VOCABULARY KEY TO « TSAY DO GREISGHILDE » “Tsay do Greisghilde” is the Sambahsa translation and adaptation into a novel of “Retour à Griseguilde”

, an excellent fan-made sequel by Voyageur Solitaire to the famous gamebook “the Talisman of Death” by Jamie Thomson and Mark Smith. Voyageur Solitaire has generously granted his authorization for the adaptation into Sambahsa. Thanks to the Goldendict pop-up dictionary (http://sambahsa.pbworks.com/w/page/52788470/Sambahsa%20Dictionary%20for %20Windows%2C%20Mac%20and%20Linux ), many words can be instantly translated, or their meaning can be easily guessed by the reader. However, some derived words and compounds, though they may be entirely consistent with the grammatical rules of Sambahsa, are difficult to decipher. The aim of this document is to translate and explain such words found in “Tsay do Greisghilde”. They are indicated in blue in the novel, and you can use the search function to find them in this Word format document. This way, we hope that vocabulary key will make you familiar with word-formation in Sambahsa. “EUPHONIC VOCALISATION” : According to this rule (see the grammar), nouns and adjectives can bear optional endings indicating gender, number and case. Apos + a = apsa = joints Citadios = citad + ios = city (genitive singular) Ekwens = ekw + ens = horses (accusative) Elsi = els + i = his/her (before several living beings) Ira = ir + a = their (before nouns of things) Irem = ir + em = their (before a singular noun of living being) Iren = ir + en = of their (before a plural noun) Irens = ir + ens = their (plural accusative before living beings) Irios = ir + ios = of their (before a singular, masculine or neutral, noun) Irs = ir + s = of their (before a singular noun) Niesen = nies + en = of our (before a plural noun) Nosters = noster + s = of our (before a singular noun)

Verbal endings : Before “-s” or “-t”, g & k turn to c-, and b to p. Arct = ark + t = kept off, contained Attract + attrag + t = attracted Dehlcs = dehlg + s = you (thou) must Protect = proteg + t = protected Reg + t = rect = stretched out Scrib + t = script = written Tehrb + t = tehrpt Tract = trag + t = pulled, drawn Urg + t = urct = urges, is urging “nasal infix verbs” : Those verbs have an unstressed pronounced “e” as their last vowel, before or after “n/m”. They undergo no ablaut. For the present tense, the unstressed “e” disappears everywhere it’s possible : Brinegh + o = bringho = I bring Glanez + end = glanzend = glancing Spernend-ye = speren + end + -ye = by spurring Spernte = speren + te = (you) spur Surprined + end = suprindend = surprising Yuneg + end = yungend = connecting Likewise for the conditional : Pregen + ie + t = (he/she/it) would imprint Those both letters disappear for the past tense : Ambhglanez > ambhglaz = looked around Interposen > interpos = interpose = interposed Posen > pos = laid down; pos + it = posit = (he/she/it) laid down Speren > sper = spur > spurred Spraneg > sprag = burst (pres.) > burst (past.) (transitive) As well as for the past participle : Stuned > studen = knocked

PAST TENSE : Von Wahl rules : According to those rules, the past tense of verbs is obtained through a modification of their final letter(s) D>s Decid > decis + im = decisim = I decided Edd > ess + am = we ate Land > lans + am = lansam = we landed Vid > vis + im = I saw Rg > rs Emerg > emers = emerged Merg > mers ; + im = mersim = I dived Porg > pors = showed, gave Urg > urs = urged Ct > x Plect > plex = shrugged Reflect > reflex = thought about ; reflexim = I was thinking about Tt > ss Flott > floss + am = flossam = we floated Ablaut : “Ablaut” is phenomenon according to which the central vowels of some words undergo a mutation for the past tense. ehC > ohC Ambhspehc ( = ambh [around] + spehc [to look at]) > ambhspohc = looked around Ambikwehl > ambikwohl = bustled around Antwehrd > antwohrd = answered Diaspehr > diaspohr = dispersed Disprehp > disprohp = disappeared Mehld > mohld =indicated Persehkw > persohkw + it = persohkwit = (he/she/it) pursued Pfwehng > pfwohng = dilated Sbehrst > sbohrst = broke up Schehnk > schohnk = poured, gave Sehrp > sohrp = wound Stehlb > stohlb = protruded Stehmb > stohmb = stalked

