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SYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 6th MARCH 2011

MARKING SCHEME
This Marking Scheme has been prepared as a guide only to markers. This is not a set of model answers, nor is the Marking Scheme exclusive, for there will frequently be alternative responses which will provide a valid answer. Unless a question specifies that an answer be produced in a particular form, then an answer that is correct, factually or in practical terms, must be given the available marks. If there is doubt as to the correctness of an answer the relevant NCC Education materials and associated module textbook should be the first authority.

Throughout the question, please credit any valid alternative point.

Notice to Markers
Where markers award half marks in any part of a question they should ensure that the total mark recorded for a task is rounded up to a whole mark.

ANSWER ANY FOUR QUESTIONS


QUESTION 1 Throughout the question, please credit any valid alternative point. a) Explain the purpose of systems investigation. Award 1 mark for each point up to a maximum of 2 marks: To gather information about the existing system To gather information on what the user might require of the new system A Business Activity Model (BAM) is a means of documenting and analysing the activities that are essential for a business to meet specific objectives. Describe in detail each of the following components of a BAM: i) Business Perspectives Award 1 mark for each point up to a maximum of 3 marks: A business perspective is a statement of what everyone believes the basic function of the business to be - it encapsulates what it achieves, its reason for existing Help determine what has to be done for the business to be successful Measures of performance and actions required to keep the business on track are determined by the business perspectives ii) Business Activities Award 1 mark for each point up to a maximum of 6 marks: A business activity is an activity aimed at some specific purpose or primary task There are 5 types of activity in a BAM (plan, enable, do, monitor, control) Doing activities are essential parts of the primary task Enabling activities ensure all the facilities and resources required for the doing activities are available Planning activities ensure that doing and enabling are done as required, e.g. by setting performance targets Monitoring activities collect performance data and measure in comparison with expectations Control activities act on the other activities when expectations are not being met Business Events Award 1 mark for each point up to a maximum of 4 marks: A business event is something that triggers an activity and is recorded along with the activity or activities it triggers There are 3 types of business event: External inputs from outside of the system boundary Decisions made within business activities Scheduled points in time Marks

b)

iii)

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Systems Analysis and Design Marking Scheme March 2011 7/12/2010 Final NCC Education Ltd 2011

Marks c) Briefly describe the SEVEN (7) steps that should be followed to create a Level 1 Data Flow Diagram (DFD). Award 1 mark for each step up to a maximum of 7 marks: 1. Identify key data flows e.g. documents, reports, etc that have some unique identifier 2. Create an initial DFD sources and sinks are identified and the data flows to/from them 3. Agree a system boundary clearly identify and agree with the users which functional areas are within the scope of further investigation 4. Identify processes and data stores each functional area within the system is turned into a process box and major data stores are added 5. Add resource flows flows of physical goods and stores of physical goods are added 6. Add further processes study each data store to ensure that it has a data flow in and out 7. Review diagram check that all flows are allowed, all names used are familiar to users and agree the diagram with users Describe a context diagram and explain the purpose of a context diagram. Award 1 mark for each point up to a maximum of 3 marks: A context diagram shows the entire system surrounded by external entities Major inputs and outputs are shown as data flows It focuses on the boundary of the system and aids agreement with users on the project scope. 7

d)

Total 25 Marks

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Systems Analysis and Design Marking Scheme March 2011 7/12/2010 Final NCC Education Ltd 2011

QUESTION 2 Throughout the question, please credit any valid alternative point. a)

Marks

Explain when and why entity analysis is carried out during systems analysis. Award 1 mark for each point up to a maximum of 2 marks: During analysis of the existing system to aid the analysts understanding of it Alongside relational data analysis to produce a model of the required data structure of the new system An entity is a thing about which the organisation wants to hold data. Give FIVE (5) examples of an entity in a business context. Award 1 mark for each suitable example up to a maximum of 5 marks, typical examples are: Invoice Employee Customer Supplier Product Define Logical Systems Modelling. The transition from the analysis of the current system to the specification of the new system. Briefly describe the steps a systems analyst should take to convert from a current physical Data Flow Diagram (DFD) to a top-level current logical DFD. Award 1 mark for each valid point up to a maximum of 9 marks: Replace physical stores with main logical data stores Remove transient data stores Remove processes that cannot be automated Remove processes that only reorganise data Combine processes that are joined by data flows Combine processes performing the same function Minimise data flow content Obtain data only when needed Use meaningful names Remove all references to physical location Remove processes that do not alter data State THREE (3) barriers to creating a complete conversion from a model of the current physical system to a logical model of the new system. Award 1 mark for each point up to a maximum of 3 marks: Current system may be so illogical it is difficult to model Pressures from management Pressures from data processing needs Time pressures

b)

c)

d)

e)

