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158

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song sparrow shelf


Although the shelter featured here is called a shelf, it really is a house without walls and is very much to the liking of
the song sparrow.

Make the four corner posts as shown in the drawing and notch out the tops accurately for the front and back gables. Cut the gables and nail to the corner posts. Then from below, nail the posts to the floor, which is a/+-inch stock. As the last operation, nail on the two roof boards. The house can be painted white, if desired, or any other color that is suitable. Mount it on a post one to three feet from the ground.

If you want, you can add several pegs in the floor to act as
anchors to keep the nest from blowing or sliding off. These can be l/a-inch dia. dowels by s/n-ioch long.

160

bill of materials Posts: 4-I x1 x51/zin. Gables: 2-/zx2/+x 7in. Floor: I-3/+x7 x 7in. Roof: Z-Vz x 6/+ x 11 in.

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phoebe and barn swallow shelf


This shelf is designed for the phoebe and barn swallow, but is also used by the robin. Two sides are completely open; the third is almost closed. Cut all the pieces as per drawing. As the flrst step in assembling the shelf, nail the back to the floor. Then nail on the side and finally the roof. The construction work involved is very simple. paint the shelf white or any other suitable color. Mount it in a secluded and protected place.

L6.2

Back: Side: Floor: Roof:

bill of materials L-lz x7 xt33/+ in.


L-Yz x6 I.-t/z xWz

L-l/z x

43/+

x 91/z in. x 7 in. x 7 in.

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barn owl house


Can we fool the barn owl and have him make his nest in this house just because it is the shape of a barn? Whatever his preferences, this novel house provides enough room for the large nest that the owl buitds.

Nail together the stock for the front and back and cut them at the same time. Be sure that your dimensions are accurate. Cut the large 6-inch diameter opening in the front with a coping saw or a scroll saw. Then cut the other pieces.
To assemble, nail the sides to the bottom; then nail on the front and back after the perch has been nailed to the front piece. The perch is made out of one half of the part cut out for the entrance opening. Next, nail on the lower roof pieces and then nail on the upper or ridge roof pieces. The bottom of this house does not swing out because the opening is large enough for easy cleaning. Paint or stain house with weatherproof materials. Any color is suitable.

bitl

Front and
back: Sides: Bottom:

of

materials

Z_r/z xgt/z x LZs/4 iIJ. Z-Vz x7s/+ x 17 in. I-1/z x 8lz x 17 in.

L6,4

Lower roof parts: 2-r/zx4 x20 in. Upper roof parts: 2-r/zx5 x20 in. Perch: l-Yz-in. x 3 in. (le ot the cutout from the entrance)

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wood duck house


Extensive research on the habits and shelter of the wood duck has been conducted by Mr. Frank C. Bellrose, Associate Game Specialist of the Natural History Division of the State of Itlinois at Urbana, Illinois, and all of the information given here is from Circular 45 printed by the division. The house shown is the best developed to date for the protection of the wood duck. The top and sides are covered with tin so that squirrels cannot enter. The elliptical hole keeps out raccoons. The house is thus made predator proof. The best wood to use is rough-cut cypress. Cheaper lumber is suggested for the parts to be covered with the metal.
Make the roof of four triangular pieces with the edges beveled to 60-degree angles and toenailed together as shown in the drawing. Mount the pyramid-shaped assembly on a solid board. Cover the entire front and half of both sides with sheet metal. Next make the other parts of the box having one side hinged to provide easy cleaning. Make the hinged side flt tight to prevent light from entering the house. Cover both the sides and the front with sheet metal. Drill holes in the bottom for drainage.
use light or bright colors.

If the house is to be flnished. stain it dark brown. Do not


Cover the bottom with 2 or 3 inches of sawdust, shavings, or wood chips to provide a base for the nest. Mount the house on the side of a tree not more than a few hundred yards from water and about 10 to 25 feet above the ground. If you are planning to put up several, have the shelters 50 to 100 feet apart since the wood duck likes to nest in groups.

bill of 4Roof: Roof floor: 1-

materials
3/+ 3/+ 3/+

x 18 x 123/+ irr. x LB x 18 in.

back: Sides: Bottom:


Front:
Sides:

Front and

221-

3/4

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in. in. in.

