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To find unknown sides : To find unknown angles :

a b c sin A sin B sin C


   
sin A sin B sin C a b c
SOLUTION OF TRIANGLES
1.2 Use Sine Rule to find the unknown sides or angles of a triangle.

Task 1 : Find the unknown sides of a triangle when two of its angles and one of the corresponding
sides are known.
(1) Diagram 1 shows the triangle ABC. Answer :

BC 8 .2
0

sin 75 sin 400

8.2
BC   sin 750
sin 400
Diagram 1
Using the scientific calculator,

Calculate the length of BC. BC = 12.32 cm


(2) Diagram 2 shows the triangle PQR

Diagram 2

Calculate the length of PQ. [ 8.794 cm ]


(3) Diagram 3 shows the triangle DEF.
D

15 cm

600 350 16’


E F
Diagram 3

Calculate the length of DE.

[ 10.00 cm ]
(4) Diagram 4 shows the triangle KLM.
L
K 0 420
63

15 cm

Diagram 4
M
Calculate the length of KM.

[ 11.26 cm ]

Solutions of Triangles 1
(5) Diagram 5 shows the triangle ABC. Answer :
ABC  180 0  40 0  75 0  65 0

AC 8 .2
0

sin 65 sin 40 0

8 .2
BC  0
 sin 65 0
Diagram 5 sin 40

Using the scientific calculator,


Calculate the length of AC.
AC = 11.56 cm
(6) Diagram 6 shows the triangle PQR

Diagram 6

Calculate the length of PR.


[ 6.527 cm ]
(7) Diagram 7 shows the triangle DEF.
D

15 cm

600 350 16’


E F
Diagram 7

Calculate the length of EF.

[ 17.25 cm ]
(8) Diagram 8 shows the triangle KLM.
L
K 0 420
63

15 cm

Diagram 8
M
Calculate the length of KL.

[ 16.26 cm ]

Solutions of Triangles 2
Task 2 : Find the unknown sides of a triangle when two of its angles and the side not corresponding
to the angles are known.
(9) Diagram 9 shows the triangle ABC. Answer :

ABC  1800  47 0  780  550

BC 11.2
0

sin 47 sin 550

11.2
BC  0
 sin 47 0
sin 55
Diagram 9
Using scientific calculator,
Calculate the length of BC.
BC = 9.9996 cm or 10.00 cm
(10) Diagram 10 shows the triangle ABC.

Diagram 10
Calculate the length of AC.

[ 4.517 cm ]
(11) Diagram 11 shows the triangle PQR.
7.2 cm
R
P 0 250
28

Diagram 11
Q

Calculate the length of PQ.

[ 3.810 cm ]
(12) Diagram 12 shows the triangle DEF.

720 510
E F
5.6 cm
Diagram 12

Calculate the length of DE.


[ 5.189 cm ]

Solutions of Triangles 3
Task 3 : Find the unknown angles of a triangle when two sides and a non-included angle are given.
(1) Diagram 1 shows the triangle ABC. Answer :
A
sin C sin 60 0
10 cm

15 cm 10 15

600 10 sin 60 0
B C sin C 
Diagram 1 15
sin C  0.5774
Find ACB.
C  sin 1 0.5774
C  35.270
(2) Diagram 2 shows the triangle KLM

15 cm L
K

9 cm 500
Diagram 2
M
Find KLM

[ 27.360 ]
(3) Diagram 3 shows the triangle DEF.
D

3.5 cm
12.5 cm

430 24’
E F
Diagram 3

Find DFE.

[ 11.090 ]
(4) Diagram 4 shows the triangle PQR.

13 cm R
P

10 cm
0
130
Diagram 4
Q
Find QPR.

[ 36.110 ]

Solutions of Triangles 4
(5) Diagram 5 shows the triangle ABC. Answer :
A sin A sin 110 0

14 cm 9 14
9 sin 110 0
sin A 
1100 B 14
Diagram 5
C
9 cm sin A  0.6041
Find ABC.
A  sin 1 0.6041
A  37.160
ABC  1800  1100  37.16 0
 32.84 0
(6) Diagram 6 shows the triangle KLM.
K 4.2 cm L

2.8 cm
Diagram 6 250

M
Find KLM.

[ 138.640 ]
(7) Diagram 7 shows the triangle DEF.
E
D 340

6.7 cm 4.4 cm

F Diagram 7

Find DFE.

