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Preface

USACM Fifth US National Congress on Computational Mechanics


University of Colorado at Boulder, August 4-6, 1999

USNCCM99 is the official Congress of the U.S. Association for Computational Mechanics, USACM, an affiliate of the International Association for Computational Mechanics, IACM. The Congress is being held on the Boulder Campus of the University of Colorado, Wednesday-Friday, August 4-6, 1999, followed by a Short Course on Saturday, August 7, 1999.
Scientific Program Committee :

The Scientific Program Committee rosters current members of the Executive Committee of the U.S. Association for Computational Mechanics. It also includes USACM friends and sponsors who have generously contributed their time and effort to the success of the Association. Satya N. Atluri Klaus-Jrgen Bathe Ted Belytschko David Benson Thomas A. Cruse, Treasurer Jacob Fish, Secretary Joe E. Flaherty Tom J. R. Hughes
Local Organizing Committee:

Wing-Kam Liu, Vice President Ahmed K. Noor J. Tinsley Oden Michael Ortiz J. N. Reddy Mark S. Shephard, President Len Schwer Robert Spilker

The Local Organizing Committee is comprised of five faculty members of the University of Colorado at Boulder, three from the Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences and two from the Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering. Charbel Farhat, Short Course Coordinator Carlos Felippa, Web Master K. C. Park, Social Program Stein Sture, Co-Chair Kaspar Willam, Co-Chair

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PREFACE

After more than thirty years of intense activities, the field of Computational Mechanics is still a growing area. It spans from computational mathematics and numerical solution of large-scale mathematical-physical problems, to innovative computer simulations in applied mechanics and computational engineering. Four national congresses have been devoted exclusively to this topic: Chicago 1991; Washington 1993; Dallas 1995; San Francisco 1997. In contrast to the previous congresses of USACM, the venue of the biannual Congress moved from a metropolitan hotel-based location to a university campus-based venue. We are privileged to host USNCCM99 at the Boulder Campus of the University of Colorado, Wednesday-Friday, August 4 - 6, 1999. The major theme of the Congress is recent developments in computational methodologies and innovative applications. This topic encompasses a wide spectrum of disciplines, starting from non-traditional Finite Element Analysis, to Multi-Physics Problems in science and engineering, and High Performance Computing aspects. The main objective is to bring together the diverse computational communities, and to promote the interaction between computational researchers and software developers in universities and industries. The Local Organizing Committee comprised of Charbel Farhat, Carlos Felippa, K.C. Park, Stein Sture and Kaspar Willam made a determined effort to involve engineering scientists not only from academia and government research laboratories, but also from key software houses. One major change from previous Congresses is the reliance on MiniSymposia organized by scientists and practicing engineers. Part of this outreach was to include colleagues and friends to become actively involved in the congress program. We are proud to announce that eighty five individuals volunteered their time and effort to organize forty MiniSymposia which range from single six paper sessions to a nine session symposium with forty nine papers in one case.
Program Topics

The congress program features 700 Invited and Contributed Papers on computational methodologies and applications:
Computational Methods :

Finite Element Formulations, Boundary Element Formulations, Meshfree (Element Free) Methods, Particle Methods; Adaptive Techniques, Multi-Scale Methods (Macro-Micro and Nano-Mechanics), Coupled Multi-Field Problems; Nonlinear Solvers, Coupled Solvers, Parallel Computing, Domain Decomposition Methods, Computational Mathematics, Symbolic Computation, Numerical Optimization, Inverse Methods; Nonlinear Dynamics and Control.

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Application Areas :

Structural Mechanics, Solid Mechanics, Acoustics, Materials Engineering, Deterioration Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Mechanics, Electromagnetics, Stochastic Systems and Probabilistic Mechanics, System Identification and Damage Detection, Coupled Problems in Environmental Sciences, Geophysics, Geomechanics, Biomechanics, Visualization, CAD-CAE and Integrated System Engineering, Commercial Finite Element Software.
Program Format

In view of the strong response the three day congress program was arranged in fifteen parallel tracks and nine sessions of six papers each starting with a Plenary Lecture each morning. Altogether the final schedule features 132 sessions and 700 papers folded into 40 MiniSymposia which include 36 Keynote Lectures. PROGRAM SCHEDULE: August 4-6, 1999 Wednesday Thursday Plenary Lecture Coffee Break WTS1 Lunch Break WTS2 Tea Break WTS3 Opening Reception Plenary Lecture Coffee Break TTS1 Lunch Break TTS2 Tea Break TTS3 Congress Banquet

TIMING
08:00 - 09:00 am 09:00 - 09:30 am 09:30 - 11:30 am 11:30 - 01:00 pm 01:00 - 03:00 pm 03:00 - 03:30 pm 03:30 - 05:30 pm 07:00 - 09:00 pm

Friday Plenary Lecture Coffee Break FTS1 Lunch Break FTS2 Tea Break FTS3 Closing Barbecue

Post-Congress Short Course:

On Saturday, Aug. 7, 1999, a Short Course was organized by Charbel Farhat and Jacob Fish. This educational outreach program features Michael Ortiz, Thomas Hughes and Charbel Farhat who will present extended lectures on Micro-Mechanics, Stabilized Finite Element Methods and on Domain Decomposition techniques, respectively.
MiniSymposia

A good number of colleagues and friends in the USA and Europe were involved in organizing the 40 MiniSymposia at USNCCM99. Together with the three Plenary Lectures they form the body of this Book of Abstracts the content of which is listed below:

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TABLE OF CONTENT Plenary Lectures

Ted Belytschko: Nonlinear Finite Elements: Status and Recent Progress ...............................................8 Noboru Kikuchi : Advances in Computational Design and Optimization with Applications to MEMS...8 Rene de Borst : Recent Issues and Future Prospectives in Computational Mechanics of Materials ......9
MiniSymposia

Kenneth F. Alvin and K. C. Park : Inverse Problems .........................................................................................................11 Francisco Armero, Paul Steinmann, Howard Schreyer and Kaspar Willam : Computational Failure Mechanics...............................................................................25 Gernot Beer and Gnther Hofstetter : Computational Mechanics of Tunneling .....................................................................49 Pl Bergan, Sanjay Govindjee, Robert L. Taylor and Nils-Erik Wiberg : Computational Dynamics ............................................................................................55 Jacob Bielak, T.L. Cruse, Giulio Maier and Ronald Pak : Advances in Boundary Element Methods ...................................................................73 Scott A. Cannan, Steve J. Owen and Sunil Saigal : Trends in Unstructured Mesh Generation ...................................................................97 Ignacio Carol, Woody Ju and George Voyiadjis : Progress in Damage Mechanics ................................................................................127 Paul Dawson, Lallit Anand and Robert Haber : Micromechanical and Multi-Scale Models for Material Processing Applications ...139 Charbel Farhat, Carlos Felippa, Thomas L. Geers and Roger Ohayon : Computational Acoustics and Fluid-Structure Interaction........................................151 Carlos Felippa, Ekkehard Ramm and Wolfgang Wall : Advanced Finite Element Methods ...........................................................................173 Jacob Fish : Computational Advances in Modeling Heterogeneous Materials.............................185 Joseph E. Flaherty and Mark Shephard : Adaptive and Parallel Finite Element Methods.........................................................219 Leopoldo Franca and Thomas J.R. Hughes : Stabilized Finite Element Methods ...........................................................................233 Krishna Garikipati, N. Aluru and R.W Dutton : Computational Mechanics Applied to Semiconductor and Microelectronic Technology ................................................................................................................251

