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INDUSTRIAL INTERNSHIP PROJECT REPORT OCTOBER 2012 APRIL 2013

AT I.Z.A CONSTRUCTION COMPANY SDN BHD

ODU PAUL DUKU ERIKOLE 14115 DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

INDUSTRIAL INTERNSHIP PROJECT REPORT 01ST OCTOBER 2012 12TH APRIL 2013

SOIL CEMENT STABILIZATION OF PAVEMENT SUBGRADE FOR A NEW 2.5KM ROAD IN ANAK KURAU

SUBMITTED TO

CENTER FOR STUDENT INTERNSHIP, MOBILITY AND ADJUNCT LECTURESHIP (CSIMAL) UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI PETRONAS

BY

ODU PAUL DUKU ERIKOLE - 14115 DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

APRIL 2013

HOST COMPANYS VERIFICATION STATEMENT

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The construction of new roads often results in the necessity to cope up with problematic subgrade materials such as expansive soils, collapsible soils, erodible soils, very soft soils and wet areas. These problems associated with subgrade materials are common in many parts of the world, although they tend to be localized in certain areas of which Kampung Anak Kurau is not an exception. Most of the soil at the project site is unsuitable (consists of mud/clay) which undergo a huge amount of volume change due to changes in temperature and moisture. This shrinking and swelling of the soil can lead to cracking of overlying pavement layers. According to (Karin, Sven-Erik & Ronny, 2002), a conventional solution in this situation is soil substitution, which involves excavating the loose soil layers and replacing them with frictional/granular material of higher bearing capacity. This layer is then followed by sub-base and base courses which are normally constructed of aggregates. But fill materials can deteriorate due to intrusion of stone base, pumping of subgrade soil and infiltration of water from subgrade, leading to a substantial damage of pavement[5]. Soil substitution is also not cost effective (aggregates are costly) and frequently also problematic, as the replaced material must be disposed of and new filling material hauled to the site. Furthermore, soil substitution takes longer time (several layers to be constructed) and it is not environmentally friendly method due to the greenhouse emissions during raw material mining, processing, and transportation of raw materials to the construction site. This project entitled as Soil Cement Stabilization of Pavement Subgrade for a new 2.5km road in Anak Kurau therefore, aims at improving the strength of subgrade materials and reducing road construction cost in terms of material, time and maintenance. The improvement of the strength of the subgrade materials is through the use of geotextile to separate the soft subgrade materials from the granular fill materials prevent
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migration and mingling of the soft subgrade soil and granular fill material under the action of the construction equipment or subsequent traffic but yet allow free movement of water. This unsuitable subgrade material replacement is then followed by stabilizing the fill materials with cement. During the unsuitable soil replacement by using geotextile separator, the unsuitable material was excavation to a sufficient depth, a type A non-woven geotextiles was then placed as a separator with a minimum overlap of about 500mm (figure 2.3.4-3), followed by river sand filling in layers and then compaction. The untreated fill material was then subjected to in-situ CBR test, Field Density Test, sieve analysis, Atterberg limits tests and compaction test to determine its properties. Samples of the granular fill materials were also dosed with different Portland cement content (2.5%, 3.5% and 5%) at the optimum moisture content and subjected to unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test so as to determine the optimum cement content to be used for the stabilization. The UCS test result shows that the strength of the subgrade material increases with an increase in the cement content and based on this result, a cement content of 4% was used in the Mix Design for the soil cement stabilization. The area to be stabilized is then demarcated and 4% of cement by proportion is added to the subgrade soil and mixed into it until a uniform color is obtained, and the mixture is then thoroughly compacted. Comparison of the CBR values before and after soil cement stabilization shows a significant increase in the value of CBR after soil cement stabilization. The CBR of the subgrade before stabilizing with cement is between 19% and 42% while the CBR value increases to between 78 and 82 at the age of three days and as high as 103% at the age of seven days after soil cement stabilization. This CBR value is higher than the recommended CBR value (80%) for road base constructed of crusher run or aggregate material. For this reason, it is not advisable to have sub-base and base courses, surface course can be constructed directly on the stabilized subgrade because it (the subgrade) is strong enough to withstand the subsequent traffic loading from the vehicle that will be
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using the road. Soil cement stabilization of the subgrade therefore reduces the design and construction thickness of flexible pavement. Based on the cost analysis, it can be concluded that soil cement stabilization is more cost effective than conventional method of constructing flexible pavement because construction cost when using soil cement stabilization of the subgrade material is RM 245,000.00 (table 2.4.2-1) but the cost would have been RM 516,390.26 (table 2.4.2-2) if conventional method were used.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all those people whose immeasurable contributions made it possible for me to complete my industrial internship training. I would like to thank especially the Center for Student Internship, Mobility and Adjunct Lectureship (CSIMAL) and the Department of Civil Engineering of Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) for giving the students such a golden opportunity to do industrial internship training and for their well-organized Internship Guidelines which made work easier for us during our training period. I would also like to thank my UTP supervisors Dr. Tee Hee Min of UTP for his encouragement and advice during the first visit and Dr. Mohd Faris Khamidi during the second visit for his support and guidance about what I need to add to the Internship Report. I am also thankful to the management of I.Z.A Construction Company for offering me the opportunity to do my industrial training with the company and for every assistance that they rendered to me from October 2012 up to date. Special thanks also go to my host company supervisor, Mr. Mior for assigning me several tasks and always being available to guide me in executing the tasks. I appreciate the project manager Mr. Firdaus, site manager Mr. Ravi and the project engineer Mr. Zulhelmy so much for helping me at site supervision work, in understanding construction drawings and taking off. I am thanking Mr. Rama of Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia (JKR) for his advance and for always asking me to join him for any laboratory tests and for providing an explanation for both laboratory and in-situ test results. Last but not least, I am thankful to all the staff of I.Z.A Construction Company and my fellow interns in the company for their support especially for providing me with relevant information that helped me during my training.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
HOST COMPANYS VERIFICATION STATEMENT ...........................................................ii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .............................................................................................. iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................................. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................ vii LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................... ix LIST OF TABLES .......................................................................................................... x 1.0.
1.1. 1.2. 1.3.

INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................. 1
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE HOST COMPANY ......................................................... 1 OBJECTIVES OF THE INDUSTRIAL INTERNSHIP ......................................................... 1 SCOPE OF WORK, TASKS OR PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN DURING INTERNSHIP ............ 2

2.0.

INTERNSHIP PROJECT REPORT ........................................................................ 6


PROJECT BACKGROUND ..................................................................................... 6
BACKGROUND ..................................................................................................................... 6 PROBLEM STATEMENT ........................................................................................................ 7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT .......................................................................................... 8 PROJECT OBJECTIVE ............................................................................................................ 9 SCOPE OF WORK FOR THE PROJECT ................................................................................... 9 2.1.1. 2.1.2. 2.1.3. 2.1.4. 2.1.5.

2.1.0.

2.2.0. LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................................. 10


2.2.1. 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.5. 2.2.6. 2.2.7. 2.2.8. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF SOIL CEMENT STABILIZATION...................................................... 10 TYPES OF CEMENT USED TO STABILIZE SOIL ..................................................................... 10 SOILS SUITABLE FOR CEMENT STABILIZATION .................................................................. 11 DESIGN CEMENT CONTENT FOR CEMENT-STABILIZED SOILS ........................................... 11 SOIL CEMENT STABILIZATION PROCESS ............................................................................ 13 OTHER STABILIZING AGENTS ............................................................................................. 13 BENEFITS OF SOIL STABILIZATION (CATERPILLAR, 2006) .................................................. 14 APPLICATION OF SOIL STABILIZATION .............................................................................. 15

2.3.0.
2.3.1. 2.3.2. 2.3.3. 2.3.4. 2.3.5. 2.3.6. 2.3.7.

METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................... 16
MOBILIZATION OF MACHINERY ........................................................................................ 16 SITE CLEARANCE AND DEMOLITION WORKS .................................................................... 18 EARTHWORKS ................................................................................................................... 18 UNSUITABLE SOIL REPLACEMENT WITH GEOTEXTILE SEPARATOR................................... 19 DRAINAGE WORK .............................................................................................................. 21 MATERIAL SAMPLING, TESTING AND MIX DESIGN ........................................................... 24 GRADING TO PROFILE ....................................................................................................... 25

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2.3.8. 2.3.9. 2.3.10. 2.3.11. 2.3.12. 2.3.13. 2.3.14. 2.3.15. 2.3.16.

SPREADING THE STABILIZING AGENT ............................................................................... 25 PULVERIZING AND MIXING ............................................................................................... 25 PRELIMINARY COMPACTION ............................................................................................. 26 GRADING TO CAMBER ...................................................................................................... 26 FINAL ROLLING .................................................................................................................. 26 CURING ............................................................................................................................. 26 QUALITY CONTROL ............................................................................................................ 27 RECOMMENDATION ......................................................................................................... 27 SITE CLEANING AND DEMOBILIZATION ............................................................................ 27

2.4.0.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ............................................................................... 28

2.4.1. RESULTS ............................................................................................................................ 28 2.4.1.1. Sieve Analysis................................................................................................................ 28 2.4.1.2. Dry Density/Moisture Content Relationship for site soil .............................................. 29 2.4.1.3. Atterberg Limits ............................................................................................................ 31 2.4.1.4. Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) Test Result................................................... 33 2.4.1.5. CBR Values before Soil Cement Stabilization ............................................................... 35 2.4.1.6. CBR Values after Soil Cement Stabilization .................................................................. 38 2.4.2. DISCUSSION ....................................................................................................................... 40 Cost Benefit Analysis. ..................................................................................................................... 43

2.5.0.
2.5.1. 2.5.2.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ........................................................... 45


CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................................... 45 RECOMMENDATION ......................................................................................................... 46

3.0.
3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4.

SAFETY TRAINING AND VALUE OF THE PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE ...................... 47


LESSON LEARNED AND EXPERIENCE GAINED ........................................................ 47 LEADERSHIP, TEAM WORK AND INDIVIDUAL ACTIVITIES ....................................... 49 BUSINESS VALUES, ETHICS AND MANAGEMENT SKILLS ......................................... 50 PROBLEMS OR CHALLENGES FACED AND SOLUTIONS TO OVERCOME THEM.......... 51

4.0.

