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La-L.

GJLDERSLEEVE-LODGE LATIN SERIES

LATIN COMPOSITION

BASIL L^ILDEESLEEVE
PROFESSOR OF GREEK IN THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY

AND

GONZALEZ LODGE
PROFESSOR OF LATIN AHD GREEK IN COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

SECOND EDITION

BOSTON,
D. 0.

U.S.A.

HEATH &

CO.,

PUBLISHERS

1907

COPYRIGHT,

1899

AND

1904,

BY

UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING COMPANY

PEEFACE
THIS manual
consists of

two

parts.

In the

first

part,

which is an expansion of Gildersleeve's Latin Exercise Book, the student is practised in the various forms of the subordinate sentence; in the second part he has to deal with con-

tinuous composition.

In both divisions the exercises are divided into fifteen


in the first part according to the groups of four, arranged second part, according to the degree topics of study in the
;

is to make it easy object of this division successive years four for the teacher to use the book through In most schools thirty exercises will without repeating. this book contains one hundred and occupy a full year

of difficulty.

The

twenty.

The passages

are frankly translated or adapted

from

ac-

cepted Latin models. into Latin attempt to think English directly


for a

The more arduous and more perilous


is

reserved

more advanced

stage, but

it

is

hoped

that the inci-

to dental hints given in this book will be of some service

those

who

are preparing for higher achievement

and more

complete mastery. The notes are intended to stimulate thought rather than

Hence to help the student mechanically over difficult places. instances they also serve as exercises and involve in

many

close

grammatical study.
senior collaborator has furnished the greater part of

The

iv

PREFACE

the material; for the remainder, as well as for the notes,

the vocabulary, and the arrangement, the junior collaborator


is

responsible.

BASIL L. GILDERSLEEVE.

GONZALEZ LODGE.
BALTIMORE AND BRYN MAWR, August
1,

18 ( J9.

IN the preparation

of this

new

edition of the Latin

Com-

position the authors are under especial obligations to Professor Charles N". Cole of Oberlin College, who has made many

additions to the Notes of the First Part, and to the Vocabulary,

which has been enlarged by the inclusion of all the proper names in the text. Professor Cole has also furnished
the references to the

new

editions of the

grammars

cited

and

has thus greatly facilitated the use of the book. In the Second Part a new Exercise has been substituted
for

No. 115, and a number of errors corrected.


B. L. G.

G. L.

NEW YORK, May

1,

1904.

LATIN COMPOSITION
FIRST PART

SYSTEMATIC EXERCISES

GENERAL DIRECTIONS
student should read carefully the sections of the given at the beginning of every set of exercises, and should not begin writing until familiar with all the phenomena of the constructions covered by the exercise. In

THE

Grammar

the introduction to every set of exercises attention is also drawn to those peculiarities which are apt to escape the notice of students, and these should be carefully studied.

Further information is given in the notes, the grammatical references in which are collected at the end of the book.

The

Grammar, larger edition (1894), and Allen and Greenough (with references

references in the headings are to Gildersleeve's Latin to the grammars -of


to the

new

edition of

1903 in parenthesis), Bennett, Hale and Buck, Harkness (1898), Lane, and West ; the references in the notes are to Gildersleeve's Latin Grammar exclusively.

1.

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES.
A.

G. 450-470

&

G. 210-212, 334 (330-337, 573-576)


231-237, 507 280, 281, 590-595.
II.

B. 162, 300

fl.

378-380, 649-651;

&

B.

(2),

537;

L.

1499-1533,

1773-1791;

W.

In Direct Questions attention must be paid to the Interto the rogative Particles and their position in the sentence
;

incomplete sentences introduced by an with an affirmative force (457, 2).

; to

phrases with an

In Indirect Questions notice especially the use of si after Observe also the use verbs of Trial, expressed or implied. of the Moods, and those phraseological expressions which

have the force of an interrogative but do not affect the


(467, B. 1

Mood

and

N.)-

LATIN COMPOSITION
A.

CONSTRUCTIONS

1 1. 1. Is there any one of all mankind about whom you have a better opinion ? 2 2. Were not the wretches compelled to pay down the money ? 3. Did Hannibal carry on war against the Romans from 3 hate ? Was his hatred unjust ? 4. You will not be able to say that there was nothing in that letter to 4 5. All wicked men are slaves or injure Verres, will you ? is he free who is a slave 5 to his lusts ? 6. Have your forces been diminished or theirs increased? 7. When I get 6 to Rome and find out what the business 7 is, I will write to you at what 8 time I shall return. 8. Write me whether Clodia was alive or dead when her son died. 9. Urged by famine and want the soldiers went secretly out of camp to try 9 if
;

4 10. I am disthey could find anything to eat in the fields. to think he turn will his wife out doors. 11. It may of posed be that I did not understand you. 12. They took counsel in

what way the enemy was to be met. 10 13. He hesitated a short time whether he should turn his march into Noricum. 14. What was 11 I to answer ? 15. It is extraordinary what an amount of labor men spend on trifles. 16. With what 13 ia obtain the genius are you endowed that you hope to highest honors in the state ? 17. He came early in the mornFor what purpose ? 14 18. The senate said that they ing.
did not see any reason 15 at all should be intrusted to soldiers
rades in battle.
Use existimare and see 631, 2. For the position of the 4 6 Use verb. 6 What is the real time of 631, 2. particle, see 678, R. 5. 7 8 9 369. Remember that the verb 416, i 467, R. 2. get ? see 244, R. 2. of Trial (460, i, b) is usually omitted. 10 217 and 467. n 466. "469. 13
1

why the welfare of the state who had deserted their com-

mortalis.

verb of Hoping
tense.

a verb of Thinking (527, R. 2); be careful then of the " Use 16 nihil videre. facere and see 470.
is

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES
B.

Did you not say that this was a good man ? 2. Is war nothing because a great commander somel times runs ? 3. Is the nature of the whole business different now from what it was then ? 4. You remember those magnificent temples which you saw in Italy ? or perhaps you are 5. Is the world governed by too young to 2 remember them. the providence of God or by chance ? 6. I want 3 you to write me under what consuls 4 Clodius was Tribune of the 7. He asked whether he was accustomed to walk People. on 5 his hands. 8. What difference does it make whether I come now or ten years hence 6 ? 9. The general began to reconnoitre to see 7 whether he could attack the enemy in 8 the rear. 10. I am inclined to think that Hannibal was more
2, 1.

the science of

wonderful in adversity than in prosperity.

11.

They did not


10

you not have replied that that could not happen unless the government were overthrown 11 ? 13. Endymion fell asleep some 14. There was a dispute as to time or other in Latium. whether the war should be declared 9 by order of the people or whether a decree of the senate was sufficient. 15. It is past belief how much I surpass my master in good sense. 16. You know what a troublesome creature Peter is. 17. I am 12 18. Hieronymus asked going to bed. For what purpose ? the Koman ambassadors what had 13 been the fortune of the day at Cannae for what the ambassadors of Hannibal told him was scarcely credible he wished to know what was the truth 14 in order to determine which side to take. 15
to seek

know what

or

what to avoid.

12.

Should

alius
'

;
'

643 and
6

N. 3.
i.
i.

2 7

298.
9

257, 2

'

on

is

by.'
13

416,
8

Remember

too peremptory. that the verb of Trial (460,


;

volo
10

is

469.
ft)

i,

is

usually omitted.

417,
'

465 and 467.

258.
'

n 667.
14

12

and

see 470.

what fortune they had had

(349).

369.

Use facere 15 = which


'

hope to follow.'

LATIN COMPOSITION

CONSTRUCTIONS

a
you know

Are not my witnesses ignorant of many things that 2. Did he not in the hearing of the noble 2 Sul? that he had been corrupted by you and led into 3 confess picius
3.
1.
l

dishonesty by your promises ? 3. He could not any longer be unlike himself/ could he ? 4. Does the senate think it a crime to give an invitation 5 to luncheon ? o. Are you still
? or do you not know the law of Solon, who laid the death penalty 6 on any one who 6 in time of civil faction did not belong to one party or the other ? 7 6. Are you ignorant of the enemy or of yourselves or of the fortune of either people ? 7. He asked the boy whether he wanted to go back 8 whether you will be long 8. Let me know to his father. or not. 9. There was no reason why seat at your country

hesitating

9 10 was you should undergo so great labor. 10. An effort made in the hope that n the brother of the accused might be 12 12 11. I am halfpermitted to console him as he was dying. inclined to think it better to travel abroad than to sit still 12. I doubt but he will turn his wife out of doors. at home. 13 do. 13. At first it was doubtful to us what we should 13 15. Somehow or I to betake myself? 14. Whither am 16. Whither other the remedy is worse than the disease. was he going that u you asked him so angrily whether his mother knew he was out ? 17. Do not 15 keep back what you have come to ask. 12 18. You will recognize at once what sort 16 of a man he is.

Abl. Abs.
7

302.

inducere.

359, R.

1.

Use verb.

capite sancire

si quis.
10

'one or the other 'is a single word. 8 fac sciam. 9 capere. 'the thing was tried.' n Remember that the verb of Trial (here
is

Hope)

"

271,

2.

usually omitted " 468.

460,

i,

&.

12

13

Participle.

257.

l4

469.

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES
D.

Do. you not seem to be able to see with your very 1 2 eyes those things which you have heard ? 2. Did he really until friend ? not his 3. You are seem to suspect waiting Metellus gives 3 his testimony ? 4. I am eager to hear what or have you forgotten what I said at the beyou think 5. ? Does wisdom alone make us happy or not ? ginning
4.
1.
;

you will instruct your 7. I wonder what was the reason why servant to inquire. you changed your plan. 8. You will perceive whether they 6 5 2 9. Will you never really think so or only make believe. understand that you must decide whether they are murderers
6.

You

will

know when

it

will be, if

or the champions of our liberty ? 10. I opened the package 11. I have to see 7 whether there was a letter to me in it.

sent you a copy of

my

letter to Gains,

because I

am
to

half-

inclined-to-think

it

would have been 8 better not

written

it.
9

12.

Is

not the

doubt whether Mamilius or 15. Archimedes was the consuls should save the citadel. killed by some soldier or other who did not know 11 who he 16. What madness has seized him that 12 he comes to was. my house daily ? 17. I crossed the ocean. To see what? 13 18. Which party u seems to have made the attack ? 15 those who had no reason for making it, or those who confess that
they did
1

ing, and passion happy ? 14. It was a matter of varlet ?

man who is 13. Was 10 1

have without fear, sufferto kill the

impudent

make

it ?

Omit.
;

572, B. 2

a The improbability of the fact is not emphasized in Latin. be careful of the tense. 4 negotium dare, which is equal to a
7
;

verb of ordering for the tense, see 244, R. 2, 5 id. simulo. that the verb of Trial (here Seeing) is usually omitted 460, i,
;

Observe
8

b.

597,

B. 5 (a);

capere.

but see R. 3 (a). "481,2. 10 258. " ignarus. "469; use 13 14 1B See 470. Use verb. Express by the pronoun.

2.

OBJECT AND CAUSAL SENTENCES.

G. 523-542; A. & G. 333, 321, 272, 288 (572, 540, 459, 462, 579, 455 (i and 2), 497 (rf)); B. 299, 329-334, 270, 285, 286; H. 611, 613-620, 588; H. & B. 551-555, 586-590, 593-597, 605 (i and 4), 535 (2, a and 6); L. 1838-1858, 2172-2236; W. 544-549, 622-636.

In Object Clauses notice the difference between quod, ut,

and the Ace. with the Infinitive, and the verbs which may take more than one of these constructions (525, i, N. 5 532 and N. 1). Especially important is the variation in verbs of AVill (532 and NN.);

In Causal Sentences notice the usage of the various particles, quod^quia^ etc., with their moods, and he careful with
Distinguish also regard to the Rejected Reason (541, N. 2). between quod Causal and the Inf. after verbs of Emotion
(542, R.
;

533).

OBJECT

AND CAUSAL SENTENCES


A.

1 Are you sorry or glad that your mother-in-law has 5. hanged herself ? 2. The legions thanked the general for 2 having expressed so good an opinion of them. 3. Xerxes been the only one 3 to tell thanked Damaratus for having
.

him 4 the

truth.

4.

Africanus used to praise Xenophon

same labors were not equally hard on commander and private soldier. 5. That he, who though 6 victorious 5 at Cannae had not dared to go toward Rome, should after having been repulsed from Capua have confor saying that the
6. The ceived the hope of possessing 7 himself of the city 8 old is that it does not long greatly of age advantage greatest 9 for pleasure. 7. As for your exhorting me to be hopeful,
!

would have you know 10 that the condition of the state is now such that we must fear that it will soon succumb to the machinations of the revolutionists. 8. Laelius was called the wise, not because he did not 11 understand what was the most pleasant thing in the world but because he considered
I
it

of slight value.
10.
13

9.

We

read that Mithridates hated the

Romans because by
tered.

their arrival his

power had

12

been shat-

beset, as

Will you complain that the defendant is being because the accuser is unwilling to speak as long

11. will ask Fabius to mollify the he is allowed ? 14 name is very feelings of the Allobroges, since the Fabian 15 12. Suetonius tells us that Caesar them. influential with

We

pulled down a country house which had been built at great 16 expense because it did not wholly suit him. 13. The king would 17 not make peace because he thought that the Aetolians
1

would never keep quiet.


'

to feel grateful,' and 2 gratias agere, to express gratitude, to thank.' express an opinion,' indicium facere ; so good,' Superlative (802). 3 325, R. 6. 4 521 could
' ' ' ;

Observe the difference between gratiam habere,

the demonstrative also be used?


*laus.
12

victor

609.
2.
15

G31,
16

i.

427, N. 5.

9
13

spern habere.

10

scito.

"541,

N.

Laelius did understand.


416,
4. is
'

518.

circumvenire.

"

=
?

'

of the Fabii.'

esse

and modify the sentence accordingly.


the Impf. Indicative

17

When

Use exsententia would nolle and


'

when

IO

LATIN COMPOSITION
B.

CONSTRUCTIONS

6.

1.

am

glad that you have got well.


3.

2. I

thank

you

for having

come to my assistance. do not know when we shall see you.

We
The

regret that

we

4.

2 king of Persia sent ambassadors to Athens Chabrias was waging war on the king in concert with the 5. To think that he should have entertained Egyptians.
!

generals of the to complain that

such cruel projects 3 6. The fact that the Carthaginians then for the first time 4 transported an army to Sicily seemed in no way to concern 5 the Roman state. 6 7. Did anyone ever thank the gods because he was a good man ? 8. The circumstance that Isocrates was hindered from 7 speaking in public by the weakness of his voice did not prevent him

from 7 being considered a distinguished orator. 9. Inasmuch as his youth and his modesty hinder 8 his speaking he has handed his case over to me. 10. You have done me a great 11. favor in writing me what 9 has happened in the city.
I

pray the gods that the baby


12.

may

live

long,

since

the

Prepare for war since ye have been unable to endure peace. 13. Admirably does
father has a kindly heart.

Plato call pleasure a bait for 10 the bad, for by it men are caught as fish by a hook. 14. We have been warned to be

on our guard against 11 being picked up by highwaymen, because they will get to the regions which we are making for sooner than we can. 15. I have decided to 12 write you
these things, not because I think that they escape your no13 of grief you see them tice, but because under your load
less clearly.
1

See above, Ex.


3

5,

Note

1.

The king
'

of the Persians or

'

'

the Persian

neut. adj. or res is often represented by a more special word 5 6 4 in English; to 'entertain' is to 'think.' res 325, R. 7. pertinere. 8 7 Romana. 548, 549; notice the effect of the negative. impediments
king.'

The

esse.

Whether quid or quod


"

? 467, R. 2.
ia
;

10

'

For

'

is

also a translation for

the Gen. (363, R. 1 .) 546 but observe that a verb of Will 548, N. 3. is usually not followed by a Subjv. when the two verbs have the same " Added for effect the Roman would omit 'load' and use $ subject.
;

Participle like impeditus.

OBJECT

AND CAUSAL SENTENCES


c.

II

7.

1.

am

your own
fortune
ing for
2 4

servants.

astonished at your not having been beaten 1 by 2. Valerius used to praise the good

of Brutus in having found his death 3 while fighthis country. 3. certain merchant boasted that

he had despatched

many
5

some consider the father


outlandish -foreigners

4. I, whom ships to every seacoast. of my country, I bring hordes of

to

devastate Italy
6

5.

The

greatest

argument is that nature herself though silent gives judgment about the immortality of the soul, in that it is a matter of the greatest concern 7 to all what is going to happen after 8 9 6. I thank death. thee, great Sun, that before I depart 10 this life I see Africanus in my kingdom. was a gift 7. It of fortune that Atticus was born in a city in which was the 10 seat of empire of the world it was a proof of his good sense that he was dear to the Athenians above n all others. 12 8. Most seafarers of antiquity were at first pirates because 13 a crime. 9. Damaratus fled piracy was not regarded as from Corinth to Tarquinii because he could not endure the 10. I wish you would write me what antyrant Cypselus. swer he has given in my case, 14 not that the promise will
;

do

me any good 15
is

but because
16

I shall

be able to say
11.

thai/

there

nothing that I have

not tried.

The

decision

of the struggle 17 was doubtful, rather because the enemy had made a sudden charge than because he was a match in
12. I am entering upon the remainder of the speech with great hope, since I have now passed over the

strength.

most dangerous
1

place.
is

214, R.

i.

'Fortune'

good or bad according to the context.

mortem occumbere. * 345, R. 2. 6 barbarus ; a foreigner' is usually 6 7 curae esse. 8 See above, 667. peregrinus when no contempt is felt. Ex. 5, Note 1. 9 migrare. 10 307, R. 1. " 303. " antiquus. 13 habere; 14 is the Dative (356, R. 2) or the Ablative with That is, pro to be used ? 15 16 me.' "The 2. 631, 'concerning prodesse. 'struggle' and the decision were not divided in the Roman's mind.
3
' '

12

LATIN COMPOSITION
D.

CONSTHUCTIONS

8,

1.

He was
2.

indignant at being envied


is

by his own

brothers.
tegrity,

Alcibiades

but blamed

praised for his justice and infor having, from lust of vengeance,
3.
?

betrayed his country to the Lacedaemonians. 2 sorry that I have brought the enemy across
of your having man race 5.
!

You
4.

are not

The

idea

done anything that would 3 benefit the huThat there is a god we conclude 4 from the fact that the belief in 5 god is innate in all. 6. Children do well to keep nothing from their parents. 7. Nothing did more 6 to destroy the maritime cities of Carthage and Corinth than that in their desire 7 for trade and navigation they had 8. The consuls were given up given up agriculture and arms. to the Samnites because they had 8 made peace with the Samnites and allowed 9 the legions to pass under the yoke. 9. Seeing that the life which we enjoy is short we ought to
11 10. The Stoics long as possible. think that an honorable life is to be preferred, not that that life is more blessed but because it is more in accord 12

make our 10 memory

as

11. Fabius did not wish his son to be made with nature. 13 in his distinguished consul, not that he lacked confidence in order that this an but excellent man, virtues, for he was 13 14 in 12. A not be one should office family. kept high the from camp by permission of captive, having gone soon afterwards because as he said 16 he returned Hannibal,

had forgotten something.

13. Is it

because maladies of the

mind

are less harmful than those of the body, or because while 17 bodies can be cared for 18 there is no medicine for
19

minds, that no attention


1

must be paid

to

them

217.
N.

The negative
3

541,
6

2.

631.

efficere,

indicates that the suggestion is a false one see which in this sense is a verb of Saying.
;

substantive in model Latin has,


;

as a rule, but one case construc-

tion

8 The fact or the reason assigned by cupidus. 9 Use mittere and see 664, R. 1 the senate 9 on this depends the mood. 15 " 13 w " 10 conaccommodatus. 303. magistratus. diffidere. 304, 2. " Concession and " tinuare. opposition are often Express by the mood.

360.

magis.

expressed by simple coordination, without con junction, "curare, "curatio.

3.
G. 543-550; A.
282,
295,

FINAL SENTENCES.

&

296

G. 317, 318, 331 (529-532, 533, 558 (6), 563-566); B. (2); H. 564-568; H. & B. 502 (2, 3, 4), 511 (2); L.

1947-1964, 1974-1979;

W.

506-518.

In Final Sentences pay attention to the particles employed, and especially the combination of the Negative (543, 4).

Observe the different constructions when the verb of Will is a verb of Saying (546, K. 1), and notice 546, N. 3. Study the influence of the Negative on the construction after verbs of Hindering. Notice the tenses used in 546-9, and contrast
with those in 550.

13

14

LATIN COMPOSITION
A.

CONSTRUCTIONS

the prisoners spared. 2. There from 2 Philip to 3 Alexander in which he advises that he win the hearts of the masses to love him 4 by kind language. 3. Metellus persuaded the envoys of Jugurtha
9.
1.

have toiled to get

are letters extant

him the king alive or 5 dead. vinced him that I was not free 6 to do what
to deliver to

4.
7

I readily con5.

he asked.

great mind

is

convinced that a

man ought

neither to admire

nor desire nor seek after anything but 8 what is honorable and becoming. 6. Caesar gave orders before the engagement for
the horses to be removed in order that 9 the hope of flight 9 7. I omit to name many who might be taken away thereby.
are worthy of praise in order that no one 10 may complain that he is passed by. 8. Herod gave orders for the children
to be n slain.
to you.
10.
9.

am

The humble

prevented by grief from writing more origin of Marius and Cicero did

not stand in the way of their working up to the consulship. 11. lie said that while 12 quaestor at Ephesus he had been
13 forcibly prevented from taking his slave out of the temple of Diana. 12. Those fortifications did not deter the Roman

leader from ordering the infantry to break through. 13. I was worried for fear u that I had let 15 something disgraceful come to my charge. 15 14. I fear that he has not received the

In view of his having made friends 16 with the masses by his liberality,, 17 he is not afraid that he has not won the Senate by his exceptional services to 18 the state.
letter. 15.
1

the Sequence.
360,
R.
1.

This word merely emphasizes the Design in English; be careful of 2 what case ? Philip is to be construed with letters
' '

'

'

That is, 'to goodwill.' 2. *ad; 345, 7 8 licere and remember 546, R. 1. 467, R. 2. 591, 10 u 12 Be 2. careful of the 1. N. 545, 532, Negative.
R.

493, 3.
b, 2,

Use

610 and

substantive or

adjective has the same function as a participle (664) in expressing sub18 M Involved in the 1 ordinate relations. Use 399, N. 1. conjunction.

the passive of admittere.

16

Use placare.

17

munera.

16

418,

i.

FINAL SENTENCES
B.
10,
1.

Before old age


that

let us see to it
2.
2

that

we

live well,

in

old age

we

die well.

The general ordered

his

men

not be

to the left that they might to march as far as possible 3 No one can afford in any 3. seen from

any quarter.
4

case to be indifferent

to

what he has made up

his

mind

is

an
I

evil.

4.

owed you

as

am persuaded much as you

that against Sulla's preferment

ventured to demand of me, but


5

5. Birds of prey that against his safety I owe you nothing. are endowed with a very keen vision in order that they may 6 6. Tarquibe able to see their prey from a great distance. that the senator one no nius Superbus determined to choose 7 its of reason meagre estate might be the more despised by 8 numbers. 7. The conspirators bound themselves by a solemn not oath that no 9 one should divulge the thing. 8. I will

hinder that being done. 9. The night and the booty delayed 10 Much the enemy from making full use of their victory. 10. n of enthe of the your in accomplishment way may stand from me shall edict one's No prevent 11. deavors. unfriendly 12. They were prevented by the defending your rights.

from being pushed into the bravery of the Italian legion 12 intrenchment by the Othonians, though these were fewer 14. Are 13. I fear that I am troublesome. in numbers.

you afraid that 'you


Hortensius
blessedness
?

to deaf ears.
15

not be able to contend against 14 15. I fear that I have preached my sermons 10. I fear that Zeno, who thinks that a life of
will
13

depends

16

on virtue alone, attributes more

to

virtue than nature allows.


1

curare.
6

303.
"

Use necunde.
in

'afford to neglect,'
7 8

non

curare.
in

the substantive.

10 Unnecessary in Latin. careful of the Negative. 13 12 11 As an expression Note'12. Ex. See above, 9, Express by a verb. ' will in Latin. of Fear involves Futurity, there is no occasion to express 18 16 in. beatus. Use poni "praecspta canere.

rapax.

Express by longinquus

a phrase.

545,

2.

Included

Be

'

l6

LATIN COMPOSITION
c.

CONSTRUCTIONS

11.

1.
2

The

tears

to spare his son

the

opposite

father begged each individual 1 senator with afterwards he begged and besought ; not to attack his son. 2. Alexander party

no one should paint him 3 except Apelles. 4 I had promised him not to 3. Pompey reminded me that go into the senate until I had finished the business. 4. You can persuade no one that you were so foolish as to desire the slaves of Ausonius and Ballio to enrich themselves at your risk 5 and your children's. 5. Isocrates used to write speeches
edict that
for others to use
in court. 6. No sensible man punishes because a sin has been committed but to prevent 6 its commission. 7 7. We demand that you determine nothing about
8

made an

the accused in his absence


case. 9
8.

without

investigation of the

end to

The army begged Alexander with tears to put an 9. That matter did not deter me from the war.

10 sending a letter to you. 10. It was the fault of the general 11 Cannae was not repaid to the that the blow received at hindered 11. are They by no fault of their own from enemy. 12 12. I do not think the faults of a forth neighbor. setting

you ought

from changing your opinion if you 13. I do not fear that the enemy 14. I was not afraid that I should be will not be conquered. unable to sustain the weight 14 of your innumerable favors 15. What? was it this that I was afraid of, that to 15 me. 16 with according to the customs 17 and instiif I were dealt
to be deterred

deem

it

13 right to-do-so.

tutions of our -forefathers I should not be able to face


1

it ?

18

4 3 a Be careful of 546, 521. Participle. unusquisque with Genitive. 7 6 B This is involved in the Employ a conjunction. periculo. 9 8 translated be to Without is verb. by the Participle. frequently

R.

1.

'

'

" N. 1. Distinguish bethe 'in tween 'at' meaning 'at' and 'at' meaning neighborhood of 1S 13 Omit. J4 Involved in the verb svsfinere, and hence to be alienus.
Abl. Abs. as here.
10

per aliquem stare; 548,

'

left

untranslated.

15

'

To,'

according to the connection. sustinen; 667, "Omit.

meaning towards,' is ad, adversus, ergo*. * 18 I6 praesentem agere cum. "Singular


'

FINAL SENTENCES
D.

1. Beware of considering the well known as unknown. Lucullus says with regard to his history l which he had written in Greek, 2 that in order to prove more readily that 3 it was the work of a Roman he had inserted certain sole-

12,

2.

convinced that this thing will be rather to 4 your credit than to your discredit. 4. I have always been convinced that a man's fortune was to be estimated in the
cisms.
3. I
5

am

light

of his acts,

not of their results.


to

5.

The men-of-

Clusium 6 sent ambassadors


help.
7.

The

to beg the senate for 6. The thirty tyrants sent emissaries to kill Alcibiades. proconsul Metellus avoided the sight of Marius, who

Rome

was his successor 7 in order not to see a low-born fellow with the consular power and the fasces. 8. A law was passed that no one should be accused of past offences nor fined therefor. 8 4 9. Let "me perish rather than be a burden to you. 10. No 9 citizen seemed to have any just excuse for not being 11. I do not deter you from changing your present. 12. I think that up to this time the winter has opinion. 10 11 kept us from getting certain news of how you were faring. 13. He was deterred by the advice of his friends from enter12 ing the city as conqueror.

14.
it.

I fear that if I give this


15.

letter to

him he
16.

will

13

open

He was

afraid that he

would not be able


resources.

We

to support that storm 14 with his own are afraid that we may seem to have
to be afraid that
17. Those he may not be

served not the interest of the others but our own.

who envy Caesar pretend


able to restrain himself.
2

Plural.

Oraece.

366 and
'

R. 1.

356.
8

402.
'

Clusini.

T 10
'

alicui

in locum or in locum alicuius succedere. " 12 habere. to


agere.

Omit.

Dative.
'

cerium

Apply

city

';' conquered
;

(territory).
'

"Fu-

turity

involved in the conception of Fear " expressed in the Latin, tempestas.


is

hence

will

need not be

4.
G. 551-558; A.

CONSECUTIVE SENTENCES.

& G. 319, 332 (536-538, 558, 559, 568-571, 580 (d\ 462 (a)); B. 284, 297, 298, 268(6); H. 570, 571, 595, 596; H. & B. 519 (3 and 4), 521 (2 and 3), 503 (ft); L. 1965-1970, 1980-1990; W. 519-528.
(54.3, 4),

Attention should be paid to the Negatives

and to

the tenses that can be used, as compared with the tenses of the Final Sentences. Of particular importance is 513. Com-

pare the constructions with quin and those with quominus in the previous group, and study the effect of the Interrogative

Sequence (555,

2,

and

R. 1).

Important also

is

use of the Infinitive in this class of sentences (553, 553, 4, R. 2; 557 and 422).

the parallel 2, N. ;

18

CONSECUTIVE SENTENCES
A.
13,
1.

19

The

cine.

2.

He ought

severity of the sickness makes us need medito be a greater 1 friend to me than to


3 2 always been bitter enemies to us, and has been brought about that the state

those
4

men who have


artifices it
5

by whose
is

3. Some animals, as for condition. present instance the tiger and the hyena, are so savage that they cannot be tamed in any way. 4. It is not right that envy should be an attendant of worth. 5. I do not doubt that Cae-

in

its
6

6. No one doubted that he sar has arrived at Brundusium. was 7 to be restored to his kingdom by the senate and the Roman people. 7. There is no one of you but perceives that the Roman people is at this time suffering .from 8 the 9 8. He thought that he ought cruelty bred-by-the-civil-war. not to hesitate to enter a decisive 10 engagement. 9. I do not think that you fail to observe n that in times of civil 12 10. So strife men ought to follow the more honorable side. far were our soldiers from being disturbed by the reverse that they made sallies in force whenever fortune gave them 11. The desire of driving the Romans from the opportunity. u at went so far 13 that even the

Sicily

besieged

Syracuse

plucked up courage. 12. It happened that both consuls came to Praeneste on the same day. 13. Our men overhauled them and defeated them so completely that of the whole number of ships very few succeeded-in-getting-to 15 land under cover of 16 the darkness. 14. Dolabella was so forgetful of the claims 17 of humanity that he exercised his cruelty not only on the living but on the dead.
The conjunction That is, 'more friendly.' Superlative. omitted between two relatives referring to the same antecedent.
1

is
4

usually

Watch

the Sequence

511, R. 3.
;

305.

ut.

The Subjunctive

after quin

may

be an original one that is, maybe the answer to an implied Deliberative 8 Use laborare. Question and hence be translated 'is to be,' by itself. g 10 n domesticus. aliquem fugere, 'to escape a man's pugna decertare.
notice.'
is
12 13 adeo procedere. 14 024, R. 15 =' reached'; success pars. involved in the tense. 18 = by the intervention of night.' 17 Human'

ity' involves 'the claims of humanity.'

2O

LATIN COMPOSITION
B.

CONSTRUCTIONS

1 by loyal service that you have brought it about that no one is dearer to the prince than you. 2. It happened 3. The enemy accidentally that we met the line of march. rushed up so quickly that the people 3 in the fields were sur4. There arose a violent storm so that we could not prised.

14,

1. It is

leave the harbor.

5. It is true that Scipio surpassed all other generals in good luck it is not to be denied that Hannibal excelled Scipio in skill. 6. I do not doubt that a ruinous war is impending. 7. I see that no one doubts that
;

made spoil of everything sacred and profane. there any one who did not weep ? any one who did not take such a view of their calamity as to judge their
in Sicily Verres
8.

Was

danger to be
5

common

to all

9.

He

heard the voices of

all

6 saying that they ought not to wait any longer before going 7 the strife that arose he barely escaped 8 10. In into camp.

being killed by the exiles. 11. So far from his changing 6 my plan, I think he himself ought to be heartily sorry for 9 12. Twenty-five jurymen were having given up his own. so brave as to have preferred to perish themselves rather 10 than ruin the state. 13. Their resources increased to such
a degree that none n of their neighbors dared to take up 14. The disagreement became so great that finally arms. Trebellius fled to Vitellius after 12 being deserted by all the
cavalry.
15.

Her
14

that you might

face was immediately bathed 13 in tears, so 15 to readily have known that it was due

longing for you.


'The use
*

of 'that'
is

ceteri.

This

peculiar to English. involved in the word 'voice.'


is
7 *

2
6

511, R. 3.
'

624, R.

between oportere, debere, and the Gerundive.


arisen.'
8

=
10

Study the difference a struggle having


is

the verb.

hand multum abesse. " None exhausts the


'

decedere de.
list.
1& 12

'

665.

This a

involved in

suffundere.

"The

Subjv. after ut

may

be original

258,

fieri.

CONSECUTIVE SENTENCES
c.

21

happens that the most perspicacious man what lies before his eyes. 2. It is owing 2 to your dilatoriness that Hannibal has had Italy as a province for more than 3 nine years and has lived there longer than in 4 3. Manners and customs are so different that Carthage.
15.
1.

It often

fails

to notice

the Cretans
4.

deem

it

honorable to practise highway robbery.

It is rare for a
5. I
6.

ficiently.

to respect his own judgment sufdid not doubt that we could accomplish the

man

journey.

I did

not doubt that

my

brother and myself

make our way to Brundusium. 7. No one catches 6 sight of him without uttering a groan, no one makes mention of him without cursing him. 8. He thought the
ought
5

to

barbarians would not refrain from pressing forward into 7 9. There is not Italy. lacking the suspicion that he com-

mitted suicide.

10.

So far were the ancient Eomans from

luxury that they used to swear at the Megalensian games not to take 8 any wine except that 9 of their country. 11. The
not more than

thousand men two thousand escaped. 12. The effect 11 of the omen was such that Dionysius began to reign a few days later. 13. The city was in such a desperate state 12 that not more than ten days' provisions remained in the granaries. 14. Such a mixed multitude of people had filled all the roads that you would have said 13 that all Africa was 14 suddenly 15. All singers have this weakness, that when forsaken. asked they can never bring themselves 15 to sing, but when not asked 16 never leave off.

army was

so cut to pieces that out of eighteen


10

instituta vitae. 294. fieri. fallere aliquem. ' after quin may be original thus, ought we to make our
;

The Subjv.
'

way

would

benosconferamus? have two constructions


*
12

556.

As suspicio

is

word

here, according as

you

uti.

10

308,

3.

29G, R. 4.
15

" vim Jiabere, 'to have value,


13
*

of Thinking, we may regard abest or suspicio.


effect.'

discrimine nutare, 'to be at a critical state.'

258.

14

Be careful of

the

English tense.

animum

inducere,

16

unbidden,'

22

LATIN'

COMPOSITION
D.

CONSTRUCTIONS

16,

1.

The proconsul took many


1

cities

temples of the gods ; and a superabundance of gold

hence

it

and plundered the came about that he had


2. If 3.

and

silver.

this statement
l

is

not true, and drink

it

follows that
to be taken
4.
2

it is false.

Only

so

much meat

is

power

it.

If

as to restore the strength, 3 not overdivine providence contemns tribes and


is it

nations,

what wonder
it ?

that the whole

human
will

race

is

despised by

5.
6.

We did not doubt that


There
is

the house had been

adjudged to
dictator.

us.

no doubt that they

make him

7.

Out

of all this

number

I say

Rome, that did not take up On the day before 4 the Germans could not be restrained from casting their javelins at our troops. 9. When 5 our ambassadors demanded satisfaction 6 they hardly refrained 7 from maltreating them. 10. So far from grieving
at
8.

who was
consul.

there was no one, arms and follow the

that his mother-in-law was dead, he got up a party 8 three 11. All the roads were blocked days after she was buried.

with cavalry so that of that great multitude scarcely a thousand got off. 12. The soldiers-of-the-first-legion 9 became so riotous that certain of them actually 10 hurled stones at Galba's effigies.
13.

The storm hid the king

in so dense a cloud

10 completely cut off the view of him from the assemn 14. So bly. many ships were collected that you would have that all the had not been forests of sufficient thought Italy

that

it

for building so great a fleet. 15. such a way that all in succession
of parts of the city.

The former kings


12

nil OH! in

are counted as founders

'Unnecessary in Latin.
with Genitive.
8

665.

vivium.

primanus.
;

may

be original

258.

That is, 'powers.' 4 pridie res repetere. Use haud procul abesse. *'con" The 10 Translate by the tense. Subjv. after ut "
adhibere.
6
7

deinceps.

5.

ANTECEDENT AND ITERATIVE ACTION.


&
G. 324 (543); B. 287; H. 602; II. & B. 557, 558, 484; L. 1923-1934, 1885-1887; W. 529-532.

G. 560-567; A.

In Antecedent Action the most important matter to notice


is

that the most

common

Particle

is

postquam and the most


tenses follow definite

common

tense the Perfect.

The other

Consider principles which should be carefully weighed. what the reference "to the spectator means. In Iterative Action bear the Mood well in mind and the Tense law, and be on your guard against the vagueness of the English manner of expression.

24

LATIN COMPOSITION
A.

CONSTRUCTIONS

the war was finished the consul returned to triumphed. 2. As soon as he heard that I had reached Dyrrachium he dismissed his lictors and came to me immediately. 3. The very Campanians, as I used to hear related, as soon as they caught sight of you, refused to have a Campanian as consul. 4. When not only the forage had been cut off, but the foliage of the trees was also found ~ to be failing, Pompey thought that he ought to make some effort. 3 As soon as Appius saw that no one was coming 5. to consult 4 him he hurried home and wrote to his colleagues in the camp. 6. Three days after the king came he drew up his -forces in line of battle, but after the battle began his line gave way. 7. The garrison surrendered forty-seven 8. The Romans days after we began to besiege them.
17.
1.

When

Rome and

only got possession of the town forty days after they reached it. 9. Ambassadors came from Bocchus the fifth day after the barbarians had fought their second unsuccessful 5 battle. 10. When they hear you they think that you are silly. 11. Physicians employ remedies for even the
smallest part of the body
if it

suffers. 6
is

12.

When we
13.

see

swallows we think that


as

summer

beginning.

As soon

he ever set foot outside of his threshold he surpassed almost every one in dignity. 14. Whenever the enemy made an attack on any 7 part they forced our men to give ground. 15. So much greater calamity did Verres bring upon Sicily than Hannibal that whereas 8 in the former 9 time every field was plowed as soon as the enemy was subdued, now after the 10 departure of this plague no one was found willing to plow.
1

664, R. 1.
like,
i.

the
333,

* Varying expressions, such as found, perceived, saw,' and s Use conari and see are used to indicate the Spectator (562). 4 B * battle.' R. male unsuccessful 3. to an 331, fight pugnare,

"Be

7 Use guithe ambiguity of the English Present. 8 Use autem to the second introduce cumque, 'whichever.' part of the 9 10 to plow of his own accord' (aim contrasted Kesults. 307.

careful

of

'

voluntate).

ANTECEDENT AND ITERATIVE ACTION


B.
at. c.xr-7

2$

1. After the soldiers had gained the victory 18. they left the vanquished nothing. 1 2. As soon as they heard that Valerius was being despatched to them, although he had not

yet set out from Italy they drove Cotta out of the town.
3.

He

left

him

as soon as

he could and departed from the

4. After he saw 2 that the men were province. unwilling to renew the fight he withdrew into winter quarters. 5. As soon as they perceived that the soldiers stood in line on

either side, 3 the leaders came forth into the space between. 4 6. As soon as he found that the consul was drawing nigh

with his army, he moved his camp

now towards

the city,

Gnaeus Scipio was killed eight years after he came to Spain and twenty-nine days after the death of his brother. 8. He laid 5 down his office on the 9. In eighteenth day after he had been created dictator. the three hundred and second 6 year after Rome was founded the form of the government was changed for the second 10. Fortune for the most part 7 makes those blind time.
Gaul.
7.

now towards

whom

she embraces.

11.

When we

see the labor of animals

in rearing their young we seem to hear the voice of nature 12. The heart of the victim will disappear 8 as soon herself.
as
9 you have sprinkled meal and wine upon

it.

13.

As often

as each cohort
14.

Young

charged a great number of the enemy fell. ducks 10 leave the hens by which they have been

hatched as soon as they are able to see the water. 15. Epicurus teaches us that every living creature, as soon as it is
born, reaches out after pleasure and rejoices in
greatest good.
nihil reUqui facere, 'to leave nothing' 369, E. 2. The spectator often indicated by employing saw, found,' and the like (562). 3 utrim6 * 6 adrentare. se abdicare. for the second time,' iterum 96, 5 qne.
; 1

it

as the

is

'

'

8 abscedere. preferred to secundum. plerumque. 10 the ambiguity of the English Perfect. Pulli anatum.

is

Be

careful of

26

LATIN COMPOSITION

CONSTRUCTIONS

a
As soon as our forces had taken their stand on dry ground they made an attack on the enemy. 2. As soon as he came into the city he gave orders that they should pull down the statue and carry it off to Messana. 3. When
19.
1.

Scipio said this he suddenly caught sight of Furius coming,

and as soon as he had saluted him laid hold 2 of him in the most cordial 3 manner and seated 4 him on his sofa. 4. As soon as they found 5 that there was slight hope of defending 5. Finally the town. they took 2 their goods and left it. when no trace of the enemy could be 6 perceived anywhere,
they began their march, not long before sunset. I tell 7 you what I think you ought to believe me.
6. 7.

After

Conon

was recalled to his country four years after he was ban8. Tyre was taken in the seventh month after the ished. 9. She expired the fifth day after she had siege began. made up her mind 8 to die. 10. Crocodiles seek the water 9 11. Women in India as soon as they are 7 able to move. when the husband of any one dies enter into a contest which 10 one he loved most. 12. As soon as he entered any town he immediately sent out these hounds to track out
13. The general did not leave the standing want of forage forced him to change his when camp except n 14. Whenever you come to my house you will position. 12 that Scaevola used 15. I bear in mind find a bed ready.

everything.

daily as soon as it was light to give tunity of meeting him.


l

13

every one an oppor-

That is, 'friendly.' cum; 585. 664, R. 1. ponere ; 385, R. 1. 6 'Could with the Negative shows See Note 2 of the previous exercise. the effort (283, especially N. 1). 7 Be careful of the ambiguity of the
2

'

g 10 b An interrogative clause is se movere. statuere. English Present. 12 " si memoria not necessarily preceded by n verb of Asking. quando.

teneo; 281,

2, N.

13

facere potestatem.

ANTECEDENT AND ITERATIVE ACTION


D.

2/

1. As soon as I got to Home I thought there was 20. nothing I had to do sooner than to congratulate you. 2. As soon as he caught sight of the consul Lentnlus he fainted 3. From the almost on the. threshold of the senate-house. time 2 that I set out with the army I have never set foot in the 4. After I have thought out a plan you ought to house. 4 3 that neither the it. 5. As soon as Labienus found try the attack of the withstand the could ditches nor ramparts 4 it was learned As soon as 6. he informed Caesar. enemy that the envoys were nearing Rome the senate was consulted 7. About fifty years after Themistocles left by Bestia. Athens because 5 he could not defend it Pericles refused to do the same thing although he held nothing but the walls. 6 six years 8. Aristides was restored to his country about 7 taken 9. Petelia was after he had been expelled. by storm 10. These after the months Himilco several siege began. by
l

birds

ward off the plague from Egypt by killing 8 the winged snakes which are blown in from the Libyan Desert by the 9 cries out if a verse 11. The whole theatre African wind.
is
10

killed
13.

one syllable too short or too long. 12. As often as a man 10 an enemy he wasted time in cutting off his head. These pursuits used to rouse the young men to crime

14. The further they their private resources failed. advanced their camp the further they were from water. 15. It often happens in battle that the cowardly soldier throws 11 away his shield and runs as soon as he sees the

when

enemy.
2 Use ut, 'after.' 3 uti. 4 See Note 2 in Exercise prius; 644, R. 3. 6 5 Use simple Relative. The fact is the cause 026. 077, R. 1. " B See 582. Use Distinguish between oppugnare and expugnare.
1
;

17.
7

10 Be careful of the Plural to increase the effect of the generalization. " R. 1. 664, ambiguity of the English Present and Past.

6.

CONTEMPORANEOUS AND SUBSEQUENT


ACTION.
A.

G. 568-577;
II.

&

587, 603-605; H.

G. 327, 328, 314 (550-556, 528); B. 291-293, 310; & B. 559, 560, 507 (4 and 5), 571, 529, 550 (&);

L. 1991-2009, 1911-1922;

W.

533, 534, 563-565.

In Contemporaneous Action the most difficult conception This depends wholly upon that of the Ideal Limit (572). whether the reaching of the Limit is not considered, in which case the Subjunctive is used, or is assumed as inevitable., in
is

which case the Indicative


of

is

used (571).

Note

also the use

Present as a short-hand for the Future Perfect (228). Study the other constructions of-verba exspectandi (572,

and the Conditional Proviso. In Subsequent Action we have the same difficulty with the Ideal Limit (577), and with the short-hand Present. ObIn both of serve that non priusquam is the same as dum.
R. 2),

these kinds of Action look well to your tenses.