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Walter Gerstle : Software Issues in Computational Mechanics...........................................................261 Roger Ghanem : Computational Methods for Propagation of Uncertainty in Physical Systems .........269 Gerhard A. Holzapfel : Computational Biomechanics....................................................................................281 Gregory M. Hulbert and Noboru Kikuchi : Applications in the Automotive Industry ..................................................................293 Andrew Knyazev : Very Large Eigenvalue Problems..............................................................................299 Tod Laursen : Contact-Impact Problems and Nonlinear Mechanics ................................................313 Wing Kam Liu, J.-S Chen, Ted Belytschko and Leonard Schwer : Meshfree Methods.....................................................................................................325 Herbert Mang and Gnther Meschke : Computational Mechanics of Concrete .....................................................................355 Roberta Massabo and Brian Cox : Computational Modeling of Composites ..................................................................371 Joop Nagtegaal and David Fox : Advances in Commercial Finite Element Software ..................................................385 Raju Namburu and P. Raboin : High-Performance Computing and Computational Structural Mechanics................397 Tinsley Oden : Advances in a Posteriori Error Estimators and Adaptive Error Analysis .................407 Roger Owen, Djorje Peric and Eugenio Oate : Computational Plasticity ...........................................................................................419 K.C. Park and Ed Wilson : History of the Finite Element Method.......................................................................433 Glaucio Paulino : Functionally Graded Materials..................................................................................437 Alan Pifko : Applications in Engineering Practice ........................................................................455 Peter Pinsky and K.J. Cho : Computational Methods for Multiscale Simulation of Materials..............................473 Sharif Rahman and Martin Dunn : Computational and Probabilistic Methods for Fatigue and Fracture ........................483 Daniel Rixen and P. Le Tallec : Domain Decomposition Techniques .........................................................................497 Robert Sani : Advances in Computational Fluid Dynamics............................................................513
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Mike Saran, Michal Kleiber and D. A. Tortorelli : Optimization and Sensitivity Analysis ......................................................................523 Bernard Schrefler and Hari Rajaram : Coupled Problems in Enviromental Engineering......................................................537 Enrico Spacone : Recent Issues in Nonlinear Frame Analysis..............................................................547 Stein Sture and Boris Jeremic : Geotechnical Applications ........................................................................................553 Tayfun Tezduyar : Methods for Flow Simulation and Modeling ............................................................577 Franz-Josef Ulm and Yunping Xi : Computational Durability Mechanics .......................................................................591
Acknowledgements

We are pleased to acknowledge the financial support of USNCCM99 by the US Air Force Office of Scientific Research, USAFOSR. In addition we thank the Graduate School, the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, as well as the Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences and the Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder for their financial assistance. We are grateful for their confidence and active support without which the organization of USNCCM99 would have not been possible.

Kaspar Willam

Boulder, July 1999

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Plenary Lectures
Plenary Lecture 1 : Ted Belytschko Nonlinear Finite Elements: Status and Recent Progress ............. 8 Plenary Lecture 2 : Noboru Kikuchi Advances in Computational Design and Optimization with Applications to MEMS ................................................................ 8 Plenary Lecture 3 : Rene de Borst Recent Issues and Future Prospectives in Computational Mechanics of Materials................................................................ 9

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Nonlinear Finite Elements: Status and Recent Progress


Ted Belytschko
Chairman and Walter P. Murphy Professor of Comp. Mech. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Northwestern University. E-mail : t-belytschko@nwu.edu

ABSTRACT
The state of the art of nonlinear finite element analysis is reviewed. To provide a framework for the review, nonlinear problems are categorized according to levels of difficulty. The categorization is based on the major factors which contribute to the difficulty of a nonlinear problem: the degree of smoothness (or roughness) of the problem, the resolution required and the stability of the response. Roughness can occur both in time and space. The smoothness in time is shown to depend on factors such as contact-impact, the character of the loading, and the smoothness of the constitutive response. Smoothness in space depends also on the character of the loading, but is impaired dramatically by failure phenomena such as cracking. Stability is also shown to have dramatic effects on the difficulty of a problem. Instabilities can be classified as geometric instabilities and material instabilities. Material instabilities may result in localization of deformation, which dramatically increases the need for resolution or a discontinuous treatment of the motion. Some methods for improving the smoothness through regularization are then described. The second half of the talk will deal with the treatment of discontinuities in space, such as shear banding and cracking. The development of meshless methods for this class of problems will be described. Recent developments in meshless methods will be reviewed and the salient difficulties in the method examined. These include the quadrature of the Galerkin weak form, the treatment of essential boundary conditions and the speed of computation. The development of new methods for the inclusion of cracks and other discontinuities will then be described. These methods are based on the property that finite element shape functions are partitions of unity. It is shown how cracks can be modeled by simply introducing discontinuous enrichment function with branch functions at the crack tip. The methods are also explained as an extension of the global-local techniques that have been used in finite elements for some time. The key advantage of these new methods is that the enrichment function is multiplied by the finite element shape function, which serves as a window on the global function and lends sparsity of the discrete equations.

REFERENCES
[1] T. Belytschko and T. Black, Elastic Crack Growth with Minimal Remeshing, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol 45, 601-620, (1999). [2] T. Belytschko, Y. Krongauz, J. Dolbow and C. Gerlach, "On the Completeness of Meshfree Particle Methods", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Volume 43, 785-819 (1998). [3] T. Belytschko, Y. Krongauz, D. Organ, M. Fleming and P. Krysl, "Meshless methods: An overview and recent developments", Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Volume 139, 1-47 (1996).

Advances in Computational Design and Optimization with Applications to MEMS


Noboru Kikuchi
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics. The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 481092125, USA Kikuchi@engin.umich.edu

ABSTRACT
In this talk we shall introduce the homogenization design method for determining the optimal configuration of various structures and microstructures for smart structures and materials. Especially, we shall apply the topology optimization methodology to design porous piezoceramic components, actuators,
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and other type of compliant mechanisms to increase their performance. To this end, we shall setup multiobjective optimization problem which is solved by applying the sequential linear programming method. After describing the optimization method we have developed so far for smart materials and structures, especially MEMS applications, we shall also review other computational design methods introduced by other research organizations. Because of complexity of the designed microstructures and structural configurations, standard manufacturing methods may not be applicable. To overcome this difficulty, we shall also apply the layered manufacturing method to develop prototype of the designed structures and microstructures, and we shall test their performance by using the prototypes whether or not they actually perform designed functionality. This research has been carried out by several graduate students in the University of Michigan, among of them are Drs. Emilio Silva, Shinji Nishiwaki, and Marry Frecker, and Mr. Bing-Chung Chen.

Recent Issues and Future Prospectives in Computational Mechanics of Materials


Rene de Borst
Koiter Inst Delft / Faculty of Aerospace Eng. Delft Univ. of Technology. E-mail: R.deBorst@lr.TUDelft.nl