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Systems Analysis and Design Marking Scheme March 2011 7/12/2010 Final NCC Education Ltd 2011

Marks f) There are a number of benefits to an organisation adopting a standard approach to systems analysis. Briefly describe FIVE (5) of these benefits. Award 1 mark for each benefit up to a maximum of 5 marks: Increased productivity the required tasks in each stage of analysis are clear so there is no time wasted in determining what needs to be done and what the outcomes should be Better quality systems analysts are prompted to ask the right questions and testing/checkpoints review progress and omissions Better communication diagrams produced have a standard syntax that all involved can readily use and understand Better project management standard task use standard techniques and produce standard diagrams allowing progress to be easily monitored Better documentation standard diagrams and documents are produced throughout the analysis phase 5

Total 25 Marks

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Systems Analysis and Design Marking Scheme March 2011 7/12/2010 Final NCC Education Ltd 2011

QUESTION 3 Throughout the question, please credit any valid alternative point. a)

Marks

Explain each of the following principles of organisation as expounded by Lyndall Urwick in the 1920s: i) The principle of the objective Every organisation and every part of the organisation must be an expression of the purpose of the undertaking concerned or it is meaningless and therefore redundant. ii) The principle of authority In every organised group the supreme authority must rest somewhere. There should be a clear line of authority from the supreme authority to every member of the organisation. The principle of responsibility The responsibility of the superior for the acts of his/her subordinates is absolute. The principle of the correspondence In every position the responsibility and authority should correspond. The principle of continuity Reorganisation is a continuous process; in every organisation specific provision should be made for it.

iii)

iv)

v)

b)

Define a system. A set of connected things or parts that form a whole or work together. Rapid Application Development (RAD) is one approach to the development of new systems. i) Draw a diagram that illustrates the stages in the RAD process and the relationship between the stages. Award 1 mark for each stage that is named, positioned correctly and linked correctly up to a maximum of 7 marks:

c)

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Systems Analysis and Design Marking Scheme March 2011 7/12/2010 Final NCC Education Ltd 2011

Marks ii) Briefly describe each stage in the RAD process. Award 1 mark for each description to a maximum of 7 marks: Requirements analysis & spec determines business requirements and creates logical model of the required system Design creates the program specifications Code writing the program code Unit test testing individual program modules Integration test testing all the programs running together as a complete system Prototype partially complete and operational system launched that users can use, forms basis of next iteration where more functionality is added System & acceptance test user testing to ensure that it meets their requirements Explain how the RAD process differs from the traditional waterfall model of systems development. Award 1 mark for each valid point up to a maximum of 5 marks: The objective is to have a subset of the system working early on in the development cycle The system is then built incrementally from this point The parts that will have the biggest business benefit are built first with those with the least beneficial effect built later When each module (build) is tested there is a loop back to design for further modification After integration testing and production of a prototype there is a loop back to the requirements analysis phase to allow for further requirements to be added 7

iii)

Total 25 Marks

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Systems Analysis and Design Marking Scheme March 2011 7/12/2010 Final NCC Education Ltd 2011

QUESTION 4 Throughout the question, please credit any valid alternative point. a)

Marks

Describe in detail each of the following types of data file and give TWO (2) examples of each type: i) Master files Award 1 mark for each valid point up to a maximum of 2 marks: May be static master files that contain data on business entities of a permanent or semipermanent nature May be dynamic master files that contain data on business entities that are important but transitory Award 1 mark for each example up to a maximum of 2 marks: Static examples: products, suppliers, employees, customers, etc Dynamic examples: customer orders, job tickets, projects, etc ii) Transaction files Award 1 mark for each valid point up to a maximum of 2 marks: Record data relating to business transactions prior to further processing May be used to update master files and/or archiving for audit purposes Award 1 mark for each example up to a maximum of 2 marks: Customer orders for products (to update an order file) Price changes for products (to update product files) Customer payments (to be held for audit purposes) iii) Work files Award 1 mark for each valid point up to a maximum of 2 marks: A file required for the purpose of processing business data Temporary in nature Award 1 mark for each example up to a maximum of 2 marks: Files used in sort processes Temporary files used in print processes iv) Security files Award 1 mark for each valid point up to a maximum of 2 marks: Back-up copies of important files and files being processed Provide a copy for use in case of loss or damage to current versions of files Award 1 mark for each example up to a maximum of 2 marks: Transaction logging/recovery files System restore files

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Systems Analysis and Design Marking Scheme March 2011 7/12/2010 Final NCC Education Ltd 2011