Sheet metal: I-L7yz x 251/z in. Top:

Hinges (with

I-!4 x 24 z-LZ x 24 x 2

166

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cupola 24-family marti n house


This martin house has established itself as a shelter of pleasing proportions and design so it will certainly be a welcome sight on the roof on which it is installed. A good place for it is on the garage roof.
24 - FAM ILY MARTIN HOUSE

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Next cut the side pieces and assemble them on the base. Nail on the porches from the inside and toenail the corners. Then make the egg-crate nest dividers and the two floors. Assemble these in the house. The center of the house is open from top to bottom to provide the ventilation that is necessary to keep the house cool. The floors and dividers are removable for easy cleaning. Do not make them fit too tight.
Cut the copper for the roof. If copper is too expensive or not available, use galvanized sheet metal. Solder the corners. Fit the block into the top end to hold the flnial ball. Mount the metal roof on the square roof floor.
The roof section is held to the main part of the house with angle irons and screws so that it may be easily removed for cleaning.

Paint the house white or paint which it is mounted.

it to match the building

on

Base

2-3/a x 19 in. and wide

bill of materials
Sides: Base and
2-3/+

19 x L9L/z in.

L70

enough to take the slant of the roof. Base 2-s/+ x2O1/z in. and wide enough to ends: take the slant of the roof. Metal 3 x 3 in. to fi.t around flash- the base. ing: House Ends: 2-3/+ x?Ot/z x L9Vz in.
sides:

floor of roof: 2-s/+x26t/z x26/z in. 2-3/+ x L9 x 19 in. Floors: Dividers: t2-lBx 6 x19 in. 8-3/+x 3 x26L/zin. Porches: 1-4-in. dia. Finial:

Finial
block:
Copper:

4-28 ga"ugex27 x
23

l-2x2x2in.

in.

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three-story l4.-family marti n house


This martin house is a familiar sight to all of us and is a perennial favorite. It is not exceptionally difficult to make since all of the cuts are straight and only a moderate amount of accurate fitting is involved. The doors covering the en-

I4-

FAMILY

MARTIN HOUSE

CLOSED

DOOR

NEsT DIVIDERS
EGG-CRATE CONST.

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DIVIDERS IN PLACE

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Then make the three inside floors and the three sets of eggcrate nest dividers. Small cleats on the floors will hold the dividers in place as shown. Mount the floors and dividers inside the house. Make the doors and screw them in place. Make the roof last. It is held in place by iron angle brackets and can be easily removed for cleaning in the fall. When the doors are put in the open position, be sure to tighten the screws to keep them from shutting accidentty and trapping the birds.

Paint the house white on the outside only; leave the inside natural. Mount it on a pipe or 4 by 4-inch post as explained on page 129.If the house is mounted on a wood. post, it can be securely anchored with iron angle brackets. wood scroll brackets can also be used.

bitl
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of

4-3/+x 3 xt4 in.


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x x

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20

in.

x213/e

in.

121/z

x25V+ in.

inside: Nest dividers:

Divider

6-L/zx 6 xt?V.zin.

xIZYz in.

L76

cleats: Roof: Doors:

24-Yzx Vzx 3 in. 2-3/+ x 12 x 20 in. I4-y4 x 3/+-in. dia.

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herring pail wren house


If you are looking for something out of the ordinary in a birdhouse, this wren house should meet with your approval. Although it is not a good policy to use bright colors for serious bird attracting, this birdhouse does lend itself to gay colors. It may become a prized decoration and, strange as it may seem, I put up several decorated in extremely bright colors, just for effect, and had families of wrens in them almost immediatety. Of course, the house can be finished in some drab color such as deep brown, and this is perhaps the best thing to do.
Use an ordinary herring pail. Cut a s/+-inc}a diameter entrance hole. Make the six roof pieces with 65 degree angle sides and toenail them together. Drill a hole through the top for the eye bolt and put on a ball ornament.

Turn the bottom ornamental pieces on a lathe and fasten them with screws from the inside to the bottom of the pail. Drill a hole for tlae t/+-inch dowel perch and insert the perch. Fasten the hexagonal roof on the top of the pail, driving brass screws in every other section.