ABSTRACT
Failure in most engineering materials is preceded by the emergence of narrow zones of intense straining. During this phase of so-called strain localisation, the deformation pattern in a body rather suddenly evolves from relatively smooth into one in which thin zones of highly strained material dominate. In fact, these so-called zones of strain localisation act as a precursor to ultimate fracture and failure. Thus, in order to accurately and properly describe the failure behaviour of materials it is of pivotal importance that the strain localisation phase is modelled in a physically and mathematically correct manner, and that proper numerical tools are utilised to actually solve strain localisation phenomena in boundary value problems. In recent years the study of strain localisation in solids has received an increasing amount of attention, even though typical localisation phenomena like Lueders bands and rock faults have been known and studied for many decades. For instance, an important theoretical contribution was published by Hadamard [1] already in the beginning of this century, and in his monograph `Plasticity', Nadai [2] recognised the wide range of materials in which localisation phenomena occur, and showed many examples of shear bands in metals, sandstone, marble and paraffin. Later, landmark contributions have been published by Hill [3], Thomas [4], Mandel [5] and Rice [6], leading to a greater understanding of strain localisation, and in particular of shear banding. While the study of strain localisation was first primarily devoted to metals, much attention has recently also been given to localisation phenomena in geological materials (rocks, soils), see for instance the comprehensive treatise by Vardoulakis and Sulem [7], to (micro)-cracking in concrete [8] and to the propagation of necks in polymers. Until the mid-1980s analyses of localisation phenomena in materials were commonly carried out for standard, rate-independent continuum models. This is sufficient when the principal aim is to determine the behaviour in the pre-localisation regime and some properties at incipient localisation, such as the direction of shear bands in tension tests, and in biaxial and triaxial devices. However, there is a major difficulty in the post-localisation regime, since localisation in standard, rate-independent solids is intimately related to a possible change of the character of the governing set of partial differential equations. In the static case the elliptic character of the set of partial differential equations can be lost, while, on the other hand, in the dynamic case we typically observe a change of a hyperbolic set into an elliptic set. In both cases the rate boundary value problem becomes ill-posed and numerical solutions suffer from spurious mesh sensitivity. The inadequacy of the standard, rate-independent continuum to model zone of localised straining correctly can be viewed as a consequence of the fact that force-displacement relations measured in testing devices are simply mapped onto stress-strain curves by dividing the force and the elongation by the original load-carrying area and the original length of the specimen, respectively, without taking into account the changes in the micro-structure. Therefore, the mathematical description ceases to be a meaningful representation of the physical reality. To remedy this problem one must either introduce additional terms in the continuum description which reflect the changes in the micro-structure [9-11], or one must take into account the inherent
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viscosity of most engineering materials. The effect is that the governing equations do not change type during the loading process and that physically meaningful solutions are obtained for the entire loading range. A more mathematical way to look at the introduction of additional terms in the continuum description is that the Dirac distributions for the strain at failure are replaced by continuous strain distributions, which lend themselves for description by standard numerical schemes. Although the strain gradients are now finite, they are very steep and the concentration of strain in a small area can still be referred to as strain localisation or localisation of deformation. In fact, strain localisation is but one, albeit the most important, of possible material instability phenomena in solids. In this contribution we shall first categorise the different material instability phenomena using a one-dimensional linear stability analysis. Next, we shall point out a broad framework to mathematically regularize the ill-posed set of equations that arises after the onset of localisation. Broadly speaking, this framework involves the introduction of gradients, either in space or in time, of coupled plasticity-damage theories. In order to keep the formulation transparent, we shall ignore the inherent anisotropic character of plasticity and damage when real microstructural changes develop, such as is the case during strain localisation. Illustrative examples using finite elements will be given. The last part of the manuscript is devoted to high resolution numerical techniques to properly capture thin zones of highly strained material and to the influence of imperfections on failure patterns. In this light we will pay attention to meshless methods, which, through their inherent property of a higherorder continuity are ideally suited for inclusion of high-order spatial gradients in constitutive relations, to the inclusion of discontinuities or zones with steep strain gradients directly in finite elements, and to randomly distributed imperfections in quasi-brittle and (visco)-plastic materials.

REFERENCES
[ 1] J. Hadamard. Lecons sur la Propagation des Ondes. Herman et fils, Paris (1903). [ 2] A. Nadai. Plasticity. McGraw-Hill, New York and London (1931). [ 3] R. Hill. A general theory of uniqueness and stability in elastic-plastic solids, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 6, 236-249 (1958). [ 4] Y. Thomas. Plastic Flow and Fracture of Solids. Academic Press, New York (1961). [ 5] J. Mandel. Conditions de stabilite et postulat de Drucker. In: Proc. IUTAM Symposium on Rheology and Soil Mechanics. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 58-68 (1966). [ 6] J.R. Rice. The localization of plastic deformation. In: Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. North-Holland, Amsterdam, 207-220 (1976). [ 7] I. Vardoulakis, J. Sulem. Bifurcation Analysis in Geomechanics. Blackie, London (1995). [ 8] Z.P. Bazant, J. Planas. Fracture and Size Effect in Concrete and Other Quasibrittle Materials. CRC Press, Boca Raton (1998). [ 9] E.C. Aifantis. On the microstructural origin of certain inelastic model. Trans. ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 106, 326-330 (1984). [10] R. de Borst, H.-B. Muehlhaus. Gradient-dependent plasticity: formulation and algorithmic aspects. Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., 35, 521-539 (1992). [11] N.A. Fleck, J.W. Hutchinson. Strain gradient plasticity. Adv. Appl. Mech., 33, 295-361 (1997).

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Minisymposium

Inverse Problems
Kenneth F. Alvin and K. C. Park
SESSION 1
Keynote : THE EVOLVING ROLE OF VALIDATION AND INVERSE METHODS IN STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS D.R. Martinez and K.F. Alvin ...........................................................................................................................................12 MODAL IDENTIFICATION OF MIR USING INVERSE SYSTEM DYNAMICS AND MIR/SHUTTLE DOCKING DATA D.C. Kammer and A.D. Steltzner......................................................................................................................................13 BAYSIAN MODEL UPDATING AND ROBUST RELIABILITY J.L. Beck, C. Papadimitriou, L.S. Katafygiotis and S.K. Au..............................................................................................13 ON REGULARIZATION IN GEOTECHNICAL INVERSE ANALYSIS BASED ON ENTROPY MINIMIZATION Y. Honjo............................................................................................................................................................................14 AN ITERATIVE SUPERSONIC WING DESIGN USING AN INVERSE PROBLEM K. Matsushima, T. Iwamiya, S. Jeong and S. Obayashi ....................................................................................................15

SESSION 2
DATA FUSION FOR THE STEADY INVERSE HEAT CONDUCTION PROBLEM L.G. Olson and R.D. Throne.............................................................................................................................................15 INVERSE DETERMINATION OF UNSTEADY THERMAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS DURING COOLING OF THREE - DIMENSIONAL OBJECTS WITH SPECIFIED LOCAL COOLING RATES AND MAXIMUM THERMAL STRESS LEVELS G.S. Dulikravich and B.H. Dennis ....................................................................................................................................16 A COMPARISON OF SEVERAL INVERSION ALGORITHMS FOR THERMAL AND MECHANICAL SYSTEMS B. Travis ...........................................................................................................................................................................17 ADJOINT METHODS FOR THE INVERSE DESIGN OF COMPLEX NATURAL CONVECTION SYSTEMS R. Sampath and N. Zabaras ..............................................................................................................................................17 DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS TO ESTIMATE TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT THERMAL PROPERTIES K.J. Dowding....................................................................................................................................................................18

SESSION 3
EFFECT OF CORRELATION AMONG MEASURED DEFLECTIONS ON ESTIMATED LAYER MODULI K. Matsui, Q. Dong and I. Kurobayashi ...........................................................................................................................19 STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING VIA DYNAMICS LOCALIZATION AND TRANSMISSION ZERO BEHAVIOR G. Reich and K.C. Park ....................................................................................................................................................20 EXTRACTION OF RITZ VECTORS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO STRUCTURAL DAMAGE DIAGNOSIS H. Soon and K.H. Law......................................................................................................................................................20 THE DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF A DAMAGE DETECTION TOOLBOX FOR MATLAB J.P. Lynch, H. Soon and K.H. Law ...................................................................................................................................21 INCORPORATION OF ACCURATE SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS INTO A SCALABLE MP STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS FEM CODE K.F. Alvin, G.M. Reese, D.M. Day and M. Bhardwaj .......................................................................................................22 EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF TRANSIENT FINITE ELEMENT MODEL PREDICTIONS S.W. Doebling , F.M. Hemez , W. Rhee and P. Beardsley.................................................................................................23

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Keynote : THE EVOLVING ROLE OF VALIDATION AND INVERSE METHODS IN STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS
D.R. Martinez and K.F. Alvin
(1) - Structural Dynamics and Vibration Control Dept. E-mail : drmarti@sandia.gov (2) - Sandia National Laboratories. E-mail : kfalvin@sandia.gov