CONCLUSION ................................................................................................. 52

REFERENCES .............................................................................................................. I APPENDICES ............................................................................................................. II


APPENDIX 1 TRAINING SCHEDULE .................................................................................. II APPENDIX 2 PROJECT GANTT CHART ............................................................................. III APPENDIX 2- LABORATORY REPORT .................................................................................IV APPENDIX 3 UNSUITABLE SOIL REPLACEMENT WITH GEOTEXTILE SEPARATOR ............... XI APPENDIX 4 CULVERT INSTALLATION ........................................................................... XII APPENDIX 5 SOIL CEMENT STABILIZATION APPLICATION PROCESS ...............................XIV

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LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 2.1-1 PROJECT LOCATION PLAN ............................................................................................................... 7 FIGURE 2.3.1-1 SPECIALIZED MACHINE .............................................................................................................. 16 FIGURE 2.3.1-2 SUPPORTING MACHINES............................................................................................................ 17 FIGURE 2.3.3-1 ROAD CROSS SECTION IN CUT AND FILL AREAS .............................................................................. 19 FIGURE 2.3.4-1 REASONS FOR DETERIORATION OF FILL MATERIALS .......................................................................... 20 FIGURE 2.3.4-2 IMPORTANCE OF GEOTEXTILE SEPARATOR. ..................................................................................... 20 FIGURE 2.3.4-3 JOINING OF GEOTEXTILE SEPARATOR BY OVERLAP ......................................................................... 21 FIGURE 2.3.4-4 TYPICAL DETAILS FOR STANDARD FILL SECTION TREATMENT TYPE 1 (SAND REPLACEMENT WITH GEOTEXTILE SEPARATOR ............................................................................................................................................ 21 FIGURE 2.3.5-1 SUB-SOIL DRAIN CROSS SECTION (CH 900 CH 1150) ................................................................. 22 FIGURE 2.3.5-2 BEDDING TYPE B1, SOFT FOUNDATION ........................................................................................ 23 FIGURE 2.4.1-1 PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION CURVE ............................................................................................ 28 FIGURE 2.4.1.2-1 DRY DENSITY / MOISTURE CONTENT RELATIONSHIP SITE SOIL ........................................................ 29 FIGURE 2.4.1.2-2 DRY DENSITY / MOISTURE CONTENT RELATIONSHIP RIVER SAND FILL.............................................. 30 FIGURE 2.4.1.2-3 DRY DENSITY / MOISTURE CONTENT RELATIONSHIP FOR IMPORTED EARTH FILL................................. 31 FIGURE 2.4.1.3-1 LIQUID LIMIT GRAPH ............................................................................................................. 32 FIGURE 2.4.1.4-1 ULTIMATE STRENGTH DESIGN MIX FOR SOIL AND SAND MIX ......................................................... 33 FIGURE 2.4.1.4-2 ULTIMATE STRENGTH DESIGN MIX FOR SOIL .............................................................................. 34 FIGURE 2.4.1.4-3 ULTIMATE STRENGTH DESIGN MIX FOR SAND............................................................................. 35 FIGURE 2.4.2-1 THICKNESS OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT BY USING SOIL CEMENT STABILIZATION ........................................... 42 FIGURE 4-1 PIE CHART OF BENEFITS OF INTERNSHIP TRAINING ................................................................................. 53

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LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 2.2.4-1 CEMENT REQUIREMENTS (QUANTITIES) FOR VARIOUS SOILS (HICKS, 2002) ........................................... 12 TABLE 2.2.4-2 MINIMUM UNCONFINED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH AT 7 DAYS FOR CEMENT AND 28 DAYS FOR LIME, LIMECEMENT, AND LIME-CEMENT-FLY ASH STABILIZED SOILS (GUYER, 2011). ............................................................ 12 TABLE 2.2.4-3 DURABILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR STABILIZED SOIL (GUYER, 2011) ....................................................... 13 TABLE 2.4.1-1 SIEVE ANALYSIS RESULTS ............................................................................................................. 28 TABLE 2.4.1.2-1 DRY DENSITY/MOISTURE CONTENT RELATIONSHIP FOR SITE SOIL ..................................................... 29 TABLE 2.4.1.2-2 DRY DENSITY/MOISTURE CONTENT RELATIONSHIP FOR RIVER SAND FILL........................................... 30 TABLE 2.4.1.2-3 DRY DENSITY/MOISTURE CONTENT RELATIONSHIP FOR IMPORTED EARTH FILL.................................... 31 TABLE 2.4.1.3-1 PLASTIC LIMIT TEST RESULTS..................................................................................................... 32 TABLE 2.4.1.3-2 LIQUID LIMIT TEST RESULTS ...................................................................................................... 32 TABLE 2.4.1.4-1 DESIGN MIX (TRIAL MIX) FOR SOIL-SAND MIXTURE ...................................................................... 33 TABLE 2.4.1.4-2 DESIGN MIX (TRIAL MIX) FOR SOIL ............................................................................................ 34 TABLE 2.4.1.4-3 DESIGN MIX (TRIAL MIX) FOR SAND .......................................................................................... 35 TABLE 2.4.1.5-1 CBR VALUES BEFORE SOIL CEMENT STABILIZATION ....................................................................... 36 TABLE 2.4.1.5-2 CBR VALUES AFTER SOIL CEMENT STABILIZATION ......................................................................... 38 TABLE 2.4.2-1 SOIL CEMENT STABILIZATION OF SUBGRADE MATERIALS ..................................................................... 43 TABLE 2.4.2-2 CRUSHER RUN ROAD BASE MATERIAL .............................................................................................. 44

1.0. INTRODUCTION
1.1. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE HOST COMPANY

I.Z.A Construction Co. Sdn. Bhd was formed on 15th September 1982 and was incorporated under the Company Act 1965 on the 21st September 1991. The Board of Directors are Dato' Baharuddin Bin Hj. Mahyuddin, a Civil Engineer and Mr. Farouk Bin Anwar a Chemical Engineer. Since its formation in 1982, the company due to the expertise and technical experiences of the directors has secured and completed contracts well exceeding Ringgit Malaysia 560 million. The company has progressed tremendously from a small time Class 'D' contractor to a fully-fledged Class 'A' Bumiputera contractor registered with Contractor Service Centre since 1994. Since then it has well established itself and received high recognition by the Ministry of Finance and the Prime Minister's Department with the status COMPETENT CONTRACTOR. The award of MS ISO 9001:2000 certification by SIRIM QAS International Sdn. Bhd. is a proven testament of the company systematic management being recognized internationally. 1.2.

OBJECTIVES OF THE INDUSTRIAL INTERNSHIP

To apply theoretical knowledge in industrial application and implement Health Safety and Environment (HSE) practices at workplace. To expose the students to ethical and professional work culture, industrial practices and potential employers To develop students skills in work ethics, communication, leadership and management To engage students in real research-based assignments, research-based activities and team-work activities Hands-on training.

1.3.

SCOPE OF WORK, TASKS OR PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN DURING INTERNSHIP

During my training period, I was tasked with the following tasks which can be divided into project management, supervision, material testing, health safety and environment, and reporting. 1. Project management a. Help the QS in tendering work especially in taking off and in pricing the tender document. b. Attend a two days course about Microsoft Project 2010 and then come up with work programs for assigned task and thereafter do weekly project tracking c. Report project progress based on project tracking to the supervisor. 2. Supervision a. Inspect daily site activities b. Ensure effective flow of traffic flow is not interrupted by using adequate temporary traffic signs where necessary. c. Determine the area for closed turfing and ensure that closed turfing is done for slope protection in both cut and fill slopes. 4. Material testing a. Check the results for slump test before any concreting is done b. Ensure that concrete cubes are cast during concreting and follow the JKR technician to the concrete suppliers laboratory for cube test on the seventh and 28th day after concreting c. Carry out speedy test for imported earth to ensure that the moisture content is not less than 10% and does not exceed 27% e. Help the technician recommended by JKR during Field Density Test (FDT) f. Coordinate with JKR to inspect California Bearing Ration (CBR) test and ensure that the CBR value is 5% for soil, 30% for sand and 80% after soil cement stabilization

5. Health Safety and Environment (HSE) a. Involved in a BOMBA inspection to ensure the safety of occupants of completed building projects for a period of one week b. Always wear safety boots and ensure that all the general workers wear safety boots when carrying out any site activity c. Ensure that each and every worker at the construction site wears face musk especially during spreading of the stabilizing agent which can be airborne when it is windy. d. Ensure that traffic barriers are in place especially when working at road intersection to prevent accidents. e. Ensure that water samples are collected every month for environmental water quality monitoring. 6. Reporting a. Prepare daily site diary including the daily site activities, workforce at site, machinery and equipment used, materials delivered to the site, visitors at the site, and daily weather conditions. b. Prepare weekly progress report consisting of the site activities for the week and overall progress, workforce present and those on leave for the week, materials delivered to the site, machinery and equipment at the site, visitors at the site and weather conditions for the whole week c. Take site photos every Friday and make progress photo report d. Do weekly project tracking and tracking on the 4th, 20th and 30th of every month e. Help the project manager in preparing monthly report

The projects that I undertook during my training consists of unsuitable soil replacement by using non-woven geotextile as a separator, drainage work and soil cement stabilization. My responsibilities as stated below are all under the direct supervision of the site manager Mr. Ravi. I performed most of the tasks in his presence and whether he is around or absent, he double check my work, make changes where necessary and then ask me to include those changes in my work.
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During unsuitable soil replacement by using non-woven geotextile as a separator, my responsibility is to: 1. Determine the volume of cut materials and granular fill materials based on the existing ground level and finished road level by using Microsoft office excel. 2. Measure the volume of fill materials from each truck upon arrival at the site and then compute the total daily volume hauled to the site and report it to the site manager Mr. Ravi 3. Ensure that unsuitable materials such as roots of trees are removed from the fill materials during off hauling and leveling by motor grader. 4. Ensure that, the overlap of geotextiles is as shown in the drawing (figure 3.6) before the geotextile is covered with fill materials. My responsibility during drainage work is to: 1. Check with the project engineer and site manager the culverts upon arrival at the site to ensure that the dimensions of each and the total quantities confirm to the one in the order sheet before unloading. 2. Check the culverts to ensure that the culverts have not been damaged during delivery and set aside any damaged culvert during delivery and unloading. 3. Ensure that the unloaded culverts are stockpiled near to where they will be installed so as to avoid re-handling and unnecessary equipment movement. 4. Ensure that the culverts are installed in the right location and beddings were properly graded to avoid the culverts from settling after being installed 5. Ensure proper alignment and jointing especially for box culverts in order to reduce the migration of soil fines and water between sections of the box culverts and their surroundings. 6. Determine the volume of materials to be used for bedding preparation and for backfill of culverts as shown in. 7. Ensure that backfill materials are free from debris, organic matter, wood, frozen material or large stones. 8. Determine the quantity of reinforcement bars required for culvert wingwalls from construction drawings and the volume of concrete to be ordered after the
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steelwork and formwork for the wingwalls as well as the quantities of bricks, cement and sand for sumps. 9. Inspect the steelwork and formwork for culvert wingwalls to ensure that the spacing for the steel bars confirms to that in the drawing, the number of steel bars is as I determined and the formwork is strong enough to withstand the weight of the fresh concrete. 10. Ensure the safety of the works during unloading and installation of culverts and during the construction as well as concreting of culvert wingwalls. Last but not least, my scope of work during soil cement stabilization is to: 1. Check and verify that the proportion of the stabilizing agent is as indicated in the mix design 2. Check and verify that mixing or depth of soil cement stabilization is as shown in the construction drawing 3. 4. Ensure that all the workers wear face mask during spreading of stabilizing agent Ensure that soil cubes are cast and FDT conducted for use in the laboratory to determine the optimum moisture content and maximum dry density 5. Ensure that CBR test is conducted at the age of three days and seven days to determine the mechanical strength of the subgrade after stabilization with cement.