28

CON TEMPO ItANEOUS AND SUBSEQUENT ACTION

29

A.
She says that she pulled off his 1 ring in the strug2. There are no other mountains during the crossing of gle. which by our enemies new means of defence may 3 be provided. 4 a whole hour passes. 3. While my wife is getting ready 4. AVe favored you so long as we saw that you were a friend 5. I beg you to defend of virtue and an enemy of vice. them from violence until I bring up my master. 6. They will not make an end of following until they drive the enemy headlong. 7. He delayed a few days for the forces from Corcyra to reach 5 him. 8. They remained in Rome almost two years until Metellus set out for the province. have preferred 6 to stay in some town or 9. I should 7 10. We are ready to bear toil other until I was sent for. and burdens if we only gain the victory. 11. If he is waiting
21.
2

1.

12. I told until I bring him the newspaper 8 let him begone. them that you would promise everything so long as you were

afraid.

13.

Before

speak of the misfortunes of Sicily

it

seems to
dignity,
14.

Why

that I ought to say a few words about the the antiquity, and the value of the province. 15. The should you despair before you try ?

me

Achaeans did not dare to begin the war before 9 the ambas16. He accomplished the sadors had returned from Rome. matter before 10 any one suspected he was going to attempt it. 17. He will hear that the province has been decreed him before he can possibly n have suspected that there has been time 12 enough for that. 18. I will 13 reply, indeed, but not before you reply to me.
1

345, R.

1.

luctari.
6

What
6
9

is

comparare. assequi. Latin idiom. 8 actadiurna.


10

se

258.

the effect of the negative antecedent? 7 ' or other is the English, not the
'
'

We

infer
13

Take the point of view of the Achaeans. u Use ia = time has been that one suspected it. posse.

given.'

Notice the assurance of the statement.

30

LATIN COMPOSITION
B.

CONSTRUCTIONS

i.

*-'-1-'

lest in striving to reach the top you fall down along with the boughs you have grasped. 2. While the elephants were being carried across, Hannibal had sent

22.

1.

Beware

hundred cavalry to the Roman camp to reconnoitre. 2 While the Romans were busy with those preparations 3 and consultations 3 Saguntum was being besieged with might and main. 4. I am come to take away some commentaries of
five
3.

Aristotle to read

when

here a
nibal

little

while for
his

am at me until
4

leisure.
I

5.

Do you
6.

wait

come out!
to Italy

Han-

went with

army from Spain

and defeated

small forces until at length he was com7. Until a ship returns pelled to leave Italy with great loss. 6 5 to the place whence it was obtained, it belongs not to its 8. Each general was waiting to owner but to the sailors.

the

Romans with

whether the forces of the enemy would try to cross the river. 9. I told him that you had waited for his arrival as 10. I promised that so long as you long as you could. 8 lived you should be not only defended 8 but also respected.
see
7

11. Before I speak of the accusation itself I will say a feuwords about the accusers. 1'-?. All the enemy turned their backs and did not cease to run until they arrived at the

river Rhine.

13. I shall rein in

my

horses before
I shall

the end of

life.

14.

In regard to Carthage.
10
11

I get to not cease


15.

to be apprehensive until careful physician before

know

that

it is

destroyed.

attempting to apply a remedy to a sick man ought to make himself acquainted with his di16. Brutus requested me to correct his speech before publication. 3
3 1 It is often convenient to translate a Latin cacumen. * speculari. 4 verb by a phrase with an abstract substantive in English. 511, R. 3. e 6 7 6 Use Infinitive with fore. Remember 460, i, b. 366. siunere. 9

Take the point

of view of the principal verb.

10

He

is

sure that

it

will

It be destroyed. needs no remedy.

"

may

turn out upon diagnosis that the sick

man

CONTEMPORANEOUS AND SUBSEQUENT ACTION

31

a
was standing before my door a certain 1 to me. 2. The consul kept the as any daylight remained. 3. The consul caused such bewilderment by his attack that while some 3 were running 4 out in one place, some in another, 3 to resist the attack 5 of the enemy, the gate which he had 4. If the people themselves assailed first was captured. drive out 6 a tyrant, they are inclined to moderation 7 only 5. Wait so long as they rejoice in their own achievement.23.
1.

While

acquaintance came up 2 enemy busy so long

here until I bring the

able to rest until I ascertain

money out to you. 6. 1 shall not be 6 how you are. 7. The Thracians 8. Caesar did not move a jot until the Romans passed 8 by. determined to tarry in Gaul until he knew that the legions

were posted and the winter quarters fortified. 9. They rested the following day to let 9 the prefect meanwhile 9 10. What are you waiting inspect the youth of the city. 11. He waited at anchor until the ninth hour for for ? 10
the rest of the ships to collect at that point. 11 12. He thought I would wait for the moon to wane. 13. Or are we waiting until not even a trace is left of the states of Asia ? 14. I beseech you not to repudiate what I shall say before 12 nature it is. 15. Although 13 I underI explain of what
is ready to say, yet I shall make no counteru 16. Before I reply to him before he has said it. remark about the other matters I will say a few words on friend15 18. You ship. 17. It is better to give before you are asked. will be conquered long before you perceive that you are con19. He got together an army before any one susquered. 16 he was thinking of doing so. 17 pected

stand what he

obviam.

Involved in
6

'

'

kept
4

(tenere).

one (way), some by another.'

Remember

s 319; translate 'some by that dum tends to resist

8 vis. Be careful of the tense. 7 moderatus; Attraction; 655, R. 3. 8 use the comparative; 297. They were waiting for the Romans to pass. 'while the prefect should.' 10 Use ut ; 470. u eo. ia qualis. 1S etsi.
'

contra disputare, to make a counter-remark.' 15 You will thus escape "So no one suspected. 17 'of this.' being asked.
'

14

32

LATIN COMPOSITION
D.

CONSTRUCTIONS

In his desire 1 to retain a few slaves he lost all his fortune and his liberty. 2. Cato as long as he lived increased in reputation 2 for virtue. 3. The listeners 3 used to defend their own opinion as long as they could. 4. I am
24.
1.

waiting in

Arcanum until

I find

out those tilings.


retreat,

5.

Metellus

found
to

Rhodes an honorable literature and philosophy


in
6:

country by the authority of


people.

and 4 gave himself up until he was recalled 5 to his the senate and the order of the

At

last Piso

begged to stay in the citadel after

giving up his arms, while Caesar was being consulted whom he should give 6 Syria to. 7. He waited to get news from the army. 8. He thought it was the height 7 of folly to wait
until the forces of the

enemy

increased.

9.

Caecina and his

friends thought it best to make the attempt, so long as it 8 10. Let my friends appeared that it could be done in safety.
perish, so long as my enemies go to be overcome, provided that
11. It is never base do not throw away your you to of the state, I shall make begin speak about Antonius' outrage of yesterday.

down too.

arms.
13.

12.

Before

I
9

a few complaints

are often engrossed by 10 angry passions before reason can n provide against their being engrossed.
feelings
14. These conversed mildly and quietly with one another before beginning 12 the fight. 15. I shall have lived with 13 to me before I come 14 to glory, in case anything happens

The

see this great evil.

16. The Romans wished to protect the Saguntines, but Hannibal took their town before the Romans
15

came

to their help.

1 See above, Ex. 22, Note 3. a laus; construed, as a rule, with one case only. 4 Omit by using a Participle. 624, R.

remember that a substantive


9

is

These were transient listeners; 5 Observe the difference of attitude in this and the following sentence: Metellus was not expectant, Piso was. 6 permit tere. 7 summits. 8 salvo capite. 9 Use verb. 10 214, ll Be careful about the tense. 12 The result of the conversation R. 2. have been a decision not to fight. 13 Study the three verbs of Hapmight
pening: accidere, contingere, evenire.

u Omit.

16

So they did not come.

7.
G. 578-588; A.

CUM.

&

H. 598-601; H.

G. 325, 326 (545-549); B. 288-290, 286 (2), 309 (3): & B. 519 (2), 521 (i), 524-526, 550, 551, 564, 566-

569; L. 1859-1881;

W.

535-539, 542, 571.

The

first

Cum
not.

is

whether

question to be asked in writing a sentence with this sentence dates the principal sentence or

is to be used, otherwise the Remember that Cum of date can take any Subjunctive. the question is merely of the kind tense of the Indicative In this connection do not lose sight of Iterative of tense.

If it

does the Indicative

Cum inverAction (584) and Lapses of Time (580, K. 3). is also worth looking at, and cum turn (588). In the case of Circumstantial Cum it is noteworthy that in the present Sphere the historical Cum is not needed, and the causal and concessive alone appear. Remember that the
suin

presence of a temporal adverb, as iam, usually means poral Cum but not always.

Tem-

33

34

LATIN COMPOSITION
A.

CONSTRUCTIONS

25.

1.

He who

does not ward


2.

off

when he

can, acts unjustly.

an injury nor repel 1 it 2 How did you look 3 when

you saw those very men out of whose property you were pre5 4 senting your friend with a golden ring ? 3. When you were openly enrolling not merely freemen but also slaves, of course 6 you were not preparing for violence. 4. What will be your 7 aside our arms and they have have laid we judgment when
not put
8

down
9

theirs

5.
6.

It

is

ten years that I have been

living

in the country.

You have

granted

me enough

in

10 than granting that disgrace seems to you a greater evil because command the of Greece all lost The states 7. pain. each one n wanted to command. 8. As they were unable longer to sustain the attack of our men they withdrew to the

without 12 being initiated had entered the sanctuary of Ceres were brought before the 13 although it was clear that they had entered high-priest, and 10. So great a fear fell by mistake were put to death.

mountain.

9.

Two young men who

upon them that although Messana had a garrison of a legion 11. Though the battle u the town was scarcely defended. was fought from the seventh hour until evening, the enemy
had been sent
that no

could not be driven from their position. 12. The envoys who to Labici having brought back an uncertain 15 Tusculans were instructed 16 to be careful the response,

new disturbance
difficulty

arose at Labici.

13.

The

soldiers

were with

kept from

gone through the camp 17 all the youth of Etruria were victorious and not pieces and
far distant.
1

flight since the rumor had that their army had been cut to

propulsare. 3 proper form.

The Roman has no


'

'

it,'

but must either omit or use a


'

= What
7

Transitive verb.

Be

face(os) had you ? careful of the tense.

4
8

348.

306.

*parare

is

The

tense depends

upon

9 Coincident whether the action is still continuing (230) or completed. 10 The Comparative has varied Action has various forms 513, N. 3. 12 n nan initialus. ia A void by using a Participle. translations. singnlus. 11 dubius. * negotium dare. " Omit by using Abl Absolute. Impersonal.
;

ls>

CUM
B.

35

by the foolish rabble not be indignant. 2. When you were inviting your friends into the province and presenting them with 2 golden rings did you not consider that an account would have to
26.
1.

When

a wise

man

is

derided

he

will

be rendered for 3 their actions

3.

You were mistaken 4 when

you thought that


state.
4.

I would have daily greater honors in the the prisoners have been slain 5 with the axe, their bodies shall be cast to 6 the wild beasts. 5. I have often

When

heard

my father say 7 that he had never been able to find a scholar that equalled you in diligence. 8 6. It is six months since any one set 9 foot in this house. 7. Zopyrus, as no one
doubted
10

mously by the

his fidelity, was received into the city and unaniappointed leader. 8. As all the roads were beset

soldiers
9.

of Afranius, 12 Caesar

ordered his

build ships.

When

the Germans saw that their

men to men were

being slaughtered, they threw away their arms and burst forth from the camp. 10. I do not consider Marcus Regulus
13 and torunfortunate, for although his body was captured tured by the Punics, his soul could not be captured. 11. Cicero himself, though in the most delicate health, would

not reserve to himself even the night for 14 rest. 12. The had already given way, 13 but the flight of the enemy was checked 16 by their confused mass, when suddenly a down17 pour of rain broke off an assured victory. 13. Since that region was as it were the gate to Etruria, the Etrurians
line

were interested 18 in occupying it when they had anything new on foot, 19 and the Romans in recovering and holding it.
account' what Use the Dative why? 7 580, R. 2. 8 = your diligence.' 9 See Ex. 25, Note 8. 10 dubito takes de in this " omnium 12 sense. Use an adjective in -anus; 182, 5. suffragiis. 13 That is, capture of body did not mean capture of soul hence Imper14 15 fect. ad. rem inclinari. 16 Use active. " = a poured out rain
tense.

'Be careful of the


*

348.
6

Construe with
;

'

case?
'

se fallere.

percutere.

'

1B

(storm).'

cura

est.

I9

moliri.

36

LATIN COMPOSITION

CONSTRUCTIONS

a
Conon was general nesian war, when the forces
27.
1.

end 1 of the Peloponof the Athenians were vanat the


2

2. When glowing quished by Lysander at Aegos potamoi. plates and the other tortures were being applied to him, were you not moved by the weeping even of the Roman citizens
? 3. When you heard the names, did seem to you that a general's staff 3 was being read out or the band of an unprincipled robber ? 4. When I have 4 disclosed what is being done, it will be easy to determine what opinion you are 5 to follow. 5. The time will 6 come

who were then present


it

when you

will feel the loss


8

of such brave allies.

6.

A boy

finding an oar as he was walking on the shore became eager 9 to build a ship. that my friend would return, I 7. Hoping

remained in the city ; but receiving the intelligence that he was detained at Brundusium by sickness, I departed. 8. Labienus feared no danger 10 for himself or his legions as he was ensconced in a camp well fortified by nature and by art. 11 9. As they desired to adduce some proof of their peril, they 12 30,000 arrows had been shot reported to Caesar that about the fortress. 10. Man not need the strength 13 of does against 11. Before that the elephant, as he is endowed with reason. time no one had deserted from Caesar to Pompey, whereas almost daily they deserted from Pompey to Caesar. 12. The crowd was threatening u to break open the prison, when Manlius was freed from his bonds by decree of the Senate. 16 13. As they had neither power left 15 to fight nor place for refuge they were all cut down to a man.
4 3 J 2 Be careful of the tense. consilium. 291, i, R. 2. Aegos flumen. In the Indirect Question the Subjunctive may represent an Original Sub8 6 7 desiderare, 580, R. 1. Finding is the important point junctive.

'

'

compared with walking hence 'when the boy, walking, etc., found, n = feared 9 In English, participial usage is easier than in Latin. etc.' H Re1S 12 " maniis. Plural. circiter. about the of.' nothing danger member that a Verb of Threatening or Promising is a Verb of Saying, 16 ad. and be careful of the tense of the Infinitive. 15 superesse.
as
;

'

CUM
D.

37

1 Tarquin was making preparations to surround 2 the city with a wall when the Sabine war interrupted his 2. When you were draining the treasury and

28.

1.

undertaking.

robbing

Italy of its youth,


?

what drove you on except your

blind lust for booty Glaucia was praising

was abusing him?


5

Was Marius more brilliant when when afterwards in anger 4 he or him 4. The rewards that we promised to
3.

6 the soldiers in case the state were recovered must be 7 5. There was a the time comes. paid with interest when 8 our liberty. recover should we that I too when time thought

give

6.

As Pyrrhus was besieging Argos he perished by

a blow

with a stone. 7. When Perseus succeeded his father on the throne 10 he stirred up all the tribes of the Gauls' against the Romans. 8. The fight u was long and bitter since the enemy 12 in thought that the safety of the whole of Aquitania lay
their bravery.

by the sudden tumult and thinktheir gates, they rushed forth ing that the enemy were within seek honors, although they did not He from the town. 10. 11. The his position. of account him on were open to the whereas was our of number enemy had 5,000, cavalry
9.

Terrified

not more than be done by


orable
so
life,

13

800 horsemen.
I

12.

While

this

ought to

all

who contemplate 14

entering upon an hon-

no one, more than you.

15 inclined to think, ought to do 16 13. Already the soldiers were losing

am

their strength, when suddenly the Samnite cavalry, having learned 17 that the baggage of the Romans was left without 14. Although the loss had protection, made an attack on it. 19 18 Romans been even, nevertheless the got the credit of a

defeat on account of the loss of

some

of their knights.

Use verb.
7

348.

orbare.
8

Participle.
1.
l

Abl. Abs.

cumulate.

580, R.

'

struck
in.
13

See Ex. 27, Note 14. 10 use icere. patris


'

296, R. 4. poni imperio succedere. "Impersonal. 17 16 16 Do not use Participle. 18 anceps. deesse. See 457, 2. Romans.' port of defeat turned against (in) the

14

cogitare.
19

'

re-

8.
G. 589-596;

LOGICAL AND IDEAL CONDITIONS.


A.

319,320;

& G. 304-307, 337 (512-516, 589); B. 301-303, 305, 306, H. 572-578, 646; H. & B. 573-580, 536; L. 2025-2090, W.
is

2109-2111, 2326-2328, 2330;

550-556, 613-616, 559-562.

In Logical Conditions

it

well to
;

remember that there

is

no restriction as to time or tense the only consideration is whether the Conclusion follows the Condition irresistibly.
indication is given as to the reality or non-reality of the Condition, but for the purpose of the reasoning it is assumed Observe that in the Conclusion the Subjunctive to be a fact.

No

may be employed in those forms which can be used independently (257-265). Notice sive sive and do not neglect 591 with the Remarks. In Ideal Conditions observe that the Condition, being regarded as undecided, has of necessity a Future effect, but
that nothing is indicated as to its realization ; further, that when the Point of View is shifted to the Past (596, 2) there
is

a confusion with the Unreal,

which accounts

for the rarity

of the Ideal in the Past.

38

LOGICAL AND IDEAL CONDITIONS


A.
If virtues are equal 1 to one 2. What does it vices are also equal.
29.
1.

39

another it follows that concern me what you

think of a book which will not be published 2 unless liberty 3 is recovered ? 3. Do not interpret 4 their misfortune as a cause for blame 4 unless perhaps you think that those who

have fallen among robbers are to be blamed if they do any5 4. You will easily be able to thing under compulsion. perceive that Sicily is lost to 6 the Eoman people if you do not
recover
it

by the condemnation of Verres.

5. If

am

ever

jostled in a crowd I do not blame the man who is at the 7 top of the Sacred Way but the one who runs against me.
6. Whether you follow the Peripatetics or the Stoics you must confess that there is in virtue guarantee 8 enough for 9 a happy life. 7. What good man would hesitate to meet

death for his country if he should expect 10 to do her good ? 8. If you should be prevented by sickness from coming to me in the country I beg you to write me soon how you are. 11

more honorable and high-minded than to despise money you have none if you have it, to devote 12 it to liberality and well-doing. 10. There was one road in
9.

Nothing

is

if

case they wished to return to Rome,, another if they were 13 Brundusium. 11. They asked, if there was a making for

war in the province why they were 14 quiet ; if the war was at an end, 15 why they were not carried back to Italy. 12. Syphax said that if Scipio did not keep 16 his army away from Africa it would be necessary for him to fight for the land in which he was born.
1

par ;

see 221.
5

in culpam.

prodire.
6
9

Be careful of the
7

tense.
i,

convertere
8

'compelled/
ad.
'

Disadvantage.
12

291,
13

dium ;
tion.
1S

see 369.

10

quid agis ? how are you ?' auferre. petere. Use the impersonal passive of debellare. 16 abstinere.

The Future Periphrastic

praesiindicates Expecta-

R. 2.

"

651, R.

1,

4O

LATIN COMPOSITIOH
B.

COHSTRUCTIOHS

have said anything by way of jest 1 do not serious matter. 2. Spare the dignity of Lentulus if he ever spared his own reputation. 3. Do 3 2 think can those revenues unless you you enjoy you keep
30,
1.

If

turn

it

into

those
4.

who
5.

are the

source of

by good king hereafter, lest you be laughed at unless perchance it seems royal to you to live in such a way as to be the servant of no man. 6. See in what year Piso was quaestor or tribune should neither hit, 4 see whether he lived at all 5 at the time of that war. 7. Would a phy6 over to another sician,, when a patient had been turned be with the who had G succeeded angry physician physician, him if he were to change some things that he had 6 prescribed 7 in his treatment 8 ? 8. If a philosopher were to add 9 eloquence to his other qualifications I should not despiso should he not have it, I should not greatly demand it. it 10 the town but if our 9. There was a hill exactly opposite to this the held seemed enemy likely to cut them oil troops from the great part of their water supply. 10. The prisoners told the king that he would find out whether they were brave or no, if he were general of the Athenians and Charei* 11. The Campanians sent general of the Macedonians. n announce that the consuls were a envoys to Hannibal to 12 day's march off and that if he did not hasten to their aid
will.
;

No

rule can be safe

them when except

free
it

from disaster
fortified

is

Do

not

call

me

Capua would come


1

into the

power

of the

enemy.

per iocum.
3

Be

Future.

fructui
8

esse, 'to
4

careful of the tense, for posse has the effect of a be a source of revenue'; substitute a colorless
5

word
12

for 'revenues.'

quadrare.
9

omnino.

Watch

the tense.

con-

stituere.

in curando.

ars.

J0

regione with the Genitive.

" G30.

propere subvenire.

LOGICAL AND IDEAL CONDITIONS


C.

4!

i not lop off the passions, in vain shall we 1. If we do 31. endeavor to live happily. 2. Limbs are amputated if they 2 begin to be without blood. 3. Lucius Sulla was lucky, if 4. You will never there can be any good luck in crime. 3 ask for unless you that it is not to money prove right show that it is not lawful. 3 5. If that was the blood of enemies, great was the loyalty of the soldiers but it was a
;

was the blood of citizens. 6. Of Homer, the prince of poets, almost nothing is known except what 4 5 nobody would be likely to believe, namely, that he was born blind, unless perhaps we believe that a blind man could have described so many various 6 things so truly and so 7 7. What reason can you give for defending some clearly. 8 to unless and indifferent others perhaps you are things being that measure to confess willing you everything by your own said 8. "We have to he, "with an enemy do/'' advantage? that cannot bear either good or bad fortune whether he van9 2 quishes' or is vanquished he shows the same savage temper." 10 9. Neither are those promises to be kept which are apt to be useless to those to whom you have made them, nor, if they would injure you more than benefit him to whom you have made them, is it contrary to your duty to prefer the 10. He had to send away many of the greater to the less. soldiers in case he wished the business to be accomplished. 1 1. They ordered him to be arrested by a constable and taken to prison if he could not give security. monstrous crime
if it
;
1

Be careful

of the tense.

567.

oportere

licere.

'

Likelihood

'

in the Indie, is
is
6

expressed by the Periphrastic, but in the Subjunctive this not necessary, as every tense of the Subjunctive has a Future side.
6

Omit.

481,

i.

= What
'

can you say why.'


i.

curare.

"

ferocitas.

10

Involved in the mood; 631,

42

LATIN COMPOSITION
D.
32.
1.

CONSTRUCTIONS

The book-keeping
if

of benefits
it is

is

simple

so

much

is

spent,

something

comes back

come back it is not a loss. 2. If you Brutus, what citizen will you ever honor

a gain, if it does not desert 3 and betray Marcus


or favor
?

unless per-

chance you think that those who bestowed the kingly crown 4 are to be preserved, those who took away the name of king to 3. If they deserted their own consul they are be deserted. to be blamed, but if they left the enemy of the state they 3 4. If I do not use are rightly praised. up all the time that 5 law will me by is allowed complain that Yerres is being you
beset because the accuser
is

unwilling to speak as long as


shall rejoice
6. I
;

he may.
not,

5.

If

what we wish happens we


6

if

we

shall bear the result

with equanimity.

have

received a
that you
8

7 from Peter, unless perhaps everything silly note do not like seems silly. 7. History at that time was

nothing except the putting together of annals. 8. Whether you linger 3 or hasten you will not find him at home. 9. K 9 you were to know rne well enough you would not think 10. The day would full that I could betray my country. me did I desire to enumerate how many good men have had bad luck, 10 and equally so n if I were to relate how many
evil

men have had

the best of fortune.


12.

11.

In the event

12

camp They said that if they knew that the Komans would pardon them they would not refuse to
to the vanquished.

of a battle the nearness of the

offered

an easy refuge

surrender. 13
something' is more emphatic than anything.' Be careful of the tense. 4 Observe the law of sequence, and use dia~ 8 Who is meant by litterulae. dema imponere. B concedere. 6 Omit. " nee 10 9 ' alicui male evenire. well is an English addition. you '?
1

ratio.

107,

i,

R.

'

'

'

'

minus.

ia

'

if

a battle were joined.'

13

se tradere.

9.

CONDITIONS OF UNREALITY AND COMPARISON.


A.

G. 597-602;

&

307, 321, 322; II. 579-584, 647, 648;

G. 308-312, 337 (517, 518, 521-524, 589); B. 304, 305, H. & B. 581-, 582 (3), 504 (3);

L. 2091-2108,

2117-2122, 2329, 2330-2334;

W.

557, 558,

617-619,

566-568.

In Unreal Conditions the chief difficulty

is

in the use of

the Indicative in the Apodosis, hence 597, R. 3, should be When the Apodosis follows a sentence carefully studied.

which requires the Subjunctive, the structure is complicated and also requires close attention (R. 5). The use of the Imperfect and Pluperfect Indicative is neat arid idiomatic, and in the case of the Pluperfect has an apparent resemblance to
the English (it. 2). In Conditional Sentences of Comparison the most important matter is that the law of Sequence overrides that of the

Condition, as a rule.

43

44

LATIN COMPOSITION
A.

CONSTRUCTIONS

33.

1.

If Scipio

had lived

to his

hundredth year would


1

he regret his great age ? 2. Quintus would have stayed 3. If Antilonger with me if I had been desirous of it. ochus had consented 2 to follow 3 the counsels of Hannibal he would have fought for 4 empire nearer to the Tiber than to

Thermopylae.
the whole war
?

4.

Who
5.

doubts that

if

in bringing help to the Saguntines

we had been energetic 5 we should have averted

That which we were individually 6 going to do if our houses had burned down, do we now refuse to do as a body 6 in this conflagration of the state ? 6. We had gained a brilliant victory if Lepidus had not been eager to 7 7 destroy everything and perish himself with his men. 7. No one doubted that if the general had come immediately he 8 might easily have crushed the conspiracy of the soldiers. 8. I do not doubt that if Sulpicius had been able to report the issue 9 of his mission, his return would have been 9. Tell me what you would have salutary to the state. advised if you had been asked your opinion on this matter. 10. He loves you as if he had lived with you. 11. Xerxes sent 4,000 armed men to Delphi to plunder the temple of Apollo as if he were carrying on war not only with the 12. Corrupt men pass Greeks, but with the immortal gods.
their time
10

as if they despised

your honors

but seek them

as if they had lived honorably. 13. Since you write me u as if nothing, I shall regard it just you had written that

there was nothing to write. 14. Do not look for 12 arguments from me in this matter, as if there were some doubt

about

it.

13

1 velle ; the Imperfects vellem, nollem, mattem, as well as possem, have 3 2 velle. uti. the effect of Pluperfects, from the potential side (258).

*de.

'had brought help energetically.' 6 singuli; universi. 'The 8 opprimere. play of words on perdere and perire. 10 9 aetatem agere. n proinde Use renuntiare, to report (the issue of).' w 13 = 'as if anything were doubtful.' hdbere. exspectare.

Roman

likes the

'

CONDITIONS OF UNREALITY AND COMPARISON


B.

4$

1. Most people cannot do a thing because they 2 not; they could if they would. 2. You would not have dared to provoke me by abuse if you did not rely on 3. The Gauls had nearly taken those swords that we see. the Capitol, had not the geese by their noise 3 waked the

34.
1

will

4. You ought to cherish him as a filial 5. We had gained a had affection. 4 any you if had not received Antonius when 5 Lepidus glorious victory he was unarmed and, a fugitive. 6. If our friend had followed 6 the directions of the physician he must needs have died. 7. It is not doubtful that if Caesar had not perished an by untimely death the condition of Rome under the em7 different. 8. If you had been pire would have been far willing to do it, I do not doubt that the whole multitude would have gone over 8 to you. 9. He gave so tardily that he would have done a greater favor 9 if he had refused quickly. 10. Those things which are very difficult are often to be

soldiers out

of sleep.

father

if

regarded just as

if 10

they could not be done.

11.

Soldiers

n enjoy present abundance as if they knew for certain that 12 12 never be The would want again. army they plagued by of the Samnites drew up in line of battle, as if there was 13 13. It is foolish to pluck going to be no delay in fighting. 14 hair in mourning as if grief were lightened by out one's 14. He was ordered to leave his country just as baldness. if he had been convicted of a crime.
1

nolle.

Use

quire.
8

clangor.

quently
6

expressed
7

by an

pietas. temporal clause is freadjective in predicate attribution; 325.

'

se convertere. 'English is colored; in Latin 10 See above, Ex. merely (praestare) more.' ia " n See 248 use urgere. 33, Note 11. 360, R. 1. exploratum habere. Dative of Disadvantage 345, R. 1 see also 309, 3.

obsequi.

longe.

'

would have conferred

46

LATIN COMPOSITION
c.

CONSTRUCTIONS

35.

1.

May
1

I die if I
2.

happened have had

to me.

If

should be more joyful if that had you had not hastened we should all

to die. 3. Antigonus would have saved Eumencs when he was captured if his men had allowed 2 him to do so, but those who were about him did not suffer it because they

saw that they would all be of little value by the side of 3 Eumenes. 4. The Volsci had already got their auxiliaries 4 5 ready to send to the Latins, had not the Eoman dictator made haste. 5. Those also who had remained were all on the point 6 of leaving their fields had not Metellus sent a letter to them from Rome. 6. It is an interesting question 7 what would have been the result to Rome if she had had a war 8 with Alexander. 7. No one doubts that if the city had been taken the enemy would have been conquered. 8. He loved you as if he had lived with you. 9. You say the gods neglect less important things as if I had complained about 10. I the loss of Rutilius' estate, not the loss of his life. consider him to be the best who forgives others 9 as if he himself sinned daily, but 10 who refrains from sin as if he for11. Plato said that those who contended with gave none. each other n which should manage the state acted in the same 12 way as if sailors were to contend which one of them should 12. The fortune of the Germans was on this be pilot. account the more grievous because they feared the cruelty of their leader, though 13 absent, just as if he were present in
:

person.
630. 417, 9. comparare. 7 'it is renderings of the Future Participle. ' 8 Rome in a sentence bellare ; see 208, 2. pleasing (libet) to inquire.' 9 What is the difference like this is the 'Roman State,' res Romwia.
1

597, R.

3.

Use per aliquem

licet.

'One of the

common

'

between

ceteri, reliqui,

and

alii ?

10

636, N. 2, a.
521, R. 5.
13

"

221.

ia

Will

it

be

the reflexive or the demonstrative?

009.

CONDITIONS OF UNREALITY AND COMPARISON


D.
36.
1.

47

"If

had conquered you, Scipio," quoth Hannibal,


all

"I should put myself above


influence
1

other generals."

2.
1

If

my

had prevailed, you would be to-day in poverty, we in 2 be perpetual if we s freedom. 3. The commonwealth might 4 4. If Sestius, who was lived according to the constitution. left for dead, 5 had been really killed, were you going to take up arms ? 5. Even if I had never drawn sword in Asia, still I had deserved a triumph for 6 the two battles in Thrace. 7 at this time, still she would 6. If she had not met her end have had to die a few years later, as she was born a human 8 7. I do not doubt that if you had followed my being. 8. You show advice you would not be in such poverty. what sort of a consul you would have been at that time had
matters turned out in this way. 9. Solon gave the Athenians such excellent and useful laws that if they had been willing
to

them always, they would have had an enduring Those who injure some in order to be liberal to empire. others are guilty of the same 9 injustice as if they approprikeep
8

10.

ated other people's property. 10


as
if I

11.

My brother treats me just

were a king. 12. Agesilaus praised the design of those who had occupied n the place as if they had done so with 12 13. Certain people think that there is no good intention. God on this account, because he cannot 13 be seen, just as 14 we could see our mind itself. 14, They if, for example, defend Naevius as if their own fortune and honor were at
stake. 13
1

Use

verbs.
6

indicates possibility in English.


5
9

= =

'killed.'
'

a regular translation of posse and frequently 3 * 208, 2. patria instituta; see 397. Causal according to 408, N 6. ''diem obire. *uti

'

'

Might

is

are in the same.'

10

to their own.'

part of his thought. " Omit. 15 often cannot be done. agi.

nA

'convert (convertere) other people's (things) 12 animus. " What is not done

10.

CONCESSIVE SENTENCES WITH SOME


CONDITIONS.

G. 603-609; A. & G. 313 (526, 527); B. 308, 309; H. 585, 586; H. & B. 582 (8), 556, 310 (7), 532, 541, 604 (2); L. 1899-1907, 196:3, 2116; W. 569-572.

is

In Concessive Sentences the large number of conjunctions to be noticed and the different shades of meaning that they

express.

Observe in the case of combinations of

si that

the

general principles of Conditional Sentences apply here too.

Quamquam means however (true it is) quamvis, however it MAY BE), and the mood follows accordingly. Study Do not forget etsi and quamquam in the sense of and yet.
;

(true

the Sequence of Tenses with licet (a Present), and restrict ut and ne to argumentative sentences. Concessive cum has
already been treated.

48

CONCESSIVE SENTENCES WITH SOME CONDITIONS


A.

49

J if there is nothing in glory that it should be 2 it like follows virtue its shadow. nevertheless sought after, 3 from fear of odium do not dare to 2. There are those who

37.

1.

Even

speak what they feel, even nothing further about him

if it
;

be the best.
I

3.

I shall say

have said what I have said just as if 4 I were his brother, not the brother that he 5 actually has, but such a one as I have been accustomed to

and yet

be to
said.

my own
is

brother.
7

4.

Although that remark

in

by an impious king, still it is brilliantly 9 one, no matter how wealthy he may be, can 10 6. Although the measure dispense with the aid of others. may not please me, still I shall not be able to contend against
Accius
5.

made

No

11 7. Though these gifts do authority of such men. to be numerous, 12 many who are your equals in accomplishments have obtained more. 8. The wicked do not

the

seem

escape the charge

13

drenched be not the


side. 16

14

altars

with

of impiety, although they may have much blood. 9. Granted that this
is

case, still it

a fine

show that
look at
17

I
it

am
if

myself, provided only I


10.

may

15

proposing for with you at my

Caesar was confident

that

he seized and

opponents from the town and the bridge, and all the provisions that they had collected 18 in the town. 11. It seems that if they had abstained from bloodshed they could have reached 19 the
fortified that hillock
off his

he would cut

royal pavilion.
1

An

Indirect Question, cur; 631,


:

2.

Adverb, not adjective.

631,

i.

Use negative form non secus quam ; 643. 5 Included in the mood. 6 in is neutral compare with erga and adversus; in this sentence observe that no characterization is given by the verbs Cicero's own character 7 Use verb. 8 416, 4. 9 No (he is speaking) was a concrete example. matter how = however.' 10 Use alienus. " You may believe so if you
; ;

'

'

'

like.
14

12

You cannot
J6 1B

Use cruentare.

licet.

use numerosus; why ? 13 Included in impietas. 16 Ablative Absolute. " A continual feeling,

a state of mind.

629, R.

pervenire.

5O

LATIN COMPOSITION
B.

CONSTRUCTIONS

1 38. 1. Even if it wore necessary to go to meet death, I should prefer to do 2 so at home rather than in foreign 2. Although the ground was unfavorable, nevertheparts. less Caesar determined to attack the enemy. 3. Although I

me, nevertheless I know that Although we cannot show-byour-action as much gratitude as is due him we must nevertheless feel as much as our hearts 4 can hold. 5. The 5 " 6 phrase Scipio will die" has such a meaning that, although it is said of the future, it cannot turn out to bo false. " the ambassadors 6. Although they may say, may set forth still let the war be pushed," nevertheless the very name of ambassadors will retard the progress of the war. 7. Granted that our soldiers' courage do not fail them, nevertheless they will not be able to resist the great multitude of the enemy. 7 8. Though these struggles and dangers may have carried them up to the consulship, I prefer the safe and quiet 8 seclusion of Vergil. 9. Though Plato produced no argu9 of his authority would crush me. ment, still the weight 10. He said that he did not doubt that Spain was Caesar's that Caesar was so enraged that Metellus came very 10 near being put to death that if that had been done there would have been a great massacre ; that it was not done not because Caesar was not naturally cruel, but because he thought n that if he lost the clemency was the popular course enthusiastic support 12 of the people he would be cruel because he would not have anything to 13 gain by kindness.
to
4.
;

have asked you to come you cannot relieve me.

mortem oppetere ; use Gerundive.


3

Latin understands. with the 'feelings.'


T
'

511, R. 3.

May

English addition which the ' English often confuses the heart be omitted in Latin according to 204. 6 vis.
*
'

'I

grant you'
'

(licet).

authority
tive,
13

is

sufficient in the Latin.

hence
2.

see

556,

second

English fulness; Suppose that.' 10 prope dbesse ; the effect is negaI2 studium. popularis. paragraph.
1 1

'

G31,

CONCESSIVE SENTENCES WITH SOME CONDITIONS


c.

you had taken away from Sulla nothing but his consulship you ought to be content with that. 2 few are so grateful that they think of what they 2. But 3 have received, even if they do not see it. 3. Though Caesar
39.
1.

Even

if

had not yet become acquainted with the plan of the enemy, still he had a suspicion that what did happen would happen. 4. However different the case of the soldiers is from yours,
nevertheless I shall say nothing about the nature of this war. 4 have departed, still the dead 5. Although their feeling may

own peculiar blessings, however they 5 6. No matter how much pleasure them. feel not you may notwithstandwill of the in have courtiers, they flattery may 7. After so great a multitude ing lay plots against you. killed enemy, I say, however much of the enemy has been 7 6 hearthstone our at this may object, shall we take
are not without their

enemy 8 of imperator ? 8. Alaway from our noble leaders the name 9 after the same pattern though I send you too often letters 10 so scruputhanking you for honoring my recommendations 11 in the good 12 work. still I shall not grow weary lously, 13 not render a 9. Assuming that Socrates and Plato did reason for it, nevertheless by their very authority they would overcome these petty philosophers. 10. Pollio is very much mistaken in thinking that if Caesar had lived longer his
memoirs would have been rewritten.
11.

beg you

to re12

member that you could never have obtained your present 15 14 if you had not followed my counsels. position
2. oportere; what tense?; 254, R. ment is a fact hence what particle ?
1
;

2
4

'

Few

'

'

is 1.

605, R:

but few.' The state"to have pleasure


9

in,'
10

delectari.

domesticus.
12

nolle.
13

585, R.

parcere.

Omit.

They

Abl. adjective. 14 do. dignitas.

of Quality.
16

uti.

52

LATIN" COMPOSITION

CONSTRUCTIONS

D.
40.
1.

Who

is

not shocked by such


?

be not likely to injure him

2.

Although

baseness, even if it I have written

before what I thought ought to be written, nevertheless I

think you ought to be warned briefly at this time not to think 2 that you are in any particular 3 danger. 3. However

much
effect

virtue of every kind does attract us,


4

still

justice has this

an especial degree. 5 4. Physicians never tell their 6 that patients they are going to die of their disease, though 7 that often will. 5. they they perceive Although there may be men who hate Carbo even after his death, 8 still they ought to consider not what they wanted to befall him, but what they themselves have to fear in such a case. 6. Since I have once undertaken it, though 9 all perils may threaten, I shall succor him. 7. Granted that Rome was founded before the time of Romulus, nevertheless the Roman historians begin with 10 him. 8. "There never was such a man/'
in
will say; granted; I am discussing the question, what I want, not what I have seen. 9. They said that although they had deserved ill of n the Roman people they Would be in a better condition under the Romans though 12 angry than they

you

had been under the Carthaginians


that
if

as friends.

10.

They

said

both consuls with their armies were before Nola they would not for all that 13 be more of-a-match for Hannibal than

Cannae; much less could one praetor with raw soldiers protect the town. 11. They said that if they had him for consul their fortunes would be better.
they had been at
a few
14
15

Use efficere. prius. 6 7 Ablative. English

a is measured by degree. 511, R. 3. *proMerely an adverb of degree = 'especially.' fulness the Roman stopped with perceive.' 8 9 = 'granted that.' 10 ab is the regular preposition with 664, R. 2. verbs of Beginning. n mereri de. 12 667. 1S tamen. I4 See above, Ex. 15 11, Note 11. 482, 5, R. 2.
1

Not

talis, for

'

baseness
5

'

'

11.

MISCELLANEOUS CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.


&
G. 304-315, 337 (512-525, 589); B. 301-307, 319-322; & B. 573-582; L. 2015-2122, 2326-2334;

G.

589-602; A.

H. 572-584, 646-648; H.

W.

550-562, 613-619, 566-572.

Read carefully over the whole treatment

of Conditional

Sentences, paying attention to the details overlooked before ; observe the difference between nisi and si non, and study the various phraseological uses of si. Notice the difference be-

tween the Ideal and Unreal forms again, and understand how the Ideal from the Point of View .of the Past may be almost the same as the Unreal from the Point of View of the Present. Notice the Oratio Obliqua forms of the various Conditions and the forms they take after sentences requiring a
Subjunctive.

53

54

LATIN COMPOSITION
A.

CONSTRUCTIONS

1. What a consul he was if we require prudence, who could in no way be deceived if high-mindedness, 2 one who would prefer death to slavery. 2. If all in this

41.
1

one

were to he massed in one place,, they would not be com3 4 3. When with Sulpicius. parable they were summoned to trial, they used immediately to make their defence 5 if 6 4. If the law only confirmed it seemed best. those things which had been given by Sulla, I would keep quiet if only Rullus admitted that he was a follower of Sulla. 7 5. Is the condition of those witnesses such that men who were not believed 8 when they denied are believed when they affirm? 9 if they lied then, let them teach us with what face they are G. I should never have accustomed to speak the truth. needed a consular's medicine, if I had not fallen by a con4 sular's wound. 7. If he comes forward, I shall inquire of 10 him why he brought no action immediately then, if he 4 replies cleverly to -this, I shall ask why he preferred com8. I do not doubt that if plaining to bringing an action. the king had found out 11 the approach of the enemy he would have crossed the river. 9. In the hearing 12 of many he declared that if he learned 4 that Clodius had been slain he would report the name of Milo. 10. Such was the fortune of battle that if the dictator had been present the affair 13 could have been managed better. 11. I think pardon should be granted to the others if they become 4 reconciled to the state. 12. Can any one doubt that if Ligarius could have been in Italy he would have held 14 the same opinion that his brothers held ?
state
;

631,
tense.
5

i.

'

greatness of

spirit.'
7

Gerundive.
B

Be careful
9

of the
dif-

contra dicere.

sancire.

Sullanus.
10
'

217.

Study the
"

ference between dico, loquor, and aio. orem fieri. M Ablative Absolute.
'

13

certiBring an action,' ago. " = 'to be in the same res.

opinion

(sententia).

MISCELLANEOUS CONDITIONAL SENTENCES


B.
42.
1.

55

If there

be those

some time or other would forget it forever. 2 2. I would not listen to wisdom herself, no matter how learned she may be, if she were to assent 3 to this. 3. If he lied why did he remove his accounts 4 if they were not going to injure you if he had made no 5 lists at all, does not this show clearly that he did not attend to seem if and his ? 4. Even to business myself ought you outsiders to the other patricians, still Torquatus would say 6 5. If the word of Marius had nothing about this flaw. 8 7 let the position and deeds of the noble man weight then, 7 6. If he had accused Sulla alone I too influence you now. should do nothing else than 9 defend him who had been ac;

who have done something at and are now silent about it, we also
1

cused

but since he assailed


still

10

me, even

if

my

resentment

did not compel me,


this speech

from me. would have plucked up courage had not the other praetor n fought many successful battles beyond the Iberus. 8. How many guards will I need if I admit you to my book-cases ? 12 that 9. TJie engagement was carried on with such evenness 13 a if the Etruscans had come up we must have suffered than those who of a burden more I have 10. disaster. great accused the others, if that is to be called a burden which you 11. The Sardinians have been persuaded that bear with joy. u will do nothing more pleasing to Appius than to they 12. There was no doubt detract from Scaurus' reputation. 15 that if he had written the letter I should have been relieved
of great annoyance.
1

the cause itself would have required 7. There was no doubt that Spain

Si

qui.
7

The

Perfect, by
3

phasizes the finality.


passive.
12

annuere.
9

drawing attention to the completion, em6 5 Use silere in the *obesse. gerere.
2.
10

valere.

302
13

591,'&,

invehi.
14

ll

proeUum
15

facere.

'

equal forces.'

accipere; use passive.

si.

levare.

56

LATIN COMPOSITION
C.

CONSTRUCTIONS

43.

1.

If

you want
l

this state to be eternal

you must be
will

on your guard

against factious

men.

2.

You

not

dare to say this, nor even if you were to desire it will it be allowed. 3. If the accused named Koscius,-was it a great
2 to send a letter to Koscius at Himera ? You would have kept the man in close custody 3 until Roscius came; 4 then if he recognized the man you would remit a part of 5 the punishment if he did not know him, you would in case 6 this law for all, that he who it seemed good to you ordain was not known to you should be crucified. 4. If in express7 ing such an opinion the dignity of Pompey was enhanced 8 to the advantage of the commonwealth, certainly I should deserve 9 praise if it appeared that I had voted in support 10 of the of him who had assisted n in salvation.

task

dignity

my

be any that must be kept in durance 12 by the state, they are ordered to be taken to these quarries even from the other towns of Italy. G. If I had done this, what
5.