Trehc > trohc + im = trohcim = I displaced myself, I moved ; + it = trohcit = (he/she/it) displaced (him/her/it)self; + eer = trohceer = they were heading Vehrs > vohrs = paid, poured Ei > i Besteigh > bestigh = climbed up Eiskw > iskw + -eer = iskweer = (they) sought “eiskw- un werd + dat” = to ask someone a question” etileikw > etilikw + it = etilikwit = (he/she/it) remained Enderkweit > enderkwit ; + -im = enderkwitim = I distinguished Leit > lit + eer = liteer = (they) went (figurative meaning) Mantein > mantin = maintained Neih > nih = guided, led Steigh > stigh = went up Tyeic > tyic = made, caused Vergeih > vergih = avoided Eu > u Beleuc > beluc = lightened Deusk > dusk = darkened Engheulf > enghulf = rushed Feug > fug + it = fugit = (he/she/it) fled Kyeus > kyus = pointed out, chose Mleu > mlu = said Neuk > nuk = nodded ; + it = (he/she) nodded Nisteurd > nisturd = slid down ; + it = nisturdit = (he/she/it) slid down Veulbh > vulbh = wrapped For verbs in “a”, the ablaut is optional, though often used : Apterghang > apterghieng = followed Attrag > attrieg = attracted Clangh > cliengh = rang Collabh > collieb = collapsed Corbach > corbiech = used the crop on Crack > crieck = cracked Dwighabel > dwighiebel = forked Enfall > enfiell = came to mind Inikas > inikies = reflected Jamb > jiemb = strode over Kamyab > kamyieb + im = kamyiebim = I succeeded in Kal > kiel = called Parat > pariet = made ready; is pariet-se = he made himself ready Plan > plien = planned Protiedar = protiedier = tugged on Rahat > rahiet = rested Taragh > tariegh = rocked

Tarak > tariek = cracked Udclangh > udcliengh = resounded Udkardkasch > udkarkiesch = drew (one’s weapon) Uperfall > uperfiell = fell on Uperghang > uperghieng = went beyond Wals > wiels = stationed Wassal > wassiel = found back each other Likewise, au > ieu Stau > stieu = was standing upright And ay > iey Baygh > bieygh + am = bieygham = we belonged to The sigmatic aorist : With some verbs, often of Romance origin, an “s” is suffixed to the verbal stem to get the past tense, with the use of the conjugation endings. Adduc > adduxeer = (they) led Attrag > attraxit = (he/she/it) attracted Collab > collapsser = (they) collapsed Drah > drahsit = (he/she/it) ran Ghyah > ghyahsit = it opened itself, was opened Reg > rexit = (he/she/it) stretched out Scrib > scripsit = (he/she/it) wrote It can even be added to roots with ablaut, for reasons of euphony. Kleu > (ablaut) klu. Klu + s + it = klusit = (he/she) listened to Mleu > (ablaut) mlu. Mlu + s + it = mlusit = (he/she) said Stau > (ablaut) stieu. Stieu + s + it = (he/she/it) stood upright Past tense endings : Those endings are only compulsory for verbs whose stem doesn’t undergo any modification for the past tense Accelereer-se = accelere + eer + se = (they) accelerated Controleer = control + eer = (they) controlled Crucim = cruce + im = I crossed Defileit = defilee + it = (it) streamed (figuratively) Encouragim = encourage + im = I encouraged

Entram = entre + am = we entered Entreer = entre + eer = (they) entered Entrim = entre + im = I entered Entrit = entre + it = (he/she) entered Ghensim = ghens (past tense of “ghend”) + im = I took Installim = installe + im = I installed ; installit = installe + it = (he/she/it) installed Intervenit = interven + it = (he/she/it) intervened Katuit = katue + it = (he/she/it) fought Murmurim = murmure + im = I muttered Passim = passe + im = I passed Presente + im = presentim = I presented, introduced Protiokwit = protiokw + it = (he/she) stared at Realisim = realise + im = I realised Salutit = salute + it = (he/she) greeted Sehr = seh + r = (they) sowed Servit = serve + it = (he/she/it) served Stressit = stress + it = (he/she/it) stressed Tentim = tente + im = I attempted Wakyit = wakye + it = (it) happened Verbs ending in “ie” may replace the “e” with a “c”; Crie + it = cricit = (he/she) shouted ; cricim = I shouted Explie + it = explicit = (he/she) explained

FUTURE : It can be expressed with the suffix “sie-“ Acceddsiet = accedd + sie + t = (he/she/it) will have access to. Antwehrdsiem = antwehrd + sie + m = I will answer Dehlcsies = dehlg + sie + s = you will have to Feucsiet = feug + sie + t = (he/she/it) will flee Ghehdsiem = ghehd + sie + m = I’ll be able to Ghehdsiemos = ghehd + sie + mos = we’ll be able to Gwehmsiemos = gwehm + sie + mos = we will come Gwehmsient = gwehm + sie + nt = (they) will come Gwivsies = gwiv + sie + s = you will live Imdadhsiet = imdadh + sie + t = (he/she/it) will aid Khacsiet = khak + sie + t = (he/she/it) won’t be able to Maghsiem = magh + sie + m = I may Marchesiemos = marche + sie + mos = we will march Mehmsient = mehm + sie + nt = (they) will remember Pancsiemos = paneg (nasal infix verb) + sie + mos = we will settle Permittsient = permitt + sie + nt = (they) will permit ; permittsiet = (he/she/it) will permit Poittsiete = poitt + sie + te = you’ll have the right to Ralliesient = rallie + sie + nt = (they) will rallie