ABSTRACT
Inverse problems have played an important role in structural dynamics analysis of aerospace and weapon systems during the last few decades. This period has seen increasing use of finite element analysis procedures, which have been augmented by inverse methods to achieve significant accuracy and efficiency in computational analysis. This synthesis of analysis methods has been so successful that it is now increasingly common to perform virtual testing of aerospace components using computational modeling and simulation for qualification and certification. The most common example of this approach is in the qualification of satellite payloads, which typically do not see a fully-integrated test-based simulation of the dynamic launch loading environment. Instead, a combination of subsystem random vibration tests, system-level acoustics and static proof loads tests are integrated through computational analysis, which is grounded and validated through modal testing and inverse methods. Inverse methods for structural dynamics have evolved over time from the ad hoc adjustment of parameters to sophisticated, staistically-based parameter estimation methods using large quantities of experimentally -estimated modal parameters, sensitivity analysis, and optimization techniques. The increased use of statistics-based methods have improved the robustness of such procedures, as well as setting the stage for computational analysis-based reliability assessment. As a deeper understanding of continuous parameter estimation procedures has developed, together with powerful algorithm implementations, research in inverse methods has begun to consider such conceptual modeling issues as error localization and connectivity determination. These applications have traditionally been considered issues of model validation. In fact, validation of models was often concluded from successful identification of parameters. In the current environment of rapidly increasing computational capability, inverse methods and validation are again evolving. Programs such as DOE's Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) are leading a revolution in physics-based modeling and simulation capabilities. Emerging from this revolution are new finite element codes, such as Sandia's SALINAS structural dynamics application, which can perform implicit solutions of models with over 10 million unknowns. This level of modeling fidelity can reduce the kinds of gross modeling simplifications that motivated many applications of inverse methods, for example the estimation of overall compliance in joints and interfaces. As modeling and simulation strives towards a higher, physics-based predictive capability based on first principles, validation methodology and inverse methods must increasingly focus on the phenomnenological identification and validation of subgrid physics such as material constitutive and interfacial microslip models. While experiment design can help to isolate subgrid models for identification and validation purposes, new inverse methods must be developed to help isolate, identify, and validate the contributing physics in a complex application. Furthermore, probabilistic-based uncertainty quantification methods are needed to develop and refine reliability analysis, as well as to quantify model biases and uncertainties observable from validation exercises.

MODAL IDENTIFICATION OF MIR USING INVERSE SYSTEM DYNAMICS AND MIR/SHUTTLE DOCKING DATA
D.C. Kammer and A.D. Steltzner
(1) - Engineering Mech. And Astronautics. Univ. of Winsconsin. E-mail : dckammer@facstaff.wisc.edu (2) - Engineering Mech. And Astronautics. Univ. of Winsconsin. E-mail : steltzne@cae.wisc.edu

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ABSTRACT
A time-domain technique is presented which uses inverse structural dynamics to identify physical characteristics of a structure which can subsequently be used for damage detection. The term "inverse" refers to the fact that the roles of input and output are reversed from the usual structural dynamics problem. If sensors such as accelerometers are placed at the external input locations, modal parameters corresponding to structural motion with the sensor locations fixed can be identified. If sensors are not collocated with the inputs, other important structural characteristics can be determined, such as transmission zeros. One of the main advantages of this method is that it only requires measured response data. This characteristic makes the approach, referred to as a Remote Sensing System (RSS), applicable in cases where the input forces cannot be measured such as Mir/Shuttle docking events. The objective of this work was to apply the RSS approach to acceleration data collected at 25 locations on the Mir space station during the STS-81, STS-89, and STS-91 docking events in an attempt to identify structural damage in the Kristall-to-base module interface caused by the Progress collision. In order to explore the damage detection capability of RSS combined with ERA modal identification for a case with sufficient data, numerical simulations were performed using the FEM representation of the Mir. Five percent rms noise was added to the response of the FEM to three simulated sets of docking forces. The combined RSS/ERA method accurately identified 5 FEM fixed sensor location modes, but none of the modes possessed a significant amount of strain energy in the Kristall-to-base module interface. Based upon this simulation, it is believed that the Mir/Shuttle docking events do not sufficiently excite the Kristall-to-base module interface to provide accurate damage detection in this area. A sufficient amount of actual docking data was obtained for the RSS/ERA method by combining the measured response from all three docking events. This assumes that the effects of docking moments on measured responses are second order compared to the linear docking forces. The RSS/ERA approach was used to identify three normal modes corresponding to having the reference sensors on Kristall fixed. Two of the modes correlated very well with the FEM and the identification results were very analogous to results produced by the numerical simulations. Based upon this work, it is believed that RSS provides a valuable new approach to identifying characteristics of large space structures from measured data without the need for measuring the input excitation.

BAYSIAN MODEL UPDATING AND ROBUST RELIABILITY


J.L. Beck, C. Papadimitriou, L.S. Katafygiotis and S.K. Au
(1) - Div. of Engineering and Applied Science, California Inst. of Technology. E-mail : jimbeck@cco.caltech.edu (2) - Div. of Engineering and Applied Science, California Inst. of Technology (3) - Dept. of Civil and Structural Engineering. Hong Kong Univ. of Sci. and Tech.

ABSTRACT
A Bayesian probabilistic framework [1] for model updating is integrated with probabilistic structural dynamics tools [2] for the purpose of updating structural response and reliability predictions using measured vibrational data. The probabilistic system identification methodology is used to provide more accurate representations of the uncertainties associated with the structural modeling, based on both measured vibrational data and prior engineering information. The methodology allows for the explicit treatment of the uncertainties arising from both measurement and modeling errors. It provides an updated probability density function for the system parameters, including those related to the prediction-error uncertainties, which accounts for all models that fit the data well, along with the relative plausibility of each of these models. Using this updated distribution for the system parameters, a methodology is presented for computing the robust reliability of structures subjected to uncertain future environmental loads, such as earthquake and wind loads. This reliability is "robust" in the sense that it takes modeling uncertainties into account in addition to the uncertainties in the structural loads. The computational difficulties associated with calculating the resulting reliability integrals are also addressed and efficient asymptotic and importance sampling techniques are proposed for treating both identifiable and non-identifiable cases. The proposed framework can be used to continually monitor and update the predictions of structural response and reliability. This provides important information about the integrity of the structure after severe loading events such as earthquakes and strong winds, or deterioration from long-term
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corrosion and fatigue. The methodology is illustrated with an example structure subjected to earthquake loads. It is shown that the structural response and reliabilities computed before and after a severe event using the measured dynamic data can differ significantly. It is demonstrated that modeling uncertainties are important for making reliable predictions at the unmonitored degrees of freedom of a structure. Issues related to optimal sensor locations for improving the reliability of the model response predictions are also addressed. It is suggested that measured dynamic data, whenever available, can improve considerably the accuracy in predicting structural response and safety of existing structures.

REFERENCES
[1] Beck, J.L. and Katafygiotis, L.S. (1998), "Updating models and their uncertainties - Bayesian statistical framework", J. Eng. Mech. 124(4), 455-461. [2] Papadimitriou, C., Beck, J.L. and Katafygiotis, L.S. (1997), "Asymptotic expansions for reliability and moments of uncertain systems", J. Eng. Mech., 123(12), 1219-1229.

ON REGULARIZATION IN GEOTECHNICAL INVERSE ANALYSIS BASED ON ENTROPY MINIMIZATION


Y. Honjo
(1) - Department of Civil Engineering, Gifu University. E-mail : honjo@cc.gifu-u.ac.jp

ABSTRACT
Most of the inverse problems encountered in geotechnical inverse analysis are illposed, thus some type of regularization procedure need to be applied. In this paper, several regularization procedures are compared to a simple problem, a laterally loaded pile (2.4m long) in homogeneous sand in a laboratory pit. The regularization procedures employed are the minimum norm solution based on the singular value decomposition, Kitagawa's solution, L curve method and the extended Bayesian method (EBM) with ABIC (Akaike Bayesian Information Criterion). The obtained solutions are compared with the maximum likelihood solution (ML), and characteristic of each type of solution is discussed. Furthermore, the observation noise of different levels are applied to the original data to see the change of solutions for each method. The EMB showed superiority to other types of regularization procedures in a sense it automatically accomplished the best matching between the observation data and the prior information.