If there

thanks would you owe


half only those

for relinquishing in your beu 7. that were cheap in-my-eyes ? things I do not doubt that he might have come to his senses if

me

13

8. Hannibal was so hamhe had followed 15 your advice. that if he had not feared that of want provisions pered by his departure would resemble flight 16 he would have made 9. I do not doubt that if anything of that kind for Gaul. happens you will hurry to me. 10. I do not want any of those who are present to think that if I have kept quiet 1 approve the things that have been said by Accius about this

law.
2 Omit. 3 custodiae. 4 The case would wait. 346, N. 2. 7 6 Omit. 8 non sine. 9 Gerundive. sancire. 'something from.' 10 12 " auxilium 13 = what benefit wouKl custodire. ferre. suffragari. 14 18 16 = 'he Dative. uti. you have from me when I relinquished.' would have to depart with the appearance (species) of flight.'
1

cavere;

'

MISCELLANEOUS CONDITIONAL SENTENCES


D.

57

1. If you are willing to listen to me, keep the control 1 44. of your liberty, your city, and your other advantages ; unless 2 perhaps you prefer to leave all these things and settle your-

selves in the pestilential district of the Campanians. 2. In a 3 charge of this kind you-may-be-blamed for carelessness if you

defend a man whom you suspect to be guilty 4 of treason. 5 then when she owed me 3. If I was my country's defender now when I owe her everyI to do something, what ought if he walked briskly 6 that doubtful not 4. It was thing ? 5. If you saved yourself for 7 lie would arrive before dawn.

" I have other emergencies, then the Roman people will say 7 called you back to meet those emergencies for which you
:

saved yourself." are shapely even

6.

if

Zeno's opinion is that wise they are most deformed. 7.

men alone When the

envoys return,

if they bring peace, deem me eager for it, if 9 8. There is no doubt that the conwar, a man of foresight. 10 would have conquered if Caesar had been their servatives
8

leader.

8 you once cross the limit of fairness in judicial sure that you have left to others no limit of procedure, be in forming their opinion. 10. If Caesar himperverseness n to conduct an self had had the power either investigation the death of Caelius or n to summon him

9.

If

concerning

up

himself from the dead, 12 which

do you think he would have done ? even if for friendship's sake he might have desired 13 to call him forth, on account of the state he would
not have done

death of a

it. You therefore man whose life you would

sit

as avengers of the be unwilling to restore,

even
1

if

you should think

it

could be restored by you.


'

retinere possessionem. 2 664, R. 1. 8 levitas ; be blamed '= culpa est. obstrictum esse. 5 Use verb. 6 recte. 7 Either the Dat. or ad; but the
I0

latter is better for


9

providus.
12
19

Be careful of the tense. preserve (servare) why ? ll bonus. What is the difference between aut and vel?
fl

'

'

inferi.

258.

12.
G. 610-626;
580-585. A.

RELATIVE SENTENCES-I.
G. 197-201 (3 )3-303); B. 250. 251, 311, 312; H. 396& B. 281-284, 550, 566-569; L. 1792-1815;

&

399, 510, 589; H.

Relative Sentences are used much more frequently in Latin than in English and in a greater variety of combinations hence they merit particular study. They take the place of
;

Demonstratives in connecting clauses, and are combined in various ways with other relatives and with interrogatives. Notice especially the rules governing Concord, Incorporation,

and Attraction.

Do

not overlook in this connection

the

strange Reversed Incorporation in Consecutive Clauses (616, N. 2). In simple Relative Sentences the rules governing Tenses (622, 623) and Moods (624-26) are the same that

govern other independent sentences.

RELATIVE SEHTEKCES
A.
45.
1.

59

defeated the
2.

The deeds of Hannibal, who is known to have Romans so often,, are admired by all of us.
1

The ancient Greeks

called fate a blind ruler of gods

and

men and 2 thought that even Jupiter the father of gods and men was subject to his sway. 3. He betook himself to the
Volscians, with

me what 4 you
benefit that
6.
is

whom 3 he had taken refuge before. 4. Tell think about the political situation. 5 5. A bestowed on anybody 6 is a favor to nobody.

Aratus of Sicyon thought and this 7 showed 8 a wise man that he ought to consult 9 the interests of all his fellowcitizens. 7. The poet Vergil wrote an epic poem which is called the Aeneid. 8. The Gauls once plundered Delphi, the famous oracle of Apollo, which was called by the ancients the
centre
10
ll

of the world.

people

Rome. 12

9. Coriolanus fled to the Volscians, a that was at that time bitterly hostile to the name of 10. The day I heard that tyrant called a renowned

man

began

to distrust.

11.

I see that I
13

am

deserted by
12.

those

who ought

to have been the last

to do so.

We

have carefully endeavored u to speak briefly and lucidly about the matters that 15 we still bad to speak of. 13. You have only to ask such is your influence, he will readily do
:

what you wish. 14. Agamemnon sacrificed Iphigenia, since he had vowed to Diana the most beautiful being 16 born in
his

kingdom that
is

year.

which

Attica,

the first town and whose inhabitants 19 had sent ambassadors. 16. Whichever way 20 we turn, we stumble against simpletons or
17.

15. Caesar got-as-far-as 17 Corinth, as you enter 18 the Isthmus from

scoundrels.

The
21

senate held a consultation about rea recent message

ceiving Cybele, for was at Tarracina.


1

had come that she

Use quoties in an Indirect Question.


8

610, R. 1.
*

611, R.
tl

1.
9

611,

2.

<= 'the state.'


13

quilibet.

614, R. 2.
10
'

3fi6, R. 2.

Be

care1S

ful of the constructions of consulere.

umbilicus.
;

616, 2.
'

Use

the adjective. 14 operam dare.


20

'

by

whom it was least

proper

convenit,

it is

proper.'

Omit.

ai

626.

6O

LATIN COMPOSITION
B.

CONSTRUCTIONS

46.

1.

The boy while he


3

in those arts

1 is yet tender must be steeped from the absorption of which 2 he will come

for greater things. 2. Defeated, the Carthe Romans for thaginians begged peace ; and as Regulus

better prepared

would 4 not grant it except under the harshest conditions they 5 begged the Lacedaemonians for help. 3. To tell you what 6 I really think, the state is in the hands of 7 desperadoes.
9 8 Everything we say cannot be reduced to regular laws. which is not 5. Dionysius was brave and skilled in war and neither a debauchee nor avaricious. easily found in a tyrant G. The city of Cadiz was founded by a Tyrian fleet, which founded Utica also. 7. It had never occurred 10 to me to wish for you the wild frenzy 11 into which you have fallen. 8. Animals do not move from the place in which they are 9. Such is your shrewdness 12 that you will readily born. understand why I have not followed 13 your advice. 10. The mountain, which the exiles had taken possession of, was 14 11. At that time they began 15 at grassy and well- watered. Athens to choose 15 the archons for ten years, a custom that remained seventy years. 12. The poet thought that the 16 him was that the plays he wrote should only task set before 13. Crassus did not live to see 17 marred the please public.

4.

in every respect that

bloom,

state in which, even in its greatest he would have surpassed every one in glory. 14. That same year Cumae was captured by the Campanians, a city 15. No that the Greeks had possession of at that time. matter who it is that 19 reaches a high position, 20 he will
18

become
1

dizzy.

21

be careful of the tense. 3 Notice Omit. a which if he absorbs B 4 nolle. the manifold translation of the Latin Comparative. 545, 3, 8 e = whatever.' 9 ars etpraecepta; See Ex. 4, Note 2. 7 416, 17. R. 3.
'

'

Hendiadys.
12

10

in mentem venire.
x.
2.
13

ity.'
16
19

616,

i,

uti.
17
'

14

Uendiadys = madness and insan16 Use passive construction. aquosus.


ll
'

negotium dare ; see 369.

To live
21

to see

'

'to see.'

18

\Jseflorens.

'whoever.'

80

fastigium.

v ertigine corripi.

RELATIVE SENTENCES

6l

a
for a man who speaks eloquently and wisely, for those who hear him think he is 2. I did not suppose there were wiser than everybody else.
47.
1.

Great

is

the admiration felt

any

human

They
cities
4.

2 heings in whose eyes my life was hateful. 3. 3 their respective 4 threatened what recounted dangers

hy land and sea and begged the king for reinforcements. Are you the man that has lost everything? 5. I have taken refuge with you, to whom I am compelled the most wretched thing in my eyes 5 to be a burden 6 rather than a 7 6 6. Of the number of those who were consuls durblessing. 7. The Arabians have fleet ing those years many are dead. horses and swift camels, which latter they call the ships of the desert. 8. Apollonius was wont to urge each man to that 8 9. In the year in profession for which he thought him fit. which Tarquin the Overbearing was exiled from Rome, the
Athenians exiled Hippias. 10. Verres sent to King Antiochus to 9 ask for the most beautiful vessels he had seen in 11. Being n in the straits in which I have shown his palace. 10 him to have been, he resolved to resign 12 his office. 12. May I die if I do not think that your glory is such 13 that you prefer to be consulted by Caesar rather than enriched by him.
13.

Atticus sent to Cicero for H the most charming books he had. 14. All ancient nations once obeyed kings, a kind
15 16 government that was at first offered only to the wisest and justest men. 15. We never return to our parents what we receive from them, nor will our children return to us what they receive from us. 16. The wall was torn down, for 17 the city from the citadel. it separated

of

Omit
s

what
8

is

R.

1.

Do

not personify.
ars.
9

the proper construction after a substantive B 6 4 7 Dative. 356, R. 2. 318, 3.


10

?
'

611, of that

number.'
N. 2.
14

435.
l

416, 4.

"

585, R.
16

"

se dbdicare.
1T

13

616,

i,

Usepetere.

genus imperil.

deferre.

dirimere.

62

LATIN COMPOSITION
D.

CONSTRUCTIONS

2 1. Philosophy contains the doctrine 1 not only of 3 2 but that of so that also he who teaches 4 living well, duty it seems to undertake a very important role. 2. Let the 5 punishment stop at those with whom the fault originated. 6 3. The soldier slipped out through the pickets and told the

48.

commander
the

of the

enemy

the-facts-of-the-case. 7

4.

We

are

that have often loaded you with kindness. 5. The Lacedaemonians slew King Agis a thing that had never happened among them before. 6. All Italy took up arms against

men

the Romans, and whilst 8 their fortune was terrible their cause was just. 7. This great war that lasted so long, by which
all

year.
self

nations were oppressed, Pompey brought to an end in one 8. He is not to be endured as an accuser who is him-

9 caught in the vice which he blames in another. 9. Marius, having accomplished the business that he had proposed to himself, returned to Cirta. 10. Philip subjugated the Aetolians, deserted as they were 10 by the Romans, the 11. Let us see how potent only help to which they trusted. the remedies are that are applied by philosophers to diseases of the mind. 11 12. If you had allowed me, such is 12 my love for you that I should have settled the matter with the heirs. 13. This was the most glorious day of the many festive days

that Scipio had seen in the course of his life. 14. Then I became quaestor, an office that I filled in the consulship of

Tuditanus and Cethegus. 15. However 13 things turn out, remember to urge as an excuse 14 my ill-health. 16. The last battle of the war will never be effaced 15 from my mind, for I lost both my father and my uncle in it.
disciplina. valla stationum.
interetet. 3 308, R. 3. 4 profiteri. 611, R. 1. T = 'what had been done.' 8 482, 4. 9 deprehendere. 10 'As they were' is an English addition. " Plural. 12 616, i, N. 2. 15 " utut. M oUitterare in. Study the construction of excusare.
1

13.
G. 624-637;
406);
(4);

RELATIVE SENTENCES
&
G. 316-320 (581
(2),

II.

A.

(2),

535, 559, 580, 583

(b),

592, 593,

B. 312, 323, 324, 282

283, 284 (2

and

4);
(2),

H.
(i),

&

B. 502

(i

and

2),

507

(1),

508, 509, 515

H. 589-593, 595 517 (2), 519 (2),

521

522, 523, 539; L. 1816-1837;

W.

586-589, 578.
it
is

To
tion

obtain the

Moods

in Relative Sentences

necessary

to resolve the Relative into a

Demonstrative and a conjunc-

and

clioose the

Mood

accordingly.

Thus

Indefinite

and

Causal relatives have, as a rule, the Indicative (626, 628), while Final and Consecutive relatives take the Subjunctive The principle of Subordination in Oratio Obli(630, 631).

qua governs 628 and 629. When the Cause is circumstantial we have the construction of cum, and also when an Adversative idea
is felt

(633, 634).

The

Characteristic Relative

(631) needs careful attention and should not be used overmuch. Much neatness can be secured in construction of

Relatives (636).

63

64

LATIN COMPOSITION
A.

CONSTRUCTIONS

1. The maiden was of such exceptional beauty that whatever direction she walked she attracted 2 everybody's 2. The army of Caesar seemed to us to have more eyes. 3 daring than that of Pompey, inasmuch as it had waged war on its country. 3. My competitors, so far as 4 they seem to be 4. Sulpicius was, above all fixed, are Galba and Antonius. others that I have heard, I mean a magnificent orator. 5. All men are persuaded 5 that God is the master and regulator of all things, and 6 that what happens happens according to 7 6. This is what I wonder at, that any man 8 should his will. so wish to destroy another as to scuttle even the vessel in which he himself is sailing. 7. There is nothing that cannot

49.

in

the king the that his son had fallen the royal were taken into tidings 10 forth to the in to set what palace king they had seen person
to bring

be bought wants. 8.

if

you are willing to give

as

much
9

as the seller

The messengers who were

and heard concerning the death


race
is

of his son.

one n that cannot


13

not anything more that there are some

10. stay beaten. to hope for even. 11. I

12

9. The Roman An old man has am not ignorant

who have
12.

taken the year before.

Miserable old

stated that Carthage was man u not to have


!

perceived in so long a life that death was to be despised. 13. The creditor turned the poor fellow out of house and home, 15

although he had not yet buried his father. 14. Cato, who could 16 have held Sicily without any trouble, and to whom 17 if he had held it all the conservatives would have flocked, set out from Syracuse day before yesterday.
1

incedere; be careful of the tense.


6

2
'

convertere.

quippe.
10

627.

6 8

persuasum habere.

635.
'

'

Is

what

makes the English smoother.


;

11

This was their function see G31. not aliquis; see 317. 14 13 " Undefined. is. does not know (how) to.' qui

611, R. 2.

'

16

'

And home

'

fills
17

out the English phrase.

J6

necessary. Simple fact without char-

is

acterization.

636.

RELATIVE SENTENCES
B.
50.
1.
is

II

65

Who

is

there that thinks that no matter

how

punishment must be inflicted, when he sees that under some circumstances 2 the sword to slay 3 the man
killed
is

man

Lucius

held out to us by the laws themselves ? 2. His brother 4 is leader of the gang, as one who has done hard 5

3. Sestius was expected day before yesterbut has not he come so far as I know. 4. All my sister's day, children that I have seen have grey eyes. 5. There would

fighting abroad.

be no exportation of the things in which we abound, 6 nor importation of the things that we need, if merchants did not 8 7 6. In the case 9 of perform these functions. paintings,

happens that those who are unacquainted with the art rel10 and praise things that are not to be praised. 7. " Since the colonies have rebelled," said King George, "let us send commissioners to rebuke, not to entreat them." 8. The Carthaginians sent ambassadors to Rome to congratulate the senate and people of Rome and present n a golden wreath, which was to be deposited in the sanctuary of Jupiter.
it

ish

who imitated Thucydides, deserves to be 12 among the great historians. 10. I meet many 13 who come people every day, for many are the gentlemen 11. The senators of here for the sake of their health.
9.

Philistus,

counted

Rome, thinking that they would never be free from machinations so long u as Hannibal was alive, sent ambassadors to Bithynia to demand of Prusias that he should put him to
rascal not to have awaited your conwrote in reply that I was worse, 15 and that on that account 16 I wanted her to come to me at once.

death.

12.

The
I

venience.

13.

6 'in whatever (way).' 2 aliqnando. 3 Gerundive. * utpote. Ex* 7 8 a in abundare. munus. press by preposition composition. fungi. 9 10 deledari. u with a gift of.' 12 631, i. " optimus vir. 418, i, b.
1

'

14

665.

66

LATIN COMPOSITION

CONSTRUCTIONS

a
matter what l you bid for Drusus' gardens, what one must have is always cheap. 2 2. The Gauls in head51.
1.

No

long

itself full of terror and tumult, children were mingled together in 4 so far as I have read them has 3. None of the poets it. ever equalled the silliness of Ma.evius. 4. Aristides was so

flight

sought the camp,

inasmuch 4

as

women and

conspicuously free from

covetousness that he alone in the

memory

of

men

so far indeed as
7
'

we have heard

was called

" Just. 5. Ambiorix exhorted the Nervii by the surname not to let this opportunity slip of taking vengeance 6 upon
the

which they had received from the 7 beg you not to spare expense in anything so far as is necessary for your health. 7. Thus far I have found scarcely any one who did not think that what Caesar demanded 8 ought to be granted rather than fight the matter out. 8. There are people who forget favors 9 received because they are ashamed of having received them. 9. The Macedonians felled trees which were too large 10 for armed soldiers pos11 to carry. 10. Miltiades was a man of wonderful sibly 12 so that no one was so humble as not to have free affability, access to him. 13 11. You will find people who think-more12. After the battle of 14 their own safety than of the state. of Allia a great number of Eomans fled to Veii, where they thought they were safer than at Rome. 13. Nero, although he was a man of unbounded debauchery, was indisposed 15

Romans
6.

for the insults

enemy.

but three times, all-told, 16 in 17 fourteen years. 14. At the first watch Fabius gave a signal to those who were in the citadel and who had the harbor in charge. 18
1

Usequantusquantus.
7

See 380,
e

2, R.
6

celled so in self-restraint (abstinentia).'

ut ubi. 'exeffusns. ulcisci means to take ven'

298. beneficium. depugnare ; 644, R. 3. = 'to where a free approach (aditus) was 16 15 " omnino. "336, R. 2. not open.' languescere. pluris habere. 18 = the charge (custodia) of the harbor.'

10

geance upon.'
11

sumptus.

Use
'

verb.

ia

349, R. 3.

1S

KELAT1VE SENTENCES
D.
52.
1.

II

6/

No
2

matter how
2.

resist Cato.

You

the case stands, we shall certainly are all of less value than Albius and
*

you have subjected yourselves to them. 3. The consul marched in close order, 3 for he perceived that he had
Atrius, for

enemy. 4. All the provinces, so far 5 indeed belong to the mainland, have been occu5. So far as appears 6 in literature, the enemy. pied by 7 the first to was say that the souls of men were Pherecydes
already reached the
4

as they

immortal.

6.

Quintilian's

precept
9

is

excellent,

that parents should do nothing that is u hear. 7. There say anything that is shameful to

namely, 10 unbecoming nor

more disgraceful than

to carry

on war with a

man

is nothing with whom

you have lived on intimate terms. 8. He sent word to the dictator that he wanted another army to oppose 12 Hannibal 9. There is no one who has equalled Hannibal in with. hatred 13 of the Romans. 10. After almost the whole world was brought into a state of pacification, 14 the Roman empire was too great 15 for it to be possible 16 that it should be sub11. How few 17 are those who jugated by a foreign power.
12. I know not what to say that pleasure is not a blessing answer except this one thing, that I am sorry for what I have done. 18 13. Against the Tarentines, who live in Lower Italy, war was declared by the Romans for having maltreated 19 the ambassadors of the Romans. 14. Atticus, wanting the com!

munity

set free,

paid

20

the cash out of his

own

purse.

21

15.

Masinissa complained that Scipio had not attacked Syphax at once, when he knew to a certainty 22 that he would go over to the Carthaginians.
1

Use quisquis.
6

guidem.
7

=
8

'

366.

exstare.

325, R.

7.

Omit

with closed (cogere) line.' * quidem. the Latin word scilicet over;

translates
13

'

the English. "436. Use passive. 444, 2. 543, 4. the hatred of Hannibal.' 14 pacare. 16 298. ie Use^osse. " quotusest.
18

10

12

qniique
22

19

Participle. cerium habere.

iniuria

20

afficere.

nufiierare.

21

de suo.

14.

COMPARATIVE SENTENCES.

G. 638-644; A. & G. 106, 234 (N. 2), 247, 250 (R.), (323 (g\ 384 (N. 2), 406, 407, 414 (a),; B. 140, 223 (last ex.), 341 (i, c), 217, 284 (4); H. 189, 471, 499, 508 (5), 591 (6); H. & B. 144, 416, 417, 521 (2, c); L. 1889-1897, 1973; W. 5S6-589.

In Comparative Sentences the large number of Correlative forms is noteworthy, and their exact meanings are to be studied. Be careful not to misplace the relative part. Note The more the more is apt to be confusing particularly 641. if attention is not paid to which is really the relative and which the correlative clause and the coalescence of the mem;

bers

of 'limitation' is a dainty idiomatic use (642, K. 4). Clauses with atque should be compared with those with quam and the variety of usage noted (643,
is

interesting.

The ut

N".

4).

In Sentences with

quam

the proper case

is

important

and constructions with potius the proper mood Do not forget Disproportion (298) and Double (R. 3). Comparative (299), nor Adversative ut ita (482, 4) and
(644, K. 1),

Asseverative ita

ut (262).

68

COMPARATIVE SENTENCES
A.

69

myself up to Catullus, a poet of greater 2. Have you ever of his contemporaries. used a better ink than mine ? 3. Agamemnon slew his daughter Iphigenia, than whom there was never a lovelier
53.
1.

I give

charm than any 2


1

maiden in all Greece. 4. It is not so wretched not to obtain what you wish as to wish to obtain what you ought 3 not to have. 5. To Hannibal this event seemed to be too joyful to be all at once 4 appreciated. 5 6. Hamilcar was a man of such
mettle
6

7 in such disgrace. 7. Each as if were fortune, hoping

that he preferred to perish rather than return home man hopes to have 7 Metellus'
as highly as

8.

Esteem other men

more prudent than fearing. you wish to be esteemed

8 by them. 9. You have stained your character with a great 9 blot by charging that innocent old man with crimes such as no one will ever believe him to have committed. 10. As I live, what my sister and I have told you is true. 11. Every learned man is proportionally 10 modest. 12. Numa was a man deeply learned n for that age in all divine and human law. 13. This battle, while less severe than the former one

in the disasters

12

that followed

it,

in actual loss

13

to the

army was even more disastrous. 14. I am afraid that what M when it is heard 15 I am saying cannot be understood so well 15 15. They did not miss as I understand it in my thoughts.
their leader in prosperity so much 14 as they felt their lack 16. I am afraid that Phaedria has inof him in adversity.

terpreted that in a different


1

16 way from the way

meant n it.

Use venustus. a In a negative clause what pronoun? 317, i. 8 Use 5 * ammo capere. 6 ferocia ; statim. oportere; for the mood, see G31.
349, R. 3.
7

insimulare.
II

10

8 9 513, N. 3; use 'yourself.' quisque; see 318, 3. 642, R. 2 proportionally is involved in the comparison.
' ' ;

that the translation of the Superlative is extremely vari12 Omit. 13 strages ; what case does a substantive ous; use consultus. 18 M Use participles. take after it? Negative construction vfith perinde.
18

Remember

aliovorsum accipere atque.

17

facere.

7<D

LATIN COMPOSITION
B.

CONSTRUCTIONS

54.

1.

He

said that the causes of events interested


2. JS"o

him

more than the events themselves.


a

donkey laden with gold cannot

castle is so lofty * that ascend to it. 2 3. He advanced

too incautiously for his time of life, 8 for he was "by that time 4 sixty years old and ten years older than his colleague. 4. Velleius feared nothing so much as to seem to be hesitating

about anything.

5.

to be able to escape the hatred

Chabrias indulged himself too liberally 5 of the mob. 6. He said that

the sight of the place would rather arouse him to wipe out the memory of his former disgrace than 6 inspire him with fear. 7. Verginius slew the maiden with his own hand
rather than that she should be given over to the lust of Claudius. 8. The cowardly urged that it would be better
to

than be driven back. 9. How was Epicurus because he in lived his own happier country than Metrodorus because he lived at Athens ? 10. Marcellus had
7

retire

settled

it

in his

mind 8 that no one was

so

9 good a match

Hannibal as himself. 11. Citizens are usually of the same character 10 as the leading men of the state. 12. We have an amount n of leisure that it has not been our good fortune 12 to have for a long time. 13. The Romans acted 13 in so rash an underprudently as far as that was possible 14 the misfortune of the other commanders taking. 14. While lessened their authority, his dignity, on the other hand,
for

increased daily in spite of reverse. 15 15. Philosophy is so far from 16 being praised as it deserves that it is even neglected 17
17 by most and blamed by many. 16. To those things which are born from the earth nature has given nothing beyond 18 and increase. 18 protecting them by nurture

=
7

'

too lofty for

';

see 298.

in.

*aetas.

iam.

*invidia.

644,
'

" in animnm inducere. 9 so equal they should rather.' 12 J1 10 Translate tantum. talis. by a verb of Happening; see (par). " Ex. 24, Note 12. Express this phrase by a single word; 642, R. 4.
' '

R. 3.

14

16

482, 4.

Abl. Abs.

16

552, R.

i.

ir

664, R.

1.

18

Gerund.

COMPARATIVE SEKTEKCES

71

a
am desirous of hearing Stephanas, a higher than Casaubon himself. 2. It was evident that authority the tumult was too 2 violent to be quieted. 3. I have read Charles' last novel, than which I can imagine 3 nothing more 4 4. As a rule it does not occur to me absurd. why a thing is true so readily as why it is false. 5. The joy was too great
55,
1.

for

men
is

who

to perceive its full meaning. 5 G. He is a good man determined to endure every torture rather than 6 be

recreant to his duty or his honor. 7. Dolabella left Asia too 7 quickly for a garrison possibly to be transported thither. 8 8. I do not think there was any one who reported less than

he had actually plowed, when so many penalties were set 9. Who ever heard who before 9 him. your father was before he heard whose son-in-law he was ? 10. As you sow, 10 so 11. After Hannibal had fled from home he shall you reap. called his brother Mago to him, and when the Punics heard of this, they visited n Mago with the same punishment as 12 his brother. 12. The better a man is, the harder it is for

him

to suspect that others are knaves. 13. It is better that such evils should not happen; still, 14 as they 15 did

13

happen, they afforded great material for oratory. 14. Our youth are careless and are not occupied so much as they should be with the desire for glory. 15. I saw that he had not been moved in the same way 16 as I had been. 16. And 17 his word, crying out that he would die rather than break he was about to plunge the sword into his breast when the 18 18 19 restrained him. bystanders seized his arm and forcibly
17. The land of our adoption the land of our birth. 20
1

20

is

nearly

21

as dear to us as

Be careful of the tense. " ajficere. " 642, i. 18 'with ponere. l& the more difficulty does he.' "482,4. cum. 16 similiter. 17 fidem 18 19 20 exuere. ri. which adopted (excipere) us,' 'which 664, R 1. bore us ': 604, R. 2. 21 is not very differently dear.'
10

sibi substituere, 'to imagine.' 4 Use solere. 298. locuples auctor. 'take it all in' (accipere). 6 644, R. 3. T Use verb. 8 profitere. 9 pro-

='

'

72

LATIN COMPOSITION
D.

CONSTRUCTIONS

me more than the There was no desertion, because they had already committed crimes too great possibly 2 to be 3. Not less than 3 twenty thousand men were forgiven. taken prisoners. 4. He was not less than forty years old when 4 he married. 5. What is a greater sin against human5 6 has been given by ity than to divert that eloquence which nature for the protection and preservation of men to the overthrow and destruction of the good ? 6. To Philip, who was not accustomed to hear the truth, this language seemed bolder than one ought to hold 7 in the presence of the king. 8 than betray those who 7. Zeno endured everything rather 9 were implicated in the overthrow of the tyranny. 8. They affirm that the wise man will assume no part in the government beyond what 10 the necessities of the occasion n require. 9. It is better to do some one thing capitally than to do a
56.
1.

The

causes of events interest


2.
l

events themselves.

10. They say that good many things moderately well. Plato had the same view 13 of the eternal existence of the 11. Hannibal had not supposed that soul as Pythagoras. so many nations of Italy would revolt as did revolt after the 12. The more a man is furnished 14 with battle of Cannae. 13. If you will virtues, the more is he to be reverenced.

12

are, it will be the greatest possible me. 14. There were some who believed that while 16 Capito was disgraced and stained by avarice and passion, still he had refrained from any thought of revolution.

write to

me how you

favor

15

to

15.

When

a state

is

blotted out

it is

in a

way

to

compare

small things with great just 17 as if this whole world were 18 16. Those who had served in those regions falling into ruins.
recalled the river as well
1

19

as the disaster that occurred there. 20


'

v\

298.

Use verb. 'more inhuman.'

296, R. 4.
6

4 7

Omit, using Participial construction.


habere.
10
8

637.

Use Passive of

664, R.

3.

extra quam si. ll =. consents; follow by a Gerundive construction. 'time and necessity '; 698. 12 mediocriter. 13 idem sentire. l * ornatus.

16

gratum ;

303.

18

482, 4.

17

simile

est.

18

interire.

19

iuxta atque.

ao

Omit.

15.

PARTICIPIAL
&

AND MISCELLANEOUS SEN(to,

TENCES
G. 664-670; A.

without).
H. &
B.

599-608; L. 2278-2299;

G. 289-294 (488-499); B. 337; II. 636-640; W. 645-652.

Participial Sentences serve

two purposes

compactness and

continuity.

handling

is

Hence they need careful study, and the proper Noa mark of correct feeling for the language.
subordinate clause
of

tice the variety of the translation into a

or an abstract substantive,

and the variety


etc.

conception

Time, Cause, Concession, Condition, Temporal tions must be looked to particularly because the Participles Hence the wide use of Deponents. In the are defective. case of the Future Participle watch the periods of the lan;

rela-

Do not forget 437, 438. it is the sign of the a very varied word in English substantival Infinitive, the mark of the Dative Case; it is
guage.

To

is

used after various words to introduce relations of Design, and with many expressions it is merely coincident. It is, So in translation into Latin besides, used in many phrases.
it

necessary to see the exact meaning, and translate that meaning into Latin.
is
'

Without' may be translated by the preposition sine, by a negative clause or by an ablative absolute then ut non (ne) may be employed, and after a negative sentence quin. Nisi
;

is

often a favorite translation


3.

see 552, R. 4

556

591, b j

593,

73

74

LATIN COMPOSITION
A.

CONSTRUCTIONS

57.

1.

While Cinna was lording


1
;

it

in Italy the greater part


2.

of the nobility fled to Sulla in

Achaia.

never drink
thirsty.

unless I
3.

Europe surrounded with cities the seacoast of Asia, which they had taken in war. 4. It was announced to Cincinnatus as he was plowing that he hud
been made dictator.
constituted
5.

The

thirsty Greeks of

am

2 many men drink without being

It is

the peculiar

mark

of a well-

mind 4
6.

the opposite. 5
7.

to rejoice in prosperity, and to grieve over I was hired to cook and not to be beaten.

There

is

6 nothing to prevent your friends from coming to

your aid, unless perhaps they are afraid of an ambush. 7 8 7 8. What you are doing so inconsiderately is merely to and the the Eoinan to Hannibal. people give betray victory
9.

We

cannot

let

him go without giving him

reward. 9

Terentius Varro, without waiting for his colleague's aid, 11. Charles lived many years with his mother joined battle.
10.

without ever having had a difficulty 10 with them. 12. Sulla withdrew his forces without firing n the tower. 13. A vast swarm of locusts filled all the country around Ca12 pua, without its appearing whence they came. 14. Amyntas

and

sister,

informed the soldiers that the commandant 13 of Egypt had fallen in battle, that the Persian garrison was both without a leader and weak, that the Egyptians, always hostile to their u commandants, would regard them as allies. 15. Inflamed with anger and thoroughly frightened by the danger, King Porsena threatened 15 Mucius Scaevola with 15 fire and death 16. I am if he did not speedily disclose all the conspiracy. afraid that owing to my interest 16 in the subject I have been
too prolix.
1

Remember
'

337, R. 6.

neque or
5

etsi.

proprium.
8

confuses
R. 2.

mind' and

10 " sucsimultas. "Abl. Abs. with nisi; see Ex. 22, Note 3. 15 14 ia 18 minari alicui cendere. suus or is ? constare. praetor.

'spirit.'

contrarius.

631, 2.

English often Omit. b 428,

aliquid; 346.

lfl

'carried

away

(efferre)

by

my

zeal.'

PARTICIPIAL

AND MISCELLANEOUS SENTENCES


B.

75

1. After the consul had got possession of great booty 58. he returned to camp. 2. Democritus threw away l his wealth 3. Although because he thought it a burden to 2 a good mind Paullus dissuaded from it, 3 Varro attacked the Carthaginians. 4. After taking Thermopylae, Xerxes immediately set out for 4 4 4 Athens, and, as no one defended it, he destroyed it by fire,
.

5 5. Duilius after killing the priests found in the Acropolis. 6 was the first to conquer the Punics on the sea. 6. I am

going to take up

my lodgings 7 at my uncle's.

7.

The Cartha-

ginian senators said that Hannibal had not crossed the Alps to my 8. There is no one to wage war on the Tarentines.
8 that would have received you more cordially. 9. knowledge the war with Pompey 9 nothing happened without my During 10. Can you condemn Cornelius without conforetelling it. the act of Marius ? 11. Show yourself worthy also demning 12. That you should of being believed ? without swearing. have written so many letters to Corinth without n writing 13. The general thought that he would not be any to me a match for such a mass of the enemy without sending for 14. The consul made a speech in which he auxiliary troops. said 12 that people were mistaken if they thought that the senate had still any considerable power 13 in the state that as 15 for the day on for 14 the Roman knights, they should pay which they met armed on the Capitoline hill, and 16 that the time had come for those who had been in fear he meant
!
!

15. Cicero forsooth the conspirators to avenge themselves. said that if Caesar did not execute anybody and did not take

away anything from anybody he would be liked most by


those
1

who feared him most.


'Genitive.
habitare.
ia
8

proicere.

'From

it' is
9

implied.

610, R. 1.
J

arx.
'

'325, R. 6.
believe.'
14

627, R. 1.
is

n cum.
487.

Pompeianus.

10

fidem habere,
*

to

This

involved in the word 'speech.'

posse.

U severe;

16

poenas dare.

"Omit.

j6

LATIN COMPOSITION

CONSTRUCTIONS

a
1. As the consul was 59. hastening to Rome, the enemy overtook his army. 2. Lucius Scipio received the surname of Asiaticus, because he had conquered Asia after the example

who was called Africanus for having subju3. The Stoics change the words without the 4. No one observes the moon except 3 things. changing when it is in eclipse. 4 5. Romulus marched out with all his forces and commanded a part of his soldiers to lie in ambush. 5
of his brother, 2 gated Africa.
l

6.

You

will

do

me

a very great favor

to send

me
!

the third

volume of Tennyson's poems. 7. To think that you should have envied a man who had loaded you with benefits 8. The Greek language lends itself more readily 7 to the composition 8
of words. 9. Is it true liberality to give money without depriving one's self of any comfort ? 10. The precepts of art are of little avail to form an orator without the assistance 9 of

departed without accomplishing his misever saw a man presented with a wreath without a city having been taken, or a camp of the enemy fired ? 13. Fulvius received n the and n without
nature.
sion. 10
11.
12.

He Who

letter,

opening

it,

laid it

down.

14.

Mago was

afraid that the Li-

gurians themselves, perceiving that the Punics were evacu12 ating Italy, would go over to those in whose power they 15. Compelled by necessity, they cried out soon would be.
that he might lead them whithersoever he thought good. 16. I told him that I could not take the young man to my

u certain that he was a friend 13 heart, unless I was absolutely to the conservatives. 17. I think that if Philip of Macedon had not been instructed 15 in the military science of the
Greeks he would not have defeated the Greeks at Chaeronea.
1

666.

domare.
7

591,

2,

R. 2.
8

laborare.

subsidere in insidiis.
9

pergratum.
11

facilem
15

esse.

Use duplicare.

664,
1S

R.

2.

10

res.

664, R.

1.

12

relinquere in passive construction.


339, N. 4.

complecti.

"

ex-

ploratum

esse.

PARTICIPIAL

AND MISCELLANEOUS SENTENCES


D.

77

behold the heavens l we are certain that 2. After Tarquin had been the world is the work of God. 3. What genexiled from Rome, Brutus was chosen consul. 3 eral is so crazy as to think that victory will perch 2 on his lap without his doing anything ? 4. Lucretius triumphed over 4 the Aequians and Volscians whom he had conquered, and as he was triumphing his legions followed him. 5. It is not right 5 for you to do that. 6. If there had been any one 6 to dissuade 7 me from so dastardly a course, 8 I should either have fallen honorably, or should be living as a conqueror to9 hide your life from the 7. You have done well to day. 10 foolish rabble. 8. It is hard to tell who was responsible
60.
1.

When we

9. Nature has given for the plan of overthrowing the state. us life as a loan n without fixing a day for repayment. 12 10. That certainly would never have occurred to me without being

reminded

of it. 11. Gorgias lived full 107 years without 13 in his enthusiasm 14 for literature. 12. Can one relaxing of the two armies be sent to Rome without raising the siege

Capua ? 13. He was three miles off without any of the enemy having perceived it. 14. The Roman general said that Hannibal had not attacked his camp because he was 16 lying-torpid owing to an error which would not last long. 15. Vibius said that those who talked about peace and surrender did not remember what they would have done if they had had the Romans in their power. 16. The Punics tried to take the Roman general alive, but he attacked them so fiercely that he could not have been spared 17 unless they had been willing to lose many more of their men.
of
15
1

Singular.
6

=r
7

'

fly

down
8

(devolare) into his bosom.'


9

350,

I.

de.

revocare. consilium. "317, i. fas. " mutuum dare. plan' may be omitted. 13 14 use dicere. cessare. studium; 360,
esse.
17

525.
12

lo

auctorem esse; 'the


'

Omit
16

I,

R. 1.

for repayment' and cum. " diuturnum

217.

SECOND PART
CONTINUOUS EXERCISES

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES
1 A.

81

A STRATAGEM OF CYRUS.
2 subjugating Asia and bringing all the East made war on the Scythians. At that time Tomyris was queen of the Scythians, but 3 not fright4 ened, as might have been expected of a woman, by the

61.

After

into his power, Cyrus

5 approach of the enemy, instead of keeping them from 5 crossing the Araxes, as she might have done, she permitted them to cross, thinking that the conflict would be easier for

her within the limits of her own kingdom and that flight would be more difficult for the enemy with the river in their
rear. 6

And 7

so

Cyrus put his forces across, and after advanc-

Then on ing some distance into Scythia pitched his camp. the next day he deserted his camp under a pretence 8 of 9 10 of fright and left there among other things a large store
wine.

When

this

11

was announced to the queen she sent

her son, a youth, to follow him up with a third part of her forces. Arrived at the camp of Cyrus the inexperienced 12 as if he had come to a feast not to a fray, gave no lad, further thought to 13 the enemy, and suffered the barbarians
to

make themselves heavy with

14

were unaccustomed.

Cyrus found

15

the wine, to which they 15 it out, returned during

the night, surprised 15 them while they were overcome, 16 and slew them all, together with the son of the queen.
1

Abl. Abs.

665.

redigere.

Relative.

Latin uses the relative con-

frequently than the English, and expresses by it various constructions. 4 muUebriter ; but see 642, K. 4, for a different
struction
translation.
8

much more

'

position (obiectus) of the river.'

whereas (cum) she might.' e = 'by reason of the inter7 Turn this sentence into a period of this

Participial Clause, Subordinate (here cum) Clause, Principal Verb. 9 Latin objects to abstract substantives so use simulare. et alia et. 10 12 "Relative; 610. copia. lad, ignorant of military science.' 13 14 16 omittere ; do not make a principal verb of this. se onerare. One 16 saucius. period see note 7.

type

'

82

LATIN COMPOSITION

1 B.

THE BATTLE OF MARATHON.


62. Darius after making an unsuccessful 1 war on the Scythians with a loss 2 of 80,000 men subdued Asia and 3 Macedonia, and defeated the lonians also in a naval battle. 4 Then learning that the Athenians had furnished help to the lonians against him, he directed 5 the full tide 6 of war

upon them. Hearing 4 of his advance the Athenians asked aid of the Lacedaemonians, at that time an allied state. But when they saw that they were detained a by religious 7 observance, without waiting 8 for reinforcements they drew up 10,000 of their own citizens and 1,000 auxiliaries from
Plataea and marched forth to 9 battle against 600,000 of the enemy on the plains of Marathon. Miltiades was both the leader in the war and the man who influenced 10 them not to wait for aid ; so confident had he become n that there was
in speed than in allies. So they went into the 12 with fight high spirits, so high indeed 13 that, though there was a mile between the two lines of battle, the Athenians

more help

started at a double-quick 14 and reached 15 the enemy before 16 their arrows. And the result matched 17 they discharged the boldness of Miltiades, for they fought with such valor that you would have thought that on the one side were men, on the other sheep.

Use nequiquam. makes et not so good


N. 4.
6

Abl. Abs.
*

664, R. 2.

The addition

of

'

also

'

as atque.

The lack
8

of a Perf. Partic. active

makes

necessary the use of a subordinate clause, or of an Abl.


convertere.
6

Abs;
'

see 410,

impetus.
;

religio.

translated in Latin
12

see

page

73.

in.

Without has to be variously 10 Use auctor. " = so grea\


of him,
cursu.

'

'

confidence had taken

animorum
"

possession 13 alacritas. adeo.


'

(capere) lf citato

that he thought.'
1B

iactus.

See 513.

18

Use

nor did the result

fail,' etc,

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES
1
0.

83

BATTLE OF THERMOPYLAE.
63.

After

should remember that they 3 must fall in any case but they should not wait to be surrounded by the enemy, but while night gave the opportunity 4 should come upon them unawares ; nowhere would they 5 in the camp of the victors as than more fall honorably it was difficult to perwhich to was There nothing enemy. 6 At once they seized suade men already persuaded to die. 7 their arms, and 600 as they were, they broke into the camp 8 of 500,000 and at once struck for the headquarters of the their death, 9 or if they king, either to make him share 10 themselves were cut down first, to perish, if possible, in the 12 n Wild confusion spread through of their great foe. lair The Spartans, failing to find 13 the king, the whole camp. roamed victorious through all the camp, cut down and levelled everything like men who knew that they were fightto avenge 14 their fall. ing not with the hope of victory but 15 The battle was prolonged from nightfall to a late hour in At last, not conquered but worn out with conquerthe
Spartans,
;

dismissing his 2 that they saying

allies

Leonidas exhorted the

day.

ing, they fell

that Xerxes after


his fortune
1

amid vast hordes of fallen foes. No wonder 16 such a blow on land determined to try
sea. 17
2

by

Abl. Abs.
;

Obliqua
572, R.

English

of Saying is often involved in the Oratio Note the various constructions with exspectare; 7 6 b * 'As they were' is an securus. 2. 423, 2, N. 2. perire. the their numbers of smallness the addition to emphasize

The verb
3

649, N. 2.

Roman
find.'

gains the same effect by juxtaposition. " sedes, 12 oriri. 13 with him.' 10 potissimum.
14

"

=
15

petere. after
'

'

to
16

die

they do not

Use a substantive,
1T

parallel with spes.

maior pars.

Use

accipere.

'

try the fortune of the sea.'

84

LATIN COMPOSITION
1 D.

THE BATTLE OF SALAMIS.


64,

All the fleet of the allies

had been united and

all

intent

on a naval war, and the

straits of the

Bay

of Salamis

2 3 occupied to prevent the possibility of 1 by greater numbers, when a dissension arose among the leaders of the several 4 states, who wished to withdraw

had been 2 surrounded being

from the war and slip away But 5 Themistocles, fearing


allies

to protect their
lest

own homes. by the departure of the

nounced
all

the strength of the fleet might be diminished, anto Xerxes by the agency of 6 a faithful slave that Greece was herded 7 up in that one place, and that he

could very readily capture it ; but if the different states, which were already desirous to depart, should be scattered he would have to hunt 8 them down, one by one, with greater

he impelled the king to give the In the meantime the king, as if he were a mere spectator of the fight, remained on the shore with a 9 part of his navy, while Artemisia, queen of llalicarnassus, who had come to the assistance of Xerxes, was fighting 10 so that have seen in the man a woman's n
labor.

By

this stratagem

signal for battle.

valiantly,

you might

cowardice,
battle

12

in the

woman

a man's

11

was trembling

in the balance

13

When the bravery. the lonians, following

the instructions of Themistocles, began by degrees to withdraw from the fight, and their defection dampened 14 the

ardor
1

15

of the rest.
vJut.jfe'vt
i-, to.,

\B*t-S

Observe which part of the sentence is logically subordinate, and use 2 the particle accordingly. Negative Design involves a positive intention 3 4 Use posse. Need not be expressed in the Latin. 5 Notice to prevent.
that the opposition in thought is between the actions of Themistocles 6 See of the other leaders change the sentence accordingly. * " 7 401. consectari. autem. 10 rem gerere. " Use adjectives. contrahere.

and those
12

timor.

13

14

15

anceps.

frangere,

That

is,

'spirits.'

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES

85

2 A.
XERXES CLAIMS HIS FATHER^ THRONE.
In the meantime Darius, as he was about to renew the 1 in the very act of making preparations, leaving died war, 2 him both during his reign many sons who had been born to 3 and before it. Of these Ariaemenes the eldest claimed the 5 4 both which a of seniority, the right throne
65.
6 But Xerxes the order of birth and nature itself gave. 7 7 the happy on but order the started a claim based not on 9 it was 8 he was, said, of birth. Ariaemenes,

by

privilege

conjuncture

but he true, the first born to Darius, 10 he whereas while a private individual,

was born to Darius was the first born to had been begotten who his so And brothers, the king. which Darius had the claim could private patrimony before, was he who was It throne. the not but that at had time, n his father had acknowledged 12 in his reign. the first that Besides 13 this, he was born of a mother who was a queen

a moreover, he had had as his maternal grandfather Cyrus, u vast that of founder the heir but the king, and not merely 15 that the father had left both And granting empire. 16 his mother's right brothers with the same right, yet he, by 17 This conclaim. better the had his

and

troversy, by

Artaphernes, ment in favor


1

grandfather's, common consent, 18 they referred to their uncle who, having examined the matter, gave judg19

of Xerxes.
2

Ju,5tU,
v

"J-.