If desired, the lower turned ornament can be left off and the house can be mounted on the top of a post or stick.

L7a

bill of materials 1-7-inch. dia. x 63la in. high Fl,oof: 6_ Ik xSyz x8B/+ in. Finial: l-Lg/+-in. dia. ball Base: 1- s/+ in. x 7-in. dia. Base: 1- s/+ in. x 5-in. dia. Turned paft: L-Lg/q in. x2lz-in. dia.
Pail:

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Many unique designs and shapes

Cement houses are not atfected

are possible when houses are made of cement and asbestos


cement.

by weather and will last indefinitely. They are easy to paint.

ornamental cement birdhouses


The construction of cement birdhouses will offer you a fi.ne opportunity to use your ingenuity. Objects of almost any description can be duplicated such as rustic logs and other items of interesting and intricate shape.

The frame is made either of thin wood slats, as in the smaller house, shown, or of wood parts and wire mesh, as in the log house. In the latter, .wz-indn mesh is used but ordinary window-screen wire works better. It can be placed over the larger mesh.
Make a dry mixture of one part cement and three parts asbestos cement, which is used by steam fitters. When thoroughly mixed, add just enough water to make a stiff, puttylike paste. With a putty knife or trowel, spread the mixture on the frames. It will take at least a day for the cement to dry, at which time it will have a white, hard finish that will be weatherproof. The surface can be painted any desired color. For the rustic log, apply the mixture so as to produce a rough surface with deep furrows for the bark. The cement dries slowly so that you can experiment. When dry, apply an undercoat of dark green paint and another coat of dark brown. Rub off the latter to let the green show through and

you will have a very natural-looking birdhouse. These


180
houses are cool of their weight.

in summer. Mount them securely because

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hirdhouse maintenance in winter


If you let your birdhouses go year after year without attention, they will become ditapidated. They will not only be useless as far as the birds are concerned, but they will be an eyesore in your yard and garden.
A birdhouse should be made so that it is easy to clean. All of the designs in this book are of this type. At the very end of the season, when the birds have definitely left for the south, get a ladder and check each house. Clean it out with a stiff brush and if you have reason to believe that there are lice or other parasites, disinfect it with a strong insect spray. You can cover the holes of a martin house and, if it is on a pole that can be lowered, leave it in the ,,down" position. It can remain this way until late spring. when the martins are on their way back to your locality, remove the d.oors and raise the house to the "up" position.
When making your inspection, see how securely the house is mounted. Be sure that the flrst heavy rain or windstorm will not blow it down. An accident of this kind will not only wreck the house, but it will kill the young or break the eggs. Any house that seems the least bit shaky or loose should be remounted and put up securely.

If the roof of your birdhouse is loose, if the bottom is warped, if a side is cracked, fall is the time to take it down for complete repairs. Renail loose members and replace broken parts if necessary. See that the house is sound throughout. rf it needs paint or stain, now is the time to refinish it. wtren it is dry, return the house to its place outside so that it will have a chance to weather all winter. In this way, when the birds arrive in spring, the newness of the paint and stain will be worn ofl. Winter is also a good time to relocate houses and feed.ers. Tend to the feeders flrst since they will be in use during the coming winter. You may want to add a few new houses or move some of your old ones. Now is the time to take care of these matters so that everything will be ready when the birds arrive in spring. If you reappraise and improve your program every year, it will be much more effective, because the wants of the birds will be taken care of and you will always be prepared for them.

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box is suitable. The box is completely closed with an extending shelf-perch at the bottom. The opening is also at the bottom. Before the box is nailed closed, /+-in doweL perches should be mounted inside. Filt the bottom with
straw, excelsior, wood chips, or shavings, and you will have a comfortable, warm retreat for the birds.

Locate the box so that it has a southern exposure and is protected from the north wind. The box ean be mounted on the side of the house. Evergreens nearby will be an additional attraction. The roof can extend if you desire, and the entire top can be covered with roofing paper. In addition to this protected box, you might put up a few open shelves in a sunny protected place. The birds will welcome the chance to gather, preen, and hop about here in the warm sun on cold winter days.

brush pile
A favorite pastime of birds is to hunt and scratch around a brush pile. In fall after you have flnished pruning, pile the branches as illustrated, with a few sticking out on top to make natural roosts. This makes a fine place for the birds to congregate. If you put a feeder or two near, so much

186

the better. The brush pile can be one of your winter feeding facilities.