2.0. INTERNSHIP PROJECT REPORT


2.1.0. PROJECT BACKGROUND

2.1.1. BACKGROUND

This project involves the construction of a new road from Kamunting to Anak Kurau, Taiping-Perak Darul Ridzuan (figure 2.1-1) and it consists of two phases: - phase 1 involves the construction of a 2.5 Km road starting at state route A137 at Kampung Anak Kurau while phase 2 involves the construction of an 11Km road connecting the 2.5 Km road to state road A7 at Sungai Relong. Phase 1 uses soil cement stabilization method for the road embankment construction while phase 2 uses the conventional method of road construction which composes of layers of crushed rock for the road subbase and road base courses. This report is entirely about phase 1 of the construction in which unsuitable soil replacement with geotextile separator precedes the soil cement stabilization process. In this project, non-woven geotextiles type A are placed between the soft subgrade and the granular fill materials so as to filter and hence prevent migration and mingling of the soft subgrade soil and granular fill material under the action of the construction equipment or subsequent traffic but yet allow free movement of water. After the unsuitable soil replacement, a cement content of 4% is added to the soil and mixed into it until a uniform color is obtained, and the mixture is then thoroughly compacted. This process called soil cement stabilization is used to increase the strength of the subgrade materials, thereby elimination the need for sub-base and base courses which is normally constructed of crusher run, thus resulting into a great cost saving.

Funding for the project is by Kementerian Kemajuan Luar Bandar & Wilayah (KKLW) and all the project work is done according to the JKR standards & specifications. The total value of the contract at award to I.Z.A Construction Sdn. Bhd was RM 7,228,925.40. I.Z.A Construction Sdn. Bhd received the contract document on 27th December 2011 and it started the project work on 09th January 2012 with total project duration of 53 weeks. Contractually, the project is to be completed on 07th January 2013.

Figure 2.1-1 Project Location Plan

2.1.2. PROBLEM STATEMENT

An efficient road network is a key factor in the development of a region or an area because it helps in the mobility of people and goods from one place to another. The construction of this new road by the Malaysia Government will help connect the residents of Kampung Anak Kurau to Kamunting, Taiping and other parts of the country. Site condition however poses a serious challenge to the construction work.
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Most of the soil at the project site is unsuitable (consists of mud/clay) which undergo a huge amount of volume change due to temperature and moisture. This shrinking and swelling of the soil can lead to cracking of overlying pavement layers. According to (Karin, Sven-Erik & Ronny, 2002), a conventional solution in this situation is soil substitution, which involves excavating the loose soil layers and replacing them with frictional material of higher bearing capacity normally well-graded aggregates so as to obtain a stable sub-grade, sub-base or base layers. Soil substitution is however not cost effective and frequently also problematic, as the replaced material must be disposed of and new filling material hauled to the site. Soil substitution also takes longer time and it is not environmentally friendly method due to the greenhouse emissions during raw material mining, processing, and transportation of raw materials to the construction site.

2.1.3. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT

A well-constructed road must be durable, cost effective, easy to maintain and most of all it must be able to serve its intended function. This can only be achieved if the road is constructed on a solid, stable foundation. Mixing cement and or lime into the soil will help stabilize the soil thus making it denser, waterproof and more stable. Soil stabilization improves the soil strength and it will be used as a substitute to well graded aggregates in this project because it takes shorter time to stabilize the soil than using layers of well-graded aggregates to obtain stable sub-grade, sub-base or base layers. For this 2.5km road, the soil stabilization process has taken only two weeks. Soil cement stabilization improves the engineering properties of soil thus making the stabilized base strong enough to withstand vehicle loading like crusher run base and it is cost effective, easy to maintain and more environmentally friendly than the conventional method of road construction. Cost effectiveness here is realized by the fact that soil cement stabilization eliminates the need to import large volume of aggregates and the associated production and hauling cost whereas it is more environmentally friendly because it reduces greenhouse emissions during raw material mining, processing, and transportation to the site in the conventional method.

2.1.4. PROJECT OBJECTIVE

The objective of this project is to improve the strength of subgrade materials and to reduce cost of road construction in terms of material, time and maintenance.

2.1.5. SCOPE OF WORK FOR THE PROJECT

The scope of work for this project can be divided into work prior to soil cement stabilization and soil cement stabilization work.

The work to be done prior to soil cement stabilization include: 1. 2. Mobilization of machinery Site clearing and demolition of existing structures in the entire area of the road reserves 3. 4. 5. Earthwork and unsuitable material replacement with geotextile separator Drainage work Sampling, testing and mix design

Soil cement stabilization work on the other hand consists of: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Spreading the stabilizing agent Weighing to verify proportion of stabilizing agent Pulverization and mixing Digging to verify the depth of mixing or depth of stabilization Preliminary compaction Grading to chamber Final rolling Curing Cube Casting and Testing, Field Density Test, CBR test

10. Site cleaning and demobilization

2.2.0. LITERATURE REVIEW

2.2.1. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF SOIL CEMENT STABILIZATION Soil stabilization and can be defined as the treatment of natural soil to improve its engineering properties (Garber & Hoel, 2002). Soil cement stabilization is a process to improve the strength and durability of soil by mixing an appropriate amount of cement with the soil. This can be achieved by pulverizing the natural soil or borrow material, adding the appropriate amount of cement to the pulverized soil and mixing it properly and then thoroughly compacting the mixture. When cement comes in contact with soil water, it forms calcium silicate hydrate and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). The calcium silicate hydrate formed has a strong cementing effect hence binding the soil together and increasing its strength. The Ca(OH)2 formed results in pozzolanic reactions which provides a further increment of strength in the longer term (Karin, Sven-Erik & Ronny, 2002). Both subgrade and road base can be stabilized with cement. The thickness of a cementstabilized road base depends upon the traffic loads, traffic volumes and the stability of the subgrade. The thickness of sub-base or subgrade cement stabilization on the other hand, depends up-on the nature of the soils and the conditions of the job. The effectiveness of soil cement stabilization depends on the type of soil being stabilized, the quantity of cement added, the degree of mixing, the time of curing, the dry density of the compacted mixture,

2.2.2. TYPES OF CEMENT USED TO STABILIZE SOIL

Normal (Type I) and Air Entraining (Type IA) Cements are most commonly used types of cement for soil stabilization. Sulfate Resistant Cement (Type II) and High Early Strength Cement (Type III) have also been successfully used for cement stabilization of soils. Each type of cement used for soil stabilization depends on the type of soil and its contents (Guyer, 2011).

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2.2.3. SOILS SUITABLE FOR CEMENT STABILIZATION Most types of soil can be stabilized with cement ranging from gravelly and sandy soils to fine-grained silts and clays. It is generally more effective and economical to use it with granular soils due to the ease of pulverization and mixing and the smaller quantities of cement required (Hicks, 2002). Fine-grained soils of low to medium plasticity can also be stabilized, but not as effectively as coarse-grained soils. It is difficult to mix cement with the soil of PI more than 30 so in such cases, lime needs to be added first to reduce the PI and improve workability before adding the cement. For soils that contain sulfates, it is advisable to use sulfate resistant cement for stabilization of the soils. If the pH of the soil is lower than 12.1, it is not advisable to use cement to stabilize the soil (Hicks, 2002).

2.2.4. DESIGN CEMENT CONTENT FOR CEMENT-STABILIZED SOILS Determining the design cement content for cement-stabilized soils involves the classification of the untreated soil (table 2.2.4-1) and the determination of the gradation of the soil to be stabilized and using it to select estimated cement content for moisturedensity tests to determine the maximum dry density and optimum water content of the soil-cement mixture. Triplicate samples of the soil-cement mixture are then prepared for unconfined compression and durability tests at the cement content selected. The results of the unconfined compressive strength and durability tests are compared with the requirements shown in (table 2.2.4-2 and table 2.2.4-3). The lowest cement content which meets the required unconfined compressive strength requirement and demonstrates the required durability is the design cement content.

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Table 2.2.4-1 Cement requirements (quantities) for various soils (Hicks, 2002)

Usual Range in AASHTO Cement Requirement Percent Soil Classification A-1-a Unified Soil Classification* GW, GP, GM, SW, SP, SM GM, GP, SM, A-1-b SP GM, GC, SM, A-2 A-3 A-4 A-5 A-6 A-7 SC SP CL, ML ML, MH, CH CL, CH OH, MH, CH 710 812 812 812 1014 1014 59 711 712 813 915 1016 79 58 by Volume 57 Percent by Weight 35

Estimated Cement Content and That Used in Moisture-

Cement Contents for Wet-Dry and

Density Test Percent by Weight 5

Freeze-Thaw Tests Percent by Weight 357

468 579 7911 81012 81012 101214 111315

7 9 10 10 12 13

Table 2.2.4-2 Minimum unconfined compressive strength at 7 days for cement and 28 days for lime, lime-cement, and lime-cement-fly ash stabilized soils (Guyer, 2011). Stabilized soil layer Minimum Unconfined Compressive strength, MN/m2 Flexible Pavement Base course Sub-base course, select material or subgrade 5.171 1.723 Rigid Pavement 3.447 1.379

12

Table 2.2.4-3 Durability requirements for stabilized soil (Guyer, 2011)

Type of soil Stabilized

Maximum Allowable Weight Loss After 12 Wet-Dry or Freeze-Thaw Cycles percent of Initial Specimen Weight

Granular, PI < 10 Granular, PI > 210 Silt Clays

11 8 8 6

2.2.5. SOIL CEMENT STABILIZATION PROCESS The basic soil cement stabilization processes include: Assessment and testing Site Preparation Introduction of cement Mixing Compaction and shaping or trimming Curing 2.2.6. OTHER STABILIZING AGENTS Other soil stabilizing agents that have been used successfully include lime, bitumen/asphalt, fly ash, granulated blast furnace slag, filler materials. Lime is used to stabilize medium, moderately fine, and fine-grained clay soils. When mixed in soil, lime reduces the soil moisture content thus reducing the plasticity of the soil, making it more rigid. Lime also increases strength and workability of the soil and reduces the ability of the soil to swell (Caterpillar, 2006). Bitumen is used in soil stabilization because it makes the soil stronger and resistant to water and frost. Soil bitumen stabilization benefits from fewer-weather related delays

13

during construction and makes compaction easier and more consistent (Caterpillar, 2006). Fly ash is normally mixed with lime and water to stabilize granular materials with few fines to produce a hard, cement-like mass. It acts as a pozzolan and as a filler to reduce air voids. Filler, such as fine sand is added in soil stabilization to increase the number of solid particles and to fill any voids formed during stabilization. The filler itself does not react but increases the strength of the soil by acting as a stiffener. Filler material is normally used in the stabilization of peat and mud, as these soils often require large quantities of stabilizers thus, replacing part of the stabilizer with inexpensive filler can save costs. Therefore, there are many stabilizers used in soil stabilization, the effectiveness of each stabilizer depends on the quantity of the stabilizer, the soil type, storage temperature, degree of compaction, weather condition and availability of the stabilizer.