AN ITERATIVE SUPERSONIC WING DESIGN USING AN INVERSE PROBLEM


K. Matsushima, T. Iwamiya, S. Jeong and S. Obayashi
(1) - Space systems Dept Fujitsu Ltd. E-mail : kisam@nal.go.jp (2) - National Aerospace Laboratory, Japan. (3) - Tohoku University Miyagi Japan

ABSTRACT
Supersonic wing design has been performed considering only the load distribution on the wing, so far. Most existing methods treat a planform and a warp. They don't care the airfoil shape of wing sections. However, to develop a supersonic wing with a new concept such as a natural laminar flow (NLF) wing, the airfoil shape is of primary importance. In addition, the airfoil shape at every span station has to be determined three - dimensionally. We have been developing and verifying a numerical inverse design method which determines the airfoil shape at every span station. We are also trying to apply it to the design of the Japanese SST[1]. The goal of the method is to find the airfoil geometry which realizes target pressure distribution at all span stations with a planform fixed. The design procedure of the method is iterative. Starting with the baseline shape, it iterates a Navier-Stokes (N-S) simulation and an inverse problem solver, in turn. A N-S
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simulation provides the pressure distribution by a current shape, then we check if the current shape realizes the target pressure distribution. An inverse problem solver provides the geometrical correction for airfoil shapes corresponding to the difference between target and current pressure distributions. The inverse problem solver has been newly developed for the project. The inverse problem is formulated using the equation of flow physics and results in integral equations. It is one of the extentions of the formulation presented by Takanashi[2] for transonic wing design. The wing of the Japanese SST has been aerodynamically designed at M $B!g (J=2.0, taking the wing - fuselage interaction into account. We prescribe a target pressure which has elliptic load distribution and whose upper surface distribution keeps the laminar boundary layer significantly longer than traditional wings. The baseline shape of the wing is the result of planform and warp optimizations by the traditional linear theory. The performance of the baseline model is not as efficient as expected. Therefore, improvement of the wing shape by the new method is necessary. For the inverse problem solver , the halfspan of the wing is divided into 82 (spanwise) X 50 (chordwise) panels. The computational time is about 7 minutes on a 1.7GFLOP-machine. After twelve iterations of the N-S simulation and the inverse problem solver, the converged design result has been obtained. The pressure distribution of the designed wing shows good agreement with the target.

REFERENCES
[1] K. Matsushima et al., "A Supersonic Inverse Wing Design Method and its Application to Japanese SST", 16th ICNMFD, July, 1998. [2] S. Takanashi, "Iterative Three-dimensional Transonic Wing Design Using Integral Equations", J. of Aircraft, 22(8), August, 1985.

DATA FUSION FOR THE STEADY INVERSE HEAT CONDUCTION PROBLEM


L.G. Olson and R.D. Throne
(1) - University of Nebraska. E-mail : lolson2@unl.edu (2) - University of Nebraska

ABSTRACT
In many applications, it is not possible to place sensors directly at the locations where information about temperatures or heat fluxes are desired. For instance, in machining (turning) of high performance ceramics, we are interested in the temperatures/fluxes at the tool tip in order to monitor tool wear. However, the extreme operating conditions which arise force us to place the sensors away from the tip. Many of these cases may reasonable be modelled as steady or quasi-steady heat condution. In this study, we examined techniques for solving such inverse boundary value problems in steady multidimensional heat conduction. In our model problems the conditions were overspecified (heat flux and temperature) on some boundaries of the domain in order to infer heat flux and/or temperature at other domain boundaries. We also assumed that the material properties and geometry were known. We compared our new Generalized Eigensystem techniques (GES and GESL) to standard techniques such as Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Tikhonov Regularization of various orders. All methods included some form of data fusion - the systematic combination of data from multiple types and locations of sensors. We studied two test geometries, a circular annulus and a square with rectangular holes, which have been examined by other researchers as well. Several temperature distributions were employed, and cases with and without simulated noise were included. Our results indicate that GESL provides inverse results for these test cases which are far superior to the other methods studied. The advantage of GESL is larger when moderate noise is present, and often GESL gives errors which are five to ten times smaller than SVD or Tikhonov. However, on test cases where the temperature distribution contains small regions of high temperature (hot spots) on the source boundary all methods give inadequate results. We are currently investigating the use of wavelets to improve the resolution of these small regions.

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INVERSE DETERMINATION OF UNSTEADY THERMAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS DURING COOLING OF THREE - DIMENSIONAL OBJECTS WITH SPECIFIED LOCAL COOLING RATES AND MAXIMUM THERMAL STRESS LEVELS
G.S. Dulikravich and B.H. Dennis
(1) - Dept. of Aerospace Engineering. The Pennsylvania State University. E-mail : ft7@psu.edu (2) - Dept. of Aerospace Engineering. The Pennsylvania State University.

ABSTRACT
One of the technical difficulties encountered by surgeons during organ transplantation is caused by the shortage of available organs. A possible solution would be to establish an organ bank that could store organs with different immunological properties in a frozen state for lengthy periods of time. When preserving living human tissues (kidney, heart, liver, embryo, bone, spleen, semen, etc.) for the purpose of performing transplant surgery, the organ is cooled in a special liquid cryo-protective agent (CPA) to a prescribed low temperature and kept at this temperature until used. During the cooling process there is an optimal cooling rate for each particular type of tissue of an organ in order to maximize the survivability of the living cells and reduce the problem of future rejection by the organ recipient's body. One method that offers a practical solution is to determine the proper surface thermal conditions of the container in which the CPA and the organ are located so that the optimal local cooling rates and the tolerable thermal stresses are achieved at each instant of time at every point in the organ. The objective of this work is to create a fully automatic procedure for determining and maintaining locally optimal cooling/heating rates throughout the living tissue while simultaneously keeping the local thermal stresses below a specified level, thus maximizing living tissue survivability. Maintaining optimal distributed values of the cooling rates throughout the organ is achieved by appropriately varying temperature distribution on the walls of the container. A complete three-dimensional mathematical model for predicting convection/conduction cooling of heterogeneous transplant tissues and whole organs submerged in and perfused with a CPA includes concentration dependent latent heat release during phase change. It also accounts for the temperature dependent thermal properties of the local tissue and of the CPA. A finite element computer program is used for the prediction of flow-field of the CPA during perfusion of the organ. It has the ability to predict convective heat transfer on the inner surfaces of the organ. A time-accurate finite element computer program is used for the prediction of unsteady heat conduction and thermal stresses within realistically shaped three -dimensional heterogeneous organs. In addition, a reliable computer program is used to achieve efficient nonlinear constrained optimization of time-varying container wall temperature distribution. (NOTE: ALL OF THESE CODES HAVE ALREADY BEEN DEVELOPED BY OUR TEAM. WE ARE PRESENTLY TESTING THE ENTIRE SOFTWARE SYSTEM).

A COMPARISON OF SEVERAL INVERSION ALGORITHMS FOR THERMAL AND MECHANICAL SYSTEMS


B. Travis
(1) - Earth & Environmental Sciences Division. Los Alamos National Laboratory. E-mail : bjt@vega.lanl.gov

ABSTRACT
Determining an unknown, spatially variable parameter in the governing equation, or an unknown initial condition or forcing function in thermal or mechanical systems is frequently required, but usually constitutes an ill-posed inverse problem. Further, coupled thermal and mechanical systems are a greater challenge for inversion algorithms. While more difficult to solve, they offer the possibility of greater resolution of unknown parameters. There are a variety of methods for estimating solutions; here, several are illustrated and compared for canonical thermal and mechanical systems considered separately and in coupled mode:
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1) Courant's method (which creates and uses an approximation of the delta functional); 2) Tikhonov regularization (equivalent to RKHS), both with classical derivative regularizers, and with fractional derivative regularizers, and coupled with an interval method; 3) BNN's (biological neural nets, as constrasted with artificial neural networks, ANN's), which can be thought of as roughly equivalent to regularization with non-simple regularizers; 4) Representers, which involve finding coefficients in a basis function expansion for the unknown parameter function. Each has its strengths and weaknesses, and seems to be more successful for certain kinds of inverse problems.