[ 124.460 ]
(8) Diagram 8 shows the triangle PQR.
P

12.3 cm
0
55 Diagram 8
R Q
7.7 cm
Find PQR.

[ 94.150 ]

Solutions of Triangles 5
Task 4 : Find the unknown side of a triangle when two sides and a non-included angle are given.
(1) Diagram 1 shows the triangle ABC. Answer :
A sin C sin 37 0

14 cm 14 9
370
14 sin 37 0
sin C 
B 9
Diagram 1
C
9 cm sin C  0.9362
C  sin 1 0.9362
Given that ACB is an obtuse angle, find
the length of AC. C  110.580
B  1800  110.580  370
 32.420
AC 9
0

sin 32.42 sin 37 0
9 sin 32.42 0
AC 
sin 37 0
AC = 8.018 cm

(2) Diagram 2 shows the triangle KLM

9 cm L
K 0
40

7 cm

M Diagram 2
Given that KLM is an obtuse angle, find
the length of ML.

[ 2.952 cm ]

Solutions of Triangles 6
(3) Diagram 3 shows the triangle DEF.
D

8 cm

420
E 11 cm F
Diagram 3
Given that the value of EDF is greater than
900, find the length of DE.

[ 5.040 cm ]
(4) Diagram 4 shows the triangle PQR.

8.5 cm R
P 460

6.9 cm

Diagram 4
Q

Given that PQR is an angle in the second


quadrant of the cartesian plane, find the
length of QR.

[ 2.707 cm ]
(5) Diagram 5 shows the triangle KLM.
K L
0
23

17.3 cm 9.2 cm
Diagram 5
M
Given that KLM is an angle in the second
quadrant of the cartesian plane, find the
length of KL.

[ 9.686 cm ]

Solutions of Triangles 7
Solutions of Triangles 8
SOLUTION OF TRIANGLES
2.2 Use Cosine Rule to find the unknown sides or angles of a triangle.

b2  c2  a2
2 2 2
a = b + c – 2bc cos A cos A 
2bc
b2 = a2 + c2 – 2ac cos B a  c2  b2
2
cos B 
2ac
c2 = a2 + b2 – 2ab cos C a  b2  c2
2
cos C 
2ab
Task 1 : Find the unknown side of a triangle when two sides and an included angle are given.
(1) Diagram 1 shows the triangle PQR such Solution :
that PR =12.3 cm , QR =16.4 cm and
 PRQ = 67 .
x 2  16.4 2  12.3 2  2(16.4)(12.3) cos 67 0
P = 262.1
12.3 cm
x cm x  262.61
670 x  16.21
Q R
16.4 cm
Diagram 1

Find the value of x.


(2) Diagram 2 shows the triangle PQR such that
PQ =7 cm, QR =5 cm and  PQR = 75 .
R

x cm 5 cm
5cm
750
Q
P 7 cm
Diagram 2

Find the value of x.

[ 7.475 ]
(3) Diagram 3 shows a triangle with sides 5 cm ,
13 cm and an included angle 43 .

5 cm x cm

430
E
13 cm
Diagram 3

Find the value of x .

[ 9.946 ]

Solutions of Triangles 8
(4) Diagram 4 shows the triangle PQR.
7 cm C
A 0
53

6.3 cm

Diagram 4
B

Find the length of BC.

[ 5.967 cm ]
(5) Diagram 5 shows the triangle KLM.

5.8 cm
K L
480

4 cm

Diagram 5
M

Find the length of LM.

[ 4.312 cm ]
(6) Diagram 6 shows the triangle PQR.

2.23 cm

750 31’
P Q
5.40 cm
Diagram 6

Find the length of PR.

[ 5.302 cm ]
(7) Diagram 7 shows a triangle with sides
6.21 cm , 10.51 cm and an included angle
360 39’ .
x cm
6.21cm
360 39'

10.51cm

Diagram 7
Find the value of x .

[ 6.656 ]

Solutions of Triangles 9
Task 2 : Find the unknown angle of a triangle when three sides are given.
(1) In Diagram 1, ABC is a triangle where Solution :
AB = 13 cm, AC = 14 cm and BC= 15 cm. 13 2  14 2  15 2
cos BAC 
A 2(13)(14)

13cm 14 cm =0.3846

C BAC  67.38 
B 15 cm
Diagram 1

Find BAC .
(2) Diagram 2 shows a triangle ABC where
AB = 11 cm, AC = 13 cm and BC= 16 cm.
A

11cm 13 cm

B C
16 cm
Diagram 2

Find BAC .