Marks v) Audit files Award 1 mark for each valid point up to a maximum of 2 marks: A special kind of transaction file that stores data on all transactions for examination by an auditor Usual serial files created at the time of updates to master files Award 1 mark for each example up to a maximum of 2 marks: Payments received Invoices sent b) i) Briefly explain the factors an organisation must consider when deciding whether to duplicate their systems hardware and data as part of their disaster planning strategy. Award 1 mark for each valid point up to a maximum of 2 marks: The cost of duplicating hardware and data The cost of losing data and having no operational system Briefly describe THREE (3) ways in which an organisation may provide stand-by facilities to deal with the complete loss of computing facilities. Award 1 mark for each valid point up to a maximum of 3 marks: Replicate the facilities at another site within the organisation Have an agreement with manufacturers for the rapid replacement of equipment Have an agreement with another company to rent time/space on their equipment Have a contract with a purpose-built back-up centre 2 4

ii)

Total 25 Marks

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Systems Analysis and Design Marking Scheme March 2011 7/12/2010 Final NCC Education Ltd 2011

QUESTION 5 Throughout the question, please credit any valid alternative point. a) i) Explain the purpose of functional modelling in object-oriented analysis. Award 1 mark for each valid point up to a maximum of 2 marks: Model the processes within a business Model interaction of the system with its environment State and describe the TWO (2) main outputs of functional modelling. Award 1 mark for each valid point up to a maximum of 2 marks: Activity diagrams model business processes Use cases describe the system from the point of view of a user Explain the purpose of structural modelling in object-oriented analysis. Award 1 mark for each valid point up to a maximum of 2 marks: Model the objects in a system Models the relationship between objects

Marks

ii)

b)

i)

ii)

State and describe the main output of structural modelling. Class diagram showing the responsibilities of classes of objects and the collaboration between them. Explain the purpose of behavioural modelling in object-oriented analysis. Award 1 mark for each valid point up to a maximum of 2 marks: Models how objects collaborate in each of the use cases Shows the internal view of the business processes State and describe the THREE (3) main outputs of behavioural modelling. Award 1 mark for each valid point up to a maximum of 3 marks: Sequence diagrams show the objects that collaborate in a single use case and the messages passed between them Communication diagrams are object diagrams that show relationships in terms of message passing rather than associations State machines show how the state of an object changes at it responds to events

c)

i)

ii)

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Systems Analysis and Design Marking Scheme March 2011 7/12/2010 Final NCC Education Ltd 2011

Marks d) Create a state machine for a ticket to see a ballet. The ballet is performed once per day. Tickets are bought for a particular date and particular seat and can be bought at any time before the performance begins. If a ticket is purchased in advance, it can be returned at any time up to 48 hours before the performance and a refund will be given. Award marks for each of the following up to a maximum of 8 marks: Initial state [1 mark] Final state[1 mark] Two main states similar to booked and valid [1 mark each, max 2] Transitions including guard conditions/events [1 mark each, max 4] 8

e)

State and briefly explain FIVE (5) factors that affect the time it takes to carry out clerical procedures. Award 1 mark for each valid point up to a maximum of 5 marks: Form design - a well designed form is easy to complete and interpret Office layout and environment movement around the office, clutter, etc Procedure sequence documents may have to move back and forth creating unnecessary delays Filing times the time necessary to file away and retrieve documents Interruptions other activities that interfere such as answering the telephone Delays awaiting a decision of a supervisor or input from another clerical task

Total 25 Marks

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Systems Analysis and Design Marking Scheme March 2011 7/12/2010 Final NCC Education Ltd 2011

LEARNING OUTCOME/QUESTION MATRIX FOR SAD Examination


LO LO1 Chapter/Page Reference Ch5, BSA, p105 Ch6, BSA, p142-149 Ch6, BSA, p151 Ch9, BSA, p187, 189 Ch13, BSA, p253 Ch13, BSA, p254 Ch4, BSA, p89-90 Ch3, BSA, p52 Ch3, BSA, p70-71, 79-80 Ch7, BSD, p114-115 Ch11, BSD, p193-194 Ch14, BSA Ch5, BSA, p108-110 Ch13, BSA, p265 Ch2, BSA, p24 Ch12, BSD, p232 Ch14, BSA Ch14, BSA Ch14, BSA Topic Purpose of systems investigation Building Level 1 DFD Context diagram Entities Logical systems modelling Top level logical DFD Standard approach to systems analysis System definition RAD Data files Clerical procedure timings OO analysis BAM Barriers to logical design Urwicks principles of organisation Disaster planning OO analysis Behavioural state machine Behavioural state machine Question number Q1a) Q1c) Q1d) Q2a), b) Q2c) Q2d) Q2f) Q3b) Q3c) Q4a) Q5e) Q5a), b), c) Q1b) Q2e) Q3a) Q4b) Q5a), b), c) Q5d) Q5d)

LO2

LO3 LO4 LO5