ADJOINT METHODS FOR THE INVERSE DESIGN OF COMPLEX NATURAL CONVECTION SYSTEMS
R. Sampath and N. Zabaras
(1) - Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (2) - Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. E-mail : zabaras@cornell.edu

ABSTRACT
Inverse and design problems have been under extensive investigation over the past decade. Many engineering applications of heat transfer and fluid flow can often be posed as inverse design problems where one calculates the heat flux conditions in part of the boundary from over-specified boundary conditions (i.e. temperature and flux) on another part of the boundary [1, 2]. Though there has been extensive application of inverse problem theory to conduction based problems, there is very little work in the application of these methods to the design of convection driven systems [3]. In this paper, we present an inverse design formulation for the design of complex natural convection systems through the use of thermal boundary flux control. The design problem is stated as a functional optimization problem in the L2 space. The exact gradient of the cost functional is obtained via the solution of an adjoint continuum problem. A sensitivity problem is also defined and is used in the implementation of the conjugate gradient method (CGM). An object-oriented [4] environment has been developed for the implementation of such systems that accounts for the common mathematical structure and implementation techniques for the various sub problems within the direct, adjoint and sensitivity problems. The simulations are based on a stream-line upwind/Petrov-Galerkin finite element method solution of the heat and flow equations in each of the direct, adjoint and sensitivity sub-problems. The direct, adjoint and sensitivity problems are solved in sequence in the framework of the CGM to obtain the desired design solution. A numerical example is used to demonstrate the potential applications of this method. Applications of this work to systems with various coupled convection/diffusion mechanisms (as for example is the case in solidification systems) will be discussed. Prospects in using additional means of control such as electromagnetic stirring [5] will also be considered.

REFERENCES
[1] G. Z. Yang and N. Zabaras , "An adjoint method for the inverse design of solidification processes with natural convection", Int. J. Numer. Methods Engr., 42, 1121 (1998). [2] G. Z. Yang and N. Zabaras , "The adjoint method for an inverse design problem in the directional solidification of binary alloys", J. Comput. Phys., 140, 432 (1998). [3] N. Zabaras and G. Yang, "A functional optimization formulation and implementation of an inverse natural convection problem", Comp. Methods Appl. Mech. Engr., 144 (3-4), 245 (1997). [4] R. Sampath and N. Zabaras , "An object-oriented implementation of adjoint techniques for the design of complex continuum systems", Int. J. Numer. Methods Engr., submitted for publication. [5] R. Sampath and N. Zabaras , "Inverse thermal design and control of solidification processes in the presence of a strong external magnetic field", J. Comput. Phys., submitted for publication.

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DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS TO ESTIMATE TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT THERMAL PROPERTIES


K.J. Dowding
(1) - Sandia National Laboratories. E-mail : kjdowdi@sandia.gov

ABSTRACT
Temperature dependence of thermal properties, such as thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity, may not be accurately known for many materials. In such cases parameter estimation techniques can be combined with experimental investigations to estimate parameters describing the temperature dependent thermal properties. While optimal experimental conditions to estimate constant thermal properties have been investigated, conditions when properties vary with temperature have not. Conditions refer to the test specimen geometry, duration of the experiment, duration of dynamic boundary conditions such as heat flux, and magnitude of boundary conditions. Experimental conditions are studied to estimate temperature dependent thermal properties for polyurethane foam. An experimental design that imposes a measurable heat flux on one surface of a test specimen with an electric heater is proposed. This design usually permits thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity to be simultaneously estimated. Since the foam has relatively low thermal conductivity, the boundary of the specimen opposite the heater can be accommodated in one of two ways. In the first configuration the specimen thickness is made large enough such that the specimen is (thermally) semi infinite. In this case the boundary requires no attention. The second configuration puts a high conductivity heat sink in contact with the boundary. This results in nearly an isothermal response at this surface. To distinguish from the previous configuration, this configuration is referred to as finite. These two configurations are necessitated by experimental as well as analysis concerns. Experimental conditions for the two configurations are studied to quantify the optimal experiment to estimate temperature dependent thermal properties. The criteria D-optimality is used to identify the optimal experiment. Properties are assumed to vary linearly with temperature; a total of four parameters describe linearly varying thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity. Results indicate that finite configuration is better than the semi infinite, assuming a single experiment is conducted to estimate the linearly varying properties. An alternative to estimate temperature dependent properties is to combine several experiments, each with a different temperature range. This approach appears to be far better than a single experiments. Details of this approach are discussed.

EFFECT OF CORRELATION AMONG MEASURED DEFLECTIONS ON ESTIMATED LAYER MODULI


K. Matsui, Q. Dong and I. Kurobayashi
(1) - Tokyo Denki University College of Science and Engineering. E-mail : matsui@g.dendai.ac.jp (2) - Tokyo Denki University College of Science and Engineering (3) - Tokyo Denki University College of Science and Engineering

ABSTRACT
A falling weight deflectometer has been widely used to measure surface deflection at several locations near a loading plate, from which layer moduli are estimated assuming pavement as an elastic multi-layered system. However, estimated results are affected by various types of errors such as 1) measurement error, 2) model parameter error, 3) modeling error and 4) computational error. Computational error refers to a round off error during iterative process. This error has to be minimized by careful coding of inverse analysis algorithm because of its unstable nature. Modeling error arises from assumption of a linear elastic behavior of pavement when it is not. After modeling is selected, model parameters such as layer thickness and Poison ratio which are used to describe a model may involve some error and affect the results. Measured surface deflection always contains some random error. Measurement accuracy can be improved by carefully repeating measurement.

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Some papers in the past examined the effect of measurement error on estimated results. However no paper has focused on the correlation between measured deflections and its effect on estimated results. Authors found that the correlation of measured deflections improves accuracy of estimated moduli when a variation of deflection is same between two sets of data. General inverse matrix approach is used for the inverse analysis with scaling of unknown parameters coupled with truncated singular value decomposition. This method results in a smaller condition number which contributes to improvement of numerical stability. After estimating parameter values, their confidence region is also presented.

STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING VIA DYNAMICS LOCALIZATION AND TRANSMISSION ZERO BEHAVIOR
G. Reich and K.C. Park
(1) - E-mail :reich@titan.Colorado.EDU (2) - University of Colorado. E-mail : kcpark@titan.colorado.edu

ABSTRACT
This work examines the application of a structural flexibility partitioning scheme to localized damage detection techniques. A novel method of determining the location of damage is developed based on the invariance of a set of localized transmission zeros. The purpose of this work is to apply the theoretical conclusions which are developed into a viable and practical damage detection technique for application on existing and future damage detection problems. The structural partitioning scheme is based on the Lagrange multiplier method of applying interelement dynamic constraints to a partitioned structural system. The natural conclusion of this work is that the dynamics of the total structure can be written in terms of the dynamics of each substructure, plus the coupling dynamics of the interactions between substructures. The transmission zeros of a transfer function are the frequencies at which no response is seen at the sensor locations given a harmonic input at the actuator locations. The mathematical description and properties of transmission zeros are well known from linear system theory. The transmission zeros of a global system experiencing damage are shown to vary except for elements at a natural boundary condition. We propose to combine the flexibility partitioning scheme with the monitoring of transmission zeros to create a unique damage location identification scheme. The system requires only a few sensors at selected locations to determine the specific localized transfer functions corresponding to a single substructure. The transmission zeros of that transfer function are shown to be invariant to damage in the corresponding substructure. The technique is demonstrated on several example structures.

EXTRACTION OF RITZ VECTORS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO STRUCTURAL DAMAGE DIAGNOSIS


H. Soon and K.H. Law
(1) - Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Stanford University. E-mail : sohnhoon@leland.stanford.edu (2) - Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Stanford University.

ABSTRACT
There have been increased economic and societal demands to continuously monitor the conditions and long -term degradation of structures to ensure their safety and adequate performance throughout their life spans. The need for a systematic approach for global monitoring that can be applied to large-scale structures has led to recent advances in vibration-based damage identification techniques. It has been shown that changes in the modal parameters might not be apparent at an early stage of damage.
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In addition, the uncertainties caused by measurement noise, modeling error involved in an analytical model, and environmental factors such as variations in temperature, humidity and load conditions can impede reliable identification of damage. Therefore, for reliable damage detection, damage would need to cause significant changes in the modal parameters that are beyond the natural variability caused by the effects other than damage. To overcome the insufficient sensitivity of modal vectors to damage, we propose Ritz vectors as a potential alternative to modal vectors. First, we present a new extraction procedure of Ritz vectors based on a measured flexibility matrix obtained from vibration test data. The main advantage of the flexibility-based method is that this method allows generating Ritz vectors from arbitrary load patterns as well as from the actual load patterns employed in the vibration test. The Ritz vector extraction procedure is demonstrated using a grid-type bridge model constructed and tested at the Hyundai Institute of Construction Technology (HICT), Korea. Next, we incorporate Ritz vectors into the previously proposed Bayesian probabilistic framework [1] and investigate its applicability to damage diagnosis problems. The Ritz vectors generated from the measured flexibility are applied to conduct the damage diagnosis of the test structure. The diagnosis performances using Ritz and modal vectors are also compared. Ritz vectors are successfully extracted from the vibration tests of the grid-type bridge model and the experimental Ritz vectors provide a good agreement with analytical ones. Damage diagnoses results indicate that the employment of Ritz vectors provides better indication of the actual damage locations than modal vectors. The superior performance of Ritz vectors attributes to (1) the better sensitivity of Ritz vectors over modal vectors and (2) the increased amount of information obtained by employing multiple load patterns.