Reicsiemos = reik + sie + mos = we will return Retrehfsiet = retrehv + sie + t = (he/she/it) will find back Stambhsiet = stamebh (nasal infix verb) + sie + t = (he/she/it) will keep from Stehmsient = stehm + sie + nt = (they) will support Swehpsiet = swehp + sie + t = (he/she/it) will sleep Tehrpsiemos = tehrb + sie + mos = we’ll need to Tehrpsies = tehrb + sie + s = you’ll need to Tehrpsiet = tehrb + sie + t = (he/she/it) will have to Tolcsiemos = tolk + sie + mos = we’ll talk Wakhsient = wakh + sie + nt = (they) will watch CONDITIONAL (“would” + verb) : Sambahsa adds “-ie-“ + present tense endings. If the verb ends with a mute “e”, this one is dropped. Darient = dar + ie + nt = (they) would hold on Detegiet = deteg + iet = (he/she/it) would detect Emiet = em + ie + t = (he/she/it) would take Ghehdient = ghehd + ie + nt = (they) could Kwehriems = kwehr + ie + ms = we would do Revidiemos = re + vid + iemos = we would see back Riskiems = risk + ie + ms = we would risk Scrutient = scrute + ie + nt = (they) would peer into Sehkwient = sehkw + ie + nt = (they) would follow Solliems = soll + ie + ms = we should Tehrbient = tehrb + ie + nt = (they) would have to INFINITIVES : Verbs with an ablaut in “ei” or “eu”, undergo such an ablaut, and add “-es” Antreus > antruses = to rely on Besteigh > bestighes = to climb up Betreus > betruses = to confide

Credeih > credihes = to believe Dispareih > disparihes = to disappear Enderkweit > enderkwites = to distinguish Forleus > forluses = to shake off Leur > lures = to set free Mantein > mantines = to maintain Meil > miles = to enjoy Neih > nihes = to guide, to lead Preim > primes = to receive Teup > tupes = to hide oneself Vergeih > vergihes = to avoid “Nasal infix” verbs lose the unstressed “e”: brinegh > bringhes = to bring cumebh > cumbhes = to lay down. Dwinegh > dwinghes = to compel Erem > ermes = to row Keren > kernes = to surround Kussen > kunes = to kiss Lambhen > lambhnes = to seize Paneg > panges = to settle, fix Posen > pones = to lay down Speren > spernes = to spur Other verbs whose last syllable is stressed simply add an “e” (often unpronounced) : Incurr > incurre = to run (a risk) Pand > pande = to bet Uperdeh > uperdehe = to transmit When a verbal stem already ends with an unstressed “e”, there is no change : Installe = (to) install The “past” infinitive and the active past participle use the same endings : -vs/-us Installevs = installe + vs = having installed

There is an old infinitive word sometimes used after adjectives or nouns, in –tu Baytu = bay + tu = to fear Reuptu = reup + tu = (about) to be broken PARTICIPLES : Present active = (e)nd. Ambikwehl + end = ambikwehlend = bustling around Ark + end = arkend = moving away Kreus + end = kreusend = shivering Spraneg + end = sprangend = breaking up Tente + (e)nd = tentend = attempting Vank + end = vankend = flickering Vibre + (e)nd = vibrend = vibrating With the adverbal ending “-ye”, it makes a gerundive. Abstaunend-ye = abstaun + end + -ye = being amazed Glanzend-ye = glanez + end + -ye = by glancing Regend-ye = reg + end + -ye = stretching out Spehnd-ye = speh + nd + -ye = by hoping Past (passive) = -t /-(e)n Clauster + (e)n = claustern = clustered Dishang + t = dishanct = undone Du + n = dun = dressed Du + t = dut = dressed Em + en = emen = taken (figurative meaning) Emitt + en = emitten = emitted Maun + t + o = warned Sculp + t + o = sculpto = sculpted Seg + en = segen = cut Tend + en = tenden = tensed Uperdeh + n = uperdehn = transmitted Uperdeh + t = uperdeht = transmitted Verbs with an ablaut in eh, ei or eu undergo such an ablaut : Adbehr > adbohrn = offered, consecrated Balstehm > balstohmt = damned Covehr > covohrn + o = covohrno = covohrna = covered = covohrt = covohrnios (with the singular, masculine or neutral, genitive ending) Credeih > crediht = believed Dehlg > dohlct = past participle of “dehlg” = “must”