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natural enemies of wild birds


Just as birds function in the balance of nature to keep down the insect population and the spreading of weeds, so they themselves have natural enemies which prevent them from multiplying in dangerous proportions. An excessive bird population would be just as harmful to man and nature as an oversupply of any other form of plant or animal life. The animal we think of first as an enemy of the birds is the cat, which does, in fact, kill many of them. It is not possible for you to attract birds and play host to cats simultaneously. One or the other has to go and you will have to make up your mind which it is going to be. If stray cats are prowling about your property, catch them and turn them over to the humane society in your city. It is suggested that you obtain a copy of U. S. Biological Survey Builetin No. 50, which
shows how to make a cat trap.

Although we may think that cats are very destructive of bird life, they do not kill nearly as many birds as starvation, lack of water, and lack of shelter in winter. Man can remove many of these hazards to the birds and by doing so increase their numbers. Disease also kilts many birds. For this reason yards, birdhouses, and feeders should be kept clean at all
times.

Every city has more than enough sparrows and starlings and there seems to be very little that can be done to get rid of them. They can also be classified as another na,tural enemy because they compete for the food of the other birds. If trapped, even in large numbers, it seems that there are countless others to take their place. If you would 1ike to trap sparrows, write for Leaflet No. 61, English Sparrow Control, issued by the Unit
culture.

Although these birds are pests, remember that they too eat their share of insects and weed seeds and in this way do a lot of good. Possibly it would be best for you to simply decide to put up with them. Since they like to eat on the ground, set aside an area for them away from the regular eating place of the other birds. Keep this place stocked with crumbs and other food. You will be able to bunch the undesirables here, segregating them from the better company. This area may even be on an adjoining vacant lot or some remote corner on your property that is out of sight where they will not disturb the other birds.

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Bird's Nests of the West: A Field


Guide Audubon Land Bird Guide Audubon Water Bird Guide: 'Water, Game, and Large Land Birds Audubon'Western Bird Guide A Laboratory and Fietd Manual of Ornithology A Guide to Bird Finding West of the Mississippi A Guide to Bird Finding East of the Mississippi Naming the Birds at a Glance How to Know the Birds: An Introduction to Bird Recognition A Manual for the Identiflcation of Birds in Minnesota A Fieid Guide for Locating the Eagle at Cassville, W-isconsin Birds of North America

Headstrom Pough
Pough Pough

Pettingill Pettingill Pettingill


Jenks Peterson
F,oberts

fngram Robbins

Birds hy Region

Title
Birds of America Birds of Columbia Warblers of North America North American Waterfowl North American Birds of Prey A Natural History of East and Central North American Birds Song and Garden Birds of North America 'Water, Prey, and Game Birds of North America Birds East of the Rockies Birds of Mexico Birds of the West Handbook of Eastern North American Birds Audubon Birds of North America Arctic Birds of Canada Birds of Hawaii Birds of East and Central America Birds of New Zealand Birds of the West Indies Birds of North America Ducks, Geese, and Swans of North America

Author
Pearson Schauensee Chapman Day

Sprunt
Forbush
'Wetmore 'Wetmore
Reed

Blake Booth
Chapman Audubon Snyder Munro

Williams Falla
Bond Brunn a,ndZirn

190

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The Wild Turkey

Puffins
Shearwaters The Golden Eagle A Guide to Bird Watching

Schorger Lockley Lockley Murphy Hickey

Books for the Study and Enjoyment of Birds

Title
Fundamentals of Ornitholo gy An Introduction to Ornithotogy Fundamentals of Ecology Modern Bird Study Birds Bird Biology Bird Behavior The Flight of Birds A Classiflcation of Birds of the World A Classification of Recent Birds The Book of Bird Life Birds and Their Attributes Birds Around the World Bird Display and Behavior A Study of Bird Song The World of Birds Living Birds of the World The Birds A Lifetime With the Birds An Introduction to Birds Marsh Birds Shore Birds Wild Fowl Diving Birds Land Birds Water Birds Water Birds-Bent's life Histories Land Birds-Bent's Life Histories Birds of the Ocean Waterfowl Tomorrow The Migrations of Birds Migration of Birds Sea-Birds Territory in Bird Life Wildlife Conservation Population Studies of Birds The Life of Birds Natural History of Birds