REFERENCES
[1] Sohn, H. and Law, K. H., "Bayesian Probabilistic Approach for Structure Damage Detection", Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Vol. 26, pages 1259-1281

THE DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF A DAMAGE DETECTION TOOLBOX FOR MATLAB


J.P. Lynch, H. Soon and K.H. Law
(1) - Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Stanford University. E-mail : jplynch@leland.Stanford.EDU (2) - Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Stanford University. E-mail : sohnhoon@leland.stanford.edu (3) - Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Stanford University.

ABSTRACT
An important challenge to the engineering research community is to develop methods of monitoring the health as well as detecting damage in large-scale structures. To date, numerous methods have been developed employing the vibration characteristics of a structure to predict the locations and degrees of damage. While numerous MATLAB based toolboxes are available to calculate the modal parameters of a vibrating structure, none to date include the capability to look at these parameters and predict damage locations and severity. In response to this, the authors have developed a damage detection toolbox for MATLAB that can be used in conjunction with available modal analysis software like Los Alamos National Labs DIAMOND. The toolbox employs a user friendly graphical user interface that provides the user with displays to view input parameters and to view calculated damage detection results. The objective of the toolbox is to provide a user friendly platform to help researchers to experiment and incorporate additional algorithms for damage detection applications. Modal analysis software is required to examine the frequency response of a structure and extract the dominant modes of the structures vibration behavior. This information is then passed on to the damage detection toolbox, which will detect damage in the structure. The toolbox has been designed to offer a large degree of flexibility by allowing the user to select from a number of damage detection algorithms. These algorithms can be classified in two categories; probabilistic based and deterministic based.

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The damage detection toolbox uses one probabilistic damage detection algorithm that employs the use of a Bayesian approach to search for the most probable damage event by comparing relative probabilities for different damage hypotheses. The first variation of the Bayesian search algorithm is based upon the comparison of modal parameters of an analytical model and the modal parameters from the modal analysis software to predict damage locations.[1] The second variation uses the Ritz vectors extracted from the modal parameters and the Ritz vectors from an analytical model in its comparison to postulate damage locations. These methods are suitable if an inaccurate model of the structure is assumed or if a high degree of noise is inherent in the vibration test data. The toolbox also provides the user with two deterministic based damage detection algorithms that use traditional model updating methods to accurately diagnose damage within a structure.[2] These methods are best suited for instances where the structure can be accurately modeled and little noise is contained in the vibration test data. The damage detection toolbox has been successfully used at Stanford University to predict damage in structures recently tested. The toolbox has been used in the diagnoses of damage for an eight bay truss structure, a simple beam, and in a grid-type bridge model.

REFERENCES
[1] H. Sohn and K. H. Law. "Bayesian Probabilistic Approach for Structure Damage Detection", Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 26:1259-1281, 1997. [2] F.M. Hemez , "Theoretical and Experimental Correlation between Finite Element Models and Modal Tests in the Context of Large Flexible Space Structures". PhD Thesis, Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 1993. [3] D.C. Zimmerman and T. Simmermacher, "Model Correlation using Multiple Static Load and Vibration Tests". American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 33:2182-2188, 1995.

INCORPORATION OF ACCURATE SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS INTO A SCALABLE MP STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS FEM CODE
K.F. Alvin, G.M. Reese, D.M. Day and M. Bhardwaj
(1) - Sandia National Laboratories. E-mail : kfalvin@sandia.gov (2) - Sandia National Laboratories. E-mail : gmreese@sandia.gov (3) - Sandia National Laboratories. E-mail : dday@cs.sandia.gov

ABSTRACT
The computation of sensitivity coefficients for output quantities of a FEM-based computer simulation is a necessary component of design optimization, inverse problems, uncertainty analysis and validation of structural dynamics models. These sensitivity coefficients are typically analytical or semianalytical derivatives of output quantities such as displacement, acceleration, frequencies and mode shapes with respect to particular design parameters of interest. While standard industry analysis codes such as MSC/NASTRAN have sensitivity analysis capabilities, there has been relatively little work in the FEM research code environment, where emphasis has been on developing scalable parallel solver technology, as well as nonlinear analysis. Recently, Sandia National Laboratories has been developing Salinas, a general purpose finite element code for structural dynamics, which is targeted for scalable performance on ASCI-class massively parallel (MP) computers. To achieve these aims, Salinas incorporates the FETI solver technology developed at CU-Boulder. FETI is a domain decomposition-based multi-level linear solver for unstructured grids, and is particularly suited to the solution of structural mechanics problems. Salinas with FETI has demonstrated scalability for thousands of processors on the distributed memory DOE ASCI Red platform. In order for Salinas to meet its mission of supporting DOE stockpile stewardship by providing validated high fidelity simulation capabilities together with quantified uncertainties, sensitivity analysis has become an integral piece of the code development effort. Sensitivity analysis has been integrated into the static analysis, eigenvalue analysis, and transient analysis modules. In all cases, output sensitivities are computed by analytical differentiation of the matrix equations of motion, using stiffness and mass matrix sensitivities computed via finite differences. Solution of the resultant sensitivity equations are accomplished using the FETI solver, or, in the case of eigenvector derivatives, using an iterative conjugate
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gradient algorithm which uses the FETI solver in its preconditioning phase. In all case, the modules exploit the memory feature of the FETI solver, where search directions are stored between calls to the solver for cases of multiple force vectors. The integration of Salinas, FETI, and the sensitivity analysis methods have enabled the computation of highly accurate eigenvector sensitivities for systems of over 1 million equations on thousands of processors. In this talk, implementation and performance issues will be addressed, and application to structural dynamics problems from the defense industry will be discussed.

EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF TRANSIENT FINITE ELEMENT MODEL PREDICTIONS


S.W. Doebling , F.M. Hemez , W. Rhee and P. Beardsley
(1) - Los Alamos National Laboratory. E-mail : doebling@lanl.gov (2) - Los Alamos National Laboratory. E-mail : hemez@lanl.gov (3) - Los Alamos National Laboratory

ABSTRACT
In many engineering applications, it is advantageous or necessary to have reliable means of predicting the dynamic behavior of a structural system. However, even as increasingly advanced mathematical tools are developed, the only way to assess the predictive quality of a particular modeling is by correlating the numerical simulation to measurements obtained on the system or its components. Health monitoring techniques, for example, identify potential damage in a structure by understanding the source of discrepancy between measured and computed modal responses. Since the overwhelming majority of test-analysis correlation techniques have been developed to handle finite element analysis in the frequency domain, their application is generally restricted to linear systems. The objective of this work is to extend the concept of test-analysis correlation to nonlinear systems, therefore, requiring the analysis to take place in the time domain [1]. Nonlinearities of any type and nature are considered. The computational procedure consists of assessing the degree of correlation between test measurements and simulation results obtained from a time-domain, explicit finite element model. The PCD (Principal Component Decomposition) technique [2] is the metric adopted for comparing the data sets and the inverse problem is formulated as a 2-point boundary value problem resulting from an optimal control approach [3]. This presentation discusses experimental results obtained by impacting a population of similar cylinders against a rigid floor. Similar tests are repeated for all unit members of the population, which provides us with a statistical characterization of the test response. In addition, finite element simulations are carried out using an explicit formulation and measured responses are compared to computations in an attempt to determine the important design parameters and assumptions. The modeling difficulties encountered are discussed. These include how the material behavior is represented; how contact surfaces are handled; and what the most effective modeling (3D?, axi-symmetric?, coarse or refined mesh?) turns out to be when the objective focuses on improving our modeling rules via test-analysis correlation and inverse problem solving.