Diaspehr > diaspohrn = scattered Dreibh > dribhen = carried away Endergwehm > endergwohmen / endergwohmt ; + ens = endergwohmtens = those who have taken refuge (accusative plural) Exmehn > exmohnt = invented, forged Gostpreim > gostprimen = given hospitality to
Grehv > grohft + o = grohfto = engraved Gvehd > gvohden = prayed Kehmb > kohmpt = bent Kyehrsen > kyohrnen (kyohrsnen) = blackened Leik > liken = played Leizd > lizden / lizdt = bordered Leus > lust = lost Meizd > mizden = recompensed Neic > nicen = killed Neud > nudt = used Perbehrg > perbohrct / perbohrgen = concealed Persehkw > persohkwt / persohkwn = persued Poleih > poliht = polished Prispehc > prispohcen = attended, witnessed Sellgwehm > sellgwohmt = welcomed Seut > suten = appeased Swehng > swohnct = brandished Treic > trict + a = tricta = plaided, braided (neutral plural)

Uperkeih > uperkiht = dominate > dominated Veulbh > vulbhen = wrapped Veurn > vurnt / vurnen = wound > wounded The Von Wahl rules apply for the “-t” participle of verbs without ablaut : Compromitt + t = compromiss = compromised Merg + t = mers = plunged Precedd + t = precess = preceded Previd + t = previs = foreseen “Nasal infix” verbs lose the unstressed “e” and “n/m”, and can undergo Von Wahl rules. Dverwen > dverw + (e)n +o = dverwno = harnessed Dwinegh > dwigh + en = dwighen = compelled Erem > er + (e)n + o = erno = rowed Epterslahem > epterslah + (e)n = epterslahn = pulled up (a garment) Paneg > pag + en = settled, set Pineg > pig + en = pigen = painted Trehen > treh + (e)n = worn out = trehto = treh + t + o Yuneg > yug + en = linked When there is no ablaut, “v” after a consonant turns to “w” before “t”. Salv > salwt = saved; compare the English words “salvation” & “salute”.

COMPOUNDS : In general, Sambahsa compounds follow the same order as English : Adgumt = ad + gumt = “at-coming”, arrival Aghyernluce = aghyern + luce = morning light Aghyernsaat = aghyern + saat = morning hour Aghyernwaurn = aghyern + waurn = morning sky Aksterrudh = akster + rudh = bright-red Angstgongu = lump (in one’s throat) of anguish Annemlwond = annem + lwo + nd = breath-taking Aunbayga = aun + bayga = unfortunate Aungwis = aun + gwis = forceless Aunharm = aun + harm = harmless Aydsmosklad = aydsmo + sklad = wood stock Bittertplen = bittert + plen = full of bitterness Bliutengarb = bliute + n + garb = shower of sparks Blougreis = blou + greis = blue-grey Bronzegwozso = bronze + gwozd + t (turns to “s” because of Von Wahl’s rule) = bronze-studded Caudaula = caud + aula = backyard Clarcuit = clar + cuit = (with a) clear skin Clarteint = clar + teint = (with a) clear complexion Cochersedd = cocher + sedd = coachman’s seat Cortsect = cort + seg + t = cut short Cruorrudh = cruor + rudh = red of shed blood Cuperlampe = cuper + lampe = copper lamp

Daunosoration = daunos + oration = funeral oration Diewogintou = diewo + gintou = overflooded with sunlight Duilcovohrn = duil + covohrn (past participle of “covehr”) = covered with dust Duilnebh = duil + nebh = dustcloud Einsghesor = eins + ghresor = sword-wielding Exiledwighen = exile + dwigh + en = forced to exile Exterannem = exter + annem = out of breath Feltercolpak = felter + colpak = felt cap Fenstercortins = fenster + cortin + s = window curtains Frontnauk = front + nauk = front craft Furorskeumend = furor + skeum + end = boiling with rage Ghomdrabs = ghom + drab + s = downstairs Ghyorayg = ghyor + ayg = mountain goat Ginterdreska = ginter + dresk + a (plural) = amber fragments Glasdresken = glas + dresk + en (genitive plural) = of glas fragments Goldwohrcto = gold + wohrct + o = gold-wrought Greisblou = greis + blou = grey-blue Gvrenstruden = gvrens + truden = overcome by the heat Hainesflamboyant = haines + flamboyant = flamboyant with hatred Horrorheul = horror + heul = howl of horror Jenchikalding = jenchi + kalding = cold fountain of the warrior Kabusjenchis = kabus + jenchi + s = ghost warrior Kaylpotion = kayl + potion = healing potion Kelimcovohrn = kelim + covohrn = covered with a carpet Kerdbats = kerd + bat + s = heartbeats