2.2.7. BENEFITS OF SOIL STABILIZATION (CATERPILLAR, 2006)

There are several advantages of soil stabilization: Improved soil strength, improved soil workability and improved durability Cost reduction, dust reduction in work environment and reduction of soil volume change due to temperature and moisture Conservation of energy and aggregates materials Waterproofing the soil and improving runoff Functioning as a working platform for the project especially in wet weather Control shrinkage and swell Improve load carrying and stress distribution characteristics Improve substandard materials By-products from industry can be used as raw materials
14

2.2.8. APPLICATION OF SOIL STABILIZATION Soil stabilization is used in Yards, parking places, sports grounds, road, and street, railway, and cable/pipe channel and storage construction sites It is used as foundations for buildings pools, landfill areas and bridges It is also use in the protection of adjacent structures, slopes of the rivers, lakes, roads and earth pressure Noise embankments and Erosion control and for frost and ground water protection layers Stabilization of very soft soils for tunnel boring

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2.3.0. METHODOLOGY

2.3.1. MOBILIZATION OF MACHINERY Two categories of machinery are used for the execution of the soil cement stabilization works, these include:

a) Specialized Machine (figure 2.3.1-1)

The specialized machines used in this project are the Stabilizer Spreader and Reclaimer or Mixer Machine. The reclaimer is a 4-wheel base CATERPILAR machine Model SS250 which is equipped with a 300 horse power engine that has a self-propelled hydraulic rotor drum with mixing chamber that could mix and cut up to depth of 650mm. it is used for the mixing of soil stabilizer agent with the existing earth/material.

Stabilizer Spreader

Reclaimer

Figure 2.3.1-1 Specialized Machine

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b) Supporting Machines

Supporting machines are provided by I.Z.A Construction Company Sdn Bhd except those supporting machines that I.Z.A Construction does not have, such machines are rented from local supplier when the soil cement stabilization work started. The supporting machinery used for this project includes: Motor Grader, Vibratory Rollers and Water Trucks as shown in (figure 2.3.1-2).

Excavator Excavator has been used in this project to excavate unsuitable materials, excavate for culvert installation, excavate interceptor and toe drains, and to cut and trim slopes

Motor Grader The Motor Grader is used for site preparation to remove unwanted vegetation and all the undergrowth during the site preparation. It is also used to trim and level area in the road reserve before the compaction of the stabilized materials.

Vibratory Rollers Vibratory Rollers are used for the compaction of the mixed stabilized materials.

Water Trucks The Water Trucks are used to supply water to the Reclaimer machine during the mixing process if the site condition requires and to supply water for curing.

Excavator

Motor Grader

Vibratory Roller

Water Truck

Figure 2.3.1-2 Supporting Machines

17

2.3.2. SITE CLEARANCE AND DEMOLITION WORKS The Right of Way (R.O.W) was surveyed and Right of Way Limits were indicated by wooden pegs. Photographs of structures, landscaping trees and shrubs, fences, telephone, electrical poles and anything that are payable were then taken before site clearing and demolition of existing structures commenced. Site clearing of trees, vegetation, undergrowth, bushes and demolition of existing structures in the entire area of the road reserve are then carried out by hydraulic excavators from CH O towards increasing Chainage. Demolished structures consists of two storey brickwork building, one storey masonry building, two storey masonry building, one storey timber building, two storey timber building, fences and gates, pipe culverts, box culverts, and inlet/outlet structures for culvert No.1 which is to be extended.

2.3.3. EARTHWORKS Before the earthwork commenced, surveying and setting out of center line was carried out using a theodolite and a tripod for Original Ground Level (OGL) and pegged at 10 meters interval lengthwise. Survey pegs were also placed at the toe limits located at 5 meter away from the center line. Where the OGL was higher than the finished road level, the road centerline and slope batters were set out and topsoil stripped, the area is then cut by hydraulic excavators. The cut materials were then hauled using Dump trucks to the filling area. Slopes trimming and slope or erosion protection (closed turf) was then immediately carried out for the slopes formed. Whereas in areas where the OGL was lower than the finished road level, topsoil was stripped off up to the filling limits and suitable cut materials hauled by Dump trucks from the cut area are placed and spread out using back pusher. The filling with suitable materials was carried out in layers and each layer compaction by vibratory roller until relative compaction of at least 90% of maximum dry density is obtained.

18

Figure 2.3.3-1 Road Cross Section in Cut and Fill Areas

2.3.4. UNSUITABLE SOIL REPLACEMENT WITH GEOTEXTILE SEPARATOR

Problem with soft subgrade The stability and the durability of any structure depend on how stable and durable its foundation is. For this Anak Kurau road project however, the subgrade material is very weak. It therefore needs to be replaced with granular fill materials which will then be compacted adequately to obtain a more stable subgrade. But fill materials can deteriorate, leading to a substantial damage of pavement. Such fill materials deteriorate due to intrusion of stone base, pumping of subgrade soil and infiltration of water from subgrade as illustrated (figure 2.3.4-1) [5].

19

Figure 2.3.4-1 Reasons for deterioration of fill materials

Problem Solution This problem can be solved by using geotextiles. In road constructions, Geotextiles have been widely used for filtration and in order to prevent migration and mingling of materials, yet allowing free movement of water. In this project, a geotextile is used as a separator by placing it between the soft subgrade and the granular fill material. It acts as a filter to allow water but not fine material to pass through it, preventing any mixing of the soft subgrade soil and granular material under the action of the construction equipment or subsequent traffic [5].

Figure 2.3.4-2 Importance of geotextile separator.

Unsuitable soil replacement by using non-woven geotextile as a separator consists of excavation of unsuitable material to a sufficient depth, laying a type A non-woven
20

geotextiles as a separator with a minimum overlap of about 500mm (figure 2.3.4-3), followed by placement of river sand and then compaction. Filling with suitable fill materials continues to the specified embankment height as shown in (figure 2.3.4-4) and the unsuitable soil excavated is then leveled at the sides of roadway.

Geotextiles

Figure 2.3.4-3 Joining of Geotextile

separator by Overlap

Figure 2.3.4-4 Typical details for standard fill section treatment type 1 (sand replacement with geotextile separator

2.3.5. DRAINAGE WORK

It is important to ensure that there is an adequate drainage in any road construction in order to avoid road damage due to both surface water and underground water.

21

The drainage works for this project involved the construction of surface and subsoil drains, installation of new precast box and pipe culvert, extension of existing precast box culvert at CH 0, construction of sumps and wing walls both as inlet and outlet structures, not forgetting the excavation and backfilling for such works listed above. The surface drains for this project involved the excavation of interceptor drains and toe drains and the installation of precast concrete U-drains. Sub-Soil Drainage For sub-soil drains, concrete porous pipes were installed with the details as shown in (figure 2.3.5-1). The trench to receive the concrete porous pipe is first excavated followed by placing of geotextile with 300 mm overlap. The porous concrete pipe is then placed on a less thick aggregate layer and its sides and top also fill with aggregates. This aggregate layer is again covered with geotextile before filling granular materials until the finished road level is obtained.

Figure 2.3.5-1 Sub-Soil Drain Cross Section (CH 900 CH 1150)

22

Culvert works Trench Method is used to install both precast reinforced concrete pipe and box culverts based on the following procedures: After the Surveyor provides alignment of the Pipe Culvert, Invert Level, R.O.W. and all necessary point, Temporary diversion of water flow is constructed The trench to receive the culvert is then excavated, followed by Laying and compaction of bedding materials. Pipe or box culvert is then laid and checked for alignment before inserting subsequent pipe or box culverts. Both sides of culvert are temporary secured using timber wedges to prevent sideways movement. Upon completion of installation, both sides of the culvert are backfilled simultaneously with suitable granular backfill in layer of 150mm thick and compact to 90% Maximum Dry Density. Wingwalls and headwalls are then constructed at upstream and downstream of the culvert with concrete G 20/20 and structural steel fabric B 705 placed as bedding The bedding type and installation locations for all the culvert except the giant culvert is as shown in (figure 2.3.5-2).

Figure 2.3.5-2 Bedding Type B1, Soft Foundation


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2.3.6. MATERIAL SAMPLING, TESTING AND MIX DESIGN

Tests are conducted, both before and during the progress of soil cement stabilization to ensure compliance with the requirements of the Standard Specification for Road Works (JKR/SPJ/1988), Guidelines for inspection &Testing of Road Works. The tests are conducted by MMTS-IETS JOINT VENTURE Building & Construction Materials Testing Laboratory and by Tasek Soil & Materials Lab Sdn. Bhs (TSML) which is specialized in soil, concrete and asphaltic concrete testing. The Laboratory testing carried out on the Untreated Soil samples consisting of Imported soil fill, river sand fill, and imported soil-river sand mixture includes: Sieve Analysis (Gradation), Atterberg Limits, Soil Classification, Maximum Dry Density (MDD), Optimum Moisture Content (OMC), Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) and Californian Bearing Ration (CBR). It is important that those tests are carried out both before and during soil cement stabilization. Gradation or particle size distribution is particularly important in determining the stabilizer content; more fines require higher cement content or even addition of lime before adding the cement. Uniform gradation results in uniform mixing, uniform compaction and hence uniform strength development. The test method used in sieve analysis is MS 30 Part 4: 1995. Atterberg Limits (Plastic Limit, PL and Liquid Limit, LL) are used to determine active clay content which helps in deciding if there is need to increase the cement content. The PL and LL test were conducted by following the test procedure of BS: 1377: Part 2: 1990, Clause 4.5. Moisture-density relationship is used to determine the degree of compaction of the material, high densities obtained is an indication that the shear strength and elastic modules improved and the ingress of water is reduced. Finally, CBR and UCS tests are used to determine the strength of the soil attained. Determination of the Mix Design is by trial and error. To determine the mix design (required cement content) for the soil cement stabilization, different dosage of cement (2.5%, 3.5% and 5% cement) is admixed with the untreated material thoroughly until a uniform color is obtained, the optimum moisture content is then added. Specimens were
24

then prepared for UCS test which was conducted at the age of 3 days and 7 days, the results obtained are shown in (table 2.4.1.4-1, table 2.4.1.4-2 & table 2.4.1-4) and for soil, sand and soil mixed with sand respectively.