'*.

>'1
'

4 That is, age.' 616, 2. Use apparatus suscipere. 9 8 7 6 Omit it is quite common litem excitare de. felicitas. Use verb. is given of a to introduce a clause in 0. 0. by nam, when an explanation 10 need not always be indicated by a statement. Opposition preceding u Vastness and 13 12 " Use accedere. R. 6. 3
.

vindicare.

particle.

325,

suscipere.

used tantus in such a sense vagueness are often akin hence the Roman 16 15 That is, 'equal,' R. 1. for 604, use 'empire.' do not imperium " vincere is sufficient for the Roman. 1B concordi animo.
;
;

aequus.
19

praeponere.

86

LATIN COMPOSITION

2 B.
THE ALLIANCE OF THE PERSIANS AND THE LACEDAEMONIANS.
While the Athenians were carrying on war in Sicily 66. with more eagerness than success,, 1 Alcibiades, the originator 2 and leader of the war,, was in his absence accused at Athens
of having divulged the Eleusinian mysteries. 3 Recalled from the war to stand his trial/ whether from consciousness of

because he could 5 not bear the outrage of the charge, without saying a word he went into exile to Elis. From this point, as soon as he learned that he was not only
guilt

or

all the priests with 7 religious ceremonies, he betook himself to Lacedaemon and there incited the Lacedaemonian king to wage war without
8 provocation against the Athenians, who had been thrown 9 into confusion by their defeat in Sicily. Hereupon Darius, 10 his father's n hatred of the the

condemned but solemnly cursed 6 by

Persians, remembering king to that state, made an alliance with the Lacedaemonians by the agency of Tissaphernes and 12 promised to defray 13 all the This was his ostensible motive 14 for expenses of the war.
16 combining with the Lacedaemonians in reality, however, he was afraid that the Lacedaemonians, if they defeated the 15 Athenians, might turn their arms against him. Who then can wonder that the power of the Athenians was destroyed when the forces of all the East combined 16 to overwhelm one
;

city ?
the mysteries of 5 to his trial.' Make the two the initiatory rites (initia) of Ceres.' 6 ' * 7 reasons parallel in construction. devovere, to curse solemnly.' by
see 299, N.
1.
1

Use adverbs and

concitor.

'

'

the religious ceremony (religio)


11

of,' etc.

ultra.

Use

12

adjective.
15

Use only one principal


1G

memor. quo facto. 13 clause. Unnecessary.

10

titulus.

transferre.

Use different verbs?

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES

8/

O.

ON THE CHARACTER OF EPAMINONDAS.


few days afterwards Epaminondas died, with whom For just as, if the strength 1 of the Theban state. 3 2 you break off the sharp end of a weapon you take away from the rest of the steel 4 the power of doing injury, so when the
67.
fell also

famous leader of the Thebans, the point of the weapon, as it 1 were, was removed, the strength of the state was dulled, so that they seemed not so much to have lost him as to have 3 For they never carried on any perished with him utterly. memorable war before he became 6 their leader, nor did they
themselves after his time by deeds 8 of valor but by disasters only, so that it is manifest that the glory of his 9 country was both born and buried with him. Moreover it
distinguish
7

was uncertain whether he was a better man or general. For he always sought command not for himself but for his 10 that country, and he was so careless of acquiring money there was no means for defraying his funeral expenses. 11 He was also as little covetous of glory as of money, for all the offices of command 12 were thrust upon him in spite of his refusal, 13 and he wore u his honors so that he seemed not to receive distinction from his position, 15 but to confer it
15 upon the position

itself

\ uf( >

Plural of this word.


acies.
*

vires; study the difference in meaning between the Singular and 2 Be careful of your tense; see 244, R. 4. 3 primn

To

the

Roman,
7

iron.

=
s

'all of

them.'
9

Do

not use a sub10

ordinate clause.

insignes esse.

204, N.
12

ing (parcus) of money.'

"

'

means

sumptus] were lacking for/ etc. 15 dignitas; omit one 'position.'

so sparof defraying expenses (all one word, 14 commands.' 13 667. gerere.


5.

extingui.

'

88

LATIN COMPOSITION

2 D.

ON THE MUKDEB OP THE FALSE SMERDIS.


the death of Cambyses, before l the report of the king's demise had been received, one of the Magi killed 2 Smerdis, the brother of the king, and substituted his own
68.
l

After

brother, who resembled Smerdis closely in face and figure 4 3 Then the noble only the false Smerdis had lost his ears.

Ostanes being informed by his daughter, one of the royal concubines, that the new king had no ears, communicated the fact 6 to the leading nobles of Persia, and after instigata solemn 9 There were only seven privy to this conspiracy, who, 10 that if space were left for a change of mind n the fearing

ing

them

to

murder the impostor 8 bound them by

oath.

plan might be revealed by some one, forthwith hid weapons under their garments and 2 proceeded to the palace. There, after putting to death those whom they met, 12 .they came up
to the Magi, who did not lack courage to defend themselves either. 13 For they drew their swords and 2 slew two of the

conspirators.
seized.
14

Nevertheless they were outnumbered 14 and Gobryas clasped one of them about the waist, and

when his accomplices were hesitating, lest they should run him through instead of the Magus, for they were doing the deed 6 in the dark, 15 he bade them thrust the sword into the
Magus through his body if need were. Nevertheless fortune so managed it that 17 the Magus was killed without the other
man's being hurt. 18
1 A favorite Latin period is one 'which begins with an Abl. Abs., continues with a Subordinate Clause, and concludes with a Principal 2 Use only one Principal Clause. 3 nisi quod. * Omit the name Clause. 6 Remember that a proper name cannot have an adjective in here.

16

Latin.
10 13
17

res.

Participial
is

'Fearing that'
ne. ..quidem.

"

Use religio. falsus rex. expression. 12 n olvius. paenitentia. implied in the particle. 16 vel. were seized by more.' 15 in obscuro loco.
' '

The Principal

clause

is

the

Magus was

killed.'

18

'

(being) un-

harmed.'

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES

89

3 A.

HOW DARIUS SOUGHT PEACE FROM ALEXANDER.


After the death of his wife Statira, Darius sent ten 1 A 2 council was envoys to propose new terms of peace. summoned, and Alexander ordered them to be introduced. Of these the oldest said: "It* is not your power that has
69.

brought
5

Darius now for the third time to ask peace at your it is your justice and self-restraint that have hands, 7 induced 6 him to do so. Were not your moderation known to me I would not say that this is a time when you ought 8 8 not only to grant peace but to be the first to catch at it. 9 behind left have you Look back and see how much you
4

but

behold how much you are aiming at. A dangerous thing is an overburdensome dominion, for it is difficult to keep toDo you see how ships that gether what you cannot grasp. n 10 cannot be manoeuvred ? measure transcend the ordinary 12 so many Indeed, I am inclined to think that Darius Has lost
13 because excessive resources things on this very account, 14 It is easier to conquer than to losses. for room great give 15 How much more readily our hands keep, Heaven knows. The very death of the wife of Darius ought seize than hold
!

to

remind you that your mercy has


Ctwvt. fad.
1

less

scope

16

now than

it

had."
ll/.
//

ferre.
3

The Latin would make one sentence out of these two. 5 4 The Latin is uncolored that is, not your power,' etc. suUgere.
2
;

'you' for 'your hands.' 8 Use occupare. your mind.'


uses
12

exprimere.
v

'the
10

Unnecessary.
16

moderation of " modus.


regere.
;

457,

2.

13
16

ideo.

14

locum facere.
permitted

Use

some exclamation

e.g.

mehercle.

'

less is

(licere).'

90

LATIN COMPOSITION"

B.

SURRENDER OF CELAENAE.
Alexander having sent * Oleander with money to hire soldiers from the Peloponnesus, and having arranged 1 the affairs of Lycia and Pamphylia, brought up 2 his army to the The city he entered, evacuated as it was 3 city of Celaenae. by its defenders the citadel, however/ in which they had taken refuge he undertook to besiege, but 5 before beginning the siege he sent a herald ahead to warn them that if they did not surrender they would suffer the extreme penalty. 6 7 They took the herald up to a tower very lofty by nature and by art 8 and 9 told him to behold how great its height was, and to take back word to Alexander that he and the inhabitants did not measure fortifications by the same standard 10 and 11 that they knew that they could not be taken 12 and n that they would die to the last man for by storm 13 But when they saw that the citadel was intheir honor. 14 were tightening round them vested, and that the toils more and more day by day, they made a truce for sixty days on these terms, 15 that if Darius did 16 not send them aid within that time they would surrender the citadel. After 1T that no help came from that quarter they surthey found rendered to the king by 18 the day appointed.
70.
;
;

The use
is

of participles

is

was'

unnecessary in the Latin.

2 influenced by voice. admovere. 3 As it * vero ; this can be heightened by


'

5 Omit 'but' and combine attaching a particle to the preceding clause. with preceding clause. 6 ultima (PI.). 7 Use edere. 8 = 'by situation and work.' 9 Not two coordinate clauses. 10 aestimatio. n Omit. 12 in13 14 'faith.' everything had become tighter (artus)S expugnabilis. 15 On these terms' is unnecessary, or it may be rendered by ita. 16 Be
'
,

'

careful of the tense.

1?

Express the perception by the tense.

lft

ad.

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES

9!

C.

HOW ALEXANDER TREATED

HIS PHYSICIAN PHILIP.

While Alexander was lying ill at Tarsus he received 71. from Parmenio, the most faithful of his courtiers, a letter in which he warned him not to entrust his health to Philip and told him 1 that he had been bribed 2 by Darius with a thousand Great talents and the hope of a marriage with 3 his sister. was the anxiety which this letter caused 4 him, and whatever e suggestion either hope or fear made on either side, he pon6 in ? so that if dered in his heart " Shall I
;

poison
to have

is

given to
7
8

happened

drinking persist me, whatever happens to me shall seem to a man who has not even the plea 8 of not
:

9 deserving it ? Shall I find my physician guilty of faithless10 ness and so suffer myself to perish before my time 11 in my

it is better that I should die by the crime of another than by my own fear." After long and varied reflec13 without telling any one the contents 14 of the letter, tion, he sealed it with his own ring and 15 put it under the pillow on which he slept. Two days having been consumed in these

tent

Well,

12

meditations, the day fixed upon by the physician dawned, and he entered with the cup in which he had mixed 16 the
potion.

At sight
it

of

him Alexander received the cup and

drained
1

unterrified.
a

See 360,

Oratio Obliqua often enters without formal notice. 4 1. animo sollicitudinem incutere. i, n.
'

corrumpere.
5

Use

subicere.

n 'Before my time' is included in the verb opprimere. physician.' 12 This is a kind of rejoinder to the objections in the previous sentence

Note carefully the tenses in this sentence. 7 Distinguish the three 9 verbs of Happening. 8 immeritus. damnare. 10 = the faith of my

what conjunction
11

13

'his

various (directions).'
diluere*

u Indirect question.

mind having been turned (versare) in 16 Not two coordinate clauses.

92

LATIN COMPOSITION

3 D.
DARIUS ADDRESSES HIS COUNCIL,
If my lot had council being called,, Darius' said been cast 1 with cowards, with men who valued any kind of 72.
:

tf-

K.^<y

life

silent rather

more highly than an honorable death, I would keep than 2 consume words in vain. But as 1 have tried 3 both your valor and your loyalty by a greater test 4
I

than
like

could have wished,

ought rather to

strive

to

be
still

you worthy 5 your old selves. Of so many thousands who were under my command, you have followed me twice conquered, twice a fugitive. It is your fidelity and constancy that make me believe myself a king. Traitors and deserters reign in

of such friends than to doubt whether

are

not assuredly 6 because 7 they are deemed worthy of that great dignity, but in order that you 8 may be tempted by their rewards. Nevertheless you have preferred to follow

my

cities,

rather than those 10 of the conqueror, and n that if I should not be able to do it the gods richly deserve 6 12 should reward you in my stead. And surely they will reward you. After 13 ages will not be so dumb, nor fame so thankless, as not to raise you to the skies with praises that

my

fortunes

tj

are your due. 14


1

'if
4

fortune had yoked (iungere)


6

me
;

with,' etc.
'
'

644, R. 3.
'

ex-

periri.

medocumentum. you.' yourselves Unnecessary 7 For the rejected reason, see 541, N. 2. 8 = 'your Jiercule or hercule. minds.' " English uses Plural where the Latin uses frequently the 10 Do not forget 308, 3. " Use the Superlative of dignus. Singular. 13 13 = no posterity will be,' etc. " = owed.' gratiam referre.
' '

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES

93

4 A.
DARIUS HARANGUES HIS SOLDIERS.
Darius had arrived about 1 midnight at Arbela, and fortune had directed the flight 2 of a great part of his friends and soldiers to the same place. Having convoked them, he
73.

set forth

that he did not doubt but that Alexander would

seek the most populous towns and the regions that were 4 overflowing with an abundance of everything ; that the in-

vader
rich
7

himself and his soldiers had their eyes fixed 6 on a 8 booty and one ready to their hands ; that in the

9 present state of matters that would be salvation to his cause, inasmuch as he was about to strike for the desert with a
10 of light-armed body of troops ; that the farthest portions n from thence he would his empire were still untouched, and without difficulty renew his strength for the war. Let the

they chose, the treasury their long hunger glut themselves with gold, and after for 15 they would presently fall a prey to him ; for he had learned by experience that valuable equipment, mistresses,

greedy

12

tribe,
14

he

said, seize,

if

13

and regiments of eunuchs had been nothing but so much burdensome 16 baggage, and if Alexander dragged after him 17 the same stuff 18 he would be inferior in those very things in which he had been victorious.
fug'am compellere. fere; 677, R. 1. 6 7 ipse includes 'invader/ spectare. opimus.
1

exponere.
6

dbundare.
is

'To
'

his

hand'
'

here

9 10 the fuller English for the reflexive. res (PI.)Portion is pars, or regio, but omit these words and make the construction more after the

Silver usage; 372, N. 2. 12 Remember 302. 13 sane.


esse.
16

"There is no necessity for 'and'; why? 14 Would you use post, or ex ? 15 670, 2; use
'

698.

1T

'

After him

is

unnecessary in the Latin.

18

'

things.'

94

LATIN COMPOSITION

4 B.

ON THE TREACHERY OF NABARZANES.


74.

While Darin s was preparing


to

for battle, Nabarzanes

another, who should be called king only 2 until the enemy withdrew from Asia, and should then restore the throne to him. It is not strange that Darius did not restrain his passion 3 at a proposal like 4

urged him

turn over the

command to

5 slave, thou hast quoth he, thou scoundrelly found the occasion thou hast longed for to disclose thy murderous treason 6 and drawing his scimitar he would have killed him had not Bessus and the Bactrians crowded 7 round him with the appearance 8 of intercession, but in fact with the intention 8 of binding him if he persevered. In the meantime Nabarzanes slipped away, and 9 presently Bessus too followed, and 9 ordered the forces which they commanded to withdraw from the rest of the army. Then Artabazus n commenced a strain 10 suited to the state of

this.

So,

existing

things

and began to mollify Darius, reminding him repeatedly of the crisis in which they were, 12 and telling him 13 that he must call 14 it the bear with call it the u
equanimity,
stupidity,

matter what their character might that Alexander was still his own followers 16 if all were ready to help them even what hard, pressing would the case 17 be if those who followed him in his flight mistake of 15 were be,
;
:

men who, no

should grow alienated


1

Express by a correlative. Use malus, remembering 302. 6 One 8 7 Both of these substantives are to be circumstare. word, parricidium. 8 verb see 602 and 670, 3. in the construction Omit and form contained n = the forone sentence. 10 sententia.

parare

is

not intransitive
4
'

in

Latin.

animo temperare.

such.'

'

tune.'
ture.
14

ia

'

In which they were


vel.
1

vel

16

fitting (convenire) present 13 unnecessary. Express in the struc16 instare gravem. qualiacumque ; study in Lexicon.
'

is

happen.

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES

95

DARIUS LEARNS OF THE DEATH OF HIS WIFE.


of mourning one of the eunuchs who were about the queen slipped out through the gate, which being on the opposite side 2 from the enemy was less strictly 3 guarded, and reached the camp of Darius, and being received by the sentries was taken to the tent of As soon as Darius beheld him, excited by the the king. manifold expectation of trouble 4 and uncertain what he should fear most, said 5 Thy countenance shows 6 a great 7 to it that thou spare not the evil, I know not what, but see I have learned to be unhappy, ears of a miserable creature
75.

Amid

the confusion of the scene

fate. Are most suspect and fear 9 to 10 of my dear ones, which utter, the disgraceful treatment 12 n than I them is believe to to me, and as also, more bitter all punishment ? To this the eunuch replied Far from that 13 all 14 the honor that can be p?id 15 to queens by sub16 has been showed toward your family by the conj'jcts

and

it is

often a solace of calamity to


to

know

one's

you about

announce what

a short time since. heard over the were wailings whole camp, for Darius did not doubt that she had been killed because she could not endure outrage.

queror, but thy wife departed this

life

Then not only groans but

C^t fy.
*

4,10. a-*'
5

'

Of the mourners
6
7
'

'

(participle).

aversus.
.not,' cave.
'

levins.
6

dolor.

648,

u. 2.
9

praeferre. What is the construction


'

See to

it

that.

309,
is

i,

2d paragraph.
ia

when

a verb of Fear
'

Will? 550, N. 5. 10 ludibria (PL). n 13 = that indeed is far distant.'


16

a verb of negative
tristis.
16

Which
"

is

is

unnecessary.
great.'

'

however

habere.

those

who

'

obey.

96

LATIN COMPOSITION

4 D.

OK THE EXPLOITS OF AMYNTAS.


In the meantime Amyntas with 4,000 Greeks, who him out of the battle, made his escape 1 to Tripolis. Thence embarking his soldiers he crossed over to Cyprus,
76.

followed

and as he thought that in that position of things each one would have whatever he seized, as if it were a settled and
lawful possession, 2 he determined to strike
for Egypt, be4 an to both and ing enemy kings always dependent on the 5 And rousing the soldiers to wavering change of fortune. these great expectations 6 he informed them that Sabaces, the
3

commandant

of Egypt,

had

fallen in battle

son of Persians was both without a leader and weak

that the garrithat ;

the Aegyptians, always hostile to their commandants, would regard them as allies, not as enemies. Necessity compelled them to try all resources, 7 for when fortune disappoints 8 our
first

hopes,

the future

seems preferable to the present.

Therefore they cried cut with one voice 10 that he might lead them whithersoever he thought good. Thinking it was well to strike while the iron was hot n he pushed on to Pelusium, pretending that he had been despatched by Darius, and

having taken Pelusium moved his forces to Memphis. At the news 12 of this the Aegyptians, a fickle race and one more fitted for starting a revolution 13 than for following u it up, collected in hot haste 10 from all their villages and towns to
destroy the Persian garrisons.
1

Q^. ^j
'

'arrived in his flight.'


*
5
'

petere.
7
'

pendere.
'

Resources

is

due

as if possessed with certain right.' to the hope of so great a thing.' to the color of the English and need not be translated.
times.'
6

'

destituere.

verb.

"

'

g Make it concrete. 10 Express by the preposition in the that he ought to avail himself of (uti) their spirits while ia

they were aglow (ca/ere) with hope.'

fama.

13

novare

res.

14

gerere.

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES

97

5 A.
THE BAD STRATEGY OF ARSAMES.
Alexander with all his forces had reached the region 77. which is called the Camp of Cyrus. This was fifty stadia distant from the pass 1 by which we enter Cilicia. Therefore 2 in of who was command Cilicia, Arsam.es, reflecting on the 3 advice Memnon had given in the beginning of the war, re4 solved, now that it was too late, to carry out a plan that had once been wholesome. So 5 he laid Cilicia waste with fire and sword to make a solitude for the enemy whatever could be of use he ruined, 6 determined 7 to leave the soil which he could not protect, barren and naked. But it would have been far more practical to occupy the narrow pass which led 8 into Cilicia with a strong garrison, and to hold the ridge which gave an easy command of 9 the road, so that from that 10 he might without loss 11 have either kept back or point crushed the enemy as he came up. Then having left a few men to garrison the narrow pass, he himself retired, the devastator of a country which he ought to have maintained And so those who were left, deemfree 12 from devastation. 13 even to ing themselves betrayed, did not have the courage
;

withstand the sight of the enemy, although a smaller number u might have maintained the position.
1

aditus.

'

Now

that

it

was'

3 Use suadere. reputare with an Indirect Question. 8 is not necessary in the Latin. This is involved in

the following statement, but may be translated by itaque. 6 corrum7 Silver Latin introduces a short way of translating such ideas pere.
;

see G70.
10

Relative.

9 'by which we enter.' " inultus. 12 vindicare.

'which overhung (imminere).'


valere.
14

13

obtinere.

98

LATIN COMPOSITION

B.

THE FALSE TIDINGS OF DARIUS' DEATH.


78. Alexander, having learned that false tidings of the death of Darius had been brought to the captive ladies, bade Leonnatus tell them that they were mourning l without reason 2 for a living man. Leonnatus, with a few armed attendants, came to the tent in which the captives were, and

ordered
king.
as they

it

to be

announced 3 that he had been sent by the

But the servants who were in the vestibule, as soon caught sight of armed men, thinking that it was all

over 4 with their mistresses, ran into the pavilion, screaming out that their last hour 5 had come and that men 6 were sent
to kill the captives. And so, as they 7 had neither the power 8 to keep them out nor the courage 8 to let them in, the ladies
9 gave no answer and awaited in silence the good pleasure of the conqueror. Leonnatus, after waiting a long time, when he found 10 that no one dared to come forth, left his attendants in the vestibule and entered the tent. Thereupon the mother and wife of Darius threw n themselves at his feet

them

and began to beg that before they were slain he would permit to bury the body of Darius after the custom of their 12 having performed this last duty to the king, they country would die with firmness. 13
;
1

lamentari.
esse de.

falso.
5

Make

this idiomatic according to 532, N. 2.

actum

The Latin

also lias

the phrase.

While homines

might be used, the Latin prefers to omit the colorless subject wherever 9 10 7 arbitrium. Remember "Verbs. ut qui ; 6?6 and x. 1. possible.
562.
ll

provolvere

218.

12

13

patrius.

impigre'.

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES
5
C.

99

THE GREEN OLD AGE OF ARTABAZUS.


Alexander had now entered the most remote region 1 of Hyrcania, when he was met by Artabazus, who, as we have said above, had been most faithful to Darius, together with his children and a small body of Greek soldiers. The offered him hand as he came his for he had king right up, been a guest of Philip's when an exile 2 under the reign of 3 Ochus, and yet his fidelity to his own king was preserved to 4 the last and proved too strong for 5 the pledges of hospital"I beg the gods, So, being affably received, he said ity.
79.
:

sire,

that you
7

blessed

nourish in perpetual happiness. I am in everything else ; by one thing only am I distressed,

may
8

advanced 9 age 10 I cannot long n his 95th year. Nine enjoy your kindness." He was then in young men, all born of the same mother, accompanied the father Artabazus presented them to the king, 12 praying that

and that

is,

that

owing to

my

they might live only so long as they should be useful to Alexander. The king was accustomed to march for the most
part on foot ; but then he ordered horses to be brought for himself and Artabazus, lest the old man, if he went afoot, 13 should blush to ride on horseback. u

'Use the Silver Latin construction with ultimus ; 372, N. 2. a Use 3 The contrast need not always be expressed by a particle it is verb. * Omit the conjunction and make all one clause. often involved in et et. 7 5 = =2 Use laetus. 8 It is necessary often to fill 'king.' 'conquer.' out in the English what the Latin implies in the construction; 'and
that

'old age.' "Expresis' is such a supplement. praeceps. ' '2 sions of age are much varied here agere is to be employed. brought 13 or them to (admovere) the king's right hand.' peditem ire, ingredi.
;

10

14

on a horse.

'

IOO

LATIN COMPOSITION

5 D.
THE RESPONSE OF THE ORACLE TO ALEXANDER.
As the king approached the sacred grove of Ammon, the eldest of the priests called him son, affirming that his And he, forgetting that father Jove gave him that name. he was a human being, 2 replied that he accepted and ac80.
J

asked 4 if the fates destined for him the empire of the whole world. With the same 5 assumption of servile obeisance, the priest declared that he would be the ruler of all the earth. After this he urged the 6 inquiry whether all the assassins of his father had been

knowledged the

title. 3

He then

The priest said that his father could not be punished. reached 7 by any deed of violence, 7 but that Philip's murderers
had
all paid for their crime. Then, having offered sacrifice, Alexander gave gifts both to the priests and to the god, and 8 8 granted his friends permission to consult Jove also for them9 selves. They asked nothing further than whether he gave them authority 10 to worship their king with divine honors. The seer replied that this, too, would be acceptable to Jove. To one who weighed the credibility of the oracles with true and healthy judgment, 11 these responses might well have seemed idle but fortune makes those whom she has compelled to trust herself alone for the most part more eager for glory than fit 12 for it.
;
1 propius adire. 4 To ask Omit.
'

2
'

'

an oracle

forgetful of the lot of man (humana sors).' 5 is consulere. composed to obeisance


'

(adulatio).'

instare quaerere.

scelere violari.
' ;

Use two synonyms,


deA7 ice.

thus

'
:

it

was granted and permitted

this is a

common Latin

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES
6 A.

IOI

ON THE CHARACTER OF MAXIMINUS.


After the death of Alexander Severus, Maximinus, the state, 1 produced a great having made himself master of 2 had obtained harshly revolution, and used the power that he
81.

and fiercely, so that he tried to change everything from an easy 3 and gentle sway to a cruel tyranny. For knowing that he 4 was hateful to the public because he was the first who from 6 5 his a low station had attained his high position, he bent all 7 forsooth, rule his efforts to strengthen by cruelty fearing, of the lest he should become too contemptible in the sight 8 as of the under Rome, looking, others all sway senate and
;

9 they did, not so

much

at his present fortune as at the ob-

For it was perfectly 11 well known to the whole world that he had been a shepherd in the mountains of Thrace, and that afterwards he had been enrolled of his immense among the soldiers of that region on account 12 12 it were guided by the and personal strength, and as size 13 WhereRome. of of fortune to be emperor leading strings and Alexander of friends the rid of all fore he
10 scurity of his birth.

speedily got be the counselors selected for him by the senate, in order to should who him near one no have to alone in the army and 14 feel 14 himself superior on account of noble birth.
*

of 'gained possession
3

affairs.'
4

='

affairs violently.'

Use the abstract.


6

=
7 9

too strong

hence use
8

is.

'

fortune.'

changed' the condition of men.' 5 "Reflexive would be - gave his attention to that
'

'

is an English Romanae dicionis. particularly,' etc. the situarather indicates but not is clause causal, whole addition: this 10 Classical Latin would use genus; Silver Latin also tion : read 570, N. 1. "Translate by combining two synonyms, as in Ex. 80, uses natales. 13 by the 'the size (vastitas) and strength of his body.' Note 8. 12 ' I4 reason of his consciousness (conscientia) of

'As they did'

hand.'

= =

'

superior by

nobility.'

102

LATIN COMPOSITION

6 B.

PERTINAX

IS

INFORMED OF THE DEATH OF COMMODUS.

82. At dead 1 of night, when everybody was fast 2 asleep, Laetus and Electus, with a few of the same faction, went

and finding his gate shut, woke up the As soon as he opened to them and saw that gate-keeper. soldiers were there and their commander Laetus, frightened out of his senses 3 he earned the news to Pertinax. Pertinax ordered them to be admitted on the spot, saying that all the evils which he had f orboded for himself up to that day would So great, moreover, was his firmness that soon come to pass. he did not even stir 4 out of his bed or change his mien 5 but when Laetus and Electus came in, although he believed that
to

see Pertinax,

kill him, with a bold countenance, unhe said "I had been looking for a long touched by pallor, 7 for this end of my life for 8 I alone time, yes, every night, And so I was was still left of the friends of his father. 9 to Commodus much what end was putting wondering very 10 then do so long. off the business you stand there Why On 12 execute your orders, and. deliver me at length idle n ? from a depressing and unceasing fear.
6
:

they were sent to

-.
1

intempestus.

Involved in the verb sopire.

Best expressed by co-

ordinating two participles of similar meaning, as 'frightened and ter4 This can be made much more emphatic by rified'; see Ex. 80, Note 8.
6 7 5 habitus oris. etinm. the tense; see 513. by no means pale.' 8 Use a relative connection. 9 Can be expressed, if you desire, by the 10 n Idle fills out the English but is res. preposition in the verb.
'

'

'

unnecessary

in the Latin.

ia

Use quin.

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES

IO3

C.

ON HORATIUS
83.
I

COCLES.
l

think

it

worthy of note

that,

when

P.

Horatius

Codes on the Sublician bridge had alone received the charge of the enemy, and when the bridge was cut down behind him had swum safe 2 across to his comrades, the Eoman peo3 great valor, and besides setple was grateful toward this 4 in the comitium statue bronze a gave him as much ting up
land as he should plow 3 around in one day; since as their resources were moderate it was necessary that the rewards of 6 But this great deeds of valor should be moderate likewise. was that he is also worthy of being mentioned, unwilling to
receive even that trifling 7 reward ; not that he scouted it as too little, but because he thought that he was a useless citi-

who wished to be richer than the other citizens on account of a deed done 8 in the public service, and did not rather regard 9 as a sufficient reward the simple 10 consciouszen
ness of a good deed
fellow-citizens.

and good-will of his the account n given by 12 'to whom, unless he is mistaken, Codes Seneca, according 13 when the reward was being decreed (i You have no said, and the
affection
is

Quite similar

use for a citizen," quoth he, one citizen has use for."
1

"who

has use for more than


,

jcrjc,/f
*

t*L.L*L^.

The Latin has the same construction of predicate atobservatio. 325 and R. 6. 3 tantus will cover both words. tribution as the English 5 4 Be careful as to mood and tense. 6 204, N. 5. 7 Use a com437, N. 2.
;

8 = 'done (navare) for the state.' ponere in. n Use a concrete form = not differently does Seneca narrate about the same matter.' ]2 An English form; the Latin translates by

pound
10

of -cumque.

~*

'

ipse.

the simple relative: 'unless


13

who

(for

'and unless he')

is

mistaken.'

Omit.

104

LATIN COMPOSITION

6 D. A STORY ABOUT YOUNG PAPIRIUS.


senate having resolved 1 that no one should disclose the matter that they had discussed before it was de84,

The

the mother of young 2 Papirius, who had been in the senate-house with his father, pressed 3 him to tell her what the senators had done in session. 4 He said that the quescreed,,
5 before the senate had been whether it seemed to be more useful and more to the interest of G the state that one man should have two wives or that one woman should have two husbands. When she heard this she was terribly frightened/ and went out quivering with excitement to the other matrons. The next day a host of married women came to the senate, and with tears 8 and adjurations 8 besought the senators to let 9 one woman have two husbands 10 rather than that two women should have but one. The senators as they entered the senate-house wondered what that outbreak of the women and that petition meant. 11 Then the boy Papirius stepped out into the midst of the senate and told the whole story, as it had happened what his mother had insisted on hearing and what he had told his mother. The senate showed their loving admiration 12 of the trustiness and cleverness of the boy, and made a decree 13 that hereafter boys should not come into the senate-house with their

tion

fathers except Papirius only,


1

^
3

/^

*)<J&i.t
*

>.

>*.
6

Use pla cere.


6 8

'the boy.'
ex.
7

percontari.

senatus.
'I

agl,
10

'to be

the question.'
ened.'
11

Use
'

animus compavescit,
'

am

terribly fright-

velle.

12

Use participles. 9 Implied in the final clause. For show loving admiration use exosculari.

Use nubere.
" consultum

facere.

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES
7 A.

10$

FREEDOM A REWARD OF YALOR.


heard that the enemy had three about miles from the city and was camp 1 the from that ravaging country point, he too quitted the walls and took up a position 2 about a mile from the enemy. The legions that he had were made up 3 in large measure of
85.

As soon

as the general

pitched his

volunteer slaves
as

who had now


5

over a year 4 preferred earn-

ing their freedom in silence

5 Yet demanding it openly. he was leaving winter-quarters he had heard murmurs of

to

the soldiers on the march, asking 6 whether they should ever do military service as freemen, and he had written to the senate that up to that day he had got 7 from them good and
gallant service,

and that they lacked nothing

to attain

the

standard

given him

of the regular soldier except freedom. Leave was to act in the matter as he deemed to be best 9 for

And so before joining battle with the he notice that the time had come for them to enemy, gave win the freedom they had so long hoped for. On the next 10 a pitched battle n on a fair day he would fight to a finish and open field, where the matter could be decided by sheer 12 Whoever should bravery, without any fear of ambuscade. bring back the head of an enemy he would order to be free on the spot.
the commonwealth.
1

inde.
6

teer slaves (volo) for the


see G82.

asking,'
position.

Make this rhetorical The Roman says, murmur in the line-of-march of (those) 8 7 etc. uti. ad exemplum. 9 ex. J0 Indicated by di- in com;
'

3 'placed (locare) his camp.' most part.' 4 See 294.

'

he had legions of volun5

Use signa conferre.

12

'

true.'

IO6

LATIN COMPOSITION 7 B.

THE RIGOR OF THE GENERAL PAPIRIUS.

The dictator Papirius, when contrary to his com86. mands Fabius his master of horse had led the army out to 2 he rebattle, although he had routed the Sammies before turned to camp, yet moved neither by his valor nor his suc1

cess nor his rank, ordered the rods to be got out 3 and Fabius What a marvelous spectacle one 4 who was to be stripped.
!

both a Fabius and master of horse and a victor, with rent 5 garments and bared body offered himself to the torture of
the lictor's lash. 6

Then the army by

its

entreaties procured

for Fabius the opportunity of taking refuge in the city, where he implored the interference n of the senate in vain ; for notwithstanding

Papirius persevered in exactpenalty, and so Fabius' father was compelled to 9 to the people and to beg on his knees 10 for the appeal And interference n of the tribunes in behalf of his son.
all this,

ing the

yet not even by this could the rigor of Papirius be curbed. 12 when he was entreated by the citizens in a body Finally,

and by the tribunes


that he remitted
13

people of
1

Rome
2

of the people themselves, he protested the penalty not to Fabius but to the and the power of the tribunes.
this

acies.

Omit

subordination
'

and
'

make one sentence Trom


;

3 * One who was is necessary in English to although.' expedire. avoid awkwardness. 5 Use spoliare as more picturesque nudare would 6 also do. offered himself to the lashes of the lictors to be tortured
'

=
7

'

(lacerare).'
12

dare.

One word.

rem devocare.

10

"
supplex.

'aid.'

ceterum.

ia

concedere.

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES
7
C.

IO/

THE MILD TEMPER OF ANTIGONUS.


Antigonus to do than J to punishment, the tent were who while leaning against royal doing what ill of their king do, to their think who great satisfacpeople 2 3 2 risk ? at had heard everytion, though great Antigonus 4 5 a curtain there was between for the only speaker thing, and the hearer. 5 This he moved slightly and said " Get further off lest the king hear you." This same Antigonus one night having heard some of his soldiers imprecating all manner 6 of evils on the king for having led them into that road with 7 its inextricable mud, went up to those who were in most trouble 8 and after he had got them out, they 9 not knowing by whom they were assisted "Now," quoth he, "curse Antigonus, by whose fault you have fallen into these miseries, but
87,

What would have been


two private

easier for

to order

soldiers to be taken off

wish well to him who has drawn you out of this slough." This same Antigonus, when the enemy was besieged in a small fortress, and, full 10 of confidence in the strength of
their position, 10 ridiculed now Antigonus' small stature, now "I " and I his broken nose rejoice," said he, hope for some 11 if I Silenus in have blessing, my camp."
:

ducere.

Use adverbs, libentissime ;


;

etc.

Juxtaposition does not


4

exclude contrast
6

so et

et

may

be used here.

Strengthen by utpote.
;

these indicate only temporary conditions, a participle is to be used 6 see 437. Manner of is an English addition. 7 Employ Hendiadys.
'

As

'

laborare.

The English Nominative Absolute cannot always be


; ' :

trans-

J0 lated by the Abl. Abs. in Latin 410, R. 3. Express the whole clause out of trust in the place.' n bonum. by two Latin words

IO8

LATIN COMPOSITION
7 D.

ON THE BATTLE OF
88.

ACTITJM.
2

began/ everything was on one side, on the other, nothing except solgeneral, rowers, soldiers The first 3 to flee was Cleopatra. Antony preferred diers.
contest
;

When the

to be the

companion of -the fugitive queen than that of his fighting soldiers, and the commander who ought to have inflicted severe punishment 5 on deserters became a deserter of But even when their chief 6 had drawn off, 6 his own army.
7 they continued steadily for a long time to fight gallantly, 8 9 and in despair of victory strove unto death. Caesar, desir-

ing to soothe by words those whom he could have destroyed by the sword, cried out that Antony had fled, and kept askAfter ing for whom and with whom they were fighting.
struggling
9

a long time for their absent leader, they laid

arms with reluctance 10 and yielded the victory. And Caesar promised them life and liberty more readily than n to ask for them. And it was agreed they were persuaded 12 had of an excellent 13 gensoldiers that the played the part 13 soldier so that one eral, but the general that of a cowardly he who fled at the will of whether well doubt Cleopatra may would have employed 14 his victory according to his own
their
;

down

pleasure or hers.
1

inire.

pars.

Use fugam occupare.


6

4
'

6
7

'

Inflict severe

punishment,' saevire.

Participle, like 'fighting.' their head was taken away.'

"Abl. Abs.
13

'firmness in fighting gallantly lasted (durare) for a long time.' 10 a dimicare. "Remember 217. 12 ojficio fungi. aegre. 14 See 302. temperare.

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES

8 A.
DOMITIUS DISSEMBLES.
Domitius 1 had betaken himself with all his troops to Thither Caesar hastened and began to surround Corfinium. When the greater part of the town with a line 2 of works. this work was accomplished the messengers whom Domitius had sent to Pompey to ask for assistance returned with
89.
1

a letter.

After reading the letter through, Domitius, keep-

3 ing back the truth, announced in the presence of the council that Pompey would speedily come to their assistance and exhorted them not to let 4 their spirits fail, 4 and to prepare what would be serviceable for defending the town. He him5 of his intimates and self in secret conferred with a few 6 for flight. As Domitius' determined to take measures countenance did not harmonize with his language and all his actions 7 were more agitated and timid than had been usual 8 with him in the preceding days, and as he conferred much with his officers in secret contrary to his wont and avoided deliberative meetings 9 and general gatherings, 9 the matter could no longer be covered up and disguised. 3 For Pompey had written word back that he would not bring the matter to a final issue, 10 and that it was not by his counsel or wish that Domitius had betaken himself to the town of Corfinium: and consequently J1 if he got an opportunity he must come to him with all his forces.

Ciuf*r
1

/3,c,

,a

Only one
6

clause.
4

dissimulare.

animo
7

'with a rampart and redoubts (castellum).' 6 The Partition is not felt in the deficere.
e

Latin.

consilium.
10

Use agere.

consuescere.

Single words, to

be contrasted.

in

summum periculum

deducere.

"

proinde.

IIO

LATIN COMPOSITION

8 B.

THE MOTIVES OF CAESARV ENEMIES.


Cato was incited to oppose l Caesar by old grudges and at his defeat. Lentulus was moved thereto resentment by his indebtedness and by the hope of getthe of greatness by 2 2 and and an by the expected bribes of army provinces, ting those who wished 3 the title of king, and he boasted that he would be the second Sulla of his line 4 to whom the sov5 6 Scipio was impelled by the ereignty should fall by rights. same hope of a province and of armies which he thought he would share with Pompey on the ground of 7 his connection and at the same time by fear of the courts. 8 Pompey him9 self, egged on by the enemies of Caesar and by his own un10 that anyone should be made equal to him in willingness n on his rank, turned his back friendship with Caesar and 12 made up with their common enemies, the greatest part of whom he had made Caesar shoulder 13 at the period of their connection by marriage. He was at the same time greatly excited by the disgrace he u had brought upon himself by reason u of two legions which he had diverted from an ex90.
15 his own power and pedition to Asia and Syria to support the matter should that he was therefore and eager supremacy,

be brought to the arbitrament of arms. 16


1

^^^
4

ft

i.+,

'

roused against
5

'

avoid the Passive.

Unnecessary in the Latin.

Can be

well idiomatically translated by a Gerundive.

'

among

his

which involves 'by rights.' 6 Avoid the Passive. (people).' 9 * r = 'roused.'' 10 Here we have an abstract expresindicium. pro. sion which the Latin avoids, so change to 'because he was unwilling.' 11 totum avertere. " in yraliam redire, 13 use iniungere. 14 The dis15 16 deducere ad arma. ad. grace of two legions covers the whole idea.

Use

redire,

'

'

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES
*
c.

III

THE CONFERENCE OF GAIUS AND LUCIUS CAESAR.


91.

Assured

of the support

of the soldiers, Caesar set

Ariminum with the thirteenth legion and there met the tribunes of the people, who fled to him for protection 3 he summoned the rest of the legions from winter-quarters and ordered them to follow on. To that point came L.
out for
;

Caesar the younger/ whose father was Caesar's lieutenant.

After getting through with 5 the rest of the interview which he had come for, he said that he had commissions of a pri6 from Pompey to Caesar. Pompey 7 wished have 8 himself justified to Caesar, so that he might not 10 9 insult to himself what he had done interpret as a personal

vate character

to

for the sake of the state.


interests of the state as

He (P.) had always deemed the more important n than private ties,
conformity

u with his high position to waive both his partisanship and his anger in the interest of tho state and not to be so seriously angry with his enemies as to injure the state in 14 hopes of injuring them. Although this seemed to have nothing to do 15 with lessening his

and Caesar ought


13

also in

wrongs, nevertheless having procured suitable persons for 16 conveying his wishes to Pompey, Caesar sent word by them
that he was ready to make every concession 17 and to endure for the sake of the state. everything J

C^,^
'

b.c.i.t.

involved in the con-. cognoscere. 4 Latin uses adulescens, or minor. 5 ' = finish 'Junior' is the English 8 * 6 7 These are the commissions. See 219. verier-e. officium. up.'
roluntas.
;

'

For protection

is

10

suus.

'

Use

cum,,

"hab&repotiora, K
pertinere.

deem oLmore importance.' "pro.


16

13

dimittere.

Relative.

"

'descend to everything.'

112

LATIN COMPOSITION

8 D.

THE SOLDIERS PUNISH THE DASTARDLY CONDUCT OF THEIR GENERAL.


of Domitius having been made generally who were at Corfinium went off by themthe soldiers known, 3 and conferred with selves 2 in the first evening watch-hour
92.

The design

through the military tribunes, the centurions, and the most reputable of their own rank 5 to the effect that 6 they were besieged by Caesar, that the siege works were nearly finished, that their general Domitius, through hope and trust in whom they had remained at their posts, 7 had 8 that left them all in the lurch and was meditating flight
one another
;

they ought to have regard for their own safety. From these 10 at first the Marsian legion began to differ and occupied n best seemed which the town that part of fortified, and such
9

a dissension arose

among them
and
settle

hand-to-hand

12

fight

that they tried to join in the question 13 by arms.

However, a little while after, messengers were sent backwards and forwards, and they found out what they did not know before, the story 14 about the projected 14 flight of Domitius. And so all with one accord 15 brought Domitius forth to the soldiers, 16 surrounded him, put a guard over him, and sent representatives from their number to Caesar, 6 saying that they were ready to open the gates and to do whatever he commanded, and to give up Domitius alive into
his power.
composition. prima vesperi. 6 This merely introduces the made a secession.' genus. 7 At their posts is involved in the verb. 8 Leave in Oratio Obliqua. g Mar si. n Keep the Marsian rat ion em habere. the lurch,' proicere. 13 ia with manus. A dimicare, 14 Unnecesof view. Merely phrase point
'

'Express by the preposition di- in


'

221.

'

'

'

sary in the Latin.

15

uno comilio.

16

in publicum.

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES
9 A.

13

ON THE METHOD OF CONSULTING THE SENATE.


about to enter upon his first conl owing to the length of his military career he was unacquainted with the business 2 of holding and consulting the senate, he asked Varro, an intimate friend of his, to write an introductory 3 treatise from which he might learn what he ought 4 to do and say when he consulted the senate. The book which he had made on the subject 5 for Pompey was 6 lost, as Varro says in a letter which he wrote to Oppian, and in which, as what he had written before was not extant, he
93.

When Pompey was

sulship, since

states afresh
first

many
8

points pertaining

to the matter.

In the

place he lays

down who they were by whom according

to the
held,

custom of our ancestors the senate was wont to be and mentions them by name. Afterwards he wrote about intervention, 9 and he said that only those had the
n a decree of the senate who against as those who wish to carry the decree of
10

right of intervention

had the same power

the senate, or 12 greater power. Then he added something on the places in which a decree of the senate could rightly 13

be made, and showed that

it

made
1

in a place appointed

was not valid unless through an augur.

it

had been

tempora; use per for 'owing to.' "Unnecessary in the Latin. * Not Gerundive \vhy ? 5 res. 6 dare is often used 7 of letters. ducere is sometimes used in the sense of pertinere. 8 Latin 9 As this was the privilege of a number, the Latin prekeeps the image. 10 fers the Plural. Of course, the verb. " = that it might not be car3

introdudorius.