[ 83.17]
(3) Diagram 3 shows a triangle ABC where
AB = 13 cm, AC = 16 cm and BC = 17.5 cm.
A

13cm 16 cm

B C
17.5 cm
Diagram 3
Calculate BAC

[ 73.41]
(4) Diagram 4 shows a triangle ABC where
AB = 12.67 cm, AC = 16.78 cm and
BC= 19.97 cm.
A

12.67cm 16.78 cm

B 19.97 cm C

Diagram 4
Calculate BCA

[39.17]

Solutions of Triangles 10
(5) In Diagram 5, PQR is a triangle such that
PR = 6.45 cm, RQ = 2.23 cm and
PQ = 5.40 cm. R

6.45 cm 2.23 cm

Q
P
5.40 cm
Diagram 5

Find RQP .
[108.07]
(6) In Diagram 6, PQR is a triangle such that
PR = 23.5 cm, RQ = 12.5 cm and
PQ= 18.7 cm.
R

23.5 cm
12.5 cm

P Q
18.7 cm

Diagram 6

Calculate the smallest angle in the triangle.


[31.96]
(7) For triangle ABC in Diagram 7, AB = 8.56
cm, AC = 11.23 cm and BC= 14.51 cm.
A

8.56cm 11.23cm

B C
14.5 1cm

Diagram 7

Calculate the largest angle in the triangle.

[93.33]
(8) For triangle ABC in Diagram 8, AB = 13
cm, AC = 16 cm and BC= 17.5 cm.
A

13cm 16 cm

B C
17.5 cm
Diagram 8

Calculate the second largest angle in the


triangle.
[61.19]

Solutions of Triangles 11
Solutions of Triangles 12
1
Area of ∆ = ab sin C
2
SOLUTION OF TRIANGLES
1
1 = bc sin A
3.1 Use the formula ab sin C or its equivalent to find the area 2
2 1
of a triangle. = ac sin B
2
Task : Find the area of a triangles given in each of the following..
(1) In Diagram 1, ABC is a triangle with Solution:
AB= 6 cm, AC = 9 cm and BAC  53 .
1
A Area of ABC  (6)(9) sin 53
6 cm 2
53 = 21.56 cm2
9 cm B

Diagram 1
C

Find the area of  ABC


(2) In Diagram 2, ABC is a triangle with
AC= 6 cm, BC = 5 cm and ACB  78  .
A

6 cm

B 78
5 cm C
Diagram 2
Find the area of  ABC.
2
[ 14.67 cm ]
(3) In Diagram 3, ABC is a triangle with
AC= 6 cm, BC = 8 cm and ACB  120  .
B
8 cm

C
120
6 cm

Diagram 3

Find the area of  ABC.


2
[ 20.78 cm ]
(4) In Diagram 4, ABC is a triangle with
AC= 6 cm, BC = 12.5 cm and the reflex
angle ACB  250  .
B

12.5 cm
C
250

6 cm
Diagram 4
A

2
Find the area of  ABC. [ 35.24 cm ]

Solutions of Triangles 12
(5) In Diagram 5, ABC is a triangle such that Solution:
AB= 12.5 cm , AC = 6 cm and ACB=80. 12.5 6
(a) 

B C sin 80 sin CBA
80
6 cm 6 sin 80 
sin CBA =
12.5 cm 12.5
A = 0.4727

Diagram 5 CBA =sin -1 (0.2727)


=28.21
Find (a) CBA,
(b) the area of the triangle. (b) CAB  180   28.21  80 
=71.79

1
Area of  ABC= (6)(12.5) sin 71.79
2
2
=35.62 cm
(6) In Diagram 6, ABC is a triangle such that
AB= 11 cm , AC = 15 cm and ACB=4534’.
A
11cm
15 cm

B
4534'
C Diagram 6

Find (a) CBA,


(b) the area of the triangle.

[ (a) 76.830 (b) 69.66 cm2 ]


(7) In Diagram 7, ABC is a triangle such that
AC = 7 cm, AB = 15 cm and
ACB = 11530’.
A
15 cm

7cm 11530' B
C
Diagram 7

Find (a) CBA,


(b) the area of the triangle

[ (a) 24.910 (b) 33.46 cm2 ]

Solutions of Triangles 13
(8) In Diagram 8, ABC is a triangle where
AB= 15 cm, BC =11 cm and AC=8 cm. Solution
112  15 2  8 2
(a) cos B 
11 cm B 2(11)(15)
C
=0.8545
8cm
15 cm B = 31 30’

A
1
Diagram 8 (b) Area of  ABC = (11)(15) sin 31 30 '
2
Find (a) the smallest angle, = 42.86
(b) the area of  ABC.
(9) In Diagram 9, ABC is a triangle where
AB= 30 cm, BC =25 cm and AC=20 cm.
C
25 cm
20 cm
B
A 30 cm

Diagram 9

Find (a) the largest angle,


(b) the area of  ABC.