2.3.7. GRADING TO PROFILE

Before the commencement of the soil cement stabilization work, the exposed platform is checked for reduced level to ensure that the reduced level of the working platform is within 12mm of the design level for the base of next layer. Where the reduced level of the working platform is not within 12mm, motor Grader was used to level and grade the existing material to the required new profile.

2.3.8. SPREADING THE STABILIZING AGENT

After the surface was leveled and graded with motor grader, the determined stabilization area was marked and the required quantity of cement was spread over the areas to be stabilized. Spreading of the stabilizing agent was done using a purpose built additive spreader to the design percentage at a spreading rate of +/-5 % absolute value.

2.3.9. PULVERIZING AND MIXING

Pulverizing and dry (primary) mixing by use of a purpose built Reclaimer- Stabilizer CMI RS500 to the design depth starts after spreading of the stabilizing agent on the prepared platform has reached a length of +/-60 meters and a minimum width of 3.0 meters. Where necessary, water is added during mixing through the mixing chamber of the Reclaimer- Stabilizer CMI RS500 to ensure that the moisture content of the mix materials does not fall below 2% of Optimum Moisture Content (OMC). The secondary mixing (called wet run) is to ensure the chemical reaction between the stabilizing agent
25

and existing material and to ensure the highest density of the mixture after compaction since maximum Dry Density (MDD) is achieved at OMC.

2.3.10. PRELIMINARY COMPACTION

A Vibratory Roller was used for preliminary compaction to enable the Motor Grader to work on the loose stabilize material. Vibratory roller with 10 metric tons static mass ideal was used with rolling pattern of two (2) static passes and six (6) vibration passes. The critical variable in achieving densification with minimum effort is moisture content of the material being compacted. Compaction by vibratory roller is continued until a maximum Dry Density (MDD) of 95% or more is achieved as confirmed by laboratory test results. Final Rolling is then done using pneumatic tire roller after grading to chamber to ensure a better compaction and surface.

2.3.11. GRADING TO CAMBER

A Motor Grader was used to grade and form the desired camber; undulations were also eliminated by the motor grader. The grading and shaping of the stabilized treated layer is done to ensure that the finished levels are within +/- 6mm of the required reduced levels. During the process of grading and shaping, the vibratory roller is used for the compaction. 2.3.12. FINAL ROLLING Final rolling is done after grading or trimming and shaping. Pneumatic tire roller is used for the final rolling so as to ensure a better compaction and surface. 2.3.13. CURING

Curing was done for seven days after soil cement stabilization. Curing is to increase the rate of hydration of the cement used as stabilizing agent and to prevent rapid setting. The main purpose of curing is so as to obtain the intended/required/design strength after
26

cement stabilization and to maintain a uniform temperature of the stabilized subgrade to prevent thermal shrinkage cracking. 2.3.14. QUALITY CONTROL

Testing was carried out accordingly during the soil cement stabilization work. The tests that have been carried out during the stabilization process include: Field Density Test to determine the degree of compaction of the stabilized layer, Moisture Content test is done both before and after mixing to ensure the relativity of moisture to the mix. This is because the best mixing when using cement is at the Optimum Moisture Content and so is the Maximum Dry Density, Cube test, UCS test to give an indication of the tensile strength of the material after stabilization and CBR test to evaluate the mechanical strength of the subgrade materials after stabilization. 2.3.15. RECOMMENDATION

1.

It is not advisable to proceed with the stabilization under the following climatic conditions:

2. 3. 4. 5.

The ambient temperature is below 50C or above 380C It is raining or likely to rain The wind is sufficiently strong to cause the additive to become airborne During conditions that may cause danger to people, property or the environment

2.3.16. SITE CLEANING AND DEMOBILIZATION Upon completion of the soil cement stabilization work, all waste materials which resulted from the work is disposed to a dump site approved by JKR, construction machinery demobilized from the site before and the project handed over for the pavement works.
27

2.4.0. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

2.4.1. RESULTS

2.4.1.1.

Sieve Analysis

Test Conditions; Temperature: 28.6 0C Table 2.4.1-1 Sieve Analysis Results

Relative Humidity: 53%

Sieve Size

Weight Retain ed

% Particle Size Distribution Curve


120 100 80 % Passing 60 40 20 0 0 5 Sieve Size 10

Retained Passing

50.0 mm 37.5 mm 28.0 mm 25.0 mm 20.0 mm 14.0 mm 12.5 mm 0.0 0.0 100 10.0 mm 44.6 3.7 96.3 6.30 mm 47.8 4.0 92.3 5.00 mm 42.2 3.5 88.8 3.35 mm 51.3 4.3 84.5 2.36 mm 57.6 4.8 79.7 1.18 mm 43.3 3.6 76.1 10.1 0.8 75.3 0.600 1.9 0.2 75.1 0.425 3.3 0.3 74.8 0.300 3.6 0.3 74.5 0.150 4.0 0.3 74.2 0.075 Pan 0.0 Weight Before Wash: 1200.5 grams Weight After Wash: 309.7 grams

Figure 2.4.1-1 Particle Size Distribution Curve

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2.4.1.2.

Dry Density/Moisture Content Relationship for site soil

Test Condition: Temperature = 29.4 0C, Relative Humidity = 57% & Volume 998.4 cm3

Table 2.4.1.2-1 Dry Density/Moisture Content Relationship for site soil

Test No. Mass of Soil + Mould (g) Mass of Mould (g) Mass of Compacted Soil (g) Bulk Density of Soil (Mg/m ) Container No. Mass of Container + Wet Soil (g) Mass of Container + Dry Soil (g) Mass of Container (g) Mass of Dry Soil (g) Mass of Moisture (g) Moisture Content (%) Measurement uncertainty for Moisture content (%) Dry Density (Mg/m ) Measurement uncertainty for Dry Density (Mg/m3)
3 3

1 7533 5395 2138 2.141 B17 139.4 123.8 36.3 87.5 15.6 17.8 0.33 1.817 0.005

2 7632 5395 2237 2.241 B5 125.3 110.2 35.5 74.7 15.1 20.2 0.39 1.864 0.005

3 7701 5395 2306 2.31 B13 140.6 122.8 38.3 84.5 17.8 21.1 0.34 1.908 0.005

4 7745 5395 2350 2.354 B3 148.8 126.8 38.1 88.7 22 24.8 0.33 1.886 0.004

5 7688 5395 2293 2.297 B10 164.2 137.9 37.6 100.3 26.3 26.2 0.29 1.82 0.004

Dry Density/Moisture Content Relationship for Site Soil


1.94 1.92 1.9 Dry Density 1.88 (Mg/m3) 1.86 1.84 1.82 1.8 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

MDD = 1.839 Mg/m3

OMC = Optimum Moisture Content MDD = Maximum Dry Density

s = Bulk density of calibrating sand

s= 1.316 Mg/m3

Moisture Content (%)

OMC = 22.7 %

Figure 2.4.1.2-1 Dry Density / Moisture Content Relationship site soil

29

Table 2.4.1.2-2 Dry Density/Moisture Content Relationship for River Sand fill Test Condition: Temperature = 29.9 0C, Relative Humidity = 62% and Volume 949 cm3
Test No. Mass of Soil + Mould (g) Mass of Mould (g) Mass of Compacted Soil (g) Bulk Density of Soil (Mg/m ) Container No. Mass of Container + Wet Soil (g) Mass of Container + Dry Soil (g) Mass of Container (g) Mass of Dry Soil (g) Mass of Moisture (g) Moisture Content (%) Measurement uncertainty for Moisture content (%) Dry Density (Mg/m ) Measurement uncertainty for Dry Density (Mg/m )
3 3 3

1 7245 5478 1767 1.862 C2 209.0 204.0 101.2 102.8 5.00 4.9 0.28 1.776 0.005

2 7455 5478 1977 2.083 C8 223.0 215.9 101.2 114.7 7.10 6.2 0.25 1.962 0.005

3 7698 5478 2220 2.339 C13 198.0 190.4 101.3 89.1 7.60 8.5 0.32 2.155 0.006

4 7602 5478 2124 2.238 C18 221.0 210.0 101.4 108.6 11.00 10.1 0.26 2.032 0.005

5 7450 5478 1972 2.078 C19 205.0 193.6 101.3 92.3 11.40 12.4 0.31 1.850 0.005

Dry Density/Moisture Content Relationship for River Sand


2.2 2.1 2 1.9

MDD = 2.156 Mg/m3

Dry Density (Mg/m3)

OMC = 8.4 %
1.8 1.7 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

s=1.186 Mg/m3

Moisture Content (%)

Figure 2.4.1.2-2 Dry Density / Moisture Content Relationship River Sand fill

30

Table 2.4.1.2-3 Dry Density/Moisture Content Relationship for imported earth fill Test Condition: Temperature = 29.9 0C, Relative Humidity = 63% and Volume 949 cm3

Test No. Mass of Soil + Mould (g) Mass of Mould (g) Mass of Compacted Soil (g) Bulk Density of Soil (Mg/m ) Container No. Mass of Container + Wet Soil (g) Mass of Container + Dry Soil (g) Mass of Container (g) Mass of Dry Soil (g) Mass of Moisture (g) Moisture Content (%) Measurement uncertainty for Moisture content (%) Dry Density (Mg/m ) Measurement uncertainty for Dry Density (Mg/m )
3 3 3

1 7188 5395 1793 1.889 17 85.2 80.0 41.2 38.8 5.2 13.4 0.74 1.666 0.010

2 7310 5395 1915 2.018 24 76.3 71.5

3 7468 5395 2073 2.184 28 92.4 84.2

4 7422 5395 2027 2.136 32 78.1 71.4

5 7314 5395 1919 2.022 34 79.4 71.8

42.2
29.3 4.8 16.4 0.98 1.734 0.013

41.1
43.1 8.2 19.0 0.67 1.836 0.009

41.0
30.4 6.7 22.0 0.95 1.750 0.011

41.3
30.5 7.6 24.9 0.96 1.619 0.010

Dry Density/Moisture Content Relationship for Dark Brown Sandy Clayed Silt
1.85 1.8 Dry Density 1.75 (Mg/m3) 1.7 1.65 1.6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

MDD = 1.839 Mg/m3

s=2.80 Mg/m3

Moisture Content (%)

OMC = 19.5 %

Figure 2.4.1.2-3 Dry Density / Moisture Content Relationship for imported earth fill

2.4.1.3.