'

ried (facere).'

ja

aut, ve, or vel ?

13

iure.

114

LATIN COMPOSITION

9 B.

ON THE ASSASSINATION OF MARCELLUS.


the 23d of May, landing 1 at the Piraeus from Epidaurus I met our old colleague Marcellus there, and spent 2
94.

On

that day in the place to be with him.


in

Two

days afterwards,

from Athens, about three o'clock when I had in the morning 3 P. Postumius, a friend of his, came to me and brought me word that Marcellus had been stabbed after dinner time by P. Magius, his friend, with a dagger, and had received two wounds, one in the throat, the other on the head just 4 by the ear still he hoped that he might possibly 5 6 live Magius had killed himself afterwards he himself had been sent by Marcellus to bring the news 7 and ask that 8 I did 9 so, and started at once I would summon physicians. When I was only a short for the place at the break of day. distance from the Piraeus I 10 met a servant of Acidinus n that a little coming with a note in which it was stated 12 his last. So one 13 before daybreak Marcellus had breathed u a most unto a victim fallen men has of the noblest of 15 and miserable scoundrel a hands of the at death timely one whom his very enemies had spared on account of his 17 character 16 has received his death-blow from a friend.
to start
; ;
;

mind

Cie.. **1

?*~-

f.

<

navi advelii ; the meeting took place after landing, of course. 4 secundum. B Use 'the tenth hour of the night.' consumer e. 3
6

posse.
9

cog ere. use facere to the extent that English does, and so in cases like this the word was repeated or a different turn given.
things.'

The

0. 0. continues.

'to

announce these

The Roman did not

10

Reverse the subject.


13

"
14

phrase.
bitter.
16

No

partition.

= =

'

written.'

12

Use an appropriate
15

Latin

'visited with (afficere} death.'

And

so

"
dignitas.

'to one

whom

... a friend has been found to

deal the death-blow (mortem offerr e)?

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES
9
a.

115

HOW METELLUS
95.

GOT POSSESSION OF CONTREBIA.

l Quintus Metellus, in the capacity of proconsul, was conducting the war in Spain against the Celtiberians, 3 and found 2 that he could not carry the city of Contrebia,

When

3 the capital of the tribe, by direct assault, after serious and 4 4 to he which himself, he found kept protracted schemings,

5 way of bringing his purpose to a successful issue. He showed great activity 6 in marching about, struck out for one

7 section after another, occupied these mountains here, and 7 then after a while crossed those mountains there, whilst in

the meantime
8

the reason for his unexpected and sudden to his own men as well as to the enemy unknown was shifting In fact, when asked by a very close friend why he himself. 9 conducted his military operations after such a scattering " to " and uncertain fashion Cease/' he said, press your ques:

tion,

10

for

if I

find that

my

shirt
7

shall order it

burned

at

once/

knows this plan of mine, I Then after he had got ll his

own army immeshed n

in ignorance and the Celtiberians in 12 off in another direction, and marched he bewilderment, suddenly hied back to Contrebia and came down on the city 13 with astonishment. 13 So all unsuspecting and paralysed 15 14 up a lot of you see if he had not forced himself to rake 16 in arms before the walls stratagems he would have had to lie

of Contrebia to
1

extreme old age.


;

2 How is English fulness of expression use technical Latin form. 3 riribus 1. N. often the 'observer' (or vi) expugnare. expressed? 233, 4 = plans having been weighed (agitare) largely (multum) and long 6 As Latin avoids abstracts we within his own breast.' 'Unnecessary.
'

may render: 'he entered upon journeys (iter) with great energy'; remember that a course of activity is being described in what follows.
9 * =' pursued so scattered Included in the correlatives. fluctuatio. 10 of kind a uncertain and English military operations.' (sparsnm) 13 ia n attonitus. Subordinate one clause. form
7 14

implicare, simplify. 1G The scrutari. "Simplify.


;

Roman

says

'sit.'

Il6

LATIN COMPOSITION

9D.
THE SILLY PERFORMANCES OF CLAUDIUS.
1

Claudius gave many magnificent 2 shows, not only those that were usual and in the accustomed places, but also others
96.

and revived from ancient times 4 and in places where no one before him had given them. He also celebrated the secular games, making out 5 that they had been anticipated by Augustus, and not kept back for the
that were pure inventions
3

proper time

although in his own history he

tells

us that

after a long intermission 6 calculation 7 of the years

Augustus had made a most careful and 8 reduced the games to their

9 On this account the language of the herald proper order. was laughed at when he invited the people in the usual 10

" which no one had ever seen or ever would games 11 see," as some still survived who had been spectators, and certain of the actors who had been brought out before were manner
to

then brought out again. He also exhibited in the Campus Martins the storm and sack of a town as 12 a picture of war, 13

and the surrender

of the kings of Britain,

and presided in

And 15 when he was about to draw his military costume. 14 off the water of the Fucine lake, he held a sea-fight beforehand.

met
1

In this spectacle two fleets, a Sicilian and a Rhodian, in battle, each made up of twelve triremes.

2 Remember 481. 3 commentitius. 4 antiquitas. See again 204, N. 5. 6 7 Avoid the abstract. followed Use but not by a clause. quasi, 8 9 10 I.e. the manner rationem subducere. Unnecessary. Single clause. " Not usual in public ceremonies. spectatorem esse, which would mean 14 13 12 A technical term, paludatus. 'a warlike image.' ad. what? 6

1B

quin; why

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES

1O A.
ON JUNIUS ARISTUS.
97.

The death

me
it

poignant grief. that he took

Junius Aristus has caused me the most He had such affection, 2 such regard 2 for
of
1

me

for the

moulder of
is

his character,

and

as

were his master. This 3 young men of our day.

very rarely the case with the How few there are who yield on
!

the ground of 4 their being younger to the age or, if you 6 5 choose, the authority of another They think they are 7 sages at once. They know it all, at once. They look to no

Not

one, they imitate no one, they are patterns to themselves. so Aristus, whose special wisdom lay 8 in wishing to

learn.

He always took counsel of me about his studies or about his conduct. 9 He always withdrew with the impression 10 that he had been bettered, and he was bettered, either J1 by what he had heard or by the mere asking. With what 12 as quaestor to energy, with what deference he had served
his consul, as
ful
!

What

dacy for His unavailing labors are before 13 my eyes, his fruitless canvass and the honor which he succeeded only in deserving. 16 He had an aged father, he had a wife to whom he had been married but a year, a daughter recently born, 17 so many
!

man as he was use14 he showed in his candiwhat activity, vigilance the aedileship, from which he was snatched untimely
13

pleasing and agreeable a

hopes upset anything else.


1

18

in one day.

I can't think,

I can't talk of

afficere.
8

Use verbs.

noster.

nt.
10

494,
ut.

2.

sapere. translate

esse.
'

'the duties of

life.'

12 esse. (by the fact) that he had asked.' " obversari. 'he 'which he deserved ." etc., activity,' sought.' " Use tollere. 18 in adversa converters. only.'
'

6 7 Omit. Use " Use omnino and 13 " TOO. with

what

Il8

LATIN COMPOSITION

10 B.
WITH A MAN OF HONOR OATHS ARE UNNECESSARY.
I heard from my father the following Q. Metellus, the son of Lucius, was 3 4 defending himself against a charge of extortion, that great man, to whom the weal of his country was sweeter than the
98.

In

my boyhood
:

anecdote

that

when

sight of her, who preferred to depart from the state rather than from his principles 5 ; .well, 6 when he was pleading the

and his own accounts were passed round for the sake 7 examining the entry, there was no one of the jury 8 and men of character and weight but all Roman knights looked away 9 and turned his back, 10 lest it might seem that any doubted whether what he had entered on the public account-book was true or false. And at Athens, they say, when a certain man who had lived an unblemished and dignified life gave n his testimony publicly, and approached the
case,

of

altars for the

purpose of taking the oath

12

as

is

the fashion

of the Greeks, all the judges with one voice shouted their 13 From which it is evident protest against his swearing.

Romans were unwilling that the word worth u should be guaranteed by the obli15 of an oath. Shall we then examine Pompey's degation cree and compare it with the laws and weigh every detail 1G with the most crabbed 17 care ?
that both Greeks and
of a

man

of tried

See C25,
4
'

R. 6.

Not magnus homo. 6 = 'opinion.' G iyitur. 7 'name.' 8 there was no juryman out of those Roman knights, most serious 9 =' remove his eyes.' 10 Vary in Latin by using se. " dicere. men.'
tundis.

Unnecessary.

technical phrase, de pecuniis repe-

"Verb
16

for
16

13

religio,

phrase. 'Detail

'that

he

should

'

is

an English addition.

not "

swear.'

14

special'us,

acerbus.

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES

10

C.

THE CONSUL'S ALARMIST SPEECH.


1 Frightened out of his senses, he darted from the sen2 ate with his spirits and countenance as much ruffled as if he had stumbled upon a conference of .his creditors. He called an assembly of the people 3 and, consul as he was, 4 held such a speech as Catiline would never have held had he been suc5 cessful, in which he said that people were mistaken if they

99.

6 7 thought that the senate had still any considerable power in the state; and that as for 8 the Koman knights, they should pay for the day on which they met, armed with swords, on that the time had come for those who the Capitoline hill had been cowed 9 by fear (he meant, forsooth, the conspiraIf he had only said this he tors) to avenge themselves. would be deserving of all punishment, for a mischievous 10 shake the foundations of speech of a consul may of itself Lucius Lamia, who the state but just see what he did loved me dearly for n the great intimacy which existed 12 between 13 his father and myself, and who was eager to court u even death for the state, he relegated in the assembly of the 15 that he should keep 16 200 people, and published an edict miles from the city, because he had dared to plead for a citi;
:

zen, for a well-deserving citizen, for a friend, for the state.


2

Use one verb.


315,
N. 1.

non minus.
5

Technical word.

'

As he was
'

'

is

an English addition.
was.'
11

victor

B 7 = 'had been in fear.' 10 ipse. Verb. e vero. n The Roman usually emphasizes one side in the Latin esse. pro. so in (by the Dative) and adds the other by cum and the Ablative " 15 18 abesse. oppetere. Simple verb. phrases such as war between,' etc. 12
; '

a parallel construction to

consul as he

I2O

LATIN COMPOSITION

10 D.

TWO LEGACY-HUNTERS.
which story 2 Blaesus, that rich ex-consul, was hard pressed by 3 his last illness ; he was desirous of changing his will. Reg100,
It does

not

make much

difference with

I begin.

4 hoping to get something from a new will, because he had but recently begun to court 5 his favor, began to exhort the physicians and to beg them by all 6 means to keep the 7 After the will was sealed poor man's breath in his body. he changed his role, altered his style-of -address, and said to " How the same physicians long do you intend to torment the poor creature ? Why do you begrudge him an easy death " 9 as 8 you cannot give him life ? Well, Blaesus died, and as if he had heard everything he did not leave Regulus so much

ulus,

story for you! Aurelia, a had on her handsomest dress when woman, put she was about to sign her will. When he came to sign, said Aurelia thought Blaesus "I want you to leave me this. the man was jesting, but he persisted in dead earnest 13 in 14 short, he actually forced the woman to open the tablets and leave him the dress she had on and he watched as' she wrote and looked in to see 15 whether she had written it.

as a

penny.

10

Here's another

11

fashionable

12

7'

1 The Roman begins from. 2 conflictare. 3 Avoid the Gerund(ive). To get' is involved in the verb 'hoping.' 5 Court his favor,' cap6 = every means whatsoever.' 7 = to prolong the breath for the tare.
'

'

'

'

creature
10

'

' ;

'

Unnecessary. JS Seriornatus. Only two stories are told. English phrase. 15 " = not in Involved looked in.' (to say) many things.' ously.

poor

is

involved in the word.


ai

Relative.
12

An

'

'

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES

121

11 A. THE KING
101.
house.,
IS

ASSASSINATED.

conspirators took possession of an unoccupied 1 commanding a narrow street by which the king used

The

2 go down to the market-place. There all stood drawn up and armed, awaiting his passing, except one * whose name was Dinomenes, who, because he was a member of the body3 guard, had the following part assigned to him namely, that when the king approached the door of the house, under color of 4 some excuse he should detain the procession from And all was done as had been agreed upon. Dinothe rear. menes raised his foot, and 5 by pretending 6 to release it from a tight 7 knot he delayed the crowd and in this way made such 8 a gap that when the king was assailed as he passed by without armed attendants, he was stabbed 9 in several places The attendants took to flight when before help could come. 10 dead. the The assassins proceeded, a saw king lying they n the multitude overpart to the forum, where they found

to

joyed at their freedom, a part to Syracuse, to forestall the 12 In plans of Andranodorus and the other royal ministers. this uncertain condition of affairs, Appius Claudius, seeing a

war impending

13

close at hand,

informed the senate by letter

that the Carthaginians and Hannibal were trying 14 to win over Sicily. He himself, to check 15 the plans of the Syra16 all his garrisons on the frontier. concentrated cusans,

L:^,
1

**.;.

imminere.

menes,
'

make

principal figure in this sentence being Dino3 the principal clause concern him, using ceteri. a

The

strictus. Avoid. Nottalis. guard of the body.' *per. tamquam. = he was pierced with several wounds.' 10 Unnecessary. " Where they found is implied in simple ad. ia Unnecessary. 13 oriens. u Involved
'

'

'

in the tense.

15

adversus.

16

convertere.

122

LATIN COMPOSITION

11 B.
m

MAKCELLUS
102.

IS

DISAPPOINTED.

of march,

attack

The consul ordered Nero to follow the enemy's line and when he saAv that the battle was begun, to him in the rear. Whether he was unable to carry
order
2

he missed the road or because 3 the time was scanty is uncertain; but he was not on hand 4 when the battle was joined, and 5 while the Romans, it is 6 true, had decidedly the advantage, still because the cavalry 7 did not come up at the right time the plan of the engagement as agreed upon was marred. Marcellus did not venture to follow up the retiring enemy, and 8 gave his men though 9
out thi

because

victorious the signal for falling back. Nevertheless it is said that more than two thousand of the enemy were killed

on that day, while

10

the

Romans

lost less

than four hundred.

About sunset Nero returned, with horses and men wearied by a useless march of a day and a night, 11 without 12 even getting a sight of the enemy, and was severely reprimanded by the consul, who went so far as to say that it was his fault 13 that the disaster suffered at Cannae was not repaid to the enemy. On the next day the Romans marched out to batwhile the Carthaginians kept within their camp, thus 14 In the dead of night of the confessing defeat. third day, giving up the hope of getting possession of Nola,
tle,

silently

pect
1

Hannibal started for Tarentum, where he saw a better pros15 of having the place betrayed to him. 15
se obicere.
7
2

dubie.
11

adesse.
10

Use Ablatives. abesse. Unnecessary. B Omit. 9 Implied in the signal given

0mit.

hand

see the follow-

The opposition is sufficiently expressed by juxtaposition. 12 Ablative Absolute. 'fatigued in vain for a day and a night.' 15 13 " 'to a per aliquem stare. by silent confession, conquered.' more certain hope of betrayal.'
ing note.

'

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES

123

11

C.

PHILIP'S ADDRESS TO
103.
:

THE ROMANS.

" In reply Philip said My quarrel now is not with the Maronites or with Eumenes, but with you, Komans; for it
from you that, as I have long perceived, I get no justice. That the cities of Macedonia which had revolted from me
is
l

2 during a suspension-of-hostilities should be restored to me I 3 but that not because would be a great accession fair, thought

dominion, for they are small towns and situated on extreme frontiers, but because the example was of great my 4 importance towards keeping the rest of the Macedonians to their allegiance. 5 This was refused me. In the Aetolian war I was ordered by the consul M/ Acilius to lay siege to Lamia,
to

my

and

after I had undergone a long, fatiguing service in con6 7 structing works and fighting, while in the act of passing over the walls the consul recalled me from the city which

was almost captured, and obliged


thence.

me

to

withdraw

my

forces

a consolation for this piece of injustice I received permission 9 to recover beggarly forts, for so they are 10
to be called rather

As 8

than cities, in Thessaly, Perrhaebia and Athamania. Of these also you deprived me a few days ago. In what category do you wish to place me ? that is the ques11

tion.

Am

I a

deadly enemy or

am

I a friendly allied

12

'

long fatigued by works and battles.' 7 Participle. 8 ad. 9 Express by the passive. 10 The fulness of the English expression is to be avoided thus Perrhaebia and Athamania, beggarly forts rather than cities beggarly is implied in " re erf. 12 Observe that the Roman canthe diminutive.
' :

Remember 230. To their allegiance


1

2
'

indutiae.
is

Unnecessary. " implied in continere.

multum
'

pertinere.

'

'

'

castellum,

not construe two similar adjectives with one substantive without a connective hence an ally and a friendly king. The same remark holds
;

'

good

for

'

deadly enemy.'

124

LATIN COMPOSITION

11 D.

HIERONYMUS DISMISSES THE ROMAN AMBASSADORS.


104,

The praetor Appius Claudius, whose province


l

Sicily

was, on

hearing this at once sent envoys to Hieronymus. The envoys said that they came to renew the alliance which had existed 2 with his grandfather, but they were heard and dismissed with ridicule 3 by Hieronymus, who asked them
4 sneeringly how they had fared in the battle at Cannae, for 5 the ambassadors of Hannibal told him was scarcely what

credible he wished to know what was the truth, in order to determine thereby which of the two sides 6 to follow. The Romans, saying that they would return to him when he began to listen seriously to embassies sent him, after warning him rather than begging him not to break 7 faith with them 8 lightly, took their departure. Hieronymus now sent an 9 to to conclude a treaty on the basis 10 of Carthage embassy It was stipulated that when his alliance with Hannibal.
;

they had expelled the Romans from Sicily, the river Himera, which about divides the island, should be the boundary line between the kingdom of Syracuse and the Punic empire. n that it Later, he sent a second embassy, in which he urged 12 was fair that all Sicily should be yielded to him, while the 13 the rule over Italy as its people of Carthage should claim own. 14
i_H/U
t
,

^,

(t,

Use the conjunction their fortune had been.'


a

ubi.
5

2 ='been.' 3 per ludibrium. 4 = what Avoid the relative. "Use spes. 7 Do not use
'

subordinate

clause
;

abstract as a rule

8 mutare. temere. but not always. 10 ex.


;
;

The Roman avoids the


12

" censere.

Both should
cedere.

be in the

study the construction with 14 u proprius. quaerere / use the passive construction.
construction

same

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES

12$

12 A.
A FAMILIAR NOTE.
I should scarcely have ventured to ask of you to write in Latin, for I feared that it would seem too difficult to 1 you, and on this account the Latin letter I received from you

105.

me

3 2 all the more welcome. True, it was not absolutely neater much more than I but much and faultless, polished should have believed. So I bid you be hopeful and entertain

lately

was

that some day or other under my guidance 5 you will attain a considerable command of this line of work 6 also.

no doubt

How

been to me,

welcome and delightful your coming here would have 7 it is utterly unnecessary to assure you. For I

imagine you know well enough the greatness of my affection for you. But I see so many young men who have come to Rome fall ill that I have been afraid that at this season of I the year a change of climate might be a risk 8 to you. 9 the of that before 24th the hot will abate hope August spell somewhat. At that time, God willing, I will take a trip 10 to n I am your town, for eager to see you, and will have you sent for at once. I have not at hand your letter before the
last

about civil law ; but you can easily relieve yourself of the bother of the whole Good bye, and bear me in affectionate rememinvestigation.
in

12

which you ask me some questions

13

brance. 14
Latine scriptus ; incorporate according to 616. 2 quidem. * omni ex 4 D Ablative Absolute (dux). 8 Line of work,' parte. English fulness. ~ * 9 nihil necesse est. genus. periculum afferre. Expressed in Latin by
l
'

the Plural of the abstract; 201, N. 6. 12 clause. 'Before the last,' superior.
ness
;

10

excurrere.

"Use verb

only,

n Not a separate " fulEnglish

Latia deems amare

sufficient.

126

LATIN COMPOSITION

12 B.

ON TRUE HOSPITALITY.
would be a long story to explain in detail, nor does it matter how I happened to be dining at the house of a man who seemed to himself to be elegant and economical, but to me at once mean and extravagant. For he set before himself and a few others rich dishes, before the rest cheap viands, and in small quantities. 2 And so too with 3 the wane, which he had 4 put in small decanters, and had divided it into three kinds,
106,
It
1

not to give the privilege 5 of choosing but to prevent the right of refusing one kind for us and for himself, another for his second-class 6 friends, for he classifies his friends, 7 yet 8
:

another for his freedmen and ours.


dinner perceived
it.
''

My

next neighbor 9 at

"

10 I approved of this, and asked me whether I said no. What plan n do you follow, then ? " said he. " Your freedmen too ? " put the same things before all." 12

"Yes!
"

for then I consider

them

" 13 Then/' said he, "it must cost you a round sum ?" By " 14 no means." How is that possible ?" "Very easily, be15 cause, you must know, my freedmen do not drink the same wine that I drink, but I drink the same that my freedmen
drink."

guests, not freedmen."

And

really, if

a burdensome thing to share with a


yourself.
1

you restrain your appetite, it is not number what you use

altius repetere.
'

Adjective.

Omit the

relative
5

'

which,' and
6

make

vinum the

4 describere. I.e. minor. 'power.' object of 'divided.' 7 he has his friends in grades (gradatim).' 8 Adds to the smoothness 9 reRelative clause of the English, but is unnecessary in the Latin.

member
able
?
'

too that the

Romans

reclined at table.
(a)
i.

10

Would an be

allow-

"

I.e.

'habit,'
J6

M See 471,
'of course.'

"

magnus.

M Omit and begin

with

because.'

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES

127

12

0.

ON BEARING MISFORTUNES BRAVELY.


107. Miltiades, Aristides, and Themistocles were unjustly condemned and banished by their fellow-citizens, but never1

theless because they deserved well of their state are now of such renown not only in Greece but also among us that no one mentions those by whom they were crushed. Which of the Carthaginians was of more value than Hannibal for 2 wis-

dom, for bravery, for achievements, who for so many years contended single-handed 3 with so many of our generals for 4 5 empire and glory? Yet he was exiled by his own fellowcitizens we 5 -see that, even though 6 an enemy, he has been celebrated in our literature and by our memory. Wherefore
;

let

of the conservatives. 7

us love our country, obey the senate, consult the interests Let us neglect present results 8 ; let
9

us devote ourselves

to the glory of

coming time
;

10
;

let

us

deem that to be best which is most upright what we wish, but let us bear what happens
reflect that the bodies of heroes
12

let
ll
;

us hope for finally let us

glory of their valor is everlasting ; those who have by their counsels or labors either enlarged or defended or preserved this great state have obtained im-

are mortal} but that the and let us believe that

mortal glory.
1

Subordinate the
5

first clause.

Respect.

unns.

de

do not use

contendere.
like

Do not quamquam with

lose sight of the contrast.

The
is

use of a particle

a form other than a rerb


T

not found in model


9<
Serve.'
;

prose; the opposition is implied. n Watch the tense. 'posterity.'


fortis

bonus.

10

fructus.

12

Vir of

itself is sufficient

but homo
?

magnusque

is

more rotund

why would ma gnus be

right here

128

LATIN COMPOSITION

12 D.
A LETTER OF RECOMMENDATION.
did not promise Apollonius, who will 1 bring you this letter,, a recommendation,, not that 2 I supposed that it would not have weight 3 with you, but it seemed to me that
108,
I

he needed no recommendation as he had served with you, and in case he wished to make use of recommendations I saw that he could accomplish his purpose 4 just as well by means
of my opinion of him G very willing to give, both because he set great store 7 it and I because have found out by by actual trial that my word really has weight with you. What I know of him
of other people.
I

word-in-evidence

am

then

is

that he

is

a cultivated

man and

given to higher

studies

from

he was

much

his very boyhood, for while he was yet a boy 10 n at my house with Diodorus the Stoic, a pro12

I am any judge. Now in his enfoundly learned man, if thusiasm 13 for your achievements he is fired with the ambition 14 of putting them on record in Greek. That he can do He has decided talent 15 he has had practice; it, I believe.
;

he has long been conversant with literary pursuits of this kind. 17 He is intensely eager to do justice 18 to the immortal fame your deeds have won, 19 Here you have a statement 5 of my opinion, but you with 20 your unequaled insight will be
1(i

far better able to


1

come
2.
3

to a decision.
valere.
'

*
C>c.

* r
6

<i

13.

See 252.
7
'

541, N.

id.

testimonium.
8

An
'

English
I

phrase.

To
9

find out

by
10

trial

is

experiri.

Condense into
12 15
'

know
is,
'

him
'in

to be.'

optimus.

my

judgment.'

strong in intellect.' "Genitive. 2 ro.

'from boyhood.' "Literally. 13 = 'inspired by zeal/ " = desires.' 16 " Reverse the J8 cases. Hendiadys.

That

he

is

satisfacere.

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES

29

13 A. ON THE SEARCH FOR A TUTOR.


109. What commission could you have enjoined upon me more pleasant than to look up a tutor for your brother's children ? Thanks to 2 you, I go back to school again I take up again, as it were, that most delightful time of life. I sit among the lads as I used to do, and I even find out by 3 4 experiment how much respect I have among them, on ac5 count of my studies. For lately, you must know, in a crowded lecture-room the young fellows were debating 6 in a
1
;

loud tone of voice 7 in the presence of many persons of my own rank I entered, they hushed. I should not relate this 8 if it did not tend more to their credit than to mine; and if 1
;

did not wish you to hope that your brother's sons could be 9 As for the rest, 10 when I have heard all properly trained.
the professors, n I will write what I think of each one and I will manage it so that you yourself may seem to have heard
;

them

all,

so far at least as I
12

can by
I

letter.

For

owe

this

conscientious effort

to

you

owe

it

to the

memory of your

brother, especially in regard to tance. 13


fVUw. Ifr. 1,19.
1

a matter of such impor-

English fulness.
4
7

=
8

'

by your
6

benefit.'

'I.e.

'

find out
6

ment,' experiri.
is sufficient.
10

auctoritas.

The

studies are the source.


9

by experiTalking
'

'

'

as for
13

Adverb. What is the passive of docere ? pertinere. what remains.' "A relative. " Hendiadys 'fidelity and
:

zeal.'

tantus.

I3O

LATIN COMPOSITION

13 B.

ON THE MURDER OF CICERO.


fouler deed disgraced that period than the proand the silencing 2 of the voice of a man of Cicero scription who through so many years had championed the weal of the

110.

No

and of the citizens. Nevertheless, thou hast accom4 the murder plished nothing, Mark Antony, by instigating of Cicero, once the preserver of the republic, of Cicero, 5 the Thou hast indeed rudely snatched from him great consul.
state

a light of day

advanced,

that was full of anxiety, 7 an age that was and a life that was more wretched under thy
;

dominion 8 than death under thy triumvirate but so far from 9 taking away the fame and glory of his deeds and sayHe lives, and will live ings, thou hast increased them. the of and while the uniall the memory ages through 10 chance framed whether or verse, by by providence, or by what agency soever, shall remain intact, which he was almost the only Roman to see with his mind's eye, 11 to embrace with his genius, to illumine by his eloquence, it will bear on with
;

it

as the

shall admire his writings 13 against thee, and all and the human and execrate thy action 13 towards him race u shall sooner pass away from the world than the glory of Cicero from the memory of mankind.
;

companion coming time

of its existence

12

the praise of Cicero,

'This must be entirely changed thus:

'

Nothing was

so

unworthy

of

2 Use abscidere, that period as the fact that Cicero was proscribed,' etc. 3 The contrast can be heightened by in allusion to the fate of Cicero.
4 irritare. adding publicus and privatus ; but it is not necessary. * 6 7 Is not lux sufficient? Use sollicitus. "Replace by simple que. J0 9 or adeo abest .ut. rerum naturae Use tantum ut. .ut, princeps. 12 n Mind is aevum. J3 Both are concrete, " = enough. corpus.
.

'

'

the race of men.'

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES

13!

13

C.

ON THE ILLNESS OF A FRIEND.


have been hard and fast in town this many a day, 1 and in a frightfully depressed state of mind 2 too. I am 3 sorely troubled by the long and obstinate illness of Titus 4 and regard. 4 Aristo, for whom I have a great admiration 5 For he is the most earnest, the purest, and the most learned of men, so that it seems to me that it is not the life of one man that is in danger, 6 but in the person 7 of one
Ill,
I

the life of literature itself and all that is good in How learned he is in pubmental and moral training. 8 What an amount of history, 9 of prelic and private law 10 There is nothing he possesses cedents, of ancient lore To me that you could wish to learn that he cannot teach.
!

man

certainly, as often as I look for

something that

is

he

a perfect storehouse. of his especial n friends to


is

Lately he called

me and
that

abstruse, a few

him and begged

we would

consult the physicians concerning the upshot 12 of his illness, so that if it were incurable he might of his own accord depart
if it were only hard to manage and tedious, that he hold out and remain. For 13 so much was due to the might 14 us of his and to his wife friends, that he should not prayers abandon our hopes, if only they were not vain, by a self-

this life

sought
1

13

death.
etc.
2

'

have long been sticking,'


that the

English fulness

use a single
4

word.
is

'Remember
5

Roman

prefers active to passive.


('

Verbs are

to be employed.

A
6

negative expression

nothing

is

more

earnest,' etc.)

more emphatic.
is

periculum

ad-ire.

English fulness.

omnes bonae
n

Relares. antiquitas. sufficiently close to this whole phrase. ' tive clause: whom he is particularly fond of.' "summa. "His view.
artes
14

Why

not ut non ?

15

I.e.

'

voluntary.'

132

LATIN COMPOSITION

13 D.

ON THE BEST
112,
If I

STYLE.

am

to have

my

choice,, I

wish

my style to be

like

the winter snow, 1 as Homer calls it, that is, full and steady and ample, Jove-like 2 and supernal. 3 But, you will say, 4 a
is far more popular yes, but only with the 3 sloth it ridiculous whose is to respect as if it indolent, easy were a critical decision. 6 For should you take counsel of 7

brief discourse

these people,

it is

not only better 8 to speak

briefly,

ter not to speak at all. This is will change it if you disagree. 9

my

opinion as yet,

but betbut I

But should you disagree with me, pray let me know clearly your reason why. 10 For 11 although I ought to yield to your better judgment, nevertheless I deem it more proper in a matter of so much imovercome by argument 13 rather than by If, then, it seems to you that I am not mistaken, authority. write me so in as brief a letter as you choose; yet write. For you will thus confirm my judgment. If I am mistaken, get 14 a long, long letter: so that if you agree 9 with me 1 up shall have imposed on you the necessity of a short letter if of a one. you disagree, really long -p^ .. Vo JL
portance
to be
;
(

12

Homer
4

uses the Plural

see 204, N.

G.

I.e.
6

'

divine.'
:

'

I.e.

celes-

Involved in the conjunction; 488. 'ease (<hliHendiadys 6 One word, indicium. 7 = 'have in council." " Not ciae) and sloth.' 9 Be careful of the tense. 10 Latin would be content with, melius. 12 'but pray explain clearly why you disagree.' " auctoritas. English
tial.'

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES

133

14 A.

ON THE STATE

OF THINGS AT ROME.

2 113. Although there is such a general confusion that each one feels discontented 3 with his own situation, and there is no one but 4 prefers to be anywhere rather than

where he is, nevertheless I do not doubt but that at this time to a Lover of the Good Cause 5 a sojourn 6 at Rome is the saddest conceivable. 7 For although no matter where
one
is

one has the same feeling of bitterness


9

at the utter

and of one's self, nevertheless the eyes increase the pain, for what others only hear, they are forced to behold, and do not allow a man to turn his thoughts away from the miseries about him. Therefore, although you must
ruin of the state

be distressed by the lack of


liver yourself
10

many

things, nevertheless de-

grief with which, I hear, you most tortured, namely, 11 over your not being in Rome. For although it is a sad burden 12 for you to miss your dear ones and your home, nevertheless all that you miss is hold13 and would not hold it better if you were at ing its own, hand, and is in no particular danger and when you think of 14 your home you ought not to claim some especial fortune,

from that great

are

nor refuse to bear


1

15

the
'

common

fate. 16
*

Use
;

se liabere
5
7

sed
9

see G32.

Merely 'a good man.'


8 10

a confusion of all things.' 3 paenitere. Not 6 it is the saddest (thing) to

'

be at Rome.'

Unnecessary. Contrast suus with publicus.


13

Ilendiadys
I.e.

'feeling

and

bitterness.'

great trouble.'

status suus.

M tua.

u = 'a quod. 'your mind.' 15 16 There is no difference 0mit.


be omitted.

between

'

fate'

and

'fortune,' so 'fate'

may

134

LATIN COMPOSITION

14

B.
FIRE.

ON THE LYONS
114.
2

Our friend

ligence has been consumed, a misfortune which might

1 dejected at the intelof a conflagration by which the colony of Lyons

Liberalis

is

now

well affect

So many beautiful patriot. works of art and architecture, 5 any one of which might of itself give distinction 6 to a city, have been laid low in one 7 8 night, and a great calamity has befallen in profound peace such as is not to be dreaded even in time of war. This event causes him to seek in vain 9 that firmness which he had exercised in view of 10 those things which he used to think were to be feared. But if this unexpected and almost unheard of n was not 12 feared, it does not astonish me, since it calamity was unexampled. For many cities have been visited 13 by 13 For even when a hostile conflagrations, none destroyed. u 15 band has set fire to houses, it has gone out in many places, and although subsequently revived, nevertheless it 16 everything so completely as to leave nothing rarely devours for the sword. And there has scarcely ever been an earthquake so severe and destructive as to overturn whole towns. In fine, there has never broken out a conflagration of so remorseless 17 a character as to leave nothing for a second
conflagration.
1

anyone, not to say an ardent

^
the
'

CA>

^
'

f/
3 4

='a man very fond Works is enough. 6 illusirare. 7 Make (amans) of his country.' 8 tantus. "I.e. 'miss.' 'night' the subject; has one night laid low.' 13 10 12 " Avoid the passive use Reverse the subject. ad. malum. 1C 17 16 " The instrument. inimmittere. vexare.
tristis.
3

Avoid

abstract.
5

posse.

'

ignem

depascere.

festus.

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES

135

14
EVERY MAN
115.
IS

C.

IGNORANT OF HIMSELF.

There are certain faults which we attribute

and
fool,

seasons.

And
3

whithersoever we

to places 1 yet those faults are sure to follow us 2 You know that Dorippa, my wife's go.

was

left
4

as a hereditary
3

burden in
6

with a fool, I have not far laugh at myself. Well, this fool suddenly lost her sight. 8 You will hardly believe what 9 I am going to tell She does not know that she is you, but it is a true-tale. blind and repeatedly asks her attendant to change-herto look.
7

personally very stingy If I ever want to amuse-myself


I

am

my household, for in-the-matter-of such freaks.

quarters

10
;

laugh
is

at in her

she says the house is dark-as-pitch. 11 What we happens to us all ; no one perceives that he

avaricious or covetous.
;

Nevertheless the blind seek a


'
:

I am not guide WE wander without a guide, and say 12 at live otherwise Rome a man it is cannot extravagant not my fault that I am irascible, my youth is the cause of it/ Why do we deceive ourselves? Our disease 14 is not
;

13

from without it is within us. It has-its-seat 15 in our own 16 we have had such difficulty 17 in vitals, and the reason why attaining to health, is because we do not know that we are
;

sick.

,/
.

r
j

*^ t

r
*.
(

l^,

r .To

1 Use the periphrastic. "Be careful of the tense. 3 = 'remained.' Use pronoun. 5 arersus; note its construction. 6 Use middle. 7 Use 8 = ceased to see.' 9 Avoid the relative. gerundive of quaerere. 10 Use migrare. " tenebricosus. ia Not homo or vir. 13 meum vitium. 14 malum. 16 sedere. 16 = 'on that account (ideo) ... because.' "Use

'

adverb

difficulter.

136

LATIN COMPOSITION

14 D.
EIGHT AND WRONG FIXED BY NATURE.
seems to me to have its oricomes that there is no expiation gin for crimes against men and sins against the gods. 3 Therefore the guilty pay 4 the penalty for these actions not so much 5 by judicial sentences, which formerly did not exist at all and now do not exist in many cases, and even where they do exist are very often mistaken,, 6 but they are driven 7 and hunted down by furies, not with burning torches as we read in the play-books, but by distress of conscience and the torture of guilt. Now if it is punishment and not nature that 8 to ought keep men from wrongdoing, what anxiety, pray, would harass the wicked if the fear of penalties were removed ? And yet not one of these men was ever so bold but that he either denied that the deed in question 9 was committed by him, or invented some pretext 10 or other for his just resentment, and sought a defense for his crime from some law of nature. Moreover, if right and wrong n are not
.

116.
2

The

principle-of-right
;

in nature

whence

it

by nature, those of us who are not moved by a sense of honor to be good men, but by some ultimate advantage, 12 are
fixed
13 What, for instance, will a man, who canny, not good. fears nothing but witness and judge, do who catches a weak

man alone whom he can despoil of his gold 14 what he will do. plainly enough, I dare say,
1

You

see
(

^
6

ius.
6

Use verb.
7

Rhetorical position
passive.
14

682.

luere.

Simply indi9

cium.

falsus. English addition.

Avoid the
10

Avoid

the

relative.
12

An

causa.
13

" ius covers both conceptions.

'Ulti-

mate advantage,

'

utilitas.

nam.

credere.

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES

137

15 A. ON THE FUNCTION OF THE MAGISTRACY.


of the magistracy is to govern 2 and to 3 is right and useful and in accord with law. what prescribe For as laws govern magistrates, so magistrates govern the people; and it can be said with truth that magistracy is a
117.
l

The function

speaking law, law a mute magistracy.

Magistrates, there-

fore, are necessary ; for without their foresight and circumspection a state cannot exist, and on their proper organiza-

commonwealth is based. 5 Nor are we to prescribe to them only the proper method 6 of commanding, but also to the citizen the proper method of For both he who commands well must necessarily 7 obeying. have obeyed at some time or other, and he who modestly 8 obeys seems worthy of commanding at some future time. And so both he who obeys should 9 hope that at some time he will command, and he who commands bethink himself that he must shortly obey. But we do not only prescribe that
tion 4
all

the administration of the

men

should follow and obey the magistrates, but also that they should honor and esteem them. For our friend Plato sets down in the class of the Titans those who oppose magistrates, as
1

10 they opposed the authorities-of-heaven.

Omit the relative. praeesse. discriptio : where the implication is that the substantive is used in a proper application no adjective ' so 'organization means proper organization,' and method,' is needed
vis.
'
' ;

6 continere. 'proper method.' 9 10 time or other.' oportet.


.

modus.

Not an adverb.

I.e.

'at

some

caelestis.

138

LATIN COMPOSITION

15 B.

ON TRUE
The 118. him and that

PRAISE.

parents and rived 2 from his mind and


stances. 3

* praise of a man is not of the age that preceded in which he himself lived not of his country and It is to be deancestors, but of the man himself.
:

his

body and

his extraneous circum-

4 praise of his body, indeed, and his fortunes is not only of less weight, but is not to be treated in a uniform 5

The

manner. For sometimes we bestow compliments 6 on beauty and strength, as Homer does in the case of Agamemnon and 7 Achilles; sometimes admiration is greatly heightened even 8 by infirmities, as when the same poet says that Tydeus was a little man, but a fighter. Fortune, it is true, lends dignity, as in the case of kings and princes and then, again, 9 the less
;

the resources the greater the glory that she achieves for noble actions. But all good things that are extraneous to
us
10

and that have

fallen

n to
12

men

accidentally are praised,

not because a

man

them honorably.

them, but because he has used For riches and power and popularity, givhas got
;

13 a great deal of force for good or evil, 14 coning as they do stitute the most certain test of character for we are either

better or worse by reason of them. that of the mind.


1

The true

praise

is

always

2 times/ to be limited by following relatives. petere ; do not begin 3 = a new sentence with it. '(those things that are) placed outside.' 4 7 Use fortuita. 5 unus. 6 honore verborum prosequi. Avoid passive
'
; '

heighten,'
3
"

multum
13
'

conferre.
'

Not necessary.
2

w extra nos
is

habere.

As they do

Use the Singular of the characteristic. " esse. 'Happen'; remember the synonyms. an English term. " in utramque partem.

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES

139

15

C. IS

AS ARE THE LEADERS SO


119.
3

THE STATE.

It is

state should
evil, as

not so great an evil l that the leading men in a do wrong, although this is in itself 2 a very great

that

many

up. of the past, 4 that states have always been of the same character 5 as their great men ; whatever that character may have

For you may

imitators of these leading men spring see, if you choose to unroll the annals

been, and whatever change of morals showed itself in the 6 leading men, the same followed in the people. This is much more true than what our authority Plato thinks, who main-

changes the think that a change in the life and living of the nobility changes the relations of states. Therefore vicious leaders deserve the worst of a state, and
tains that a

change

in the songs of musicians

relations of states.

Whereas

not only do harm 8 in that they themselves are corrupted, but also in that they corrupt others and do more mischief 9 by their example than by their sin. And, indeed, the law that

have extended so as to cover a whole class might be narrowed further for a few, in fact n a very few, who have been advanced to glory 12 and honor, have it in their power 13 to
1
;

10

corrupt the morals of a state or to correct them.


1

/,-

C*.

dL

Lt.

3,14.31.

As

this
;

is

a substantivized adjective,
2

it

should not be modified by an


*'
7

adjective of times.'
stract

369.
6

per se ipsum.
6

tantum ... quantum.


this stronger.
8

The memory
10

talis.

Litotes

would make

Avoid the ab-

by means

of

an Ablative Absolute.

obesse.

nocere.
ia
'

'

that

has been extended (deferre) to cover (in).' "posse is enough. plificare) with glory.'

"

atgue.

Dignified (am-

I4O

LATIN COMPOSITION

15 D.

ON THE ORIGIN OF KINGS.


In the very earliest 1 times, the first reason for collect2 ing men in cities was that there should be persons to check violence, defend the poorer classes from the injuries of the
120.

more powerful, and 3 to give each man what belonged to him. That this was the origin of kings, Herodotus tells us, and Cicero, who 4 borrowed it from him. And so in the
olden time kings themselves acted as judges, 5 as, for instance, 6 the Minos, whose rare justice made him, according to

among the dead as, for instance, Tenes, 7 worshipped among the inhabitants of Tenedos as a god,
ancients, a judge
;

who, as they say, was wont to patrol the island called after him with an axe with which 8 he was wont to smite those whom 8 he found upon careful examination 9 to have done wrong ; as, for instance, Philip of Macedon, who, as we have learned, took 10 patiently his being chidden by a poor n old crone to whom he had said that he did not have time 12 to hear her, for she retorted that he ought not to reign if he would not take time 13 to hear and settle legal business. 14 And for a very long time those who had the chief authority among the Hebrews 15 were called not kings, but judges, so that we perceive
that there
is

nothing so characteristic of royalty

16

as the

office-of -judge. 17
1
'

Most
4

ancient.'

*=

'for collecting states';

6 Relative clause would be clumsy. B in the judged.' 8 7 9 one of these of.' Tenedius. Eliminate relatives. causa opinion 10 "Involved in the diminutive. 12 Not tempus. discussa. bear.' " causae. 15 13 who were in control (praeesse) of the vacare. 16 Use people of the Hebrews with the highest authority (imperium). 3
'

481,

2.

the city was a state.

'

'

'

1T

regius.

Use verb-

VOCABULAKY
act., active; adj., adjective;

passive; pron., pronoun;

adv., adverb; conj., conjunction; intr., intransirive; pass. s., substantive; tr., transitive; v., verb.

accord,

accomplishment (= ability), ars. of one's own, ultro, sua


sponte,

abandon,

deserere.
(of character), perditus.

sua voluntate;

in

accord

abandoned

abate, remittere.
abdicate, se abdicare. abide, manere, opperiri.
able, be, posse. abound, abundare.

with, coniunctus cum. according to, secundum.

account,
tabellae;

ratio;

render,
that)

accounts, tabulae, rationem redof, propter;

dere;

on account
(or

on

this
fere.

account,

idcirco,

about, de; (with numerals')

quare.
potis-

above, supra; above all others, simum, vel maxime omnium.

account-book,

tabulae.

accusation, accusatio.
accuse, accusare, insimulare.
reus.

abroad

(in foreign lands'), peregre.

absence, absentia; in the absence of,


absens.

accused,

accuser, accusator.

absent, absens; be, abesse. absorb, combibere.


abstain, abstinere or
abstruse, abditus.
se abstinere.

accustomed,
insuetus.

solitus; be, solere, assues-

cere, consuescere;

not accustomed.

Achaean, Achaeus.
insulsus.

absurd, absurdus,

Achaia, Achaia.
achieve, gerere, parere.
vituperare.

abundance, abundantia,
abuse,
(s.)

copia.

maledicta;

(v.)

accept, accipere, excipere, recipere.

achievement, acknowledge,

res gesta.

agnoscere.

acceptable, acceptus. access, have, aditum patere.


accession, accessio.

acquaintance, notus.
acquainted, become, cognoscere.
acropolis, arx.
act,
(s.)

accidentally, forte. Accius, Accius.

factum,

f acinus;

(t>.)

agere,

facere.

accompany,
accomplish,

comitari.
socius.

action, factum; bring

(legal), agere.

accomplice, conscius,

Actium,
actor,

of, Actiacus.

conficere, perficere, transi-

activity, discursus.
histrio.
afferre.

gere, efficere; consequi, agere; not ac-

complished, infectus.

add, addere, adscribere,

142
address,
qui.
(s.)

