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Chloride analysis test results 18 No. concrete cores were delivered for testing for chlorides.

The cores were numbered as follows: 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B, 4A, 4B, 5A, 5B, 6A, 6B, 7A, 7B, 8A, 8B, 9A and 9B. The chloride profiles were determined up to depths of 40 mm into the concrete.

Assumptions Density of concrete: 2500kg/m3

Sample preparation All the concrete cores were sliced into two equal halves. One of the two halves from each concrete core was further sliced into 10 mm thick slices up to a depth of 40 mm into the concrete core. The specimens were cut with a cutter under minimum wetting conditions. Thereafter, the specimens were oven dried for 3 days at 50 degree Celsius. Testing Methodology: 1. The oven dried specimens were then crushed into powder using a crusher. 2. The crushed powder was put in marked transparent plastic bags in preparation for chloride analysis tests. 3. The chloride tests were done using a potentiometric titrator (Mettler Toledo DL50).

The chloride analysis results are summarized in the Tables 1 - 18 on the following pages. The concentration of the chlorides was calculated using a binder content of 420 kg/m3. Table 1: Chloride analysis results for core 1A
Core ID 1A Depth from surface (mm) 5 15 25 35 Chloride Concentration (% by mass of concrete) 0.258 0.161 0.060 0.053 Chloride concentration (% by mass of cement) 1.54 0.96 0.36 0.32

A diagrammatic summary of Table 1 is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Chloride profile for core 1A

Table 2: Chloride analysis results for core 1B


Core ID Depth from surface (mm) Chloride Concentration (% by mass of concrete) Chloride concentration (% by mass of cement)

1B

5 15 25 35

0.218 0.151 0.050 0.047

1.30 0.90 0.30 0.28

A diagrammatic summary of Table 2 is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Chloride profile for core1B

Table 3: Chloride analysis results for core 2A


Core ID Depth from surface (mm) Chloride Concentration (% by mass of concrete) Chloride concentration (% by mass of cement)

2A

5 15 25 35

0.288 0.102 0.051 0.044

1.72 0.61 0.30 0.26

A diagrammatic summary of Table 3 is shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Chloride profile for core 2A

Table 4: Chloride analysis results for core 2B


Core ID Depth from surface (mm) Chloride Concentration (% by mass of concrete) Chloride concentration (% by mass of cement)

2B

5 15 25 35

0.235 0.263 0.055 0.046

1.40 1.56 0.33 0.28

A diagrammatic summary of Table 4 is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Chloride profile for core 2B

Table 5: Chloride analysis results for core 3A


Core ID Depth from surface (mm) Chloride Concentration (% by mass of concrete) Chloride concentration (% by mass of cement)

3A

5 15 25 35

0.147 0.277 0.196 0.095

0.87 1.65 1.17 0.56

A diagrammatic summary of Table 5 is shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5: Chloride profile for core 3A

Table 6: Chloride analysis results for core 3B


Core ID Depth from surface (mm) Chloride Concentration (% by mass of concrete) Chloride concentration (% by mass of cement)

3B

5 15 25 35

0.183 0.294 0.193 0.082

1.09 1.75 1.15 0.49

A diagrammatic summary of Table 6 is shown in Figure 6.

Figure 6: Chloride profile for core 3B

Table 7: Chloride analysis results for core 4A


Core ID Depth from surface (mm) Chloride Concentration (% by mass of concrete) Chloride concentration (% by mass of cement)

4A

5 15 25 35

0.218 0.256 0.203 0.118

1.30 1.52 1.21 0.70

A diagrammatic summary of Table 7 is shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7: Chloride profile for core 4A

Table 8: Chloride analysis results for core 4B


Core ID Depth from surface (mm) Chloride Concentration (% by mass of concrete) Chloride concentration (% by mass of cement)

4B

5 15 25 35

0.189 0.194 0.164 0.109

1.13 1.15 0.97 0.65

A diagrammatic summary of Table 8 is shown in Figure 8.

Figure 8: Chloride profile for core 4B

Table 9: Chloride analysis results for core 5A


Core ID Depth from surface (mm) Chloride Concentration (% by mass of concrete) Chloride concentration (% by mass of cement)

5A

5 15 25 35

0.355 0.456 0.228 0.219

2.11 2.72 1.35 1.30

A diagrammatic summary of Table 9 is shown in Figure 9.