0 2
[ (a) 82.82 (b) 248.04 cm ]
(10) In Diagram 10, ABC is a triangle where
AB = 13 cm, AC = 14 cm and BC= 15 cm.
A

13cm 14 cm

B C
15 cm
Diagram 10

Find (a) the second largest angle,


(b) the area of  ABC.

0 2
[ (a) 59.49 (b) 84.00 cm ]

Solutions of Triangles 14
SOLUTION OF TRIANGLES
3.2 Solve problems involving three-dimensional objects

Task : Answer all the questions below.


(1) Solution:
H G
G
HC= 6 2  3 2  6.708
E
F
BD = 6 2  4 2  7.211

D C HB = 4.69 2  3 2  7.810

A B
7.810 2  6.708 2  4 2
cos BHC 
2(7.810)(6.708)
The diagram above shows a cuboid with a
= 0.8589
rectangular base, ABCD. Given that
AB = 6cm, BC = 4cm and CG=3 cm.
Find  BHC  BHC = 30.810
(2)

H G

E
F

D C

A B
The diagram above shows a cuboid with a
rectangular base ABCD. Given that
AB = 16 cm, BC = 4cm and CG=13 cm.
Find  BHC

[10.98]
(3)
H G

E
F
D C

A B

The diagram above shows a cuboid with a


rectangular base ABCD. Given that AB = 6
cm, BC = 4cm and CG = 3 cm.
Find  BGD.
[74.44]

Solution of Triangles 15
4. H G The diagram on the left shows a cuboid with a
rectangular base ABCD. Given that DG=6.1 cm,
BG=7.2 cm and  BGD =41.02.
E D F
C Find the length of BD.

A
B

[ 4.772 cm ]
5.
H G The diagram on the left shows a cuboid with a rectangular
base ABCD. Given that BC = 8.2 cm, CG = 6.42 cm,
AB = 12.03 cm and  ABG =110.02.
E D
C Find the length of AG.
F

A
B

[ 17.91 cm ]

Solution of Triangles 16
Solution of Triangles 17
SOLUTION OF TRIANGLES
Further Practice with questions based on SPM format.

Task : Answer all the questions below.


(1) Diagram 1 shows a trapezium LMNO.
L 13 cm M

16 cm

31o
O 18 cm N
Diagram 1

Calculate (a)  LNM,


(b) the length of LN,
(c) the area of ∆OLN.

0 2
[ (a) 24.74 (b) 25.67 cm (c) 118.99 cm ]
(2) In Diagram 2, BCD is a straight line.
A

32o
10 cm
7 cm

B C 5 cm D
Diagram 2

Find (a)  ACD,


(b) the length of BC,
(c) the area of triangle ABD.

0 2
[ (a) 111.80 (b) 3.769 cm (c) 28.50 cm ]
(3) In Diagram 3, FGH is a straight line and G is
the midpoint of FH.
E

14 cm 16 cm

F 10 cm G H
Diagram 3

Find (a) EFG,


(b) the length of EG,
(c) the area of triangle EGH.

0 2
[ (a) 52.62 (b) 11.23 cm (c) 52.62 cm ]

Solutions of Triangles 17
(4) Diagram 4 shows a quadrilateral KLNM.

Diagram 4

Calculate (a) the length of LM,


(b) MNL,
(c) the area of quadrilateral KLNM.

0 2
[ (a) 12.92 cm (b) 31.73 (c) 141.65 cm ]
(5) In Diagram 5, QRS is a straight line.

Diagram 5

Find (a) QPR,


(b) the length of RS,
(c) the area of triangle PRS.

0 2
[ (a) 54.31 (b) 4.157 cm (c) 74.75 cm ]
(6) In Diagram 6, BCD is a straight line.

Diagram 6
Calculate (a) the length of AB,
(b)  CAD,
(c) the area of triangle ACD.

0 2
[ (a) 6.678 cm (b)84.74 (c) 13.17 cm ]

Solutions of Triangles 18