VOCABULAEY
allocutio, oratio; (v.) allo-

age, aetas, tempus; great, old, senectus; (= period) saeculum.

adduce,

affere.

aged, senex, grandis natu.


AgesilauS, Agesilaus.
Agis, Agis.
agitated, trepidans.
agree, assentire, conscntire; accedere;

adjudge, adiudicare.
adjure, obsecrare.

administration, moderatio.

admirably,

praeclare, divine.

admiration, admiratio.

On,

convenire,

componere;

it

is

admire, admirari, admit, admittere;


adopt,
cipere.
(child)

mirari.
(

agreed, constat,
agreeable, gratus.
(plan)

in confesso est.

con/ess)confiteri.

adopt are;

ex-

agriculture, agricultura, agrorum-cultus.

advance,

(s.)

adventus;

(v.)

progredi,

aid, auxilium;
subvenire.

come

to the aid of,

signa proferre, castra proferre.

advanced
stus;

(in age), senilis.


utilitas,

aim
quae-

at, petere.
(adj.), trepidus.

advantage, commodum,

alarmist

the, superiorem esse. adversity, res adversae.

have

Albius, Albius.
Alcibiades, Alcibiades.

advice, consilium.
advise, monere, admonere, praecipere.

Alexander, Alexander.
alienate, alienare.
alive, virus; be, vivere.
all,

AegOSpOtamoi, Aegos flumen.


Aeneid, Aeneis.

omnis, uni versus; all told, omnino;


all,

Aequians, Aequi.
Aetolians, Aetoli. affability, humanitas.
affable, comis; affably, comiter.
affair, res.

at

omnino.

Allia, of, Alliensis.

alliance, societas;
pacisci.

make,

societatem

allied, socius.

affect, afficere, movere.

Allobroges, Allobroges.
(filial)

affection, amor, caritas;

pietas;

allow,

pati,

permittere, sinere; it IS

to have,

diligere.

allowed,
ally, socius.

licet.

affirm, aio, affirmare.


afford, subministrare. afraid, be, metuere.

almost,
alone,

fere,

paene, prope.

solus, unus.

Afranius,

of, Afranianus.

Alps, Alpes.

afresh, iterum, rursum.

already, iam.
also, etiam, quoque.

Africa, Africa.

African, Africus. Africanus, Afkcanus.


after, (prep.)

altar, ara.
alter, mutare, vertere.

poW;

(conj.)

postquam.

although, quamquam, quamvis, cum,


licet, etc.

afterwards, post, postea, posthac.


again, iterum.
against, adversus, contra,
in.

always, semper.

Agamemnon, Agamemnon.

ambassador, legatus. Ambiorix, Ambiorix.

address

as

ambuscade, insidiae. ambush, insidiae; lie


insidiis.

Appius, Appius.
in, subsidere in

apply,

(e.g.

torch)

admovere;

(care.

remedy) adhibere.
inter.

amid, amidst,

appoint,
creare.
etc.

constituere,

praestituere,

among, apud. amount, use tantus,


ample,
largus.

quantus,

appreciate, animo capere.

apprehensive, be,

vereri.
(v.)

amputate, amputare. amuse, delectare.

approach,

(s.)

adventus;
.

accedere,

appropinquare

Amyntas, Amyntas.
ancestors, maiores.

appropriate, in suam rem convertere, approve, probare, comprobare.

anchor, ancora.
ancient, vetus, antiquus.

Apronius, Apronius.
Aquitania, Aquitania. Arabian, Arabs.
AratUS, Aratus.
Arbela, Arbela (-orum).
irasci;

and,

et,

atque, que.

anger, iracundia.
angrily, iracunde.
iratus;

angry,

get or be,
bestia.

angry

Arcanum, Arcanum.
Archimedes, Archimedes.
archon, archon. Argos, Argos. argument, argumentum,
arise,

passion, iracundia.

animal, animal,
annals, annales.

announce,
another,

nuntiare, pronuntiare.
molestia.

ratio.

annoyance,

oriri, cooriri, exoriri.

alius, alter; of, alienus.

Aristides, Aristides.
Aristotle, Aristoteles.

answer, give answer, respondere.


anticipate, anticipate.

arm,

(s.)

bracchium,

dextera; (v.)

AntigonuS, Antigonus.
AntiochuS, Antiochus.
antiquity, vetustas;
used.

armaile.

vetus

may

be

armed, armati, cum armis. arms, arma; take up, ad arma arma capere.

ire,

Antonius, Antonius.
anxiety,
sollicitudo.

army,
quicquam
quisquam;

exercitus.
circa, circum.

around,
arouse,
quis,

any,

ullus; quid, quidquid;

inritare.

with gen.;

anyone,
;

(interrog.) ecquis

ubivis,

anywhere, usquam, ubicumque; at any time,

arrange, componere. arrest, prendere, comprehendere.


arrival, adventus.

aliquando.

arrive, advenire, venire, pervenire.

Apelles, Apelles.

arrow,
art, ars.

sagitta.

Apollo, Apollo.

Apollonius, Apollonius.

artifice, ars, artificium.

appear, apparere,
constat.

videri; it

appears,

as, ut, sicut; pro;

cum, proinde acjloco


. .

with gen.; as
species.

as, tarn

quam;
(with

appearance,

as

much

as, as

highly as
.
. .

appetite^ gula.

verbs of valuing), tantus

quantus;

144
as
if,

VOCABULARY
quasi,

tamquam,

etc.;

as

it

Ausonius, Ausonius.
author, auctor. authority, auctoritas; be, auctorem
esse.

Were, quasi,

velut.

ascend, ascendere.
ascertain, resciscere.

ashamed, one
Asia, Asia.

is,

pudet.

auxiliary,
aris;

(s.)

auxilium; (adj.) auxiliauxilia.

auxiliary troops,

AsiaticuS, Asiaticus.

avail, be of, valere.

ask, ask for, rogare, interrogare; orare,


precari; petere, poscere, quaerere.

avarice, avaritia.

avaricious, avarus.

asleep, fall, obdormiscere.


assail,

avenge,
im-

ulcisci.

arma

inferre, signa inferre,

avenger,

ultor.

petum

facere; (with words) invehi in.

avert, avertere.

assassin, interfector, sicarius.

avoid, vitare, fugere.

assassinate,

interficere, occidere.

await, exspectare,

opperiri.

assassination, caedes, nex. assembly, comitium; of the people,


contio.

away,
axe,

be, abesse.

securis.

B
baby,
infans, filiolus,
filius,

assent, annuere, assentiri.


assist, iuvare, adiuvare.

puer.

assistance, auxilium, subsidium.

back, tergum.

assume,

suscipere.

backwards and forwards,


que.

ultro citro-

assure, affirmare; assured, certus.

astonished, attonitus; be, mirari. at, in, apud; be at stake, agi.

bad, malus, gravis. baggage, impedimenta.


bait, esca.

Athenian, Atheniensis.
Athens, Athenae.
Atrius, Atrius.

baldness, calvitium.
Ballio, Ballio.
(v.)

attack,
nare;

(s.)

impetus, vis;

adoriri,

band,

societas,,familia,
latro.

manus.

aggredi; consectari, invadere; oppug-

bandit, praedo,

make,

oppugnare.

banish, expellere,

in exsilium pellere.

attain, attingere, consequi, pervenire.

barbarian, barbarus.
barely, vix barely escape, vix abesse
;

attempt, conari, temptare, experiri. attend to, gerere, animum advertere.


attendant, comes, satelles, paedagogus, attention, cura, curatio; pay, curam
adhibere,
dare.

quin.

barren,

sterilis.

base, turpis.

animum

advertere,

operam

baseness, turpitude.
battle, pugna, proelium; (unfavorable),
clades;

Attica, Attica.
Atticus, Atticus.
attract, allicere; (eyes) convertere.

join, proelium committere,


conserere.

manum

battle-line, acies.

attribute, attribuere, adscribere; often


putare.

bay, fretum,

sinus.

be, esse; in, inesse;

augur, augur.

how

are

away, off, you? quid agis?

abesse;

ascend
bear, gignere, parere; (=r endure)
pati,
ferre,

boldness
Bestia, Bestia.

145

tolerare;

(=z carry) ferre, por-

tare, vehere; trahere; in

mind, me-

bestow, dare. betake one's self,

se conferre.

moria tenere.
bearer, use a
relative clause.

bethink one's

self, cogitare.

betray, prodere, indicare.


betrayal, proditio.
better, (adj.) melior; (adv.) melius, satius; (v.)

beast, bestia; wild, ferus, fera,

beat,

ferire,

verberare;

surpass) vin-

cere,
lare.

antecedere; be beaten, vapu-

meliorem

facere.

beautiful, pulcher.

between, inter, intra; space between, medius may be used.

beauty, forma, pulchritude. because, quod, quia, etc.

beware,

cavere, videre.
trepidatio, error.

bewilderment,

become, use esse. becoming, decorus; it is, decet. bed, lectus; go to, ire cubitum.
befall, accidere.

beyond, trans; plius quam.


bid, iubere
;

(with participle)

am-

(at

sale) liceri.

bind, vincire;
bird, avis.

by oath,

obstringere,

before, (prep.) ante; (with names of


towns')

inter se sancire.

ad; (adv.) antea, prius; (conj.)

antequam, priusquam; put before, praeferre; year before, annus prior.


beg, orare, petere.
beget, gignere.

Bithynia, Bithynia.
bitter, acer, acerbus;

enemy,

inimicus;

bitterly, acriter.

bitterness, acerbitas.
incipere;

begin,

coepisse,

capessere;

blame,

(s.)

culpatio, vituperatio; (v.)

battle,

proelium

committere, ma-

culpare, reprehendere, vituperare;

be

num

conserere, pugnare coepisse.

to, auctorem esse.

beginning, initium.

begone,

abire.

blessed, beatus, felix. blessing, bonum.


blhld, caecus.

begrudge,
behold,
tueri.

invidere.

behalf, on, pro.


contemplari,
conspicere,
in-

block, praecludere.

blood, sanguis; drench with, cruentare.

belief, opinio, fides;


credibilis.

past belief,

in-

bloodshed, caedes.

bloom,

florere.

believe, credere, fidem habere;


simulare.

make,

blot,

(s.)

labes; (v.) out, delere, tollere.


also vulnus;

blow,
pertinere; suus is often
ter)

(s.) ictus,

(= slaugh-

belong,
used.

esse,

caedes;

(v.)

in, invehere.

blus, herubescere.
(v.)

benefit, (s.) beneficium; iuvare.

prodesse,

boast,

gloriari.

Bocchus, Bocchus.
body, corpus; (of men) manus; as a body, in a body, universus.
bold, audax, ferox.

beseech, obsecrare, orare. beset, obsidere, circum venire,


besiege, obsidere, oppugnare.
best, optimus.

boldness, audacia.

146
bonds, vincula.

VOCABULARY
burn,
urere, ardere, cremare;

down

book,

liber;

-case, scrinium, capsa;

(intr.), deflagrare.

-keeping, ratio. booty, praeda.


born, be,
gigni, nasci.

burst forth,
bury,

se eicere,

erumpere.

efferre, sepelire.
res.

business, negotium,

boiTOW, mutuari.

busy, occupatus.
but, at, sed, rum.
nisi, etc.;

bosom,

sinus.

but in fact,

cete-

both, ambo, uterque; on both sides,


utrimque.

buy, emere.
by,
a,

bother, molest ia. bough, ramus.

ab;

way

of, via, per.

bystander, proximus.

boundary,
boy, puer.

finis.

boyhood,
brave,

pueritia;

from, a puero.
virtus.
off,

Cadiz, Gades.

fortis.

Caecina, Caecina.
Caelius, Caelius.

bravery, fortitude,

break, frangere; into, irrumpere;


dirimere; open, refringere
;

Caesar, Caesar.

through,
;

calamity, calamitas.
call, appellare, vocare, nominare.dicere;
(council) advocare;

perrumpere,
fidem exuere.

interrumpere

word,

back, revocare;
(

break of day, prima


breast, pectus.

lux, lux.

forth, OUt, evocare, excire;

sum-

mon) advocare,

excire.

breath,

spiritus.

camel, camelus.

bribe, largitio.

camp,
briefly, breviter.

castra;

Standing-,

stativa;

bridge, pons.
brief, brevis;

pitch, castra ponere.

Campanian, Campanus.
pul-

brilliant, splendidus, luculentus, pulcher;


chre.

brilliantly,

luculente,

can, posse; not, nequire. Cannae, Cannae; of, Cannensis.

canny,
ferre, adferre;

callidus.

bring,

about,

efficere;

canvass,

petitio; also preces.

across, transferre, traducere; back, referre; before (a person}, deducere


ad;

capable

of,

be

(=

hold), capere.

capital, caput.

forth, producere;

Out,

efferre,

Capitally, insigniter.

producere; up, adducere;


portare;

upon, im-

Capito, Capito.
Capitol, Capitolium.

an action,
recte.

agere.

briskly (walk),
f rater.

Capitoline, Capitolinus.
captive, captivus, captus.

bronze, of, aeneus.


brother,

capture, capere.

Bmndusium,

Brundusium.

Capua, Capua.
Carbo, Carbo.
(s.) cura; (v.) for, curare, careful, diligens, prudens; be, curam adhibere, animum ad vert ere.

Brutus, Brutus,
build, aedificare, facere. burden, onus.

care,

burdensome,

bonds
carefully, diligenter, sedulo.
careless, be, languere.

cleverly

147

Chaeronea, Chaeronea. champion, (.) vindex;


vindicare.

(v.)

defendere,

carelessness, levitas.

Caria, Caria.
carry,
ferre,

portare, vehere; across,


off,

chance, casus; by, casu, forte. change, (s.) mutatio, commutatio


mutare, vertere.

(v.)

traicere;

back, revehere;
on,
administrare,

de-

portare;

gerere;

character, mores, ingenium

et mores.

Out, exsequi; up, evehere.

Chares, Chares.
charge,
tary')
(s.)

Carthage, Carthago.
Carthaginian,Carthaginiensis,Poenus.
case, causa, res; be the, verum esse; in case, si; in the case of, in, de;

(criminal) crimen; (mili-

impetus, incursio;

have

in,

custodiam habere; let


mittere in;
(v.)

come

to, ad-

(criminal) insimulare;

in

any case,

utique in
;

many cases,

(military) procurrere.

multifariam.

Charles, Carolus.

cash, pecunia.
cast, conicere; Up, obicere. castle, arx, castellum.

charming,
cheap,
check,

lepidus.

vilis,

bonus.

coercere, impedire.
colere.

catch, capere, deprehendere, nancisci;

cherish,

Sight of, aspicere, conspicere; up,


excipere.

chide, obiurgare.
child, puer; children,
liberi, parvuli.

Category, numerus.

Choice,

electio.

CatO, Cato.
Catullus, Catullus.

choose,
velle.
(v.)

legere, deligere, eligere; creare;

cause,

(*.)

causa;

facere, efficere;

Cicero, Cicero.

(bewilderment) inicere.

CincinnatUS, Cincinnatus.

Cavalry, equites, equitatus.


Cease, cessare, desinere; desistere, absistere.

China, Cinna.
circumspection,
diligentia.

circumstance,
Cirta, Cirta.
citadel, arx.

res;

under certain
*

celebrate, celebrare.
celestial, caelestis.

circumstances, aliquando.

censor, censor. center, umbilicus.

centurion, centurio.
Ceres, Ceres. certain (pron.), quidam, nonnullus.

citizen, civis; fellow-, civis. city, urbs.


civil, civilis;

sometimes domesticus.

civil-faction, seditio.

certain

(adj.), certus;

be, certo

scire,

claim, vindicare, postulare; sometimes


quaerere.
class, genus.

exploratum habere;
scire;

know for,

certo

get certain news, certum

habere.

Claudius, Claudius.
clear,
clarus;

certainly, profecto, certe. Certainty, know to a, certum habere.

clearly,

plane,

satis,

luculenter; to

be clear, palamesse.

CethegUS, Cethegus.
Chabrias, Chabrias.

Clemency, dementia.
Cleverly, argute, acute.

148
Cleverness, astutia;

VOCABULARY
often merely in-

genium.

climate, caelum.
Clodius, Clodius.
Close, prope, propinquus;

comparable, comparandus. compare, conferre, comparare. compel, cogere.


Competitor, competitor.

at hand,

complain,
complete,

queri, conqueri.
conficere, perficere.

ex propinquo.
Cloud, nimbus.

Clusium,

men

of, Clusini.

coast, ora;

sea-, ora maritima.

composed, compositus. comprehend, intellegere, accipere. compulsion, necessitas; under, coactus.

cohort, cohors.
colleague,
collega.

comrade,
conceal,

commilito, socius; often suus.

collect, colligere, congregare, conferre; concurrere, convenire.

celare.

conceive, concipere; (hope) also capere.

colony,

colonia.
coire, concurrere.

concern,

(s.)

cura;

(v.)

pertinere ad, in-

combine,

terest, refert.

come,
nire;

venire, advenire;

about, eveon, oppriprocedere;

concert with, in, cum.


conclude,
facere.
efficere;

back,

redire;

down

treaty,

foedus

mere;

forth,

evadere,

forward, prodire;

in, introire, inire;

conclusion, escape, effugere.

near, adire, paulum abesse; to consult, adire; exire;

out,

up,
su-

concubine, paelex. condemn, damnare, condemnare.

obviam

ire,

subire, adesse

upon,

condemnation, damnatio.
condition, condicio, status.

per venire;

(=

happen)

fieri.

Comfort, commodum.

Conduct,
posteritas.

gerere; investigation, quats


ferre.

Coming, adventus; time,

stionem

Command,
praeesse.

(s.)

imperium, facultas; be
(v.)

confer, dare;

(=

take counsel) colloqui.

in, praeessej

imperare, iubere;

conference, colloquium, conventus.


confess, fateri, confiteri. Confession, confessio.

commander, imperator. commandant, praetor, praefectus. commence, incipere, coepisse; ordiri. commentary, commentarius.
Commission, mandatum. commissioner, legatus.

confidence, fiducia; lack,


Confident, be, confidere.

diffidere.

confirm, confirmare,
conflict, pugna.

sancire.

conflagration, incendium.
trepidatio,

commit,

committere, patrare; highlatrocinari


;

confusion,
bare.

perturbatio;

way
care.

robbery,

sin, pec-

wild, tumultus;

throw

into, tur-

common, communis. commons, plebs.


commonwealth,
civitas, res publica.

congratulate,

gratulari.

connection,

necessitudo;

by mar-

communicate, indicare. community, civitas. companion, comes.

riage, also affinitas. Conon, Conon.

conquer,
capere.

vincere,

superare;

(town)

cleverness
conqueror,
victor.

crisis

149

conscience, conscientia.

COOk, coquere. copy, exemplum.


Corcyra, Corcyra.
statuere;

consciousness, conscientia.

conservative, bonus.
consider,
putare,

habere,

cordial, benignus, familiaris; cordially, amice.

ponderare, cogitare.

considerable, aliquis

may

be used.

Corinth, Corinthus. Coriolanus, Coriolanus.


Cornelius, Cornelius.
correct, corrigere.

Consolation, solacium. console, consolari.

Conspiracy, coniuratio. Conspirator, coniviratus.


constable, viator.

corrupt, corrumpere.
cost, constare.

Cotta, Cotta.
Council, consilium, concilium.

constancy, constantia.
constitute, use facere.

Counsel, consilium; take, consultare,


consulere, in concilio habere.

constitution, patria instituta.

consul, consul.

consular,
perium.

consularis;

power,

im-

counselor, consiliarius. Count, numerare.

countenance,
country,

vultus, facies, os.

consulship, consulatus.
consult, adire; consulere, consultare.

counter, contra.
patria,

rus;
villa.

regio,

ager;

consultation, hold, consultare. consume, consumere, absumere; (by


fire)

-house, -seat,

exurere.

courage, virtus, animus, animi Up, animos tollere.


course
(

pluck

Contain, continere. contemn, contemnere.

= plari), consilium;

of COUrSC,

videlicet.

Contemplate, contemplari,

cogitare.

COUrt, in, in iudicio.


courtier, aulicus, purpuratus,.

contemporary,

aequalis.

contemptible, contemptibilis.

contend, contendere,
gnare, decertare.

certare, niti; pu-

cover up, tegere. covetous, avarus, cupidus.


COVCtOUSness,
avaritia.

content, contentus.
Contest, certamen.

coward, cowardly, ignavus, fugax.


CrassUS, Crassus. crazy, demens, vecors.
create, creare.

contrary, contrarius; on the, ex contrario; to, contra.

controversy, certamen, controversia.

creature, homo.
credibility, fides.

convenience, commodum.

conversant, be,
converse,

versari.

credible, credibilis.

colloqui.

credit

(=

praise), laus.

convey,

perferre.

creditor, creditor.

convict, damnare, convincere.

Cretan,
crime,

Cretensis, Cres.
scelus, f acinus,

convince, persuadere; be convinced, alicui persuasum esse.

crimen;

COm-

convoke, convocare.

mit, delinquere. Crisis, tempestas; tempora.

150
crocodile, crocodilus.

VOCABULARY
day,
trans-

crone, anicula.
cross,
gredi.

transire,

transmittere,

before yesterday, nudiusevery, cottidie; three days, triduum.


dies;
tertius;

crowd, turba.

daylight, lux. dead, mortuus the dead, mortui.inferi


;

crowded,

frequens.

for dead, pro occiso; dead of night,


silentium noctis.

Crucify, cruciare.
Cruel, crudelis.

deaf, surdus.

cruelty, crudelitas.

dear, carus, dulcis; dearly, also unice.

Crush, frangere, opprirnere.

Cry OUt, exclamare, conclamare, clamitare.

dearth, inopia. death, mors; meet, diem obire; put to, morte afficere, interficere; lay deathpenalty, morte
sancire.

cultivated, doctus.

Cumae, Cumae.
CUp, poculum.
curb, refrenare.
curse, exsecrare, maledicere.

debauchee,

luxuriosus.
luxuria.

debauchery,
deceive,

decanter, laguncula.
fallere, decipere.

curtain, palla.

custody, custodia.

decide, decernere, statuere; be decided (of a battle), inclinari.

Custom, mos, consuetude. cut, caedere; down, (men)

caedere, op-

decision, come to a, iudicare. decisive, ultimus.

primere; (things) rescindere; off, abscidere, auferre, desecare, excidere in;

declare, indicere, declarare, ostendere,


testari; (of war) indicere.

tercludere,

prohibere;

to

pieces,

caedere.

decree, (s.) consultum, decretum; by, ex decreto; (v.) decernere.

Cybele, Cybele.

deed, factum, f acinus, res gesta; sometimes opera.


iudicare,

CypseluS, Cypselus.

deem,
defeat,

putare, habere,

reri,

ducere; right, videri.


(s.)

res adversa, proelium adver-

dagger, pugio.
daily, cottidie, in dies.

sum;

(political)

repulsa;

(v.)

pellere,

vincere, superare, expugnare.

Damaratus, Damaratus.
danger, periculum.

defection, defectio.

defend,

arcere,

defendere,

munire,

dangerous,

periculosus.

tueri; (legal) also

causam

dicere.

dare, audere. daring, audacia.

defendant,

reus.

defender, vindex.
defense,
sidium;
defensio;

darkness, tenebrae. dart OUt, evolare.


dastardly,
turpissimus;

means

of,

prae-

make,

contra dicere.

dastardly

deference, modestia.

Conduct, ignavia.

deformed,
tive.

distortus.
the adverb or adjec-t

daughter,

filia.

degree, express by
(v.) illucere.

dawn,

(s.)

lux;

crocodile
delay, morari,
cunctari;

disclose
mere,

exspectare.

caedere; exscindere,

pessum

delicate, tener, tenuis.

dare; be destroyed, ruere.

delightful, iu^undus, dulcis, suavis.


deliver, tradere;

destruction, pernicies.
destructive, perniciosus.

(=

free) liberare.

Delphi, Delphi.

detain, retinere, tenere, sustinere.


deter, deterrere.
statuere, constituere, decer-

demand,
petere.

flagitare, poscere, postulare,

determine,

Democritus, Democritus.
dense, densus.

nere; consilium capere.

detract, detrahere.
infitiari;

deny, negare, denegare,


nuere.

ab-

devastate, vastare. devastation, populatio.

depart, abire, abscedere, decedere,


ficisci.

dis-

devastator, populator.
devote, devovere. diadem, diadema.

cedere; exire, excedere; migrare, pro-

departure,
proficisci.

abitus,

discessus; take,

Diana, Diana.
dictator, dictator.
die, mori, decedere,

deposit, ponere.

mortem

obire.

depressed, attonitus.
depressing,
tristis.

differ, dissentire, differre.

difference, use interest or refert.


different, alius, dissimilis; to be, distare; differently, secus.

deprive, privare, adimere.


deride, deridere.descend, descendere.

difficult,

difficilis.

describe, exponere.
desert,
(s.)

difficulty,
difficile; (

difficultas;

with,

aegre,

deserta, vastitas; (v.) de-

quarrel) simultas.

serere, relinquere; (military) transire,

dignified, gravis.

transfugere.

dignity,
tratus.

dignitas;

(=

office)

magis-

deserter, transfuga, deserter.

desertion, transitio, defectio.

dilatoriness, cunctatio.
diligence, diligentia.

deserve, merere, dignum esse; deserving, dignus, meritus.

diminish, minuere, diminuere, imminuere.

design, consilium.
desire,
(s.)

cupido, cupiditas, voluntas;


to,

dinner, cena, prandium.

according

ex

sententia;

(v.)

Dionysius, Dionysius.
direction, praeceptum.

cupere, desiderare, velle, optare.

desirous, cupidus; be, cupere,

velle.

disagree, dissentire.

despair, despair of, desperare.

disagreement,
praecontroversia.

discordia,

dissensio,

despatch,
mittere.

mittere,

dimittere,

desperado, perditus.
despise, contemnere, aspernari. despoil, spoliare. destine, destinare.

disappear, vanescere, abscedere. disaster, calamitas, clades, incom-

modum.
disastrous, gravis.
discern, cernere.
interi-

destroy delere vastare, aufer re;


,
;

disclose, aperire, enuntiare, expromere.

152
discourse, oratio.
discredit, vituperatio.

VOCABULARY
Dorippa, Dorippa.
doubt,
alicui
(s.)

use dubius; be in,


(v.)

be matdubitare,

discuss, tractare, agere, disputare.

ter of, in dubio esse;

discussion, controversia. disease, morbus.

dubium

esse.

doubtful, anceps, dubius.

disgrace, dedecus, flagitium, infamia.

drag, trahere.
drain, haurire, exhaurire.

disgraced, foedus.
disgraceful, infamis, foedus, dedecus may also be used.
turpis;

draw,

trahere, stringere; off,

(water)

emittere;

out,

extrahere,

educere;
instruere,

dishonesty,

fraus.

together,
educere.

cogere;

up,

dismiss, dimittere.

dispense with,

carere.

dread,

vereri, timere.

disposed to think, dubitare.


disposition, animus, ingenium.

dress, tunica, vestimentum.

drink, (.) potio;


drive,
agere,

(v.)

bibere, potare.
pellere;

dispute, controversia.
dissension, dissensio.

agitare,

back,
ex-

repellere;

from

position, loco moeicere,

dissuade, dissuadere, revocare.


distance,

vere;

on, rapere; out,

from

a, c longinquo.

pellere, pellere.

distant, be, abesse, distare.


distinction, ornatus.

DruSUS, Drusus.
dry, siccus; ground, use aridum.

distinguished, clarus, mus.


distress, angor.

insignis,

sum-

duck, anas.
due, debere; to be due, also dandum
esse.

distressed, be, angi, dolere, torqueri. district, use fines,


distrust, diffidere.

Duilius, Duilius.
dull, hebetare.

dumb,

surdus.

disturb, turbare, perturbare. disturbance, tumultus.


ditch, fossa.
divert, convertere.

durance, custodia; keep in, custodire.


duty, officium.

Dyrrachium, Dyrrachium.

divide, dividere.

divhie, divinus.

divulge, patefacere, enuntiare.


dizzy,

each, uterque; each other, use inter


se, nos,

become,
agis?

vertigine corripi.

vos,

etc.

do, facere; agere, agitare;

how do you

eager, avidus, cupidus; be, avere, studere;

do? quid

become,

concupiscere.

doctrine, disciplina.

ear, auris.

Dolabella, Dolabella.

early in the morning, mane. earn, mereri.


earnest, gravis.
terra.

domestic, domesticus. dominion, regnum.

donkey,
foras.

asellus.

earth,

door, ostium, ianua; out of doors,

earthquake,

terrae

(or

terrarum)

discourse
east, oriens.

esteem

J53
hostis, inimicus; of the, use

enemy,
easily,
facile.

easy,

facilis, mollis;

hostilis.

eat, edere.

energetic,
impigre.
;

impiger;

energetically,

Ebro,

Iberus.

eclipse, defect io be in, laborare.

energy, impetus,

vis; industria.

economical,
cere.

diligens.

engagement,
edioften res.

proelium,

certamen;

edict, edictum;

make, publish,

engross, occupare.

efface in

memory,

oblitterare in ani-

enhance, augere.
enjoin, iniungere.

mo.
effect, efficere.

enjoy,
conari,

frui.

effigy, imago.
effort,

enough,
rem temptare.

satis.
efferri.

make,

enraged, be, iracundia


fieri.

Egypt, Aegyptus. Egyptian, Aegyptius.


eight, octo; hundred, octingenti.

enrich, inaurare; one's Self, divitem


enrol, conscribere, adscire.

eighteen, duodeviginti.
either, uterque.

ensconced, be,
enter,
gredi, inire;

se tenere.

inire, intrare, ingredi;

elegant, lautus, venustus.

upon, a war, bellum inferre


referre.

in(in

elephant, elephantus. eloquence, eloquentia.


eloquent, eloquens; eloquently,
quenter.
else, alius.
elo-

an account book)
studium.

enthusiasm, enthusiastic support,


entreat, precari, rogare.

entreaty, (prex).
(act.)

embark,

imponere

in

navem;

(pass.) ascendere

navem.

enumerate, numerare. envoy, legatus.


envy,
(s.)

embassy, legatio. embrace, amplecti, complecti. emergency, tempus.


emissary, homo, or
lated.
to be left

invidia,

odium;

(v.)

invidere.

Ephesus, Ephesus.
epic, epicus.

untrans-

Epicurus, Epicurus.
equal,
(adj.)

par,

aequus;

equally,
(v.)

empire, imperium if military; otherwise, regnum, summa imperii.

aeque;

make,

exaequare;

ae-

quare, aequiperare.

employ,
end,

adhibere.

equanimity, aequus animus.

(s.) finis,

extremum; bring to an,


facere; (v.)

equipment,
error, error.

supellectilis.

conficere;
finire.

put an, finem


(s.)

escape,

(s.)

fuga;

(v.)

fugere, effugere,

endeavor,

conatum;

(v.)

conari,

evadere; notice, fugere.


especial, praecipuus; especially,

temptare, operam dare.

ma-

endowed,
endure,
enduring,

praeditus.

xime, potissimum, praesertim.


estate, (rank) ordo; dium, fundus.
(property)

pati, ferre; perpeti.


stabilis.

prae-

Endymion, Endymion.

esteem, aestimare,

diligere.

154

VOCABULARY
expedition,
iter.

estimate, aestimare, ponderare.


eternal,
immortalis,

eternal-exist-

expel, expellere.

ence, aeternitas. Etruria, Etruria.

expense, sumptus; at the public, publice.

Etrurian, Etruscus. Eumenes, Eumenes.

experience, usus.

expiation, expiatio.
expire, exstingui.

eunuch, spado.

Europe,

of, Europaeus.
exire, relinquere, destiluere.

evacuate,

explain, explicare. exploit, res gesta.

even, aequus, anceps; etiam; even if, etsi, etiamsi; not even, ne qui. . .

exportation, exportatio.
extant, be, exstare, comparere.

dem.

extraordinary, eximius, minis,

evening, vesperum. evenness, aquae vires.


event, eventus, eventum,
ever,
res.

extravagant, sumptuosus, ambitiosus.

extreme,
timus.
si

extremus,

supremus,

ul-

umquam

if

ever,

quando.

eye, oculus; in the eyes of, apud or


Dative.

everlasting, sempiternus.

every, quisque, omnis; body, omnes; day, cottidie; thing, omnia.


evident, be, apparere,
evil, malus.
videri.

Fabius, Fabius.
face,
os, facies, vultus.

exact, exigere.

faction, factio, partes.


inspicere,
re-

examine,

cognoscere,

cognoscere.

factious, turbulentus. fail, deficere; to notice, aliquem


lere.

fal-

example, exemplum;

after, ad.

excel, excellere, praestare.

faint, concidere.
fair, aequus.

excellent, eximius, excellent, optimus.

except, praeter,

nisi.

fairness, aequitas.
singularis.

exceptional, eximius,
excessive, nimius.

faith,

fides.
fldelis, fidus.

faithful,
fall, (s.)

excite, movere, commovere, permovere.

mors;

(v.)

cadere, coneidere;

ex-COnsul, consularis. excuse,


sare.
(s.)

occumbere,
(v.)

perire, mori;

down,

deci-

excusatio, causa;

excu-

into, incidere; on, among, Upon, in with, incidere; upon, (fear)


dere;

execrate, exsecrare.

incedere with dat.; into ruins, interire


;

execute,

interficere, occidere.

fallen, also strati.

exercise, exercere.

falling back, receptus.


false, falsus.

exhort, hortari.
exile,
(s.)

exsul, exsilium;

be

in,

ex-

family,

familia.

sulare; (v.) expellere, pellere, eicere.

famine, fames.

exist, esse.

famous,

clarus.

expect, exspectare.

far, procul; as far as possible,

quam

expectation, exspectatio.

maxime thus far, adhuc.


;

estimate
fare, agere;
agis.

force

155
intellegere, cognoscere, in-

how do you

fare, quid

rem

fieri,

venire; death, occumbere

mortem.

fasces, fasces.

fine, (adj.) praeclarus; hi fine, denique;


(v.)

fashion, mos, consuetude. fate r fatum,sors.


father, pater, parens.
fatigue, fatigare.
fault, culpa, peccatum, vitium; find,
culpare; it is the fault of, per ali-

multare.

finish, finire, conficere; up, conficere.


fire,
(s.)

ignis,

incendium;

(v.)

incen-

dere.

firmness, constantia, firmitas.


first,

primus; at, primo, primum.

quem
favor,

stat.

fish, piscis.
fit,

faultless, emendatus.
(s.)

fitted, aptus, idoneus.

beneficium, often gratum,


praestare,

five, quinque;

hundred,

quingenti.

pergratum; do,
facere; (v.) favere.

gratum
(v.) ti-

fix (day), dicere; fixed, certus, destinatus, fixus.

fear,

(s.)

timor, metus, f ormido

flattery, adulatio.

mere, metuere, formidare, vereri, horrere.

flaw, vitium.
flee, fugere, prof ugere ;

for protection,

feast, epulae.
feel, sentire, intellegere; loss,

confugere.
desidefleet, (adj.) velox; (s.) classis.

rare; gratitude, gratiam habere.

flight, fuga;

take
;

to,

fugam capere,
se conferre.

fu-

feeling, animi.

sensus;

feelings,

animus,

gam

facere in

fugam

fell, caedere.

flock, (v.) se conferre. flourish, florere.


;

fellow,

homo

f ellow-citizen, civis.

festive, festivus.

foe, hostis. foliage, frons.


;

few, pauci

how

f CW,

quotus quisque

follow, sequi; consequi, persequi, subsequi; accidere post; on,

very, perpauci. fickle, vanus.


fidelity, fides.
field, ager;
(

subsequi;

up, insequi;

(advice, counsel, law) uti;

(=. obey) obtemperare.


plain) campus.
ferox;

following, insequens, proximus, posferoterus.

fierce,
citer.

atrox,

fiercely,

folly, dementia,

filth, quintus.
fifty, quinquaginta.

fool, fatuus, stultus.

foolish, amens, stultus.

fight,

(s.)

pugna; (v.)pvignare,dimicare;

foot, pes; set, pedem inferre,

efferre;

out, hard, depugnare, dimicare.


fighter, bellator.
figure, corpus.
fill,

have on foot,
for,

moliri.

nam, enim;

(=

on account

of)

prop-

ter;de.
(office)

complere, opplere;

gerere.

forage, pabulum,

finally, denique, postremo, ad postre-

forbode, praesagire.
force, (s.) vis, vires; forces, copiae, or use poss. pron.; in force, (sally) use

mum.
find,
invenire,
reperire,

cognoscere;

(=

come upon) offendere; out, certio-

magnus;

(v.)

cogere.

56
vi.

VOCABULARY
full,

forcibly,

plenus; often

com- with a

verb;

foreign, externus.
foreigner, peregrinus, barbarus.
foresight, prudentia.
forest, silva.
forestall, praeoccupare.
foretell, praedicere.

(used of style) creber.

Fulvius, Fulvius. funeral, funus. Furius, Furius. furnish, (help) ferre furnished, t>rna;

tus.

forget, oblivisci. forgetful, immemor, oblitus.

further,

use

plus,

amplius,

longius:

furthest, ultimus.
fury,
furia.

forgive, ignoscere.

form,

(.) forma;

(v.) instituere.
ille.

future, futurum.

former,

prior; often

forsooth,

scilicet, videlicet.

fort, castellum.

fortification,

munimentum, munitio.

gain,

(s.)

lucrum;

(v.) adipisci,

assequi

fortify, munire, communire.

Gaius,

C., Gaius.

fortress, castellum.

Galba, Galba.
gallant,
fortis.

fortune, fortuna, sors; good, felicitas; be the good fortune of, contingere.
forty, quadraginta.

game,
gang,

ludus.
familia.

found, condere.
foundation, shake, labefactare. founder, conditor.
four, quattuor.

gap, intervallum.
garden, hortus.

garment,
garrison,
(v.)

vestis,
(s.)

vestimentum.
oppidani

praesidium,

fourteen, quattuordecim.

praesidere.

frame,

constituere.

gate, porta, ianua.

fray, proelium.

gate-keeper,

ianitor.

freak, prodigium.
free, liber;
licet;

Gaul,
sine;

Gallia; a, Gallus.

from,

one

is free to,

general, imperator, dux, praefectus.

set free, liberare.


libertus.

freedman,
freedom, freeman,

generosity, liberalitas. genius, ingenium.


gentle, mansuetus.

libertas.
liber.

gentleman,

vir optimus.

friend, friendly, amicus.

friendship, amicitia. fright, metus.


frighten, terrere; thoroughly, conterrere; out of one's senses, exanimare.

George, Georgius. German, Germanus.


get, adipisci, impetrare; off,

(=

escape)

evadere;

(=

move away) discedere;


explicare;
to,
;

Out,
(

(=

extricate)

from,

ab, de, ex.


fines.

= arrive) venire, ad venire, per venire


conficere;

frontier,

to land, appellere; together,


gere,

colli-

fruit, fructus.

up,

= arrange)

in-

fruitless, infructuosus.

struere; well, convalescere.


gift,

fugitive, fugitivus, fugiens.

donum, munus.

forcibly
give, dare, tribuere, tradere; over to,
dedere,

harmful
grey, caesius.
grief, dolor, maeror.

157

permittere;

up, dare, tra-

dere, relinquere, omittere;

ion, de opinione
clinare
;

up Opindecedere; way, in-

grieve, dolere.

grievous, gravis, miser,

given to, deditus.

groan,

(s.)

gemitus;

(v.)

ingemescere.

glad, be, gaudere.

ground,
grudge,

locus; give, cedere.

Glaucia, Glaucia.
glorious, clarus, celeber, praeclarus.

grove, nemus.
inimicitia.
(s.)

glory, gloria, laus; with, praeclare.

guarantee,
stringere.

praesidium;

(v.)

con-

glow,

ardere.

glut, satiare.

guard,
vere;

Gnaeus,
go,
ire;

Cn., Gnaeus.

(s.) custos; be on one's, caput a guard over, custodire;

out, exire; over

(= desert),

de-

(v.)

custodire.
custos.

ficere;

through, pervadere.

guardian,
guide,
(s.)

god, deus. gold, aurum.


golden, aureus. good, bonus; do, usui
-luck,
better, melius, satius.
esse, prodesse;

guest, hospes, convictor.

dux;

(v.)

ducere.

guilt, fraus.

guilty, malus, improbus,reus;be,reum


esse, obstringi.

felicitas; -will,

benevolentia

goods, res. gOOSe, anser.


Gorgias, Gorgias.

govern,

regere, gubernare.
civitas,

habit, consuetudo, mos. half-inclined to think, dubitare an.

government,

imperium.

Hamilcar, Hamilcar.

granary, horreum.
grandfather, avus; of a
mittere.
(adj.), avitus.

grant, concedere, tribuere, dare, pergrasp, comprehendere, capere.


grassy, herbidus.
grateful, gratus.

hamper, cogere. hand, manus; be at hand, the hands of, penes.

adesse; in

hand

over, tradere.
pulcher.
Self,

handsome,
pendio

hang, pendere; one's


finire.

vitam sus-

gratitude, gratia; feel, gratiam habere;

Hannibal, Hannibal.

show- by- action,


great,

referre.

happen,
as

accidere, contingere, evenire;


esse, fieri.

magnus,

ingens;

great
tantus;

usu venire;

as, tantus. ..quantus;

SO,

happiness,

felicitas.

greater, plus with gen.; greatly, ad-

happy,

beatus, felix; happily, beate.


contionari.

modum, magnopere.
greatness, magnitude.

harangue,

harass, vexare.

Greece, Graecia; of, Graecus.

harbor, portus.
hard, durus,
age,
difficilis;
difficilis;

greedy, avidus.

Greek, Graecus.
green
(of old age)
,

hard to manhard on, gravis.

vegetus.

harmful, be,

nocere.

158
harmonize,
hasten,
hate,
consentire.

VOCABULARY
high-priest, antistes.

harsh, asper, severus; harshly, aspere.


festinare, maturare.

highwayman,

latro.

hill, collis, clivus.

hatch, excludere.
(s.)

hillock, tumulus.
(v.)

odium;

odisse;

(pass.)

Himera, Himera.
Himilco, Himilco.
hinder, impedire.

odio esse.

hateful, invisus, inimicus. hatred, odium.

have, habere; have on, indui; have to do with, rem esse cum. head, caput;
inducere.

hindrance, impedimentum. Hippias, Hippias.


hire, conducere.
his, suus, eius.

take into,

in

animum

historian, historicus, scriptor rerum.


effusus.

headlong, praeceps,

headquarters, praetorium.
health, valetudo, salus, sanitas. healthy, sanus, salubris.

history, historia, historiae. hit (= tally), quadrare.

hold, habere, tenere


obtinere;

capere, continere

out

(=

extend), porrigere;

hear, audire, exaudire; of, rescire. heart, cor; animus, ingenium; take
to

(=

endure), resistere;

lay hold on,


do-

apprehendere.

(=

embrace), amplecti.

home, domus;
mesticus.

at, domi;

(adj.)

heartily, valde. heaven, caelum.

Homer, Homerus.
honor,
(s.)

height, altitudo.
heir, heres.
(.)

honor,

fides,

praemium;

(v.) colere,

ornare, observare.

help,

auxilium, praesidium, ops;


ferre;
(v.)

honorable,
honeste.

honestus;

honorably,

furnish, auxilium
currere.

iuvare,

adiuvare; auxilio esse, auxiliari; suc-

hook, hamus.
hope,
(s.)

spes;

(v.)

sperare;

for,

hen,

gallina.
(of place) hinc;

sperare.
(of time) ad,

hence,

ab-

hopeful,
sperare.

be,

spem

habere,

bene

hinc, ex quo;

(logical) itaque.

herald, caduceator.
here, hie;
(

horde, caterva.
hue; here's, en.
horrible, atrox.

hither)

hereafter, posthac.

horse, equus.

hereditary, hereditarius.

Hortensius, Hortensius.
hospitality, hospitium,
canis.
liberalitas.

Herod, Herodes.
hesitate, cunctari, dubitare.

hostile, infestus, hostilis.

hide, celare, occultare; operiri.


hie, se conferre; back, reflectere.

hound,

hour, hora.
house, aedes, domus, aedificium, turn; at the house of, apud.
tec-

HieronymuS, Hieronymus.
high,
altus,

eximius;
office,

highest, also

summus;

magistratus;

po-

sition, fastigium.

household, domus, familia. how, qui, quo modo; (with adj.) quam;

highminded, magnanimus, magnificus.

how much,

quantum; no matter

harmonize
how,
are
use quivis or quantusvis;

injustice

159

how

impend, imminere, impendere.


impious, impius.
implicated, conscius.

you?

quid agis?

however, quamquam, quamvis; utut. human, humanus; being, homo,

implore, implorare.

humanity, humanitas. humble, humilis; -origin,


tas.

important,
ignobili-

gravis; less, minor.


invectio.

importation,

impose, imponere.
(v.),

humor

morern gerere.

imprecate, imprecari.

hundred, centum;
tesimus.

hundredth, cen-

impudent, impudens.
in, in.

hunger, fames.
hunt, venari; down,
hurl, iacere.
insectari.

incautious, incautus, imprudens; incautiously, incaute.


incite, impellere, incitare.

hurry,
lare.

festinare, contendere; to,

advo-

inclined to think, nescire an.dubitare


an.

husband,
hush,

vir,

coniunx, maritus.

inconsiderately, temere.
increase, crescere, augere. incredible, incredibilis.

conticescere.

hyena, hyaena.

incurable, insanabilis, insuperabilis.