Keulreuyden = keul + reuyden = agricultural plant, farm Kijieptors = kijie + ptor + s = pheasant feathers Kweiterblou = kweiter + blou = light blue Kwoidsask = kwoid + sask = wheat ear Kyalbohndt = kyal + bohndt (past participle of “behnd”) = locked in a room = kyalbohnden Kyonksleik = kyonk + s + leik = game of the shell Lavandecolor = lavande + color = lavender colour Leikenweik = gambling borough Lietersaltamarka = lieter + saltamarka = leather doublet Locbohndto = loc + bohnd + t = held prisoner in a certain place (loc), “place-bound” Lughplen = lugh + plen = full of lies Marmorstieupens = marmor + stieupen + s = marble steps Metallgwozso = metall + gwozs (von Wahl rule of “d” + “t”) + o = metall-studded Nedalg = ne + dalg = not far Negnoht = ne + gnoh + t = unknown Noctgumt = noct + gumt = nightfall Noctwaurn = noct + waurn = nightsky Nowstrehl = now + strehl = crossbow shot Pennghesor = penn + ghesor = a penn in the hand Petrabenk = petra + benk = stone bench Piurnregwos = piurn + regwos = twilight of fire Prigaloppeer = pri + galopp + eer = (they) rode by Prigwehme = pri + gwehm + e = to come by Priswehnde = pri + swehnd + e = to fade by

Proaiwo = pro + aiwo = forever Protiewaurgend = protie + waurg + end = pressing against Purkerd = pur + kerd = pure-hearted Pwolkeihnd = pwol + keih + nd = half lying Pwolschiawkienen = pwol + schiawkien + en = half erased Rehmenkwehster = rehmen + kwehster = whisper of relief Seddelholks = seddel + holk + s = saddlebags Sellnoct = sell + noct = good night Sirmatricen = sirma + tricen (past participle of “treic”) = plaited with golden threads Skumdewers = skum + dewer + s = whirls of foam Solspruzen = sol + spruz + en = “splashed” with sunlight Solweus = sol + weus = sunrise Strehlgrandwn = strehl + grandwn = hail of shootings Strehlstiftor = strehl + stiftor = shooter Swordlaquen = sword + laque + -n = black lackered Swordptor = sword + ptor = black-feathered Tavanbalwngs = tavan + balwng + s = ceiling beams Teniforces = teni + force + s = forces of darkness Teniptergen = teni + pterg + en (genitive plural) = of wings of darkness Teugbrem = teug + brem = (with a) thick foliage Transbordam = trans + borde + am = we transshipped Ubdrabs = ub + drab + s = upstairs Uperghieng = uper + ghieng (past tense of “ghang”) = walked beyond Uperpleukend = uper + pleuk + end = flying over Uperpluk = uper + pluk = flew over

Uperskadhen = uper + skadh + en = overshaded Upersru = uper + sru (past tense of “sreu”) = overflooded Urbwalls = urb + wall + s = city walls Vegetationsecran = vegetation + s + ecran = undergrowth screen Visionspetra = vision + s + petra = stone of seeing Windbaub = wind + baub = roaring of the wind Windkweistel = wind + kweistel = moaning of the wind Windstrid = wind + strid = hissing of the wind Woxsgill = wox + sgill = wax seal Xentitegut = xenti + tegut = thicket of thorny bush Xurnghalv = xurn (past participle of “xeur”) + ghalv = shaven-skulled, skinhead Yusmee = yu + smee = you all (when refering to a certain group) Sometimes, a genitival ending may be used : Lient + s + noct = lientsnoct = summer(‘s) night Compounds from Romance languages : Loanwords from Romance languages and Latin may be entirely consistent with some Sambahsa grammatical rules, like the Von Wahl rules : Impulsion = in + pulg + (von Walr rule lg > ls ) + tion Incomprehension = in + comprehend + (von Wahl rule : d > s) + tion Incredible = in + credi(h) + ble = incredible, unbelievable Inexspecten = in + ex + specte + -n = inexspectet = unexpected Perceptible = percep + t + ible = perceptible The agent suffix is in “-tor”, a final unstressed “e” turns to “a”. Blaspheme > blasphemator = to blaspheme > blasphemer Compounds from Sinitic languages : Bfu + gwaukan = bfugwaukan = undecided