Atterberg Limits

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Test Condition: Temperature = 29.4 0C, Relative Humidity = 57 & Test Date:16/10/2012 Table 2.4.1.3-1 Plastic Limit Test Results Plastic Limit Test No. Container No. Mass of Container + Wet Soil (g) Mass of Container + Dry Soil (g) Mass of Container (g) Mass of Moisture, M1 (g) Mass of Dry Soil, M2 (g) Moisture Content (M1 / M2) X 100 (%) Measurement uncertainty for Moisture content (%) Average Moisture Content (%) Table 2.4.1.3-2 Liquid Limit Test Results Liquid Limit Test No. Number of Blows Container No. Mass of Container + Wet Soil (g) Mass of Container + Dry Soil (g) Mass of Container (g) Mass of Moisture, M1 (g) Mass of Dry Soil, M2 (g) Moisture Content (M1 / M2) X 100 (%) Measurement uncertainty for Moisture content (%)

1 A2 26.4 24.1 15.0 2.3 9.1 25.3 3.2 25.6

2 A4 25.1 23.1 15.4 2.0 7.7 26.0 308.0

1 11.00 A1 29.20 23.70 14.60 5.50 9.10 60.40 3.63

2 17.00 A3 30.50 25.00 15.50 5.50 9.50 57.90 3.44

3 30.00 A7 27.30 22.90 14.60 4.40 8.30 53.00 3.86

4 37.00 A5 29.80 24.80 14.90 5.00 9.90 50.50 3.20

5 47.00 A9 28.40 24.10 14.70 4.30 9.40 45.70 3.31

Liquid Limit Graph


70 60 50 Moisture 40 Content (%) 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Number of Blows

Proportion Retained on 425 um Sieve: Liquid Limit (LL): 55%

Plastic Limit (PL):


Plastic Index (PI):

26%
29%

Figure 2.4.1.3-1 Liquid Limit Graph

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2.4.1.4.

Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) Test Result

Table 2.4.1.4-1 Design Mix (Trial Mix) for Soil-Sand Mixture


WaterCement Ratio 5% Cement 3.5% Cement 7.125 150x150x150 Dry 102.4 Normal 2111 6.910 Weight (Kg) Nominal Size LxWxH (mm) 150x150x150 Condition of Spacemen Dry Max. Load (KN) 128.6 Normal 2047 Type of Failure Density (Kg/m3) Ultimate Strength (MN/m2) at 3 days 7 days 5.7

0.6 0.8 1.3

4.6

2.5% Cement

7.140

150x150x150

Dry

62.3

Normal

2116

2.8

6 5 4 Ultimate Strength 3 (MN/m2) 2 1 0 0 2 4 Age (days) 6 8 2.5% Cement 3.5% Cement 5% Cement

Figure 2.4.1.4-1 Ultimate Strength Design Mix for Soil and Sand Mix

33

Table 2.4.1.4-2 Design Mix (Trial Mix) for Soil


WaterCement Ratio 5% Cement 3.5% Cement 2.5% Cement 5.260 150x150x150 Dry 20.5 Normal 1559 5.705 150x150x150 Dry 48.6 Normal 1690 5.710 Weight (Kg) Nominal Size LxWxH (mm) 150x150x150 Condition of Spacemen Dry Max. Load (KN) 80.4 Type of Failure Normal 1692 Density (Kg/m3) Ultimate Strength (MN/m2) at 3 days 7 days 3.6

0.3 0.6 1.2

2.2

0.9

3.5 3 2.5 2 Ultimate Strength (MN/m2) 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 2 4 Age (days) 6 8 2.5% Cement 3.5% Cement 5% Cement

Figure 2.4.1.4-2 Ultimate Strength Design Mix for Soil

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Table 2.4.1.4-3 Design Mix (Trial Mix) for Sand


WaterCement Ratio 5% Cement 3.5% Cement 2.5% Cement 6.310 150x150x150 Dry 40.2 Normal 1870 1.1 1.8 6.490 150x150x150 Dry 47.5 Normal 1923 0.8 2.1 6.610 Weight (Kg) Nominal Size LxWxH (mm) 150x150x150 Condition of Spacemen Dry Max. Load Type of Density (Kg/m3) Ultimate Strength (MN/m2) at 3days 1959 0.4 7days 3.3

(KN) Failure 75.2 Normal

4 3.5 3 2.5 Ultimate Strength (MN/m2) 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 2 4 Age (days) 6 8 2.5% Cement 3.5% Cement 5% Cement

Figure 2.4.1.4-3 Ultimate Strength Design Mix for Sand

2.4.1.5.

CBR Values before Soil Cement Stabilization 0.0318 KN/div 4.5 kg Test date: 5/3/2013
35

Jack/Load rig no. Mass of Surcharge:

Table 2.4.1.5-1 CBR Values before Soil Cement Stabilization


CH 10, Before Soil Cement Stabilization
Jack/Load rig no. 0.0318 KN/div Mass of Surcharge: 4.5 kg Test date: 5/3/2013 Penetration of Force on Plunger Standard CBR Value Plunger (mm) Load Guage KN Force (KN) (%) 0 0 0.5 35 1.11 1 80 2.54 1.5 120 3.82 2 150 4.77 2.5 175 5.57 13.24 42.03

CH 260, Before Soil Cement Stabilization


Jack/Load rig no. 0.0318 KN/div Mass of Surcharge: 4.5 kg Test date: 5/3/2013 Penetration of Force on Plunger Standard CBR Value Plunger (mm) Load Guage KN Force (KN) (%) 0 0 0.5 30 0.95 1 60 1.91 1.5 100 3.18 2 130 4.13 2.5 160 5.09 13.24 38.43

CH 510, Before Soil Cement Stabilization


Jack/Load rig no. 0.0318 KN/div Mass of Surcharge: 4.5 kg Test date: 5/3/2013 Penetration of Force on Plunger Standard CBR Value Plunger (mm) Load Guage KN Force (KN) (%) 0 0 0.5 40 1.27 1 56 1.78 1.5 70 2.23 2 87 2.77 2.5 100 3.18 13.24 24.02

CH 760, Before Soil Cement Stabilization


Jack/Load rig no. 0.0318 KN/div Mass of Surcharge: 4.5 kg Test date: 5/3/2013 Penetration of Force on Plunger Standard CBR Value Plunger (mm) Load Guage KN Force (KN) (%) 0 0 0.5 30 0.95 1 55 1.75 1.5 80 2.54 2 110 3.50 2.5 130 4.13 13.24 31.22

36

CH 1010, Before Soil Cement Stabilization


Jack/Load rig no. 0.0318 KN/div Mass of Surcharge: 4.5 kg Test date: 5/3/2013 Penetration of Force on Plunger Standard CBR Value Plunger (mm) Load Guage KN Force (KN) (%) 0 0 0.5 10 0.32 1 20 0.64 1.5 31 0.99 2 43 1.37 2.5 52 1.65 13.24 12.49
CH 1260, Before Soil Cement Stabilization (same for CH1510) Jack/Load rig no. 0.0318 KN/div Mass of Surcharge: 4.5 kg Test date: 5/3/2013 Penetration of Force on Plunger Standard CBR Value Plunger (mm) Load Guage KN Force (KN) (%) 0 0 0.5 20 0.64 1 30 0.95 1.5 40 1.27 2 50 1.59 2.5 55 1.75 13.24 13.21

CH 1760, Before Soil Cement Stabilization


Jack/Load rig no. 0.0318 KN/div Mass of Surcharge: 4.5 kg Test date: 5/3/2013 Penetration of Force on Plunger Standard CBR Value Plunger (mm) Load Guage KN Force (KN) (%) 0 0 0.5 30 0.95 1 60 1.91 1.5 75 2.39 2 85 2.70 2.5 95 3.02 13.24 22.82

CH 2010, Before Soil Cement Stabilization


Jack/Load rig no. 0.0318 KN/div Mass of Surcharge: 4.5 kg Test date: 5/3/2013 Penetration of Force on Plunger Standard CBR Value Plunger (mm) Load Guage KN Force (KN) (%) 0 0 0.5 30 0.95 1 52 1.65 1.5 65 2.07 2 83 2.64 2.5 90 2.86 13.24 21.62

37

2.4.1.6.

CBR Values after Soil Cement Stabilization

Jack/Load rig no. Mass of Surcharge:

0.02577 KN/div 4.5 kg Test date: 21/3/2013

Table 2.4.1.5-2 CBR Values after Soil Cement Stabilization

CBR at CH 115, three days after soil cement stabilization


Jack/Load rig no. 0.02577 KN/div Mass of Surcharge: 4.5 kg Penetration of Force on Plunger Standard Plunger (mm) Load Guage KN Force (KN) CBR Value 0 0 0.5 165 4.25 1 274 7.06 1.5 340 8.76 2 420 10.82 2.5 430 11.08 13.2 83.95 3 475 12.24 3.5 490 12.63 4 501 12.91 4.5 510 13.14 5 515 13.27 20 66.36 Ave. 75.15

CBR at CH 125 three days after soil stabilization


Penetration of Force on Plunger Standard CBR Value Plunger (mm) Load Guage KN Force (KN) (%) 0 0 0.5 81 2.09 1 160 4.12 1.5 250 6.44 2 330 8.50 2.5 410 10.57 13.20 80.04 3 460 11.85 3.5 495 12.76 4 520 13.40 4.5 530 13.66 5 555 14.30 20.00 71.51 Average 75.78

38

CH 150, Age: 3days after Soil Cement Stabilization


Jack/Load rig no. 0.02577 KN/div Penetration of Force on Plunger Standard CBR Value Plunger (mm) Load Guage KN Force (KN) (%) 0 0 0.5 139 3.58 1 220 5.67 1.5 290 7.47 2 361 9.30 2.5 429 11.06 13.2 83.75 3 475 12.24 3.5 520 13.40 4 594 15.31 4.5 615 15.85 5 625 16.11 20 80.53 Average 82.14