Author
Van Tyne and Berger Wallace Odum Griscom

Darling
MacDonald Goodwin Storer
'Wetmore

Mayr and Amadon

Allen Allen
Amadon Armstrong Armstrong Fisher and Peterson

Gilliard Heinroth
Greene

Kieran Bent Bent Bent Bent


Jaques Jaques Collins Collins

t92

Alexander Linduska Dorst Lincoln Fisher and Lockley Howard Gabrielson Lack Welty Wing

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Lark

27 42

Linden orbasswood Listing of birds A7

Location of birdhouses 152 Lumber for birdhouses 125 Maintenance of birdhouses Many activities L7
1Bz

Preparation of suet Purple ffnch 27 Purple martin 29


Rare bird

Pools

106
EB

Raspberry

alert
47

36
BO BO

Maples

Red bellied woodpecker


148

Trolley feeder
Types of

Tree guard 130 Tree swallow Zg Tree swallow house 140 Trees that attract birds 4pA4
78
116

Titmouse 29 Titmouse house

150

43

Martin

Maple leaved
29

viburnum
100

Red-headedwoodpecker
46

Tufted titmouse 29

Red-headed woodpecker house Red winged

birds

Martin houses 168-176


Mason jar Meadow

feeder

blackbird
L52

ZB

Materials for birrlhouses

R,eferencebooks 190-195
125

Urban areas 38 Useful books 190-19b

Matrimony
Mountain r24

Migration studies

vine lark 27 ash

Robin

shelf

48 36

Rose breasted

grosbeak

Ruby crowned
St. Francis

kinglet

26

Viburnum

ZB

43

Mounting heights for birdhouses Mounting the birdhouse I27 Mourning dove 27

Mulberry 44 Myrtle warbler


Nannyberry

27

feeder 90 Sand cherry 47 Sapsucker 30 Scarlet tanager 28 Seed and suet log feeder Seed feeding 62 Shadbush 44 Shelters 115-182
Shrubs that attract

Virginia creeper
Voice

Vines that attract birds 48 Violet green swallow house

46

L4O

identiflcation
27

48 g1

72

46

Natural enemies of

Nuthatch 29 Nuthatchhouse

Nesting habits 2l Nesting materials Norway spruce 44

birds
LL7

188

Sick

birds day

187

Slate colored

birds junco p8

45-42

Small

33 Snowberry 47 Snowbird 28

L54

Oaks
13

44

Ornithology and bird watching


Our seed mixture 64 Owl house 164
Pasture rose 47 Peanut butter 61

Pewee 26 Phoebe 26
Phoebe

Photography

shelf

162 38

Sourgum 44 Sparrows 28-29 Spruce 44 Square block feeder Squirrel guard t?g Suet 57 Suet log feeder 68 Suet-seed cakes 59 Suet-seed feeder 8B Summer feeding 52 Swallow 29
Tanager
28

Song sparrow 28 Song sparrow shelf 160

White pine 44 White spruce 44 White throated sparrow Wild birds 4 Wild grape 48

Water for birds 105-118 Ways of providing water 111 Weather-vane feeder 76 When to look for birds ZO W'here to look for birds ZL White breasted nuthatch Zg
Zg

Warbler

Wildlife agencies

189

Window shelf feeder

ZO

Winter care of birds 185 Winter care of birdbaths Winter feeding 53


Withe rod 47 Wood duck house
166

Winterberry

8p

47

113

Woodpeckers
Woodpecker
Wood Wood

30

Pictures in the

Pine

ffeld

94

house 146 pewee 26 thrush 30 'Wren 26 'Wren houses 133-136, 178

44

Plantings that attract Platform feeder 74

birds

4L4g

Thrasher 24 Thrush 30

Teeter-totter squirrel

guard

181

Yellorv bellied sap sucker 30 Your on-n seed mi-xture 63

196