DERIVATION : Adjectives from other adjectives : “-er” is, as in English, the comparative khaker = khak + er = worse sud + er = suder = more to the south A few adjectives or adverbs ending in a vowel use “-ter”. Ex: diu > diuter = longer (in time) “sub” + adjective of color = English –ish. Subgehlb = yellowish Adjectives from nouns : The suffix “-eus” corresponds to English “ous” Mysterieus = mysterious Ex: Sambahsa “lik” = English “like”/”ly” (as an adjective) Aschlik = asch + lik = ash-like The suffix “-(e)n” means “made of” Dreu > dreun = wooden Tegule > tegulen = made of tiles The suffix “-ic” corresponds to English “-ye” Glehdj > glehdjic = ice > icy The suffix “isk” corresponds more or less to English “-ish” : Goilisk = mocking The suffix “-went” means “endowed with, -ful” : Ptorwent = ptor + went = feathered Skadhwent = skadh + went = shadowy

The suffix “worts” corresponds to English “wards” : Ghomworts = downwards Sudworts = southwards Adverbs from nouns : “a-“ as a prefix can work as in English : abord = a + bord = abord acap = a + cap = ahead atopp = a + topp = atop “ho-“ as a prefix means “this” with a temporal noun. “hovesper” = ho + vesper = tonight, this evening “tos” as a suffix means “from” “dextos” = from the right. “tro” as a suffix means “direction to” “dalgtro” = dalg + tro = far (with a move), into the distance “intro” = In + tro = into, inside “retro” = re(gv) + tro = back(wards) “tetro” = te(r) + tro = to there, thither Nouns from adjectives : Some adjectives can form the corresponding noun by undergoing an ablaut and adding –e. Chald > chielde = hot > heat Chepran > chepriene = lively > liveliness Hayran > hayriene = astounded > astonishment Lughav > lughieve = perfidious > perfidiousness Strak > strieke = tired > tiredness

Warm > wierme =warm > warmth Other suffixes exist, like –tat (mostly after adjectives from Romance languages) Febrile > febrilitat = febrile > febrility Pur > purtat = pure > purity Nouns from other nouns : “in” is the feminine suffix : reiderinen = reid (to ride) + er (agent suffix) + in (feminine suffix) + en (genitive plural) = of female riders. When the noun ends with “-i”, the “i” is dropped and replaced with “nia” Jenchi = warrior; jenchnia + s =jenchnias = female warriors “ga” (prefix) + “-os” (suffix) indicates a group of things with a negative meaning : gastieupnos = ga + stieup(e)n (step) + os = (bad) stairs Nouns from verbs : A very easy verb to get action names from verbs (mostly of IE origin) is to add the suffix –en, just as we do in English with the suffix “-ing”. Tweis > tweisen = sparkle > sparkling As in English, adding “-er” to a verb makes a noun of agent. Plunder = plunderers (note that the Sambahsa noun must always indicate predictably the place of the stress). Swindel = swindler = swindler Verbal compounds : “ab-“ : = English “off”. Abbohr = ab + bohr (past tense of “behr”) = carried away Abcurs = ab + curr (past tense of “curr”) = ran away Abgaloppam = ab + galopp + am = we rode away Abgires = ab + gires (infinitive of “geir”) = to turn back

Ablit = ab + lit (past tense of “leit”) = went off Abpieursk = ab + pieursk (past tense of “paursk”) = went off to fetch Abpluk = ab + pleuk (past tense of “pleuk”) = flew off Abrides = ab + rides (infinitive of “reid”) = to ride off Abwohgh = ab + wohgh (past tense of “wehgh”) = to drive off “-asc” = “to become” maimourasco = maimour (encharged) + asc + o (1° pers. sing. present tense) = I take care slabasct = slab + asc + t = is getting weak “bi-“ : This prefix means “to begin/start (doing)” Bi + curs (past tense of “curr”) = bicurs = began to run Bi + despere + im = bidesperim = I began to despair Bi + er (past tense of “erem”) + am = we began to row Bi + ghieng (past tense of “ghang”) = bighieng = began to walk; bighanct = begun to walk Bi + gnoh + s (sigmatic aorist) + im = bignohsim = I began to know, I got acquainted with Bi + gnur (past tense of “gneur”) = bignur = began to gurgle Bi + hul (past tense of “heul”) = began to yell Bi + hungher (past tense of “heungher”) = bihungher = began to be hungry Bi + meje + nd + -ye = by beginning to eat (“while I was beginning to eat...”) Bi + rus = birus = began to crackle Bi + schawngdan + end = beginning to discourage Bi + sgwes (past tense of “sgwesen”) = bisgwes = began to go out (light) Bi + stigh (past tense of “steigh”) + am = we began to climb Bi + stris (past tense of “strid”) = bistris = began to hiss Bi + styr + t = bistyrt = begun to steer “des-“ : Indicates the contrary. Desois = des + ois (past tense of “oid”) = deflated “dus-“ : = English “ill, badly” Duslites = dus + lites (infinitive of “leit”) = to be unwell. Duswohrt = dus + wohrt (past tense of “wehrt”) = to turn ill