I, ego.

indebtedness, aes alienum. indeed, quidem, equidem.


India, India.
vanus.
indifferent, be, non curare,
(of speech)

Iberus, Iberus.
idle, piger;
if, si;

if

only, modo, dummodo.

indignant, be, indignari, indigne


ig-

ferre.

ignorance, ignorantia.
ignorant, nescius, ignarus; norare, nescium esse.
ill,

be,

indisposed, be, languescere. individual, unus quisque, singulus;


often omitted.
iners.

(adj.)

aeger, aegrotus,
fall
ill,

morbo im(adv.)

indolent,

plicitus;

aegrotare;

indulge, indulgere.
inextricable, inextricabilis.

male.
ill-health, valetudo.
ill-luck, res adversae.
illness, valetudo.

infantry, pedes, pedites.


inferior, inferior, humilis.

infirmity, infirmitas.

illumine, illuminare.

inflamed, incensus.
influence, auctoritas; have, valere.
influential, (some form
valere.
of)

image, imago.
imagine,
opinari, sibi substituere.

amplus; be,

imitate, imitari.

imitator, imitator.

inform, certiorem
sempiternus;

facere, docere.

immediately,

statim.

immortal,

immortalis,

inhabitant, incola. inhuman, inhumanus.


injure, laedere, nocere, obesse.

immortal fame,
impel, impellere.

immortalitas.

immortality, immortalitas.

injury, iniuria; do, nocere.


injustice, iniustitia, iniuria.

i6o
ink, atramentum.

VOCABULARY
invest, circumsedere.

innate, innatus.

innocent, innocens.

investigation, quaestio; without, causa indicia, causa incognita; conduct, quaestionem ferre. invitation, give, invitare.
invite, invitare.

innumerable, innumerabilis.
inquire, interrogare, quaerere.

insanity, insania.
insert, inserere.

Iphigenia, Iphigenia.
irascible, iracundus. island, insula.

insight, prudentia.
insist, instare.

inspect, inspicere.
inspire, (e.g. /ear) facere; incensus.

Isocrates, Isocrates.
inspired,
issue, exitus.

Isthmus, Isthmus.
Italian, Italicus.
Italy, Italia.

instigate, impellere. institutions, institutum.

instruct, docere, negotium dare,

instructions, praecepta.
insult, contumelia, iniuria. intact, integer, incolumis.

javelin, telum.
jest,
(s.)

iocus;

(v.)

ludere.

integrity, integritas.
intellect, ingenium.

join in battle, proelium committere,

manum
jot,

conserere.

intelligence, nuntius.

jostle, iactare.

intensely, mirabiliter.
intent, intentus. intention, animus.

not

a, nihil.
iter.

journey,
joy,

laetitia,

gaudium.

intercede, deprecari.
interest,
(s.)

joyful, laetus; be, gaudere.

of, interesse, referre;

commodum, utilitas; be with interest,

judge,

(s.)

iudex;

(v.)

iudicare,

aestimare, arbitrari.

cumulate;
(v.)

to the interest of, ex;

judgment, iudicium; give, iudicium


ferre, censere, iudicare.

movere.
esse.

interested in, be, curae

judicial procedure, in, in iudicando.

intermit, intermittere.
interpret, accipere.

Jugurtha, lugurtha.
Jupiter, Juppiter.

interrupt, intervenire.

juryman,
non

iudex.
(adv.) perinde,

intervene, intercedere.

just, Justus;
secus.

proinde,

intervention, intercessio, interventus.

interview, sermo.

justice, iustitia; sometimes aequum.

intimacy,
intimate,

familiaritas. familiaris;

justify, purgare.

on intimate

terms,
into,
in.

familiariter.

intrenchment, vallum.
introduce, introducere.
intrust, credere, committere.

keen,

acer,

acutus.
retinere, tueri, asservare;

keep, tenere,

(=

remain) se tenere;

away from,

ink
abstinere;

liberal
lasting, diuturnus.

161

back,

prohibere,

re-

servare, celare; free, conservare; out,

late, serus; later, often post; lately,

prohibere;

from,

retinere,
;

celare;
;

nuper, proxime;

too late,

sero.

together, continere Up, continuare


prphibere;

(promise) servare; (rr prevent) arcere,

Latins, Latini. Latium, Latium.

keep

silent, silere.

laugh,
dere.

ridere; at, deridere, irridere, ri-

kill, caedere, interficere, occidere.

kind, kindly,
(s.)

(adj.)

benignus, bonus;

genus; often modus.

law, lex, ius. lay aside, ponere, deponere;


ponere, deponere, submittere;
(office), se

down,

kindness, bonitas, beneficium.


king, rex.

down
(=
in-

abdicare.

kingdom, regnum.
knave, improbus.
knight, eques.

lead, ducere;

away,

deducere;

duce) impellere.

leader, princeps, dux; be, ducere.

knot, nodus.

leading man, princeps.


cognovisse, novisse; not,
esse, ignorare.

know,

scire,

nescire,

ignarum

league, societas. lean against, incumbere.


learn, discere, comperire; accipere, certiorem fieri; cognoscere.

knowledge,

scientia.

known,
tritus;

notus;

vulgatus,

not, ignotus; well-, sometimes combined with


vulgare, divulgare.

learned, doctus, peritus, eruditus, consultus.

make,

least, (adv.) minime.

leave,
egredi,

relinquere;
proficisci,

excedere,
sortiri;

exire,
will)

(by

Labici, Labici. Labienus, Labienus.

legare; off, desinere.

lecture-room, auditorium.
left, laevus, sinister;

labor, labor.

(=

remaining)

reli-

Lacedaemonian, Lacedaemonius.
lack,
(s.)

quus.

desiderium;

(v.)

use deesse.

legacy hunter, heredipeta.


legion,
legio.

lacking, be, abesse, deesse.


lad, iuvenis. laden, onustus.

leisure, otium; be at, otiosum esse.

lend,

mutuum

dare; sometimes afferre.

lady, mulier.
Laelius, Laelius.
terra, ager;

length, at, tandem.

Lentulus, Lentulus.
get to, appellere;

land,

Lepidus, Lepidus.
less, minus.

on land,
language,

(adj.) terrestris.

lingua, oratio, sermo, vox.

lessen, minuere, imminuere, levare.


let go, dimittere; let in, admittere; let
Slip, dimittere, praetermittere.

lap, sinus, lash, verbera.


last, (adj.) novissimus, postremus,

sum-

letter, litterae, epistula.

mus, supremus, ultimus;


ad
(v.)

at last,

level, sternere.

poetremum, postremo, tandem;


manere,
esse.

Lewis, Ludovicus.
liberal, liberalis; liberally, libere.

162
liberality, liberalitas.

VOCABULARY
lop
off, resecare.
(s.)

liberty, libertas.

lord,
lose,

dominus;

(v.)

dominare.

Libyan, use
lictor, lictor.

gen. of Libya.

amittere, perdere; to be lost,

per ire.

lie, mentiri; iacere;

torpid, torpere.

loss,

damnum,
clare.

iactura; detrimentum,

lieutenant, legatus.
life, vita ; often salus.

caedes; feel, desiderare.

loudly,
love,

Ligarius, Ligarius.
light, lux;

(.)

amor,

benevolentia

(v.)

grow,

lucescere; be, lucere.

amare,

diligere.

light-armed, expeditus.
lighten, levare.

lovely, pulcher.

low, humilis,
lay low,
(adv.)

ignobilis;

lower,

inferior;

Ligurians, Ligures.
like, (adj.)
similis;

sternere.

tamquam;
videri.

(v.) diligere, velle,

amare.

low-born, ignobilis. lower gods, inferi.


loyal service, obsequium.
loyalty, pietas,
fides,

likely, verisimilis;

seem,

limb, membrum.
limit,
finis,

terminus.

line, (of battle) acies; (of march)


in, structus.

agmen;

lucidly, lucide, dilucide. LUCIUS, L., Lucius.

luck, fortuna; good,

felicitas.

linger, cunctari.
list, litterae.

lucky

felix.

Lucretius, Lucretius.

listen to, audire, auscultare.

LuCUlluS, Lucullus.

literature, litterae.
little,

luncheon, prandium.
lust, cupiditas, libido, voluptas.

parvus; too, parum.

live, vivere, habitare, esse; superstitem


esse.

luxury, luxus, luxuria.

Lyons,

of, Lugdunensis.

living, (adj.) vivus; creature, animal;


(a.)

Lysander, Lysander.

victus.

load, cumulate, onerare. loan, (.) mutuum;


locate, locare.
locust, locusta.
(v.)

mutuum

dare.

Macedon, Macedonia; of, Macedo. Macedonian, Macedonius; Macedo.


machinations,
insidiae.

lodgings, take, habitare.


lofty, excelsus.
longus, diuturnus; (adv.)

long,

(adj.)

diu, (with adv. of time) multo; longer,

madness, insania, furor. Maevius, Maevius. magistracy, magistratus.


magnificent, magnificus, grandis.

diutius; for
diu, in

a long time, diu, iam longum; as long as, quoad.


desiderare, exoptare.

Mago, Mago.
maiden,
virgo.

long for,

longing, desiderium.

mainland,
respicere for,
;

continens.
aio.
efficere,

look

at, spectare

back,

maintain,

quaerere, exspectare, sperare; in, inspicere; to, vereri;

make,

facere,

creare;

for,

up, quaerere.

petere, repetere.

liberality

Miltiades

163

malady,

aegrotatio.
violare.

may

be, forsitan.
paucitas.

maltreat,

meagre numbers,
meal, mola.
is,

Mamilius, Mamilius. man, homo, vir; often


etc.
,

quis, quisque,
;

or omit; (generic)

homines y Oling

man, iuvenis; old man, senex; to a man, ad unum. manage, gerere, regere, administrare.
manifest, manifestus.

mean, (adj.) sordidus; (v.) dicere. meaning, vis. meantime, meanwhile, interea,
terim.

in-

measure,
tiri.

(.) modus; often res;

(v.)

me-

manifold, multiplex.

meat

(food), cibus.

mankind,

mortales.

medicine, medicina.

Manlius, Manlius.

meditate,

cogitare, consilium capere.


cogitatio.
ire,

manly, virilis. manner, modus.

meditation,

many,

multus, plures;

good many,
tot;

meet, convenire, occurrere, obviam ob viam esse ad (death) oppetere


; ;

(in

plurimus; so
as, tot
.
.
.

many,

as

many

battle)

concurrere.

quot.

mar, deformare. Marathon, of, Marathonius. march, (s.) iter; be on the, adventare;
(v.)

meeting, (deliberative) concilium. Megalensian, Megalensis.

memoir, commentarius. memorable, memorabilis.

progredi, procedere, iter facere;

memory, memoria;
of

in the

memory
memorare
T

forth, out, egredi.

men,

post
(s.)

memoriam hominum.
(v.)

MarcelluS, Marcellus.

mention,

mentio;

Marcus, M., Marcus, maritime, maritimus.


Marius, Marius.

nominare;

by name, nominate,

merchant, mercator. mercy, misericordia.


merely, modo.
familias.

marriage, nuptiae. married woman, mater

many,

nubere,

uxorem

ducere.

message, nuntius. Messana, Messana.


messenger, nuntius.
Metellus, Metellus.

marvelous,

admirabilis.

Masinissa, Masinissa.

mass,
(v.)

(s.)

multitude; masses, multi-

tudo, vulgus, plebs; confused, turba;


conferre, congregare.

Metrodorus, Metrodorus. midnight, media nox.


midst, medius.

massacre,

caedes.
erus, magister.

might,
mild,

vis;
vi.

with might and main,


mildly,
leniter.

master, dominus,

summa

match,

par.

lenis, mitis;

material, materies.

mile, mille passus.

maternal, maternus.

military, militaris; career,


it

opera-

matron, matrona.
matter,
(s.)

tions, militia; science, res militaris;

res;

decide, rem gerere;

matters,

refert.

do military service, Milo, Milo.


Miltiades, Miltiades.

militare.

may,

use

licet.

164

VOCABULARY
move, movere, commovere;
se

mind, animus, mens; make up one's mind, statuere, decernere.


mingle, permiscere.

se

movere,

commovere;
(adj.)

(forces)

(pro)movere.

much,
tus
. .

multus; (adv.) magnopere;

mischievous,
rimus.

perniciosus.
(of character) deter-

very, magnopere; as
.

much

as, tan-

miserable, miser;

quant us.

Mucius, Mucius.

misery, miseria.

mud,

lutum.

misfortune, incommodum, calamitas,


casus; res adversae.

multitude, multitude, vulgus, turba.

miss, desiderare, requirere.

murder, caedes, nex. murderer, homicida.

missing,
mission,

error.

Murena, Murena.

legatio; res
error;

may

often be used.

murmur, murmur.
musician, musicus.

mistake,
mistress,
era.

by, per errorem.


errare,
falli.

mistaken, be,

mute, mutus.

(=

concubine) paelex, mere-

my,

meus.

trix; (of household)

domina;

(of slaves)

mystery, mysterium.

Mithridates, Mithridates.

N
Naevius, Naevius.

mixed multitude, mob, the, vulgus.


mediocriter.

turba.

moderate, modicus; moderately well,


moderation, moderatio; inclined
moderatus.
to,

naked, nudus. name, (s.) nomen;

(v.)

nominare.
angustiae.

narrow, angustus; pass,


native, use patriae. naturally, natura.

nation, natio, gens, populus.

modest, modestus. modesty, modestia, pudor.


mollify, mitigare.

nature, natura, genus; of what,

qualis.

money,

pecunia, argentum.
nefarius.

naval,

navalis.

monstrous,

navigation, navigatio.

month, mensis. moon, luna.


morals, mores.

navy, naves.
near, prope to come, adventare.
;

nearly, paene,
nitidus.

fere,

prope.

more, most,

plus, amplius, magis.


(adj.)

nearness, propinquitas. neat, necessary, necesse; use opus.


necessity, necessitas.

plurimi, plerique; (adv.)

maxime, plurimum, potissimum.

mother, mater, mother-in-law,


motive, causa,

socrus.

need, egere; opus;


neglect, neglegere.

often deesse.

moulder, formator.

neighbor,
neither,

vicinus, alter, accola.

mound,

tumulus.

neuter;
. . .

neither ... nor,

mountain, mons. mourn, lugere. mourning, luctus.

neque

neque.

Nero, Nero.
Nervii, Nervii.

mind opportunity
never, numquam. nevertheless, tamen.

i6 5

observe, contemplare, servare.


obstinate, pertinax.
adipisci, obtinere; consequi, su-

new, novus. news, nuntius; get, certiorem


carry, nuntium adferre, newspaper, acta diuma.

obtain,
fieri;

mere.

renuntiare.

occasion, tempus, occasio.

OCCUpy, occupare, obsidere; be OCCUpied, versari.

next, posterus, proximus. night, nox -fall, principium noctis.


;

OCCUr to one's mind,


venire.

in

mentem

alicui

nine, novem.

no, nullus; no one, no

man, nemo;
(with verb

ocean, Oceanus.
of, de.

say no, negare in no


;

way

'concern'), nihil.

odium,
nobles, opti-

invidia.

nobility, nobilitas, nobiles.

off, be, abesse.

noble,

nobilis,

clarus;

offer, dare, deferre, offerre, praebere.


office, magistratus.

mates.

noise, clamor, strepitus. Nola, Nola.

often, saepe; as often as, quoties.


old,
vetus,

antiquus;

older,

maior;

none of

= no.

Oldest, eldest,

maximus natu; in
.

Noricum, Noricum.
nose, nasus; broken, nasus conlisus. not, non, baud. note,
litterulae, codicilli.
nihil.

years Old,

the olden time, antiquitus; be. annos natum esse.


.

Old age, senectus; old

man,

senex; old

woman,

anus, anicula.

nothing,

omen, omen, ostentum.


omit, omittere, praetermittere.
on, de.
once, semel; (= formerly), olim, quondam at, actutum, statim, e vestigio.
;

notice, videre; give, pronuntiare.

notwithstanding, nihilominus.
novel, fabula. now, nunc now
;
.

now, modo

modo.

one, unus;

nowhere, nusquam.

no one, nemo; one or the other, alteruter; one another, inter


(adj.) solus,
if

Numa, Numa.
number, numerus; great number, multitudo, multi; small number, pauci a number, plures. numerous, multus.
;

se, nos, vos.

only,

unus; (adv.) modo, so-

lum, tantum;

only, modo.

Open, Open,

(adj.) patens, apertus.


(v.)

solvere, aperire,

resolvere;

nurture, use

alere.

be, patere.

Openly, aperte, palam.


opinion,
oar, remus.
sententia, opinio, iudicium;
iudi-

form, have, existimare; give,


cium facere;
decedere.

oath,

ius

iurandum, sacramentum.

give up, de opinione

obedience, oboedientia, obsequium.

obey, parere, oboedire.


Object,
nolle.

opponent,

adversarius.
occasio,

Opportunity,
give, offerre.

opportunitas;

obscurity, obscuritas, ignobilitas.

66

VOCABULARY
package,
fasciculus.

Oppose, opponere, adversari.


Opposite, contrarius, adversarius.

pain, dolor.
paint, pingere.

Oppress, opprimere, premere.


or, aut, an, vel.

painting, pictura, tabula.


palace, regia, palatium.
pale, be, pallere.

Oracle, oraculum.

orator, orator.

Oratory, eloquentia. ordain, sancire.


order, (.) (= rank) ordo; (= command) iussum, imperatum; give orders, imperare;
(v.)

parasite, parasitus.

pardon,

(s.)

venia;

(v.)

ignoscere.

parent, parens.
part, pars;
(

rdle)

partes, persona;

iubere.

parts, loca; for the most, plerumque,

origin, origo.

magna ex

parte.

originate,

oriri.

Other,

alius; others, Others, alienus.


aliter.

ceteri, reliqui;

of

particular, proprius. partisanship, studium.

party,

(=

faction) pars, partes;

din-

otherwise,

ner-, cena.

Othonian, Othonianus.
ought, debere,
our, noster. out, out of, ex; to be, foras exire; out of doors, foras.
oportere, convenire.

pass,

(s.)

angustiae; be at

a desperate,

magno
pass,
(v.)

discrimine nutare;

come

to,

evenire.
transire;

away,

cedere; over,

transcendere,

praetervehi;

round,
agere or

Outbreak, intemperies.
outrage, indignitas, contumelia, iniuria.
Outsider,
(ad/.) peregrinus.

circumferre; by, praetermittere, praeterire;

(law)

ferre;

(time)

(intr.) abire.

overbearing, superbus.

passage,

transitus.

overburdensome, pergravis. overcome, vincere, superare.


Overhaul,
consectari.
laetus.

passing, transitus.
passion,
libido.
res.

past offences, ante actae


patient
patiently, patienter. patrician, patricius.

overjoyed,

(sick), aeger, aegrotus.

overpower, opprimere.
overtake, consequi.

overthrow,
delere.

(*.)

pestis; (v.) evertere,

patrimony, patrimonium.
patrol, obambulare.

Overturn, evertere.

pattern, exemplum, genus.

Overwhelm,
owe,

opprimere.

debere, oportere.

Paullus, Paullus. pavilion, tabernaculum.

Owing to, be, fieri with Ablative. Own, proprius; often a form of ipse.
Owner, dominus.

pay, numerare, persolvere; down, numerare;

attention,

animum

adhi-

bere, curationem adhibere;

penalty

for, poenas dare, supplicia lucre.

peace, pax.
pacification, bring into, pacare.

peculiar, proprius.

pacify, pacare.

Peloponnesian, Peloponnesius.

oppose
penalty, poena, supplicium. penny, use tantulum, tantillum.
people, homines, often omitted; (com-

Porsena
phrase, locutio; often omitted. physician, medicus.

pick up, excipere.


picket, statio.
pierce, confodere.

mon) plebs; populus, gens.


perceive, intellegere, sentire, animadvertere, cernere, perspicere.

pillow, pulvinum.
pilot, be, gubernare.

perch, devolare.

perchance,

forte.

piracy, piratica.
pirate, pirata.

perform,
perhaps,

fungi.
fortasse, forsitan, forte.

Pericles, Pericles.
peril, periculum.

Piso, Piso. pitch (camp), ponere,


place, locus.

locare.

period, tempus.
Peripatetic, Peripateticus.
perish, perire, interire, exstingui. permission, use voluntas; give, permittere.
sinere licere.
;

plague, (.) pestis; plain, campus.


plan, consilium.
plate, lamina.

(v.)

premere.

permit, permittere,
Perseus, Perseus.

Plato, Plato. play, fabula; play-book, fabula.


plead, dicere, deprecari.

perpetual, perpetuus.
persevere, perseverare.
Persia, Persia.

pleasant, suavis, iucundus.


please, placere.

pleasing, iucundus, gratus.

Persian, Persicus, Persa.


Persians, Persae.
persist, perseverare, instare.

pleasure, voluptas; have, delectari.

pledge, pignus.
plots, insidiae; lay, insidiari. plow, arare; around, circumarare.

person, homo; in, coram, ipse


perspicacious, perspicax.

pluck,
lere.

vellere;

out, evellere; Up,

tol-

persuade, suadere, persuadere; be perSUaded, persuasum habere.

plunder,

spoliare, praedari.

pervade, pervadere.
perverseness, improbitas.
pestilential, pestiferus; region, pestilentia.

plunge

(sword), deferre.

poem, carmen, poema.


poet, poeta.

poignant,

gravis.

Petelia, Petelia.

point, mucro.

Peter, Petrus.
petition, postulatio. petty, minutus.

poison, venenum.
polished, cultus, expolitus.
Pollio, Pollio.

Phaedria, Phaedria.
Pherecydes, Pherecydes.
Philip, Philippus.
Philistus, Philistus.

ponder, pensare.
poor, pauper, tenuis; fellow, pauper,

popular, popularis, gratus.


popularity,
gratia.

philosopher, philosophus.

populous,

celeber.

philosophy, philosophia.

Porsena, Porsena.

68
may
sometimes

VOCABULARY
be

portentous,

ex-

presence
present,

of, in the, use apud.


(adj.)

pressed by quantus.

hie,

position, locus, status; high


dignitas, magistratus.

(=

office),

donum; presently, mox.


esse; (s.)

(v.)

praesens; be, addonare.

possess, possidere, habere, one's self of, potiri.

tenere;

preservation, conservatio.
preserve, conservare, servare.
preserver, conservator.
preside, praesidere. press forward, contendere.

possession, possessio; get,


pisci;

potiri, adi-

have,

tenere; take, occupare,

sumere.
possible, to be, use posse.

pretend, simulare.
prevail, vincere, expugnare; valere.

post, collocare.
posterity, posteritas.

Postumus, Postumus. potent, how, quantus.


potion, medicamentum.

prevent, impedire, prohibere, previous day, on the, pridie.


prey, praeda; of
(adj.},

officere

rapax.

priest, pontifex, sacerdos.

pour out,
power,

fundere.
in, egere. (mili-

prince, princeps.

poverty, paupertas; be

prison, career.

potestas, potentia; vis;

prisoner, captus, captivus. private, privatus, familiaris; Soldier,


manipularis, miles.

tary') imperium; have, posse. powerful, potens, validus.

practical,

utilis.

privilege, privilegium.

practice, usus.

privy, conscius.
latro-

practise
cinari.

highway robbery,

proceed, pergere.
procession, agmen.

Praeneste, Praeneste.
praetor, praetor.
praise,
dare.
(s.)

proconsul, proconsul. procure, nancisci.


(v.)

laus,

laudatio;

lau-

produce (=

bring), afferre.

profane, profanus.
profess, profiteri.

pray, precari. preach, canere.


precede, praecedere, ante
esse.

progress, cursus,
leritas.

celerit as;

rapid, ce-

precedent, exemplum.

project, cogitare.
prolix, longus.

preceding, superior. precept, praeceptum.


prefect, praefectus.
prefer,
malle,
praeferre,

prolong, trahere, protrahere, prorogare.

praeponere,

promise,

(s.)

promissum;

(v.) polliceri,

anteponere.

promittere;

make,

promittere.

preferable, potior. preferment, honor.

proof, testimonium; men.


parare.

(=

type)

speci-

preparations,

make,

proper, legitimus, iustus, rectus; properly, also probe.

prepare, prepare for, parare, praeparare; prepared, paratus.

property, bona.
proposal, propositum.

prescribe, constituere, prescribere.

portentous
propose, proponere; to one's
tendere.
Self, in-

reach
induere;
ferre;

169
together, conficere, consubicere.

under,

proscribe, proscribere. prosperity, res bonae, res prosperae,


res secundae.

putting together,

confectio.

Pyrrhus, Pyrrhus.

Pythagoras, Pythagoras.

protect, arcere, tueri, protegere. protection, salus, praesidium.


protest,
testari.

prove,
dere.

demonstrare,

probare, osten-

quaestor, quaestor.
qualification

(=

character), ars.

provide, comparare, providere. provided only, modo.

quarrel, disceptatio. quarry, lautumiae.

providence, providentia.
province, provincia. provisions, frumeutum, commeatus.

quarter,

regio, locus;

also use adverb.

queen, regina.
quickly,
quiet,
cito, celeriter.

provoke, provocare.
prudence, prudentia.
prudent, prudens;
denter.

(adj.)

quietus;

(v.)

sedare;

grow,
prudently, pru-

quiescere;

keep, quiescere,

silere, tacere, reticere;

make,

sedare;

quietly, quiete.

Prusias, Prusias.
public,
(s.)

Quintilian, Quintilianus.

populus; (adj.) publicus;

Quintus,

Q., Quintus.

affairs, res publica.

quit, egredi, relinquere.

publish, edere;
prodire.

be published, foras

quiver with excitement, trepidare. quoth, inquam.

pull,

trahere;

down,

destruere,

de-

moliri;

off, detrahere.

Punic, Poenus. punish, punire, animadvertere, supplicio afficere; be punished, poenas


dare.

rabble, vulgus.
race, genus, gens.
ira.

rage,

rainstorm, imber.
raise,
tollere,

punishment, poena, supplicium; inflict, punire.

ferre,

efferre;

siege,

omittere.

purchase, emere.
pure, sanctus.

rampart, vallum,
rank,
often .es is to be

agger,

nobilitas, dignitas.

purpose, propositum;
used.

rapidity, celeritas. rare, rarus, singularis; rarely, raro.

pursue, sequi, persequi.


pursuit, studium.

homo nequam. rash undertaking, temere suscepta


rascal,
res; rashly, temere. rather, magis, potius.

push, (war) parare; into, impingere;


on,
(intr.)

penetrare.

put, ponere; above, praeponere; before,


praeferre;
off,

ravage, populari, vastare.

down,

ponere, de-

raw, crudus; (=.


reach,
advenire,

fresh)

novus.
venire;

ponere;

differre;

on, sumere,

pervenire,

I/O
attinere, attingere, consequi;

VOCABULARY
after,

regard, aestimare, ducere, habere,


bitrari
;

ar-

appetere.

to

have regard,

vereri

with

read, legere; out, recitare; through,


perlegere.
facile, cito.

regard to, de; (= regiment, agmen.

love) deligere.

readily,

region, regio, locus, ager.


get, parare;

ready, paratus, expeditus; be ready


to help, praesto esse;

regret, dolere, paenitere. regular, use ars, or sometimes iustus.

get one's

self, se

comparare.

regulator, moderator.

reality, in, re vera.

Regulus, Regulus.
reign,
rein,
(v.)

really, re vera, hercule. reap, metere.

regnare;

(s.)

regnum.

(s.)

habena;

(v.)

in, sustinere.

rear, tergum.

reinforcement, auxilium.
rejoice, gaudere, laetari.
relate, dicere, memorare, referre.

rearing, educatio.

reason,

ratio; causa.

rebel, deficere.

relation, status.
relax, cessare.
(features)

rebuke,

castigare.

recall, revocare; agnoscere;

release, laxare.

agnoscere.

relegate, relegare.
recipere,

receive,

accipere,

excipere,

relieve, levare, liberare.

suscipere.

relinquish, relinquere.
rely, confidere, fidere.

recent, recens; recently, nuper. recline, recumbere.

remain, manere, remanere, permanere;


superesse.
;

recognize, noscere, cognoscere.

recommendation, commendatio
(adj.),

of

remark,

(s.)

dictum;

(v.)

dicere;

make
em-

commendaticius.

reconcile, conciliare;
in gratiam redire.

be reconciled,
specu-

Counter, contra disputare. remedy, medicina, remedium;


ploy, mederi. remember, meminisse.

reconnoitre,
lari.

circumspectare,

remind, monere, admonere.


remit, remittere.

put on, litteris mandare. recount, memorare; renumerare.


record,

remove, amovere, removere,


tollere.

auferre,

recover, recuperare, recipere.


recreant, be, prodere.

rend, scindere.
render, reddere.

reduce, redigere, revocare.


refer, deferre, referre.
reflect, cogitare.

renew, renovare, redintegrare, reparare.

refrain, abstinere, sibi temperare, procul esse.

renown, gloria. renowned, clams.


repay, reddere.
repeatedly, identidem.
repel, propulsare.

refuge,

perfugium,

receptum;

take,

confugere; place of, perfugium, locus

ad fugam.
refuse,
recusare,

reply, respondere.
negare;

refuse

to

report,

(v.)

profiteri,

deferre,

renun-

have, repudiare.

tiare; denuntiare; (s.)

fama.

read
representative, legatus.

run
reward, praemium.
rewrite, rescribere.

171

reprimand,

increpare.

repudiate, repudiate.
repulse, repellere.

Rhine, Rhenus.

Rhodes, Rhodes.
rich,
dives, locuples,

reputable, honestus. reputation, fama, laus.


request, orare.
require, quaerere; cogere.

opulentus;

(of

dishes) opimus.

rid,

get rid of,

tollere e

medio, ponere.

ridicule, der'dere.

rescue, liberare. resemble, similem esse.

ridiculous, ridiculus.
right, (adj.) iustus, aequus, fas; sometimes
rectus;
(of

resentment,
reserve,
quere.

dolor.

direction)

dexter;

servare,

reservare;

relin-

hand, dextera;
videri.

it is, oportet;

deem,

resign, deponere; se abdicare.


resist, resistere, arcere.

resolve,

statuere,

constituere,

decer-

ius; rightly, iure. rigor, severitas. ring, anulus.

right (.),

nere; placere.

riotOUS, turbidus.
river, flumen, fluvius, amnis.
(v.)

resources, opes.
respect,
(s.)

genus, res;

vereri,

road,

via, iter.

respicere; respected, ornatus.

roam,

vagari.

respective, use

suum

quisque.

rob, rapere, orbare, volare.

response, responsum.
rest, (adj.) ceteri, reliquus; (.)
(v.)

robber,
quies;

latro, praedo.

rod, virga.
role, persona.

quiescere.

restore, reficere, restituere, reddere.


restrain, retinere, attinere, temperare.
result, eventus, eventum.

Roman, Romanus. Rome, Roma.


Romulus, Romulus.
Roscius, Roscius.
rouse, incitare, hortari; incendere.
rout, fundere. rower, remex.

retain, asservare, retinere. retard, morari.


retire, regredi, cedere.

retort, referre.

retreat, perfugium.

royal, regius.
(v.) redire,

return, (.) reditus;

reverti;

ruffled, peturbatus.

(=

give back) reddere.

ruin, (.) interitus;

(v.)

perdere.

reveal

(=

relate), narrare.

ruinous,

exitiosus.
(v.)

reverence,

colere.

rule, (.) imperium;

regnare, admi-

reverse, detriment um, adversa pugna.

incommodum,

nistrare.

ruler, moderator, rector.

revive,

(=

repeat) repetere;

(=

renew)

excitare.

Rullus, Rullus. rumor, fama; rumor,

revolt, deficere.

run, currere, fugere; against, incurrere;


sufficient.

revolution, res novae, revolutionist, malus is

out,

excurrere;

through

(trans.), transfodere.

172
rush forth,
se eicere
;

VOCABULARY
up, advolare.
scimitar, acinaces.
Scipio, Scipio.

Rutilius, Rutilius.

scoundrel,
sufficient.

improbus;

homo

is often

SCOUt,

(=

despise) aspernari.

Sabine, Sabinus.
sack,
direptio.
sacer.
(s.)

Scream,

vociferare.
diligenter.

Scrupulously,
sacrificium; (v.)

sacred,

SCUttle, perforare.

sacrifice,

immo-

lare, sacrificare,

mactare.

Scythian, Scytha. Sea, mare; -coast,


-farer,

ora

maritima;

safe, securus, incolumis, tutus,

nauta; -fight,

naumachia;
corn-

safety, salus; in, salvo capite.

hold a sea-fight, naumachiam


mitt ere.
seal,
(s.)

Saguntines, Saguntini. Saguntum, Saguntum.


sail, navigare, vehi.

sigillum;

(v.)

sigillum impo-

nere.

sailor, nauta.

season, tempus.
Seat, (s.) domicilium; secession, secessio.
(v.)

Sake

of, for, propter, causa. Of, Salaminius.

ponere.

Salamis,
Salutary,

sally, eruptio, excursio.


salutaris.

seclusion, secessus

salute, salutare.

Second, um.

alter,

secundus; time,

iter-

salvation,

salus.

same, idem; at the same time, often simul; in the same way, similiter.
Samnites, Samnites. sanctuary, cella, templum.
Sardinian, Sardus.
satisfaction,

Secret, arcanus, secretus. secretly, clam.

section, regio. secular, saecularis.


security, vades.
see, videre, cernere, conspicere, (a show)

demand,

res repetere.
ferocitas.
(citadel) libe-

spectare; clearly, perspicere; See to


it,

savage,
rare.

ferox;

-temper,

videre.

save, servare, reservare;

Seek, petere, repetere, quaerere; out,


after, petere, expetere.
videri.

say, dicere, loqui. saying, dictum.

Seem,
seize,

seer, vates.
capere,

Scaevola, Scaevola.
scantiness, exiguitas.

rapere;

occupare, pre-

hendere; corripere.
Select, legere, eligere.

scanty, exiguus.
scarcely,
vix;

scarcely

any one,

Self, ipse.

nemo

fere.

Scatter, dissipare. ScauniS, Scaurus.

Self-restraint, continentia, abstinentia. Seller, venditor.

Senate, senatus; -house, curia.

scholar, discipulus.

School, schola.
science, scientia.

Senator, senator; choose, legere senatum.


send,
mittere;

in

ahead,

praemittere;

rush

situated
litus.

173

away,

dimittere;

for,

arcessere,

shore,
short,

accire; out, emittere.

brevis;

time,

paulisper,

pa-

sense, prudentia;

sense of

honor,

rumper.

honestum;
scere.

come

to senses, resipi-

shout, clamare; in protest, reclamare.

show,
vigil.

(s.)

spectaculum; give, exhibit,


edere;
(v.)

sensible, prudens.

spectaculum
significare,

praebere,
os-

sentry,

confirmare;
se ferre;

docere,

separate, dirimere, separate.


serious,
gravis,
serius;

tendere; prae

gratitude,

seriously,

(by action) referre; itself, exsistere.

Shrewdness, prudentia.

sermon, praeceptum.
Servant, servus, puer; be, servire. Serve, servire (of a soldier) militare.
;

shut, operire, occludere.


Sicily, Sicilia.

sick, aeger, aegrotus; be, aegrotare.

Service,

opera,

meritum;

loyal, ob-

sickness, aegrotatio, morbus.

sequium.
serviceable,
utilis;

Sicyon, Sicyon; of, Sicyonius.


be, usui esse.
side, latus, pars;
(

party) partes;

OH

servitude, servitus.
Sestius, Sestius.
Set, ponere; before, ponere, proponere-

the one side, hinc; at one's side,


use consessor.

siege, obsidio, oppugnatio; begin, use

down,
tiri;

ponere, statuere forth, expo;


;

nere, demonstare; out, proficisci, sor-

up, ponere.

endure, oppugnari; lay, oppugnare; raise, omittere obsidionem. siege-WOrks, munitiones.


verbs;

settle, conficere; diiudicare.

sight,

conspectus;

catch,

aspicere,

seven, septem; seventh, septimus.

conspicere.

seventy, septuaginta.
several, aliquot.

Sign, signare.

signal, signum.
Silence, silentium in, tacitus.
;

severe, gravis; less, levior; severely,


graviter.

silent, tacitus; be,

keep,

tacere, silere.

Severity, gravitas.

silliness, insulsitas, ineptia.


silly, ineptus, insulsus;
(note)

Shades,

inferi.

litterae

shadow, umbra,
shameful,
turpis.

insulse scriptae; be, desipere.

silver, (adj.) argenteus;

(s.)

argentum.

shapely, formosus. share, partiri, communicare.


sharer, socius.
shatter, diminuere.

simple, simplex.

simpleton,
peccare.

stultus.

sin, peccatum, impietas;

commit,

use

sheep,

ovis, pecus.

since, quod, quia, etc.

shepherd,

pastor, opilio.

sing, cantare.

shield, scutum, clipeus.

singer, cantor,

Ship, navis, navigium. shirt, tunica interior.

singular, singularis.
sister, soror.
sit, sit Still, sedere.

Shock,

offendere.

shoot, conicere.

situated,

situs, positus.

174
situation, situs; fortuna.
six, sex.

TOCABULARY
or other, nescio quando, aliquando.

sixty, sexaginta.
skill, peritia, prudentia, ars.

son, films; son-in-law, gener. Song, cantus, carmen.

skilled, peritus.

SOOn,

cito, celeriter,

statim; paulo; mox.

Sky, caelum.
slaughter,
vire.
(v.) interficere.

SOOthe, mulcere.
a, ser-

slave, servus, mancipium; be

sorry, one is, paenitet. sort, of what, qualis.


SOul, animus.

slavery, servitus.
Slay, caedere, interficere, necare.
Sleep,
bare.
(*.)

sovereignty,

summa

imperil.
facere.

SOW,

serere,

sementem

somnus;

(v.)

dormire, incu-

Space, spatium.

Spain, Hispania.
parvus,
exiguus;

slight,
leviter.

slightly,

spare, parcere.

Speak,
dilabi, elabi;

dicere, loqui.

Slip

away,

out,

elabi.

spear, hasta, telum.


special, praecipuus.

Slough, vorago.
small, parvus, modicus, humilis, minutus.

Spectacle, spectaculum.

Spectator, spectator.

smite, percutere.

Snake, anguis, serpens.


Snatch, rapere; untimely, praeripere.
sneeringly, per iocum.

Speech, oratio, eloquentia; orationem habere.


speed,
celeritas.
cito,

make,

Speedily,
propere.

confestim,

celeriter,

SnOW,

nix.
sic, ita,

SO, tarn,

adeo, itaque; SO great,

SO much, tantus; and SO, itaque; so ... as, so much ... as, tam
. . .

Spend, impendere, erogare; ponere. Spirit, animus spirits, also animi.


;

Spoil,

quam; so many,
Socrates, Socrates.
sofa, lectulus. soil, solum.

tot.

Spot,

make, on the,
oriri;

spoliare.
ilico,

extemplo.

Spring,

up,

also exsistere.

sprinkle, aspergere; upon, inspergere.

Spy Out,

scrutari.

solace, solatium.
soldier, miles. solecism, soloecismus.

Stab, percutere, confodere. stadium, stadium.


Staff (of a general), consilium.

solitude, solitudo.

Solon, Solon.

Stain, aspergere. stained, maculosus.

Some,

aliquis, quis, nonnullus; quidarn;

Stand,

stare, esse, se habere;

Stand in
consis-

-day, aliquando; -distance, aliquan


tisper;

Way,
tere.

obstare;

take Stand,

-thing, aliquid, quid; -times,

aliquando, interim;

-what,

nonnihil,

Start, proficisci.

aliquantum;

-where,

nescio quo;

Starvation, inedia.
State,
(s.)

-body or Other,

nescio quis;

-how

res publica, civitas;

(=

con-

or other, nescio quo modo; -time

dition) condicio, status; (v,) tradere,

situation
dicere, explicate; of
licus;

support
Subdue, domare, superare.
subject,

175

the State, pubpublice.

by the State,

(adj.) subiectus; (v.) subicere.

Statement, enuntiatio.
station, locus.

subjugate,
gare.

subigere,

domare, subiu-

statue, statua, signum.


stature, statura. Stay, manere, residere, quiescere.

Sublician, Sublicius.

subsequently, subinde.
substitute, subicere.

stead, in, pro.

subvert, subvertere. succeed,


dere.

steady, assiduus.
Steel, use ferrum.

succedere,

imperio

succe-

Steep, (v.) inficere. Step OUt, progredi. Stephanus, Stephanus.


Stick, haerere.
Still,

Success, successus.
Successful, secundus,
felix.

successor, be, in locum alicuius succedere.

(adv.)

etiam, etiamtum, adhuc;

tamen, nihilominus.
Stipulate, pacisci; be Stipulated, convenire.
Stir, se
incitare.

SUCCOr, succurrere. SUCCUmb, succumbere.

such,

(of quality) talis, is, ille;


.
. .

Such

as, talis

qualis; (of extent) tantus,


gen., ita, adeo.

movere; Up,

tantum with
tinus.

Stoic, Stoicus.

Sudden, necopinatus,
lapis.

subitus,

repen-

Stone, saxum,

Stop, cessare, consistere.

Storehouse, thesaurus.

Suddenly, subito, repente. Suetonius, Suetonius.


Suffer, pati, condolere, laborare, acci-

Storm, tempestas, procella; (= siege) expugnatio; take by, expugnare.


Story, fabula, narratio, narratiuncula
often res.
;

pere;
sinere.

(=

permit)

pati,

permittere,

suffering, aegritudo.
sufficient, satis; sufficiently, satis,

Straits, angustiae.

Strange, externus.

suicide,

commit, mortem

sibi

con-

stratagem,
street, via.

dolus.

sciscere.

Suit, convenire.

Strength,

vis, vires; also

robur.

Suitable, idoneus.
Suite, consilium.

strengthen,

stabilire.

Strife, certanien, dissensio.

Sulla, Sulla.

Strike, ferire; Strip, nudare.

out

for, petere.

SulpiciuS, Sulpicius.

summer,
niti, coniti.

aestas.

Strive, contendere,

Summon, appellare, advocare, excitare,


evocare.

Strong, validus.
struggle,
(s.)

certamen;
(v.)

(v.) luctari.

sun,

sol.

Study,

(s.)

studium;

studere.

sunset,

solis

occasum.

Stumble,

oflfendere, incidere.
stultitia.

superabundance, abundantia.
superfluous, supervacuus.

stupidity,

Style, oratio, genus dicendi.

support,

sustinere, subire.

176
Support,
(enthusiastic)

VOCABULARY
studium; VOte
talent,

talentum.

in, suffragari.

talk, loqui.

Suppose,

opinari, arbitrari; sperare.

tame, domare.
tardily, tarde.

Supremacy, dominatus.
sure, be, use
scire.

Tarentine, Tarentinus.
Tarquinii, Tarquinii.
superare,

Surname, cognomen.
surpass,
cedere.

praestare,

ante-

Tarquinius, Tarquinius.

Tarracina, Tarracina.
tarry, morari, manere.
se dedere,

Surprise, opprimere.

surrender, (.) deditio; (.)


se permittere, se tradere.

task, negotium.

teach, docere,
tear, lacrima;

profiteri.

Surround, circumdare,
venire,

cingere, circum-

with

tears, lacrimans.

circumsistere.
esse, superesse.

tear down, diruere.


tedious, longus.
tell, dicere, narrare, enarrare, indicare

Survive, superstitem

Suspect, suspicari, suspicere.

Suspicion, suspicio; have, suspicari.


Sustain, sustinere.

prodere, referre.

temple, templum.
vis.

Swallow, hirundo. Swarm, examen; often

tempt, sollicitare. ten, decem ten each,


;

deni.

Sway, imperium.
Swear,
sweet,
swift,
iurare. dulcis.
celer.

tender, tener.

Tennyson, Tennysonius.
tent,

tabernaculum.

Terentius, Terentius.

SWim,
SWOrd,

nare; across, tranare. gladius, ferrum; in contrasts,


-

terms,

condiciones;

on

intimate,

familiariter.

ferrum.

terrible, atrox.
terrified, territus, perterritus, expavefactus.

syllable, syllaba.

Syphax, Syphax.
Syracusan, Syracusanus.
Syracuse, Syracusae.
Syria, Syria.

terror, terror, pavor.

experimentum. testimony, testimonium give,


test,
;

dicere

testimonium.

than, quam.
tablet, tabula.

thank,
auferre, adimere,

gratias agere.

take, sumere, ducere, deducere, perducere, tollere;

thankless, ingratus.
that,
is, ille,

away,

iste; ut,

quod, quin,

object

detrahere, tollere; out, abducere;Up,


capere, perducere, (arms)

clause.

movere;up

the

the,

quo

eo,

quanto

again, resumere;
sion of,

(side, course) uti,

tanto.

sequi; (meat) adhibere;


potiri, capere;

take pOSSCStake stand,

theatre, theatrum.
their, suus, eorum.

consistere; city, capere, expugnare;

Themistocles, Themistocles.
then, turn.

prisoner, capere.

support
therefore,
igitur.

trustiness

177
cruciare.

torment,
torpid,

Thermopylae, Thermopylae.
thing,
res,

lie, torpere.

or neut. pron.
reri,

think, putare,
ducere;
trari;

cogitare; censere,

torture,

TorquatUS, Torquatus. (s.) cruciatus, tormentum;


cruciare, conficere.
in ... versus,

(v.)

aestimare, existimare, arbi-

sentire,

videri, placet; of, cogitare;

habere; best, good, out, ex-

toward, adversus,
tower,
turris.

cogitare.

town, oppidum,
;

urbs.
nihil.

third, tertius.
thirsty, be,
sitire.

trace, vestigium no,

track OUt, investigare.


trade, mercatura.
train, docere, instituere.
traitor, proditor. transcend, excedere.

thirty, triginta.
this,
is,

hie.

thought,

cogitatio.

thousand,

mille; pi., milia.

