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Jan 2009

sis ion p o t Synsserta Di esis Th

HOW TO WRITE DISSERTATION/ MEDICAL PAPER EFFECTIVELY?


Muhammad MuhammadSaaiq Saaiq Assistant AssistantProfessor Professor PIMS, PIMS,Islamabad. Islamabad. muhammadsaaiq5@gmail.com muhammadsaaiq5@gmail.com

What Prompted this Presentation

Why to Write
To Share knowledge / Experience with other Medical colleagues
Critical analysis and Interpretation of existing knowledge

(Review article) New scientific Research Clinical findings (Case report) Others

yTo Advance your institution. Prestige yTo Advance yourself


Increasing your research ability (practice makes perfect)

yPartial fulfillment of EXAM yPromotion

Types of Medical Writings


y Dissertation/ Synopsis y Editorial y Original Article y Review article y Case-report y Letter to Editor y Short Communication y Others. e.g. Meta analysis

Structure of a Medical Paper/ Original Article


y Figures y Title y Abstract y Discussion y Introduction y References y Materials and Methods y Results y Tables DISSERTATION ADDITINALLY HAS LITERATURE REVIEW

Main Components of Article/ Dissertation


I M R A D

Introduction NonMaterials & Methods I M Results R Analysis a D Discussion

Title References Abstarct LITERATURE REVIEW

The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus

Roadmap for Writing


Title ( Temporary initailly ) Materials and Methods Results
REVISE, REVISE AND REVISE

Abstract

References

Discussion

Introduction

DISSERTATION HAS LITERATURE REVIEW ALSO

INTRODUCTION Pearls
MOVE FROM; General to Specific Broad Description to a narrow one Historical To Latest International To Local

Funnel Down

y y y y

INTRODUCTION Pearls (Contd) The introduction should give a brief overview of the Issue in question. The main body is described in PRESENT TENSE as it is written about what is known. The last para which highlights Rationale of te study is in FUTURE tense. Has no more than 03 paras. i.e.
Background Informationwhat the issue is? Importance of the problem, ementioning unresolved issues. Rationale for conducting te present study, stating hypothesis or research question.

INTRODUCTION Pitfalls
y Reviewing the subject extensively. y Giving details of the experimental designs. y Referring to tables and figures. y Drawing conclusions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Pearls


What Did We Do? When? Where? How?

MATERIALS AND METHODS Pitfalls Not explaining experimental designs in sufficient details. Not giving units of measurements. Not using chronological sequence for methods.

RESULTS Pearls

What Did We Find ?

RESULTS Pearls (Contd)

IV: Association of dissatisfaction with Sociodemographic characteristics. ( n=133)

Variables
GENDER Male ( n=76) Female (n=57) AGE Up-to 40 years (n=73) > 40 years (n=60)

No. of Dissatisfied patients (%)


23 (30.26%) 4 (7.01%) 25(34.24%) 2( 3.33%)

P-value

0.001

0.000

RESULTS
Pitfalls The compulsion to include everything, leaving nothing out, does not prove that one has unlimited information; it proves that one lacks discrimination. S. Aaronson

RESULTS
Pitfalls (Contd)

Giving unnecessary details; Not to the point. Data Failing to answer the actual research question/ Hypothesis. Giving Opinions, Explanations or Discussion on Findings. Duplication /Repetition of Data. Not properly Numbering the Tables / Figures.

DISCUSSION Pearls

Funnel Up Approach

DISCUSSION Pitfalls
Proclaiming things which data of the article do not support . Failing to discuss important and new aspects of the subject. Failing to address the Hypothesis in question. Not giving reasons for supporting or rejecting the Hypothesis. Making any value judgments. Drawing conclusion based on the findings of other studies.

A good article has a definite structure, makes its point and then shuts up
Stephen Lock

REFERENCES Pearls

REFERENCES Pearls (Contd)

SEQUENCE:

Correct: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 Correct: 1,2,3,4,5, 1,4,3, 6,7, 2, 8, Incorrect: 1,2,35,6,3,19,4,7

REFERENCES Pearls (Contd) Americans National Standards Institute Style Harvard Style Vancouver Style Others

REFERENCES Pearls (Contd)


VANCOUVER STYLE
Owing to its function, the hand is vulnerable to all kinds of traumatic insults. 1 The hand injuries are classified into skeletal and soft tissue injuries. 2

References
1. Tymchak J. Soft tissue reconstruction of the hand. In: Thorne CH, Beasley RW, Aston SJ, Bartlett SP, Gurtner GC, Spear SL, eds. Grabb and Smiths Plastic surgery. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2007: 771-80. 2. Campbell DA. Hand fractures. Surgery International 2006; 75 : 43740.

REFERENCES Pearls (Contd)


HARVARD STYLE
Owing to its function, the hand is vulnerable to all kinds of traumatic insults. (Tymchak J 2007 ) The hand injuries are classified into skeletal and soft tissue injuries. (Campbell DA 2006 )

References
1. Campbell DA. Hand fractures. Surgery International 2006; 75 : 43740. 2. Tymchak J. Soft tissue reconstruction of the hand. In: Thorne CH, Beasley RW, Aston SJ, Bartlett SP, Gurtner GC, Spear SL, eds. Grabb and Smiths Plastic surgery. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2007: 771-80.

TITLE Pearls

ABSTRACT Pearls

FREQUENT GENERAL MISTAKES


INCORRECT DATA was analyzed PERFORMA REGIME & emergencypresentations1-3 . CORRECT DATA were analyzed PROFORMA REGIMEN AND Emergency presentations. 1-3

PRESENTABLE FORMAT SHOULD BE ENSURED BEFORE SUBMISSION

FURTHER READING
www. ICMJE.org www.CONSORT_statement.org www.NLMsCiting Medicine Guidelines for Synopsis and Dissertation Writing for CPSP Huwiler-Mntener K, Jni P, Junker C, Egger M. Quality of Reporting of Randomized Trials as a Measure of Methodologic Quality. JAMA 2002;287(21):2801-2804. Garfield E. An old Proposal for a new Profession: Scientific Reviewing. The Scientist 1996;10 (16):12.