“-eih” : X-eih = to make X Arrestihes = infinitive of “arresteih” = to make arrest Boderiht = boder (deaf) + ih + t (past participle) = deafened Ceddihes = cedd + ihes (infinitive) = to make give in Endergwehmeihndo = endergwehme (to take refuge) + eih + nd + o = causing to take refuge Entrih = entre + ih = made enter Feugeihnd = feug + eih + nd = making flee Jambihes = jamb + ihes (infinitive) = to make stride over Judcihes = infinitive of “judceih” = to make judge Kyalbehndiht = kyal + behnd + ih + t = made (someone) jailed into a room Marloubihn = marloub + ih + n = defeated Myehrsihes = infinitive of “myehrseih” = to make forget Oislidihsit = oi + slid + ih + s + it = (he/she/it) made slide Verbs with an ablaut “ei” turn it to “i” for reasons of euphony. Platih = plat + ih = made flat, flattened Pohihes = poh + ihes = to made drink Rundiht = rund + ih + -t (past participle = rounded, made round Salgeihnd-ye = salg + eih + nd + -ye = by taking out Salgihes = infinitive of “salgeih” = to take out of (to make go out of) Salgih = took out of Spasserihes = infinitive of “spassereih” = to take for a walk/ride outside Sreuihsit = sreu + ih + s + it = made flow As factitives preserve the accusative of the original verb, they often work with double accusatives. “en-“ : Before a noun, means “to put in”. Ex: “endamier”, past tense of “endamar” = en + damar “bowstring” = to nock (an arrow); past participle : endamart Enkasrit = en + kasre (from “kasra” = rout) + it = (he/she/it) routed (transitive) Enwede = en + wed + e = to put into water “For-“ : If “for-“ and the reflexive pronoun is added to a verb, it gives to this verb the meaning “away, astray”. Ex: for + leit (to go [figurative meaning]) = se forleit

“forleitend-se” = going astray “forsafert” = travelled astray “forsciss” = for + sciss (past participle of “scinesd”) = with a plunging neckline “forwandert” = wandered astray “mis-“ : = English “mis-“ mistreusend = mis + treus + end = mistrustful, mistrusting mistrust = mistrust(ed) “muta-“ : Means “change of” Mutaplacit = muta + place + it = (he/she/it) changed of place “na-“ : “continuative” = “to keep on (doing) naghieng = na + ghieng = kept on walking nalehge = na + lehg + e = to keep on telling namejim = na + meje + im = I kept on having my meal napluk = na + pluk (past tense of “pleuk”) = kept on flying naspehcend = na + spehc + end = keeping on looking at nastohmbam = na + stohmb (past tense of “stehmb”) + am = we kept on stalking naswigh = na + swigh (past tense of “sweigh”) = remained silent natrehce = na + trehc + e = to keep on moving oneself natieyc = na + tieyc (past tense of “tayc”) = remained silent navibrit = na + vibre + it = kept on vibrating “ni-“ : means “down”, often in a figurative meaning nifiell = ni + fiell (past tense of “fall”) = fell down “re-“ : = English “re-“, again, back. Rebrighen = re + brigh + en = brought back Redahsim = re + dah + s + im = I gave back Remsim = r(e) + em + s + im = I took back Reklohng = re + klohng = folded back Renfalle = r(e) + enfall + e = to come to mind