CH 110, Age: 7days after Soil Cement Stabilization


Jack/Load rig no. 0.02577 KN/div Penetration of Force on Plunger Standard CBR Value Plunger (mm) Load Guage KN Force (KN) (%) 0 0 0.5 185 4.77 1 283 7.29 1.5 420 10.82 2 517 13.32 2.5 580 14.95 13.2 113.23 3 623 16.05 3.5 654 16.85 4 680 17.52 4.5 710 18.30 5 725 18.68 20 93.42 Average 103.32

39

2.4.2. DISCUSSION

Sieve analysis is used to determine the gradation of the soil which is a very important element used in the determination of the proportion of the stabilizing agent. A well graded soil makes an excellent soil cement and requires the least amount of cement for its stabilization as compared to a poorly graded soil. The sieve analysis result shows that the soil at the site is well graded as indicated by the particle distribution curve (figure 2.4.1-1). As shown in (figures 2.4.1.2-1, 2.4.1.2-2 and 2.4.1.2-3), the optimum moisture content is 22.7%, 8.4% and 19.5% for site soil, river sand and imported earth respectively. Maximum dry density for each soil type is obtained at the respective optimum moisture content. For this reason, mixing of the stabilizing agent into the soil at the time of stabilization will be done at those moisture contents. Water will be added during mixing if the moisture content is found to be lower that the optimum moisture content and the soil will be dried by application of pressurized air if it is too wet. During the process of soil cement stabilization, traces of water in the hand are indications that the optimum moisture content is exceeded. Since the PI obtained is 29% which is greater than 10% and less than 30%, cement can be used to stabilize the soil at this project site. If PI is found to be more than 30%, it is not advisable to used cement alone to stabilize the soil because it is difficult to mix cement with the soil of PI more than 30% except when lime is first added to reduce the PI and improve workability before adding the cement (Hicks, 2002). As shown in (table 2.2.4-2), the minimum Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) for cement stabilized soil at the age of 7 days is 5.171 MN/m2 and 1.723 MN/m2 for base course and sub-base course or subgrade respectively. Table 2.2.4-2 therefore serves as a reference for the Mix Design of cement content to be used for the subgrade stabilization. To determine the Mix Design, Samples of soil, sand and soil-sand mixture were thoroughly mixed with 2.5%, 3.5% and 5% cement content until a uniform mixture of soil-cement, sand-cement and soil-sand plus cement at Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) is obtained. The OMC for site soil, river sand fill material and imported earth fill material are 22.7%, 8.4% and 19.5% respectively. Cubes were then cast and Cube and UCS Tests were conducted at the age of 3 days and 7 days to determine the density and the UCS and the results obtained for UCS test are shown in (table 2.4.1.4-1, table 2.4.1.4-2 & table 2.4.1-4) for soil, sand and soil mixed with sans respectively.

40

Table 2.4.1.4-1, table 2.4.1.4-2 and table 2.4.1-4 show that the UCS for 3.5% cement content at the age of 7 days are 2.1 MN/m2 for soil, 2.2 MN/m2 for sand and 4.6 MN/m2 for soil-sand mix. All these values of UCS are higher than the minimum UCS (1.723 MN/m2) for cement stabilized subgrade at the age of 7 days shown in (table 2.2.4-2). This proves that a cement content of 3.5% is sufficient enough to stabilize the subgrade for this project but a cement content of 4% has been used to ensure very stable subgrade is obtained. The result of CBR test shows a significant increase in the CBR values of the subgrade after soil cement stabilization. The CBR value obtained before cement stabilization is between 12.49% and 42% (table 2.4.1.5-1). The different CBR values obtained before stabilization is due to the different types of subgrade materials and different degree of compaction. For the different soil types, JKR specification recommend a CBR value of 5%, 30% and 80% for soil, sand and aggregates respectively. The effect of the degree of compaction is indicated by the fact that the CBR value obtained is highest at CH10 which is just at the beginning of the new road and the lowest CBR is attained at CH2260 which is close to the end of the road. The highest CBR value obtained at CH10 is due to adequate compaction by the construction trucks used to transport construction materials to increasing chainage along the road. Just three days after soil cement stabilization, the average CBR value increased to between 78% and 82% and at the age of seven days, the average CBR of the cement stabilized subgrade is 103% as shown in (table 2.4.1.5-2). This CBR value is higher the 80% CBR recommended for aggregate road base course and since CBR value measures the mechanical strength of the subgrade, this high CBR obtained shows how strong the subgrade is after been stabilized with cement. It is this improved strength of the subgrade that results in the reduction of the total thickness of the pavement. The reduction in thickness is as shown in (figure 2.4.2-1) which compares the cross sections of flexible pavement constructed by conventional method to the one constructed with cement stabilization of the subgrade materials

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Figure 2.4.2-1 Thickness of flexible pavement by using soil cement stabilization

Since the subgrade is strong enough to withstand vehicle loading, sub-base and base courses will be eliminated and the binder course is going to be spread directly on the subgrade after an application of prime coat to facilitate its bonding to the subgrade. The surface course will then be overlaid on the binder course after application of tact coat also to facilitate bonding of the two layers. This pavement work is scheduled to start on the 20th April 2013. Eliminating the base and sub-base courses conserves aggregate material and the environment by eliminating the greenhouse gas emission associated with aggregate mining, procession and transportation to the site. This also eliminates traffic congestion and noise pollution which would have resulted from construction trucks used to haul the crushed stones to the site.

42

Cost Benefit Analysis.

Table 2.4.2-1 Soil Cement Stabilization of subgrade materials

Task Description

Length (m)

Width (m)

Area (m2)

Rate (RM/m2)

Amount (RM)

Spread pulverize

stabilizing and mix

agent, with 7.00 17,500 14.00 245,000.00

subgrade material, compact 2500.00 and grade to chamber

The sub-contractor, Specialized Pavement Malaysia (SPM) Sdn. Bhd. has accepted to do the soil cement stabilization work with rate and amount shown in table 2.4.2-1 which is the same as that provided in the Bill of Quantity. SPM has its own manpower and all the necessary machineries and equipment to carry out the cement stabilization of the subgrade materials. The cement stabilization of the subgrade materials will be followed by an application of the prime coat and then construction of binder and surface courses. If conventional method of constructing flexible pavement is used, the subgrade materials will be compacted to 95% or more of the maximum dry density (MDD) without any additive based on JKR specification. As shown in (figure 2.4.2-1a), this compacted subgrade material is normally followed by sub-base, base, binder and surface courses. The sub-base and base courses are constructed of crusher run while the binder and surface courses used the same materials and machineries whether for conventional method or for soil cement stabilization method. The sub-base course can however be eliminated, depending on the strength of the subgrade material after compaction as measured by the CBR value. If the sub-base course is omitted due to reason stated above, the cost for the road base material including machinery rental is as shown in (table 2.4.2-2). The total cost for the base course is RM 516,390.26which is more than double the total cost when using soil cement stabilization shown in table 2.4.2-1 (RM 245,000.00). Therefore, comparison of the two methods in terms of cost can lead to the conclusion that soil cement stabilization is more cost effective than conventional method

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Table 2.4.2-2 Crusher Run road base material

Task Description

Length (m)

Width (m)

Area (m2)

Rate (RM/m2)

Amount (RM)

Spread, grade and compact road base material (300mm thick 2500.00 7.00 Crushed Aggregate

17,500

Material (Market Price) 1 tone of Crusher Run = RM 33.00 Machinery (Schedule of Rate), Lay = 850m2/day Motor Grader = RM 550/day Vibrating 550/day Roller = RM

22.08

386,347.50

0.65

11,323.53

0.65

11,323.53

Labor Four general workers each paid RM 50/day Sub Total Profit = 25% of Sub Total

0.24 23.61 5.90

4,117.65 103,278.05

Total Sum

29.51

516,390.26

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2.5.0. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

2.5.1. CONCLUSION

The Unconfined Compressive Strength of cement stabilized soils increases with increase in cement content as shown in table 2.4.1.4-1, table 2.4.1.4-2 and table 2.4.1-4. Comparison of the CBR values before and after soil cement stabilization also shows a significant increase in the value of CBR after soil cement stabilization. The CBR of the subgrade before stabilizing with cement is between 19% and 43%. Three days after soil cement stabilization, the CBR value increases to between 78 and 82. A surprising CBR value of as high as 103% is obtained at the age of seven days after soil cement stabilization. This CBR value is higher than the recommended CBR value (80%) for road base constructed of crusher run or aggregate material. For this reason, it is not advisable to have sub-base and base courses, surface course can be constructed directly on the stabilized subgrade because it (the subgrade) is strong enough to withstand the subsequent traffic loading from the vehicle that will be using the road. From the UCS and CBR tests results, it can be concluded that Soil cement stabilization (1) increases the strength of subgrade (2) reduces the cross sectional thickness of flexible pavement thus conserving and/or reallocating road construction material (aggregates). Analysis of the road construction cost when using soil cement stabilization and conventional method shows that, half of the construction cost is saved by using soil cement stabilization. The construction cost for the road base course constructed using crushed stones (conventional method) is RM 516,390.26 (table 2.4.2-2) which is more than double the construction cost when using soil cement stabilization of the subgrade material shown in table 2.4.2-1 (RM 245,000.00). Based on the cost analysis, it can be concluded that soil cement stabilization is more cost effective than conventional method of constructing flexible pavement.

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2.5.2. RECOMMENDATION

Soil cement stabilization has been used in road pavement, parking areas, slope protection, landfills, foundations of buildings, erosion control and so on for many years. Although the performance as indicated by the tests results immediately after stabilization is promising, it is recommended that further research be carried out to develop a better understanding of the long-term performance of cement stabilized soils. Furthermore, specialized machines were used for spreading the stabilizing agent, pulverizing and mixing making it easier to spread at the design stabilizer content and mix at the design stabilization depth. However, the specialized machines cannot be used in a restricted area. For this reason, a research needs to be conducted to develop a reliable construction techniques and specifications for restricted area because a lot of such site conditions (restricted areas) will be encountered in the construction industries.