Thrace, Thracia.
Thracians, Thraces.
threaten, minari ;impendere, imminere,
portendi.

transport, adducere, traducere. travel abroad, peregrinari.

treason, patriae parricidium, impietas.


treasury, aerarium, gaza.
treat, tractare, uti.
treatise, commentarius.

three, tres; -days, triduum; -times,


ter;

-hundredth,

tricentesimus.

threshold, limen.
throat, fauces, guttur.

treatment, curatio;
treaty, foedus.
often

in, in curando.

throne, imperium;

regnum.

Trebellius, Trebellius.
tree, arbor.
trial,

throw,

iacere;

away,

abicere, proicere.

thrust upon, ingerere; thrust (sword),


adigere.

make,

experiri.

tribe, genus, tribus, gens.

Thucydides, Thucydides.
Tiber, Tiberis.
tidhlgS, nuntius; bring, nuntiare. tie (of relationship), necessitudo.
tiger, tlgris.

tribune, tribunus.
trifle, res levissima.

trifling,

levis;

sometimes

quantulus-

cumque.
trireme, triremis.
(.) triumphus;

time, tempus, otium; at the right, in tempore; at that, turn; in time of, in; up to this, adhuc.
timid, timidus.

triumph,
phare.

(v.)

trium-

triumvir, triumvir.
troops, copiae often simply poss. pron.
;

Titan, Titan,
to, ad, in.

trouble,

(s.)

molestia, negotium; (v.)

turbare; sorely, perturbare.

to-day, hodie.
toil, (s.) labor; (v.) laborare.

troublesome, molestus.
(

too, nimis, oppido;

= also) una, etiam,

truce, indutiae.
true, verus; truly, vere.
trust,
(s.) fides,

quoque.
top, cacumen, summus.

fiducia; (v.) confidere,

credere,

torch, taeda.

trustiness,

fides.

178
truth, veritas, verum.

VOCABULARY
unequalled,
singularis.

try, conari, niti; tentare, contenders;


(plan) uti; (fortune) experiri.

unexampled,
tus.

sine exemplo.

unexpected, unsuspecting, inopinaunfavorable, iniquus.


unfortunate, miser.

TuditanuS, Tuditanus. tumult, tumultus.


turbulent, turbulentus.
turn, vertere, se convertere
flectere, se
;

commovere,
;

= change) convertere
evenire,
;

unfriendly, inimicus.

away,

avertere;

back, tergum dare


esse;

unhappy, infelix. unharmed, incolumis.


unheard, causa
indicta.

or vertere, se avertere; out, eicere;

accidere,

contingere,

unheard

Of, inauditum.
colligere.

Out false,
tradere.

in f alsum convertere

Over,

unite, coniungere,

Unjust, iniustus, iniquus; unjustly,


iuste, inique.

in-

Turpio, Turpio.

Tusculan, Tusculanus.
tutor, praeceptor.

unknown,
unless,

ignotus.

nisi, praeter.

twenty,

viginti.

Unlike,

dissimilis.
(adj.) infelix; (adv.)
liber,

two, duo. tyranny, tyrannis.


tyrant, tyrannus.

unlucky,

male.

unoccupied,

unprincipled, improbus.
Unroll, replicare.

Tyre, Tyros.

Tyrian, Tyrius.

un terrified,
until,

interritus.

dum, donee;

ad.

untimely, immaturus.

Untouched,
unable, be, non posse.

intactus.
nolle,

unwilling, be,

unaccustomed,
unacquainted,

insuetus.

unworthy,
upright,
censere.

indignus.

imperitus, expers.
suffragiis.

rectus.

unanimously, omnium

Urge, adducere, impellere, admonere,

unarmed,

inermis.
cassus.

unavailing,

use,
foedus.

(s.)

usus; opus;

make,

uti; (v.) uti;

unbecoming,
unbidden,

up, abuti.
used, to be,
useful,
useless,
utilis.

iniussus.

solere.

unblemished,

sanctus.

unbounded,

infinitus.

imitilis.

unceasing, perpetuus.
uncertain, incertus.
uncle, avunculus, patruus.

usual, usitatus, sollemnis; usually, use


solere.

Utica, Utica.
Utter, eloqui.

under, sub.

undergo,

ferre, pati, capere.

understand,
undertake,

intellegere, tenere.

V
vain, inanis; in, nequiquam, frustra.
Valerius, Valerius.

suscipere, adoriri.sustinere.
res susce^ta.

Undertaking, conatum,

truth
valiant, impiger,
valid, iustus.
fortis.

weigh
voluntary, voluntarius.

179

VOW,

vovere, devovere.

valor, virtus.

valuable, pretiosus.
value,
(s.)

W
vincere.

pretium, utilitas; often omit-

ted; (v.) aestimare, ducere.

vanquish, devincere,
varlet, homo. Varro, Varro.

wage, wake,

gerere, inferre.

expergefacere, excitare.

various, varius, diversus.

wailing, eiulatus.
waist, medius.

Wait, exspectare, opperiri for, exspec;

vast, ingens.
Veii, Veil.

tare.

walk, ambulare,
ultio;

incedere.

Velleius, Velleius.

wall, murus, rnoenia.

vengeance,

take,

ulcisci.

venture, audere.
Vergil, Vergilius.

wander, errare. wane, senescere. want, (s.) inopia;

(v.)

cupere, velte, de-

Verginius, Verginius.
Verres, Verres.
verse, versus.

siderare; not, nolle,

war, bellum; make, bellum

inferre.

ward
ship) navis.

off, avertere, arcere, defendere,

very, admodum, oppido, valde.


Vessel, vas;
(

pellere, prohibere.

vestibule, vestibulum.

warlike, bellicus, bellicosus. warn, monere, admonere, commonere,


denuntiare.

Vibius, Vibius.
vice, vitium.

waste,

terere;

lay waste, vastare.


vigilare, obser-

viciOUS, vitiosus.

watch,
vare.

(s.) vigilia; (v.)

victim, victima.
victor, victorious, victor;
cere.

be, vin-

water, aqua; -supply, aqua,

watered, aquosus.

victory, victoria; gain, often vincere.

wavering, anceps.

view, conspectus; have, take,


put are.
Vigilance, vigilantia.
village, vicus.

sentire,

way, modus;
ferre;
ita.

iter, via;

make,
such

se con-

give, inclinare;

a, this,

violence,

vis, violentia.

violent, violens, turbidus.


virtue, virtus. vision, visus.
visit With, (punishment) afficere.

ways, instituta. Weak, invalidus, debilis. Weakness, infirmitas; vitium.


weal,
salus.

wealth,

divitiae.

wealthy,

locuples.

vitals, viscera.

Vitellius, Vitellius.

weapon, ferrum, telum. Wear OUt, fatigare.


weep,
lacrimare,
fletus.
flere.

voice, vox.

Volscians, Volsci. volume, tomus, volumen.

weeping,

Weigh, pendere, pensare; perpendere.

8o
;

VOCABULARY
less, levius

weight, have, valere be of


esse.

wish,

(s.)

voluntas;

(v.) velle,

optare.

With, cum; una.


gratus, optatus.

welcome,

Within,
dere,

intra.

welfare, salus; public, res publica.


Well, bene; get, convalescere.

withdraw,

cedere, se recipere,
se

dece-

secedere, recedere,

subtra-

Well-constituted,
stitutus, sanus.

bonus,

bene con-

here, se conferre, abducere, reducere,

retro reducere, concedere; also deserere.

well-doing, beneficentia.

what,

quid,

quod;

(adj.)

quis,

qui;

Without

-ever, quisquis.

sine; be, carere; out, extrinsecus.

from with-

when, quando, cum, ubi; quo die. whence, quo. whenever, si quando, quandocutnque. whereas, autem; quod, cum.
wherever, quacumque.

withstand,
witness,

sustinere.

testis.

woman,
Wonder,

mulier, femina.
muliebris.

Womanly,

use mirum.
;

whether,

utrum,

-ne,
. . .

an;
sive.

num;

Wonder (at), mirari, admirari wonder


very much,
Wonderful,
demirari.
mirabilis.

whether
which,
while, a

... or, sive

qui, uter;
little,

party,

utri.

parumper.

whither, ubi, quo. whithersoever, quocumque, quo.

WOnt, mos, consuetude; be, solere. Word, vox, verbum few words, often pauca; of honor, fides; bring, nun;

who,

quis, qui.

tiare;

bring back, renuntiare.


(s.)

whole,

totus, omnis.

WOrk,
Up,

opus, opera;

(v.)

laborare;

wholesome, salubris. why, cur, quare.


Wicked, improbus,
wife, uxor.
will, voluntas, arbitrium
or tabulae,
;

(intr.) eniti.

world, mundus,

orbis

terrarum;

in

nefarius, impius.

Wickedness, improbitas.
testamentum

world, (with superl.) omit. worry, be worried, angi. worse, be, peius
agere, graviorem esse.

worship,

colere.

worth,

virtus.

willing, be, velle; often libenter with


the verb.

worthy,

dignus.

WOUnd,
conciliare;
(

vulnus.

willingly, libenter.

wreath, corona,

Win,

allicere,

obtain)

wretch,

miser. miser.

potiri;

over, conciliare.

wretched,
scribere.

wind, ventus.
wine, vinum.

write, scribere, litteras dare; back, re-

Winged,
Winter,

volucer.
(adj.) hibernus; (.) hiems.

wrong,

iniuria;

-doing,

iniuria;

do,

iniuria afficere, peccare.

winter-quarters, hiberna.

Wipe out, delere. Wisdom, sapientia,

eruditio, consilium.

Xenophon, Xenophon.
Xerxes, Xerxes,

Wise, sapiens; wisely, sapienter.

weight

Zopyrus
adulescens;

181
(.)
(of

animals)

sub-

year, annus.

oles.

yesterday, hesterna

dies;

of yester-

your, tuus,

vester.

day, hesternus. yet, tamen; as yet, adhuc; not yet, nondum.


yield, cedere.

youth,

adulescentia,

iuventus;

=:

young man) iuvenis, adulescens.

yoke, iugum.

Zeal, studium.

you,

tu.
(adj.)

Zeno, Zeno.
iuvenis;

young,

man,

iuvenis,

Zopyrus, Zopyrus.

SUMMAEY OF THE SYNTACTICAL


REFERENCES IN THE NOTES
204. The subject may be a substantive or a pronoun, or. some other word, phrase, or clause used as a substantive. N. 5. In Latin the Plural of abstract substantives occurs more frequently than in English. Pluralizing abstract substantives

often

makes them
6.

concrete.
:

N.
208.
i.

(logs of)

nives, snow (flakes); ligna, wood ; carnes (pieces of) meat, and the like. Verbs pertaining to the state of the weather are regularly used

Other plural expressions are

impersonally.
2. The passive of intransitive verbs is often used impersonally so regularly of verbs which in the active are construed with the Dative. 214. The Passive voice denotes that the subject receives the action of
;

the verb.

The instrument
1.

is

put in the Ablative, the Agent in the Ablapassive signification


are construed

tive with a (ab).

R.

Intransitive verbs of

as passives.

R. 2. When the instrument is considered as an agent or the agent as an instrument the constructions are reversed. 217. Intransitive verbs must be used impersonally in the passive.
218. Reflexive relations,

but when the reflexive relation


employed.

when emphatic, are expressed as in English is more general the passive (middle) is
;

219. As the active is often used to express what the subject suffers or causes to be done, so the passive in its reflexive (middle) sense is often used to express an action which the subject suffers or causes to be done
to itself.

221. Reciprocal relations

('

one another

')

are expressed by inter, among,


the future,

and the personal pronouns nos, vos, se. 228. The Present is sometimes used in anticipation of
chiefly in

230.

compound sentences. The Present is used of actions

that are continued into

the.

present,

especially with iam, iam diu, iam dudum. by a Progressive Perfect.


233. The Imperfect is used and expected actions (Imperfect

In English we often translate

of attempted and interrupted, intended of Endeavor). It is the tense of Disapio

pointment, and, with the negative, of Resistance

Pressure,

SYNTACTICAL REFERENCES IN THE NOTES


N.
1.

183
a Tense of

The Imperfect
But

as the Tense

of Evolution

is

Vision.

hence

in English Imperfect and Historical Perfect coincide: the various translations to put the reader in the place of

/ hold, I have, with the Accusative of the Perfect Participle passive, is not merely a circumlocution, but lays peculiar stress on the maintenance, of the result.
244.

the spectator. 238. Habeo or teneo,

ferred to the future,

The Future Perfect is the Perfect, both Pure and Historical, transand embraces both completion and attainment.

R. 1. When the Perfect is used as a Present, the Future Perfect used as a Future. R. 2. The Latin language is more exact than the English in the use of the Future Perfect. R. 3. The Future Perfect is frequently used in volo, nolo, possum,
is
licet, libet,

placet

whereas the English idiom familiarly employs the

Present.

R. 4. The Future Perfect in both clauses denotes simultaneous accomplishment or attainment: one action involves the other. 248. The periphrases futumm esse (more often fore) ut, futurum fuisse ut, with the Subjunctive, are very commonly used to take the place of the Future Infinitive Active. In the Passive they are more common than
the Supine with iri. 252. .The Roman letter-writer not unfrequently puts himself in the position of the receiver, more especially at the beginning and at the end
of a letter.
254.

The
R.
1.

Indicative

Mood represents the predicate as a reality. The Latin language expresses possibility and power,
and abstract relations generally as
facts
;

obliga-

tion

and

necessity,

whereas

our translation often implies the failure to realize. R. 2. The Imperfect as the Tense of Disappointment is sometimes used in these verbs to denote opposition to a present state of
things
257.
i.
:

debebam,

/ ought

(but do not)

poteras,

you could (but do

not).

The Potential Subjunctive represents the opinion of the speaker as an opinion. The tone varies from 'may' and 'might' to 'must.' The negative is non. 2. The Potential of the Present or Future is the Present or Perfect
Subjunctive. 258. The Potential of the Past
the Ideal Second Person.
271.
2.

is

the Imperfect Subjunctive, chiefly in

and

noli, be

Cave and cave (caveto) ne, beware lest, with the Subjunctive, unwilling, with the Infinitive, are circumlocutions for the

Negative Imperative (Prohibitive). 281. i. The Present Infinitive represents contemporaneous action.

184
2.

SYNTACTICAL REFERENCES IN THE NOTES


Infinitive represents prior action. Memini, / remember, when used of personal experience, commonly takes the Present Infinitive. So also rarely memoria teneo, When the recorder, / remember, and fugit me, I do not remember.

The Perfect
N.

experience lowed.
291.
i.

is

not personal, the ordinary construction (past)


is

is

fol-

When the attribute


;

emphatic,

it is

commonly put

before the

substantive

R. R.

1.

otherwise, in classical Latin ordinarily after it. Variation in the position of the adjective often causes

variation in. the


2.

meaning

of the word.

Superlatives which denote order and sequence in time and space are often used partitively, and then generally precede their substantives.
294. The ordinals are used more often in Latin than in English sometimes also for the cardinals with a carelessness that gives rise to
;

ambiguity.
296.

The Comparative degree generally

takes a term of comparison

either with quam, than, or in the Ablative. R. 4. Quam is often omitted after plus, amplius, more, less, and the like, without affecting the construction.

and minus,

297.
plied
:

The Standard
i,

of Comparison may be omitted when it can be sup3, by 2, by the usual or proper standard by the context
;
;

the opposite.
298. Disproportion the Ablative, or with
is

quam

expressed by the comparative with quam pro and ut or quam qui with the Subjunctive.
of the

299.

When two qualities


N.
1.

same substantive are compared, we


;

find

either magis

and quam with the


There
is

positive or a double comparative. no distinction between these two expressions

but

the latter
302.

is later.

The same
is

The Latin

superlative

rule applies to the adverb. often to be rendered by the English

positive, especially of persons. 303. The superlative is strengthened


vel,

even

304.

i.

by multo, much, large, by far ; unus, unus omnium, one above all others ; quam potuit, etc. The Personal Pronoun is usually omitted when it is the submei, tui, sui, nostri, vestri are used mainly as

ject of a verb.
2.

The Genitive forms

Objective Genitives.
3.

The Genitive forms nostrum and vestrum


this, refers

305. Hie,

are used partitively. to that ivhich is nearer the speaker, and

may

the speaker himself, the persons with whom the speaker identifies himself, the subject in hand, the current period of time, etc.

mean

306. Iste, that, refers to that

whicli belongs

more peculiarly

to

the

Second Person.

SYNTACTICAL REFERENCES IN THE NOTES


307.

185

Ille, that, denotes that which is more remote from the speaker, and often used in contrast to hie, this; it may mean that which has been previously mentioned, that which is well known, that which is to be
is
:

recalled, that

which

is

expected, etc.
are used together in contrasts.

R.
308.

1.

Hie and

ille

serves as the lacking pronoun of the Third Person, furnishes the regular antecedent of the Relative.
Is, that,

and

R. 3. Is does not represent a substantive before a Gen., as in the English that of. In Latin the substantive is omitted, or repeated, or a word of like meaning substituted. 309. The Reflexive Pronoun is used
:

Regularly when reference is made to the grammatical subject. The subject may be indefinite or (occasionally) impersonal.
1.

Frequently when reference is made to the actual subject. Regularly as the complement of the Infinitive and its equivalents and with prepositions erga, inter, when a reflexive idea is involved
2.

3.

propter, per.
4.

Sims

is

also

used in prepositional phrases that are joined closely with


is

substantives.

num, and
N.

315. Quis (qui), fainter than aliquis, in relative sentences.


1.

used chiefly after

si,

nisi, ne,

Aliquis
si

is

used after
if some;

si,

etc.,

when

there

is stress
si

siquis,

if any ;
317.

aliquis,

si quid,

if anything;

quidquam, if

anything at all. i. Quisquam and ullus are used chiefly in negative sentences, in sentences that imply total negation, and in sweeping conditions. 2. The negative of quisquam is nemo, nihil; the negative of ullus is nullus, which also takes the place of nemo in the Genitive and Ablative. 318. 3. Quisque combines readily with the reflexives sui, sibi, se, suus
in their

emphatic sense.

319. Alter
refers to

and

alius

are both translated other,


;

one of two,

alius to diversity
;

alteri

alteri,

another, but alter one party another

party (already defined) alii alii, some others. 325. Any case may be attended by the same case in Predicative Attribution or Opposition, which differs from the ordinary Attribution or

Opposition in translation only. R. 6. The English idiom often uses the adverb and adverbial expressions instead of the Latin adjective.

R.
331.
inter,
tive,

7.

Primus, first

primum, for the first time; primo, at first.


con, in,

Verbs compounded with the prepositions ad, ante, circum, ob, per, praeter, sub, subter, super, and trans, which become
R.
1.

transi-

take the Accusative.


If the simple verb
is

trans.,

it

can take two Accusatives.

86
R.
2. 3.

SYNTACTICAL REFERENCES IN THE NOTES


With many
of these verbs the preposition of signification
;

may
is

be repeated.

R.
333.

Sometimes a difference

caused by the

addition of the preposition


i.

so with adire.

Neuter Pronouns and Adjectives are often used to define or

modify the substantival notion that lies in the verb. the dependent word is of the same origin or kindred 2. When meaning with the verb, it is called the Cognate Accusative, and
usually has the attribute.
336. The Accusative of Extent in Time accompanies the verb, either with or without per, in answer to the question how long 9 R. Per with the Accusative is frequently used like the Abl. of Time 337.

Within Which, especially with the negative. Names of Towns and Small Islands, when used as

limits of

Motion

Whither, are put in the Accusative. R. 6. Motion to a place embraces all the local designations. 339. Active verbs signifying to Inquire, to Require, to Teach, and celare, to conceal, take two Accusatives, one of the Person and the other
of the Thing.

N. 4. Discere is the prose word for doceri, except that the past participle doctus is classical but rare. 345. The Indirect Object is put in the Dative with Transitive Verbs which already have a Direct Object in the Accusative. Translation, to,
for,

from. R. 1.
the like,

The Dative with verbs


is

of

Taking Away, Prohibiting, and

mostly confined to poetry and later prose. The translation/row is merely approximate, instead of for. R. 2. The translation for is nearer the Dat. than to ; but for (in
346.

defence of) is pro. The Indirect Object

is

put in the Dative with

many

Intransitive

verbs of Advantage or Disadvantage, Yielding and Resisting, Pleasure

and Displeasure, Bidding and Forbidding.


N.
348.

aliquem (also

Cavere alicui, to fake precautions for some one, but cavere de, ab aliquo\ to take precautions against some one. few verbs, chiefly of Giving and Putting, take a Dative with
2.

an Accusative, or an Accusative with an Ablative, according


ception. 349. The Dative of Possessor
is

to the con-

used with
is

esse,

which

is

then commonly

translated by the verb to have. R. 3. Possession of qualities

expressed by esse with in and the

Ablative, by inesse with the Dative, or with in, or by some other turn. 350. i. The Person from whose point of view the action is observed or

towards

whom

it

is

directed
is

may

be put in the Dative.

convenient

but not exact translation

often the English possessive.

SYNTACTICAL REFERENCES IN THE NOTES

187

353. Noteworthy is the use of the Dative of Reference in combinations with participles, to give either the local or the mental point of view. 356. Certain verbs take the Dative of the Object For Which (to what

end) and often at the same time a Dative of the Personal Object For Whom or To Whom.

R.

2.

The

principal verbs construed with Dative

For Which are and the

esse, dare, ducere, habere, vertere.

like,

359. Adjectives of Likeness, Fitness, Friendliness, Nearness, with their opposites, take the Dative.

R. 1. Similis is followed by the Genitive of the Personal Pronouns and of gods and men, otherwise usually by the Dative. 360. i. The Genitive is the Case of the Complement, and is akin to the Adjective. It is represented in English by (a) the Possessive case (b) the Objective case with of; (c) substantives used as adjectives or in
;

composition. R. 1. Other prepositions than of are not unfrequently used in

English.

R.

2.

An

abstract substantive with the Gen.

is

often to be trans-

lated as an attribute, while on the other hand the predicative attribute is often to be translated as an abstract substantive with of.
2. The Genitive is employed chiefly as the complement of Substantives and Adjectives occasionally as the complement of verbs. 363. When the substantive on which the Genitive depends contains the idea of an action, the possession may be active or passive. Hence
;

the division into


tive Genitive.

(i)

Active or Subjective Genitive

(2)

Passive or Objec-

The English form in of is used either actively or passively. to avoid ambiguity some other prepositions than of are often substituted for the Passive Genitive, such as for, toivard, etc.
R.
1.

Hence
366.

R.

The Genitives of Possession and Quality may be used as Predicates. The Possession appears in a variety of forms and takes a 1.

variety of translations. R. 2. For the personal representative of a quality, the quality itself may be used sometimes with but little difference, and so some-

times the adjective, except when it is of the Third Declension. The Partitive Genitive is used with the Neuter Singular of words, but only in the Nominative and the Accusative.
369.
:

many

R. 2. Notice the phrase nihil reliqui facere 1, to leave nothing ; 2 (occasionally), to leave nothing undone. 372. The Partitive Genitive is used with Comparatives and Superlatives. N. 2. Substantival neuters with no idea of quantity were rarely followed by the Genitive in early and classical Latin, but the usage becomes common in the Silver age, particularly in TACITUS.

188
380.
i.

SYNTACTICAL REFERENCES

IN"

THE NOTES

Verbs of Rating take the Genitive of the General value, the


of

Ablative of the Particular value.


2.

Verbs

Buying take

tanti,

quanti,

pluris,

and

minoris.

The

rest are

put in the Ablative. R. Bene emere, to buy cheap ; male emere,

to

buy dear ;

so, too,

melius, optime, peius, pessime.

385, Place

Where

is

expressed by the Ablative, as a rule with the

Preposition

in,

Verbs of Placing and kindred significations take the Abla1. with in to designate the result of the motion. 397. The Ablative of Respect or Specification gives the Point From
R.
tive

Which
399.

a thing

is

measured or
of

treated.

The Ablative
;

has no Adjective
Equivalent. N. 1.

is used with the preposition cum when it with or without cum when it has an Adjective or its

Manner

The simple Ablative without an attribute is confined to a few substantives which have acquired adverbial force. 401. The Means or Instrument is put in the Ablative without a prepoThe Agent or Doer is put in the Ablative with the preposition sition. ab (a). The Person Through Whom is put in the Accusative with per. 402. The Standard of Measure is put in the Ablative with verbs of
Measurement and Judgment.
408.

The Ablative
N.
6.

of Cause

is

used without a preposition, chiefly with


is

verbs of Emotion.

The

use of the Ablative for the external cause

mon

in the early

and

classical period, except in certain

not comformulae

but it becomes common later. The impersonal use of the Abl. Abs. is found not un410. N. 4. frequently in early Latin and CICERO, rarely in CAESAR and SALLUST. CICERO introduces a clause with ut, SALLUST the Infinitive de-

LIVY extends this construction greatly. rule the Abl. Abs. can stand only when it is not identical with the subject, object, or dependent case of the verbal predicate.
pending upon an Abl. Abs.
R.
3.

As a

416. i. Ad used of time refers only to the Future, and gives either a point (ad vesperum, at evening), an interval (ad paucos dies, a few days hence), or an approaching time, towards.
4.

Apud

is

of,

= in the hands of, is used preeminently of Persons. used of the point of departure. in the sense in comparison with. 9. Prae is used of Comparison, 418. i. (a) In with Accusative: of Place, into, into the midst of; of
417.
i.

in the writings 17. Penes, with

used chiefly of Persons of, in the view of.

at the house of, in the presence

is

Disposition and Direction,

to,

towards.

SYNTACTICAL REFERENCES IN THE NOTES


(b)

189

in the case of in regard


,

In with Ablative: of Place, in, on ; of Time, within ; of Reference, to, in the matter of; of Condition, in. A large number of verbs of Will, Power, Duty, Habit, 423. 2. N. 2.
etc.,

and the distinction

take the Infinitive as an Object, but many of these also take ut, Such in meaning should be clearly observed.

from utor, fruor, fungor, potior, vescor have the personal construction, but usually only in the Oblique cases. 428. The Genitive of the Gerund and Gerundive is used chiefly after substantives and adjectives which require a complement.
R.
2.

is persuadere. The Gerundives 427. N. 5.

The Gen.

of the

Gerund and Gerundive

is

used very comto

monly with causa, less often with gratia, to express Design. 435. The Accusative Supine is used chiefly after verbs of Motion
express Design. 436. The Ablative Supine is used chiefly with Adjectives It never takes an object. Ablative of Respect or Specification.
as

the

437. The Participle may be used as a substantive, but even then retains something of the predicate nature.' N. 1. The use as a substantive is rare in classical prose. N. 2. The use of an attributive or predicative Perfect Participle

with a substantive
later.

is

a growth in Latin.
in, post, praeter.

Cicero employs only the


is

prepositions ante, de,


444.
i.

The usage

much extended

Ne
is

is

the negative of the Imperative and of the Optative Sub-

junctive.

continued by neve or neu. or, belongs to the second part of a Disjunctive question. 2. Especially to be noted in connection with an are the phrases nescio I an, haud scio an, I do not know but; dubito an, I doubt, I doubt but am inclined to think, etc. Negative particles added to these give a mild
2.

Ne

457.

i.

An,

negation. 460. i.
trial.

(b) Si,

ivhether,

is

used after verbs and sentences implying

chiefly in the First Person,

465. Subjunctive questions which expect Imperative answers are put when the question is deliberative.
466. Rhetorical Questions which anticipate a potential

answer

in the

negative are put in the Subjunctive.


467.

Subjunctive R. 2.
in

is always in the Subjunctive. This represent the Indicative or may be original. The Relative has the same form as the Interrogative quis in most of its forms, hence they are to be carefully distinguished

The Dependent Interrogative

may

dependent sentences.

190
468.

SYNTACTICAL REFERENCES IN THE NOTES


The subject
of the

dependent clause

is

often treated as the object


is

of the leading clause by anticipation (Prolepsis). 469. Contrary to our idiom, the Interrogative cipial clauses.

often used in partifreely than in

470. Final sentences are used in questions


lish.

more

Eng-

471.
1
.

2. 3.

() Yes is represented By sane, sane quidem, etiam, vero, ita, omnino, certe, certo, admodum, etc. By censeo, scilicet. By repeating the emphatic word with or without confirmatory par:

ticles.

481.

are often
2.

When multus, many, is followed by another attribute, the two combined by copulative particles. Several subjects or objects standing in the same relation either take
i.

et

throughout or omit

it

throughout.

482. Other particles are sometimes in the same general sense.


4.
5.

employed instead of the copulative

Comparative
Adversative
:

ut

ita,

as

so.

non

modo, non

solum, non

tantum, not

only ; sed,

sed etiam, sed

verum etiam, (nit even, bat a/*<>. K. 1. Instead of non modo (solum) non sed ne quidem, the latter non is generally omitted when the two negative clauses liarc <i verb in common.
quoque,

R.

2.

Nedum, not

(to

speak

of) yet,

much

less, is

used either with

or without a verb in the Subjunctive. 487. Vero, of a truth, is generally put in the second place, asserts with conviction, and is used to heighten the statement.
488. At introduces startling transitions, lively objections, strances, questions, wishes, often by way of quotation. 493. i. Aut, or, denotes absolute exclusion or substitution.
2. 3.

remon-

Aut Aut
i.

is

often corrective
aut, either
or.

or at least, at most, rather.

494.

Vel
;

(literally,

you

may

choose)

gives a choice,

often

with

etiam, eve n
2.

potius, rather.

Vel
11.

vel, either
1.

511.

The treatment

t^ense (past) is

or (whether or). of the Historical Present according to the rule in classical Latin.
is

its

U.

3.

The Pure Perfect

usually treated as a Historical Perfect

matter of sequence. 513. In Consecutive Sentences the Present Subjunctive is used after Past Tenses to denote continuance into the Preseait, the Perfect Subin the

junctive to imply final result.

SYNTACTICAL REFERENCES IN THE NOTES


N.
Past
3.

191

ing, either the coincidence


is

In relative sentences of coincident action, with causal coloris retained or a principal clause in the

followed by the Imperfect Subjunctive. a subordinate clause depends on an Infinitive, the sequence is historical if either the Infinitive or its governing verb is Past; if both are Present, the sequence is primary.
518.

When

521.

The Reflexive

tions, in

is used in Infinitive Sentences, in Indirect QuesSentences of Design, and in Sentences which partake of the

Oblique Relation. Sentences of Tendency and Result have forms of is, when R. 1. otherwise the subject is not the same as that of the leading verb
;

the Reflexive.

R.
525.

5.

Sometimes the Demonstrative

is

used instead of the Re-

flexive,
i.

because the narrator presents his point of view. Quod is used to introduce explanatory clauses after verbs of
after verbs of

Adding and Dropping, and


adverb.
527. R. 2.

Doing and Plappening with an

Verbs of Intellectual Representation are those of Thinking, Remembering, Belief and Opinion, Expectation, Trust and Hope. 532. Verbs of Will and Desire take a Dependent Accusative and InN.
1.

finitive.

Impero in model prose takes only the Infinitive passive or

deponent. N. 2. After iubeo, Ibid, and veto, can be used without a subject.

I forbid,

the Infinitive Active

541. Causal sentences with quod, quia, quoniam, and quando take the Subjunctive in Oblique Discourse (partial or total). N. 2. A rejected reason if untrue is introduced by non quod (rarely non quia) with the Subjunctive. If true, the Indicative -may bp used. The corresponding affirmative is given by sed quod or sed quia with the Indicative.

543.

i.

Sentences of Design and Tendency both contemplate the end

the one as an aim, the other as a consequence. 2. They are alike in having th'e Subjunctive and the particle ut. 3. They differ in the tenses employed, for Final sentences take as a

and Imperfect, while Consecutive may take also Perfect and Pluperfect. The Final Sentences take 4. They differ in the kind of Subjunctive. the Optative, the Consecutive the Potential. Hence the difference in
rule only the Present

Negative ut and ut non, ne quis and ut nemo, ne ullus and ut nullus, 545. Pure Final Sentences are introduced by 1. Ut (uti), (how) that, and other relative pronouns and adverbs. 2. Quo = ut eo, that thereby, with comparatives, that the
:
.
.

etc.

192
3.

SYNTACTICAL REFERENCES IN THE NOTES


Ne, that not,
lest,

R.

1.

Ut ne

is

continued by neve, neu. found for ne with apparently no difference in


r

meaning. Quo without comparative is rare. R. 2, Tit non is used when a particular w ord is negatived. R. 3. Ut and ne are used parenthetically at all periods, depending on a suppressed verb of Saying or the like. 546. Complementary Final Sentences follow verbs of Willing and Wishing, of Warning and Beseeching, of* Urging and Demanding, of Resolving and Endeavoring. When verbs of Willing and Wishing are used as verbs of R. 1. Saying and Thinking, Knowing and Showing, the Infinitive must

be used.
548. Verbs

The English

translation

is

that

and the Indicative.

and phrases signifying


Per aliquem stare
is

to Prevent, to Forbid, to Refuse,

and

to

Beware may take ne with the Subj.,


X.
1.

if they are not negatived. construed with ne, but more often with

quominus. X. ?>. Cavere followed by ut means to be sure to ; by ne or utne, to see to it that not; by ne, to take precautions against. 549. Verbs of Preventing and Refusing may take quominus, with the

Subjunctive.
550.

Verbs of Fear are followed by

ne, lest, ut (ne non), that,

with any

tense of the Subjunctive. N. 5. (a) With the Infinitive, verbs of Fear are verbs of (negative) verbs of Fear. are Will. (6) With the Accusative and Infinitive,
552. R.

verbs of Thinking or Perception. Notice especially the impersonal tantum abest, afuit (rarely 1.

ut ut. aberat) 556. Quin, equivalent to ut non, may be used after tence. Here it may often be translated 'without.'

any negative sen-

Note the combinations


562.

(facere)

The Imperfect

is

non possum quin, nib.il abesse quin, etc. used to express an action continued into the

time of the principal clause (overlapping).


cates the spectator. 567. When one action

The

translation often indi-

is repeated before another, the antecedent action put in the Perfect, Pluperfect, or Future Perfect, the subsequent action in the Present, Imperfect, or Future, according to the relation. 570. Bum, 'while, while yet, during, takes the Present Indicative after is

all tenses.

N.

1.

Bum

is

the only temporal conjunction of limit that

is

loose

enough

in its formation to serve for partial coextension. The Present, after it, always connotes continuance, and the construction beparticiple.

comes practically a periphrasis for a missing Present


K72. R.
2.

Verba exspectandi take the Subjunctive with dum, donee, and

SYNTACTICAL REFERENCES IN THE NOTES

193

quoad when Suspense and Design are involved. But they have also other constructions, as ut, si, quin, but- not the Infinitive. 580. Cum, H'hfii, is used with all tenses of the Indicative to designate merely temponil relations. R. 1. Fuit cum commonly follows the analogy of other characteristic relations

But audire cum takes the Subjunctive parallel with the participle. 582. When the actions of the two clauses are coincident, cum is almost
2.

R.

and takes the Subjunctive. Memini cum takes the Indicative.

equivalent to its kindred relative quod, in that. 585. Historical cum, when (as), is used in narrative with the Imperfect Subjunctive of contemporaneous action, with the Pluperfect Subjunctive
of antecedent action, to characterize the temporal circumstances which an action took place.

under

R.
ple,

Cum with
is

the Subjunctive

is

a close equivalent to the partici-

and often serves

591. (a) Si non


1.

to supply its absence. the rule


:

the positi&rof the same verb precedes. the condition is Concessive in this case the principal clause 2. often contains an adversative particle.
;

When When
Nisi

(ft)

is

the rule

1.

When

an exception or restriction

is

added

to the leading state-

ment.
2.

Especially after negatives. R. 2. Nisi is often used after negative sentences or equivalents in the signification of but, except, besides, only.
(a).

597. R. 3

The Indicative

is

the regular construction in the

Apodosis of the Unreal Condition with verbs which signify Possibility or Power, Obligation or Necessity; so with the active and

But passive Periphrastic. the Subjunctive is used.


R. 5
to

when

the Possibility, etc.,

is

conditioned,

When the Apodosis of an Unreal Condition is made (a). depend on a sentence which requires the Subjunctive, the
is

Pluperfect

turned into the Periphrastic Pluperfect Subjunctive.

598. Occasionally the members of a Conditional sentence are put side by side without a Conditional sign.
Si itself is often concessive, and the addition of et, etiam, serves merely to fix the idea. 602. Ut si, ac si, quasi, quam si, tamquam, tamquam si, velut, velut si, as if, are followed by the Subjunctive. The Tense follows the rule of

601. R,

1.

and tamen

sequence.
605.

R.

Quamquam 1. The

in the best

authors

is

construed with the Indicative.


is

Potential Subjunctive

sometimes found.

194

SYNTACTICAL REFERENCES IN THE NOTES


R. 2. Quamquam is often used like etsi, but more frequently at the beginning of sentences, in the same way as the English and yet, although, however, in order to limit the whole preceding sentence.

609.

The Concessive sentence may be represented by a

Participle or

Predicative Attribute.
610. The Latin language uses the relative construction, particularly in the beginning of sentences, and in combination with conjunctions and other relatives.
1. The awkwardness or impossibility of a literal translation generally be relieved by the substitution of a demonstrative with an appropriate conjunction, or the employment of an abstract

R.

may

substantive.
611. Relative sentences are introduced
*,heir
:

by the Relative pronouns in all forms adjective, substantive, and adverbial. R. 1. The Relative adverbs of Place and their correlatives may be used instead of a preposition with a Relative; particularly unde =
ab eo
;

less often ibi

in eo, ubi
is

in quo, etc.

R.
614.

2.

The Relative

not to be confounded with the Dependent


its

Interrogative sentence. The Relative agrees with

Antecedent in Gender, Number, and


r

Person.

R.

1.

cedent, even

The Relative agrees w ith the Person when a predicate intervenes.

of the true ante-

R.
is

2.

When

commonly used
i.

the Relative refers to a sentence, id quod, that which. So al>o quae res, or simple quod, (parenthetically).
is qui, etc.

and
616.

(referring to a simple substantive)

The antecedent substantive


2.

is

often incorporated

into the

Relative clause.

N.

clause, the structure

Instead of a principal clause followed by a consecutive is sometimes reversed. What would have been

2.

the dependent clause becomes the principal clause, and an incorporated explanatory Relative takes the place of the Demonstrative. An appositional substantive from which a Relative clause depends

regularly incorporated into the Relative clause. Adjectives, especially superlatives, are sometimes transferred from the substantive in the principal clause and made to agree with the
is
3.

Relative in the Relative clause.

X.

2.

clause,

the

Instead of a Principal clause followed by a Consecutive structure is sometimes reversed and an incorporated

624.

explanatory Relative clause takes the place of the Demonstrative. The Relative clause, as such that is, as the representative of an
takes the Indicative mood.

adjective

SYNTACTICAL REFERENCES IN THE NOTES

195

R. The Relative in this use often serves as a circumlocution for a substantive, with this difference: that the substantive expresses the Relative clause, a transient relation. a permanent relation
;

626. Qui with the Indicative

(=

is

enim, for he) often approaches quod,

in

tl\

at.

X.
627.

1.

This causal sense


is

The Subjunctive

is heightened by ut, utpote, quippe. employed in Relative clauses where it would

be used in a simple sentence. R. 1. Especially to be noted

is

the Subjunctive in restrictive

phrases, principally quod sciam. 629. Relative sentences which depend on


tives,

Infinitives and Subjuncand form an integral part of the thought, are put in the Sub-

junctive.

R.

The Indicative

is

used

(a) in
;

mere circumlocutions
of individual facts.

(particu-

larly in Consecutive sentences)

(b)

when

630. Optative Relative sentences are put in the Subjunctive of Design ut is. qui

=
:

631. Potential

Relative

sentences are put

in

the

Subjunctive of

Tendency 1. With a
etc.;

definite antecedent,

when

the chaj'acter
;

is

emphasized; regeiusmodi,
tantus,

ularly after idoneus, aptus, dignus, indignus

is,

talis,

unus and solus. so especially after negatives of 2. With an indefinite antecedent kinds, interrogatives, and many combinations.
;

all

After comparatives with quam. The Accusative and Infinitive may be used in Oratio Obliqua after a Relative, when the Relative is to be resolved into a coordinating conjunction and the demonstrative.
3.

635.

636. Relative sentences are combined by means of Copulative Conjunctions only ivhen they are actually coordinate. X. 2. (a) The Relative is not combined with adversative or

except at the beginning of a sentence, when it demonstrative or anticipates it. a following represents 637. The Relative sentence is sometimes represented by a Participle. 642. Correlative sentences of Comparison are introduced by Adjective
illative conjunctions,

and Adverbial Correlatives


1.

Adjective: tot

quot (as

(so)

many
(so)

as),

tantus
as).

quantus (as

(so)

great

as), talis
2.

qualis (such as), idem


tarn

qui (the

same

Adverbial:

quam

(as

much

as), totiens(es)

quotiens(es)

(as often as), ita, sic

ut, uti (as (so) as).

R.
eo

2.

(a)

The more

and the

like,

quam

ita, tarn,

the more may be translated by quo (quisque) with the comparatives; but usually by ut (quisque), with the superlative, especially when the subject is

indefinite.

196
(6)

SYNTACTICAL REFERENCES IN THE NOTES


When
4.
:

the predicate

is

the same, one

member

often coalesces

with the other.

Ut and pro eo ut are frequently used in a limiting or causal inasmuch as. 643. Adjectives and Adverbs of Likeness and U-nlikeness may take atque and ac. Alius and secus have quam occasionally at all periods. X. :]. 644. R. 3. (a) When two clauses are compared by potius, rather,
R.

sense

so far a*,

prius, before, citius, quicker, sooner, the

second clause

is

put in the

Pr. or Impf. Subjv. with or (in CICERO regularly) without ut. (b) If the leading clause is in the Infin., the dependent clause may be
in the Infin. likewise,
sical

and

this

is

the regular construction in clas-

Latin when the Infin. follows a verb of Will and Desire.

648. The thoughts of the narrator, as reported by the narrator, are called Oratio Recta, or Direct Discourse. Indirect Discourse, or Oratio Obliqua, reports not the exact words

spoken, but the general impression produced. R. 2. Inquam, quoth /, is used in citing Oratio Recta
generally in Oratio Obliqua. or may not be parenthetic.
649. X. 2.

aio,
;

I'say,

Inquam

is

always parenthetic

aio

may

Oratio Obliqua often comes in without any formal notice, and the governing verb has often to be supplied from the context.
Oratio

651. In

Obliqua Interrogative sentences are put in the SUDof Asking.

junctive. R.

inasmuch as the verb of Saying involves the verb


j.

Indicative Rhetorical Questions, being substantially statements, are transferred from the Indie, of 0. R. to the Ace. and Inf. The Second of 0. 0. when they are in the First and Third Persons.

Person goes into the Subjunctive.


655. Object, Causal, Temporal, and Relative clauses follow the general laws for Subordinate clauses in Oratio Obliqua. Coordinate clauses are put in the Accusative and Infinitive. R. 1.

R. R.

2.

cumlocutions
3.

Relative clauses are put in the Indicative (b) in explanations of the narrator.
;

(a) in

mere

cir-

Bum with

the Indicative

is

often retained as a mere circum-

locution.

664. Participles are used in Latin to express a great variety of sub-

ordinate relations, such as

Time and Circumstance, Cause and Occasion, Condition and Concession. R. 1. It is sometimes convenient to translate a participial sentence by a coordinate clause, but the Participle itself is never coordinate,
and such clauses are never equivalents.
R.
2.

A common

translation of the Participle

is

an abstract sub-

stantive.

SYNTACTICAL REFERENCES IN THE NOTES


665. Participles 666. Participles 667. Participles

197

may represent Time When. may represent Cause Why. may represent Condition and
:

Concession.
is

670. In later Latin the Future Participle (active) subordinate relations


i.

used to represent

Time When;
;

2.

Cause

Why;

3.

Purpose (usually after a verb of


it

Motion)

4.

Condition and Concession.

677. Adverbs are commonly put next to their verb (before it when pnds a sentence), and immediately before their adjective or adverb. R, 1. Fere, paene, prope usually follow.

R.
678. R.

2.
5.

Negatives always precede. Monosyllabic prepositions sometimes append the enclitics,

but usually the enclitics join the dependent substantive. When pairs are contrasted, the second is put in the same order as the first, but often in inverse order. The employment of the same ordei
682.
is

called
698.

Anaphora ;

the inverse order

is

called Chiasmus.

consists in putting two substantives connected by a copulative conjunction instead of one substantive and an adjective 01 attributive Genitive.

Hendiadys

more

700. Litotes, or Understatement, is meant than meets the ear.

is

the use of an expression by whict


is

This

especially

common

with the

negative.

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