Renkardkiesch = r(e) + en + kardkiesch (past tense of “kardkasch”) = put back in its sheath. Reskape = re + skap + e = to go off again Restahe = re + stah + e = to stand back Restahsit = re + stah + s + it = stood back Restieusim = re + stieu + s + im = I stood back upright Revide = re + vid + e = to see back Revidsiemos = re + vid + siemos = we will see back The “s-mobile” : This was an IE verbal prefix whose function is still unclear. In Sambahsa, it has merged with the prefix “ois” (roughly corresponding to English “off”) so much that an “oi” is often added to verbs beginning with “s” + consonant, for reasons of euphonics. Oiskeirlisit = oi + skeir + lis + it = (he/she/it) skimmed through Oismeihnd-ye = oi + smeih + nd + -ye = by smiling Oisper = oi + sper = past tense of “speren” = to spur Oispohc = oi + spohc = past tense of “spehc” = to look Oisroht = oi + sroht = past tense of “sreht” = to stir. Oistabht = oi + stabht (past participle of “stamebh”) = hindered Oistahnd-ye = oi + stah + nd + -ye = by standing Oistahsit = oi + stah + s + it = (he/she/it) stood Oistehmend-ye = oi + stehm + end + -ye = by supporting Oistigh = oi + stigh = past tense of “steigh” = to go up Oistrohc = oi + strohc = past tense of “strehc” = to extend ; oistrohcit = (he/she/it) extended Oiswehbhe = oi + swehbh + e = to hover Oiswohrt = oi + swohrt (past participle of “swehr”) = sworn “(oi)s” is otherwise the opposite to “en-“ (see above) : sdamarnd-ye = s + damar + nd + -ye = by shooting (an arrow) “sua-“ : = English “well” suabeluct = sua + beluct (past participle of “beleuc”) = well lit suadaken = sua + daken = well received suadrughes = sua + drughes (infinitive of “dreugh”) = to betray well suaguardet = sua + guarde + t = well guarded suahissaben = sua + hissab + en = well reckoned suamodelen = sua + model + en = well-shaped suanihes = sua + nihes, infinitive of “neih” = to guide well suaprimen = sua + primen (past participle of “preim”) = well received suawoid = sua + woid = to know well

“vi-“ : = “finally, eventually” viarrivam = vi + arrivam = we finally arrived viarrivit = vi + arrivit = (he/she/it) finally arrived vicess = vi + cess (past tense of “cedd”) = finally gave way viexstirpit = vi + exstirpe + it = (he/she/it) finally removed vilikw = vi + likw (past tense of “linekw”) = finallt left virup = vi + rup (past tense of “rumep”= finally broke “za-“ : Indicates the end of an action. Zaghyien = za + ghyien (past tense of “ghyan”) = closed again (“stopped opening”) Zamejim = za + meje + im = I finished my meal The iterative : It works with some verbs of IE origin. The central vowel turns to “o”, and “-ye” is suffixed. It means that some action is kept on being performed after an interruption. (While “re-“ implies that the action may be performed again from the very beginning). Ex : kwehre mien itner = to make my way Kwohrye mien itner = to keep on making my way (after a halt, an interruption) Reid > roidye = to keep on riding (after an interruption) The desiderative : = to want to, to plan. “-skw” is suffixed to the verb. Aurskwo = aur + skw + o = I want to hear Leurskws = leur + skw + s = (you) want to set free Sielvskwim = sielv (past tense of “salv”) + skw + im = I wanted to save The durative : Expressed by the suffix “neu” added to the verb. It corresponds to the English “present perfect” used in conjunction with “since, for”. Antslehnkneuvs = antslehnk + neu + vs (past infinitive) = to have developped. Schleivneun = schleiv + neu + n = polished

Submittneut = submitt + neu + t = has submitted The eventive : “not to stop doing, to keep on doing”. This tense is obtained by duplicated the first letter(s) of the verbal stem and inserting “i” or “ei”. Its past tense (“imperfect” = English progressive past) uses a prefix, the “augment” = “ee(-)” gwah (to go) > eegwigwaht = ee + gwi (reduplication) + gwah + t = (he/she/it) was (always) going, kept on going. (in recent PIE : égwegwât) gwigwahnden = gwi + gwah + nd + en = of (people) who were going to and fro. OTHER WORDS : Prepositions : “kye” means “towards, in the direction of”. It often merges with th following pronoun or article. Kya = kye + ia = towards the(m) Kyalters = kye + alter + s = in the direction of the others Kyam = kye + iam = towards her, towards the (+ feminin noun) Kyun = kye + un = in the direction of a(n) Special conjunction “ghi” : It is an “enclitic”, which means that it is often suffixed to the first word of the clause. It either means “indeed, then” or “for, because”. Edghi = ed + ghi = and for, and indeed Idghi = for the/it Ioghi = io + ghi = for I, I indeed Isghi = is + ghi = for (t)he... Mighi = mi + ghi =for to me... Oinghi = oin + ghi = for one... “yaschi” : Means “also, too”. When used alone, “-schi” works like a clitic : Betschi = bet + (ya)schi = but... too Edschi = ed + (ya)schi = and... too

New words : Carpent = framework of a coach; Gaulish root, found in French “charpente” and based on the same word as English “car”. Bregna = (plural neutral) = “freckles” Kaput = (!) bust, lost ; from German “kaputt !” Chaste = chaste Opportunist = opportunist Progredd = to progress ; progreddent = they progress; progreddend = progressing Pampas-grasa = pampas-grass (plural) Diffus (past tense of “diffuned”) = diffuse Sambahsa expressions : (ses) con id atmen ei os = (to be) at the end of one’s tether. Dank spollay = thank you very much tib est oiscript = it is your doom = (your doom) to you is written.