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3.0. SAFETY TRAINING AND VALUE OF THE PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE


3.1. LESSON LEARNED AND EXPERIENCE GAINED

During the twenty eight (28) weeks of my industrial internship training, I have enjoyed the opportunities to learn from and work with individuals of quite a variety of backgrounds. The people that I have all along worked with or learnt from consists of Malay (the majority), two Chinese and two Indians from I.Z.A Construction Company (my host company), Maryland, JKR (Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia), KPP (Kamunting Premix Plant Sdn Bhd) and SPM (Specialized Pavement Malaysia Sdn Bhd). During my training period, the independence afforded to me in tackling issues at site is also worth appreciating. The following are the Lessons that I have learned and Experience that I gained during my internship in I.Z.A Construction Company:

1. Time management, especially in terms of going early to office or site, meetings and coming back from break and lunch on time. 2. During the two months in the office, I have learnt about Tendering and Bill of Quantities (BQ). I have learnt about the methods of and procedure for tendering, I also learned how to determine the quantities of materials from construction drawing by Taking off and how to determine the rate and hence the price of each of the items in the BQ. 3. I also learnt office keeping whereby I fold and file incoming construction drawings and distribute copies to Sub-Contractors, file incoming documents and/or letters and photocopy and file any outgoing documents before they are distributed. 4. Furthermore, I have learnt how to prepare weekly and monthly progress report and to take project progress photos through the help of the Project Engineer Mr. Zulhelmy. Once the weekly report is done, I e-mail it to the Project Director Mr. Farouk, the Project Manager Mr. Firdaus, Project Engineer Mr. Zulhelmy and to the Quantity Surveyor Miss Catherine.

47

5. I have also learnt JKR Specification for Road Works and learnt how to read and interpret construction/technical drawings especially for infra works. I can now determine the BRC size and number of reinforcement bars for culvert wingwalls and determine the moisture content of soil at the site using Speedy Test Apparatus. 6. I have an experience of supervising/inspecting site activities for four months. For example, having determine the number of and spacing for reinforcement bars for culvert wingwalls, I double check the number and spacing during actual steelwork at site to confirm that there is no variation but if there is any, an explanation is given to defend the variation. I also check the number of workers and equipment at site, and record down all the materials delivered to the site as well as the number of visitors at the site, their names, positions and companies they come from. 7. I attended a three (3) days (12th 14th December 2012) course about Microsoft Project 2010 organized by I.Z.A Construction Company during which I have learned how to enter tasks in Microsoft Project 2010 and project scope- work breakdown structure (WBS). I also learnt about activity sequencing, Activity Resource Planning, Setting Calendar in Microsoft Project 2010, Critical Path Method, Schedule Compression (Fast Tracking and Crushing), Project Cost Estimation and Cost Budgeting, plotting Financial and Physical S-Curve, Project Tracking and Project Control- the effects of changing project scope, time and cost.

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3.2.

LEADERSHIP, TEAM WORK AND INDIVIDUAL ACTIVITIES

The following are the Leadership, team work and individual activities that I was engaged in during my training period:

1. Tracking project progress in Microsoft Project 2010 weekly, on the 4th, 20th, and 30th of every month and then draw the financial and physical S-Curve for each tracking using Microsoft excel. 2. Supervision of daily activities at site, I jot down daily site activities including the workforce, equipment and visitors at the site as well as materials delivered to the site and the weather condition especially rain and its duration. 3. Taking off to determine quantities of BRC and reinforcement bars for culvert wingwalls 4. Calculating the volume of daily imported earth, I measure and record the height of imported earth and the arrival time of each truck then multiply the measured height by the length and the width of each truck to determine the volume of the imported earth for the truck. By adding the volume of imported earth for all the trucks in a day, the total volume of earth hauled to the site daily is obtained. 5. I also measure and calculate the total area required for turfing with the help of one of the laborers. 6. Speedy moisture content test for imported earth under a close supervision of JKR official Mr. Rama 7. Ensure that slump test is carried out for each truck of concrete before concreting and ensure that concrete cubes are cast to be tested at the age of 7 days and 28days to determine the density and compressive strength of the concrete. The project engineer Mr. Zulhelmy, superviser from JKR Mr. Rama and I go to the KKP office in Kamunting on the 7th and 28th days after each concreting for cube test to determine the density and compressive strength of the concrete. 8. Write weekly progress report

49

9. Help the project manager Mr. Firdaus and project engineer Mr. Zulhelmy in preparing monthly report as well as in printing and binding the monthly report. I also attend monthly meeting about project progress with JKR Taiping.

3.3.

BUSINESS VALUES, ETHICS AND MANAGEMENT SKILLS

Effective communication: I have learnt how to communicate effectively with the company management, with my supervisor, project engineers, site supervisors, fellow interns and the general workers I whose works were under my direct supervision.

Time management: I have also learnt to be punctual especially in terms of arriving on time to work, meetings, from breaks, from lunch, in replying to letters and phone calls.

Team work: I have learnt to coordinate and corporate with individuals, departments, divisions and branch of the company to ensure accurate work is done and quality services in terms of value, speed and reliability are delivered by the company.

Maximum resources utilization: I have understood that a company can improve its performance by maximizing the utilization of its current resources such as money, equipment, time and people.

Accountability: I have understood that it is important to take responsibility for ones actions (decision, performance and results) whether the result is positive or negative.

Honesty and respect for others: I have learnt that we need to be honest in what we do and tell others to do to avoid misleading and mistrust. There is also need to trust and respect the opinions and decision of other people in the company.

Intellectual property: It has been the sole responsibility of all of us in I.Z.A Construction Company to protect the assets of the company. Safety: In I.Z.A Construction Company, it is our responsibility to ensure the safety of each other in the company
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3.4.

PROBLEMS OR CHALLENGES FACED AND SOLUTIONS TO OVERCOME THEM

While doing my industrial internship training with I.Z.A Construction Company, I have encountered the following problems / challenges: 1. I have never been informed or briefed in advance by the project engineer or site manager of the tasks or activities that I am to undertake, it has always been a surprise. I do not really feel comfortable if am informed early in the morning especially about a trip / journey. 2. Problem of communication with the laborers because the only language that they all (Malay, Chinese and Indians) can speak is Bahasa Malayu. 3. It is compulsory to attend all the meetings of the company but I did not benefit from any of the meetings because they are conducted in Bahasa Malayu 4. It also takes a very long time to approve Internship Training Allowance Claim which made life so challenging for me during the whole training period because I totally depend on the training allowance for everything I need. I sometimes try to borrow from friends but it is not an easy task as almost all of my friends are in similar situation like me hence by the time I finish my allowance, theirs are also over.

The problems or challenges above can be overcome by simply doing the following:

1. Interns should be briefed about the tasks they are to carry out at least by evening if they are to carry out the tasks in the following morning 2. The problem of communication with the laborers is not easy to solve, we were using nonverbal forms of communication such as pointing and demonstrations but it was not so effective. 3. Official meetings of the company should be conducted in English because all the attendants can understand the language, there only problem is speaking it. 4. Those concerned with the approval of Internship Training Allowance Claim should act or consider the claim within two to three weeks.
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4.0. CONCLUSION
It is not always easy starting something new but once a new task has been started and properly executed until the end, beneficial outcomes are always realized. Similarly, it was not easy for us the interns when we started our industrial internship training because we had to adapt to the new environment and work with people we have never seen before some of whom we reluctant to cooperate with us. However, as time went on, the situation has changed as every employee of the company became our good friends and it can be concluded that the benefits realized during the seven months period of industrial internship training are more than expected. These benefits are realized by my ability to apply theoretical knowledge in industrial application and implement Health Safety and Environment (HSE) practices at workplace. The benefits are also realized in terms of being exposed to ethical and professional work culture, industrial practices and potential employers as well as the development of skills in work ethics, effective communication, leadership, teamwork and management Hands-on training, meeting and making friendship with people of different cultures and graduates from different institutions of higher learning both within my host company (I.Z.A Construction Company Sdn. Bhd.) and other companies especially Merit Lead Sdn. Bhd and Specialized Pavement Malaysia (SPM) Sdn. Bhd. are some of the benefits of the internship which are worth mentioning. Another major benefit is realized through the skills enhancement and experience gained by being engaged in several activities from tendering to construction project management (CPM), site supervision works, material testing and reporting to my superiors as well as enhanced skills in Microsoft excel and Microsoft project 2010. In brief, the experience and skills that I have developed during industrial internship training are summarized in the pie chart below.

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Figure 4-1 Pie Chart of benefits of internship training

Although numerous benefits have been realized during the industrial internship training, it was initially not easy for us to get offers/placement from companies, yet we were provided a long list of host companies. It is therefore recommended that UTP apply to the host companies on behalf of the students for industrial internship training because it is easier for an institution like UTP than for individual students. Last but not least, it is recommended that I.Z.A Construction Company Sdn. Bhd. does assign tasks to interns from say both road and building projects the company is undertaking but to a single ongoing project (road construction project only or building project only).

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REFERENCES

1. Guyer, J. P. (2002).

An Introduction to Soil Stabilization for Pavements.

Continuing Education and Development, Inc. 9 Greyridge Farm Court Stony Point, NY 10980 2. Garber, J. N., & Hoel, L. A., (2002). Traffic & Highway Engineering 3rd edition. Thomson Learning, 1120 Birchmount Road Toronto, Ontario, Canada M1K 5G4 3. Hicks, R.G.(2002). Alaska Soil Stabilization Design Guide. Department of Civil Engineering, Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331 4. Caterpillar (2006). Introduction to Soil Stabilization, Understanding the Basics of Soil Stabilization: An Overview of Materials and Techniques 5. Geotextile Separation Design Guide. Retrieved April 1st 2013, from http://www.geo-textile.com/uploadfiles/20101231144219878.pdf. 6. Karin A., Sven-Erik J., & Ronny A.,(2002). Stabilization of Organic Soils by Cement and Puzzolanic Reactions FEASIBILITY STUDY. English Translation 3. Swedish Deep Stabilization Research Centre, Swedish Geotechnical Institute 7. ALLU PMX & PF, Stabilization System: New concept for soil improvement

APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1 TRAINING SCHEDULE

II

APPENDIX 2 PROJECT GANTT CHART

III

APPENDIX 2- LABORATORY REPORT

IV

VI

VII

VIII

IX

APPENDIX 3 UNSUITABLE SOIL REPLACEMENT WITH GEOTEXTILE SEPARATOR

1.

Excavate Unsuitable Material

2. Lay Type A Non-Woven Geotextile

3.

Fill with sand (granular material)

4. Compact thoroughly

XI

APPENDIX 4 CULVERT INSTALLATION

1. Excavating trench for culvert

2. Bedding Preparation

3.Placing the first reinforced concrete pipe

4. Culvert alignment

5. Culvert after complete alignment

6. Culvert after backfilling

XII

7. Installation of wingwall base

8. Steelwork for wingwall

9. Formwork for wingwall

10. Completed wingwall

XIII

APPENDIX 5 SOIL CEMENT STABILIZATION APPLICATION PROCESS

1. Spreading the stabilizing agent

2. Verifying stabilizer content

3. Pulverizing and Mixing

4. Stabilization depth verification

5. Cube casting for lab cube test


XIV

6. Preliminary compaction

7. Grading and Shaping

8. Final rolling

9. Curing

10. Completed road

XV