Figure 9: Chloride profile for core 5A

Table 10: Chloride analysis results for core 5B


Core ID Depth from surface (mm) Chloride Concentration (% by mass of concrete) Chloride concentration (% by mass of cement)

5B

5 15 25 35

0.257 0.262 0.378 0.197

1.53 1.56 2.25 1.18

A diagrammatic summary of Table 10 is shown in Figure 10.

Figure 10: Chloride profile for core 5B

Table 11: Chloride analysis results for core 6A


Core ID Depth from surface (mm) Chloride Concentration (% by mass of concrete) Chloride concentration (% by mass of cement)

6A

5 15 25 35

0.264 0.339 0.210 0.179

1.57 2.01 1.25 1.06

A diagrammatic summary of Table 11 is shown in Figure 11.

Figure 11: Chloride profile for core 6A

Table 12: Chloride analysis results for core 6B


Core ID Depth from surface (mm) Chloride Concentration (% by mass of concrete) Chloride concentration (% by mass of cement)

6B

5 15 25 35

0.322 0.339 0.239 0.201

1.92 2.02 1.42 1.20

A diagrammatic summary of Table 12 is shown in Figure 12.

Figure 12: Chloride profile for core 6B

Table 13: Chloride analysis results for core 7A


Core ID Depth from surface (mm) Chloride Concentration (% by mass of concrete) Chloride concentration (% by mass of cement)

7A

5 15 25 35

0.562 0.273 0.061 0.051

3.35 1.63 0.36 0.30

A diagrammatic summary of Table 13 is shown in Figure 13.

Figure 13: Chloride profile for core 7A

Table 14: Chloride analysis results for core 7B


Core ID Depth from surface (mm) Chloride Concentration (% by mass of concrete) Chloride concentration (% by mass of cement)

7B

5 15 25 35

0.775 0.557 0.285 0.150

4.61 3.32 1.70 0.89

A diagrammatic summary of Table 14 is shown in Figure 14.

Figure 14: Chloride profile for core 7B

Table 15: Chloride analysis results for core 8A


Core ID Depth from surface (mm) Chloride Concentration (% by mass of concrete) Chloride concentration (% by mass of cement)

8A

5 15 25 35

0.342 0.141 0.048 0.059

2.04 0.84 0.28 0.35

A diagrammatic summary of Table 15 is shown in Figure 15.

Figure 15: Chloride profile for core 8A

Table 16: Chloride analysis results for core 8B


Core ID Depth from surface (mm) Chloride Concentration (% by mass of concrete) Chloride concentration (% by mass of cement)

8B

5 15 25 35

0.275 0.081 0.065 0.067

1.64 0.48 0.39 0.40

A diagrammatic summary of Table 16 is shown in Figure 16.

Figure 16: Chloride profile for core 8B

Table 17: Chloride analysis results for core 9A


Core ID Depth from surface (mm) Chloride Concentration (% by mass of concrete) Chloride concentration (% by mass of cement)

9A

5 15 25 35

0.142 0.094 0.055 0.048

0.84 0.56 0.33 0.28

A diagrammatic summary of Table 17 is shown in Figure 17.

Figure 17: Chloride profile for core 9A

Table 18: Chloride analysis results for core 9B


Core ID Depth from surface (mm) Chloride Concentration (% by mass of concrete) Chloride concentration (% by mass of cement)

9B

5 15 25 35

0.215 0.133 0.071 0.049

1.28 0.79 0.42 0.29

A diagrammatic summary of Table 18 is shown in Figure 18.

Figure 18: Chloride profile for core 9B Conclusions Based on the test results, the following conclusions can be made: 1. All the cores, with the exception of cores 3A, 3B, 4A, 5A, 5B, 6A and 6B, exhibited normal chloride profiles i.e., a decrease in the concentration of chlorides with depth into concrete. The causes of the anomalies in chloride profiles in the aforementioned cores could not be established. 2. Generally, the concentration of chloride ions within the test cores is high with values ranging between 0.26 4.61% chlorides by mass of binder. 3. The susceptibility of the reinforcement that has been embedded in this concrete to corrosion could not be determined owing to the fact that details pertaining to the cover was not provided. Nevertheless, it can be concluded that rebars at a cover depth less than 40 mm are highly susceptible to corrosion owing to the fact that the measured chloride concentration are in close proximity to the chloride threshold level of 0.4%.

Prof. Hans Beushausen February 2013

Philemon Arito (PhD Student)