REFERENCES
[1] Hemez, F.M., and Doebling, S.W., "Test-Analysis Correlation and Finite Element Model Updating for Nonlinear, Transient Dynamics", 17th International Modal Analysis Conference, Kissimmee, Florida, Feb. 8 -11, 1999, pp. 1501-1510. [2] Hasselman, T.K., Anderson, M.C., and Wenshui, G., "Principal Components Analysis For Nonlinear Model Correlation, Updating and Uncertainty Evaluation", 16th International Modal Analysis Conference, Santa Barbara, California, Feb. 2-5, 1998, pp. 664-651. [3] Dippery, K.D., and Smith, S.W., "An Optimal Control Approach to Nonlinear System Identification", 16th International Modal Analysis Conference, Santa Barbara, California, Feb. 2-5, 1998, pp. 637-643.

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Minisymposium

Computational Failure Mechanics


Francisco Armero, Paul Steinmann, Howard Schreyer and Kaspar Willam
SESSION 1: THEORETICAL AND NUMERICAL ASPECTS OF STRAIN LOCALIZATION
LOCALIZATION IN SOFTENING PLASTICITY BY GLOBAL ENERGY MINIMIZATION G. Chen and G. Baker ......................................................................................................................................................27 SOME REMARKS ON ILL-POSEDNESS IN CONTINUUM PROBLEMS A. Benallal........................................................................................................................................................................28 A NEW REGULARIZATION METHOD FOR LOCALIZED FAILURE IN STRAIN-SOFTENING SOLIDS BASED ON ASSUMED LOCAL FLUCTUATION MODES ON A MICRO-STRUCTURE C. Miehe and M. Lambrecht .............................................................................................................................................28 ON LOCALIZATION IN HYDRO-MECHANICALLY COUPLED PROBLEMS R. Larsson and J. Larsson ................................................................................................................................................29 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF LOCALIZATION CONSIDERING STOCHASTIC MATERIAL DEFECTS M.A. Gutierrez and R. de Borst.........................................................................................................................................30 NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF STRAIN LOCALIZATION IN INELASTIC SOLIDS BY USING MESHLESS METHODS S. Li and W.K. Liu ............................................................................................................................................................31

SESSION 2: NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FRACTURE


FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF FRACTURE AND FRAGMENTATION M. Ortiz ............................................................................................................................................................................31 COMPUTATION OF GEOMETRICALLY NON-LINEAR FRACTURE MECHANICS PROBLEMS D. Ackermann and P. Steinmann ......................................................................................................................................32 EXPERIMENTAL COMPARISON AND MODEL ASSESSMENT FOR A NOVEL APPROACH TO INELASTIC FRACTURE M.M. Rashid and R. Roy...................................................................................................................................................33 DYNAMIC CRACK GROWTH IN A COMPRESSIVE SHEAR STRENGTH TEST ALONG A POLYMER-GLASS INTERFACE P. Rahulkumar, A. Jagota, S. Bennison and S. Saigal.......................................................................................................34 SIMULATION OF MODE I CRACK GROWTH IN POLYMERS BY CRAZING M.G. Tijssens, E. van der Giessen and L.J. Sluys .............................................................................................................34 CRACK GROWTH WITH ENRICHED FINITE ELEMENTS FOR MINDLIN-REISSNER PLATES T. Belytschko, J. Dolbow and N. Mos .............................................................................................................................35

SESSION 3: DAMAGE AND FAILURE


MODEL FOR LARGE STRAIN FAILURE ANALYSIS OF CONCRETE AND ITS APPLICATIONS TO IMPACT AND BLAST Z.P. Bazant, F. Caner, M. Adley and S. Akers ..................................................................................................................35 SOME COMPUTATIONAL ASPECTS IN NON-LOCAL DAMAGE MODELS A. Rodriguez-Ferran and A. Huerta .................................................................................................................................36 A GENERAL FRAMEWORK FOR DAMAGE THEORIES AND ITS APPLICATION F. Armero and S. Oller .....................................................................................................................................................37 A RATE-DEPENDENT DUCTILE FAILURE MODEL AND ITS NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION Q.H. Zuo, F.L. Addessio, P.J. Maudlin and J.N. Johnson.................................................................................................37 COMPUTATIONAL MEASURES OF STRUCTURAL DAMAGE FOR GLOBAL FAILURE ANALYSIS Y. Petryna, W.B. Kraetzig and F. Stangenberg.................................................................................................................38 COMPUTATIONAL FAILURE ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SHELLS W.B. Kraetzig and S.Y. Noh ..............................................................................................................................................39

SESSION 4: GRADIENT AND MICROPOLAR PLASTICITY


ADAPTIVE STRATEGY FOR GRADIENT-REGULARIZED PLASTICITY T. Svedberg and K. Runesson ...........................................................................................................................................39 MECHANISM-BASED STRAIN GRADIENT PLASTICITY H. Gao, Y. Huang, W.D. Nix and J.W. Hutchinson...........................................................................................................40
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GRADIENT-VISCOPLASTIC MODELING OF 3D SHEAR BANDING L.J. Sluys and W.M. Wang ................................................................................................................................................41 STRAIN LOCALIZATION IN 3D PRESSURE-SENSITIVE ELASTOPLASTIC COSSERAT CONTINUA M.M. Iordache and K.J. Willam .......................................................................................................................................41 ON THE CONSISTENCY OF VISCOPLASTIC FORMULATIONS A. Carosio and G. Etse .....................................................................................................................................................42 THE VARIATIONAL FORMULATION OF STRESS-UPDATE ALGORITHMS IN THE CASE OF NON-STANDARD BEHAVIOURS M. Hjiaj, G. de Saxce and G. Guerlement.........................................................................................................................42

SESSION 5: DISCONTINUOUS / DECOHESIVE APPROACHES


ON CONTINUUM AND DISCRETE MODELS INDUCED BY STRONG DISCONTINUITY KINEMATICS J. Oliver, M. Cervera and O. Manzoli ..............................................................................................................................43 MODELING FAILURE AS A STRONG DISCONTINUITY WITH THE MATERIAL POINT METHOD H.L. Schreyer and D.L. Sulsky..........................................................................................................................................44 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF SLIP SURFACES IN ROCK R.A. Regueiro, C.M. Stone, J.G. Arguello, A.F. Fossum and R.I. Borja ...........................................................................45 A NUMERICAL PROCEDURE TO SIMULATE THE EVOLUTION OF LOCALIZATION WITHOUT USING HIGHER ORDER MODELS Z. Chen .............................................................................................................................................................................45 FAILURE ANALYSIS OF ELASTO-PLASTIC MATERIAL MODELS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF OBSERVATION E. Kuhl, E. Ramm and K. Willam .....................................................................................................................................46 DISCRETE AND SMEARED MODELING OF SNAP-THROUGH FRACTURE IN BUILDINGS J.G. Rots and P.H. Feenstra .............................................................................................................................................47

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LOCALIZATION IN SOFTENING PLASTICITY BY GLOBAL ENERGY MINIMIZATION


G. Chen and G. Baker
(1) - Department of Civil Engineering. The University of Queensland (2) - School of Engineering The University of Warwick, UK. E-mail : g.baker@mailbox.uq.edu.au

ABSTRACT
Smeared crack representations are notorious for predicting a very diffuse crack pattern and failing to generate effective strain localization. Coupled with this issue is that significant stress is locked along side a propagating crack (Rots & Blaauwendraad, 1989). The difficulty is that the 'true' load path is not captured, and so doubt must be raised over the validity of the corresponding solution; there are many instances of course where even peak loads are not predicted accurately with a smeared crack model of, say, concrete. Localization can of course be viewed as a bifurcation of the displacement field, a general symptom of which is that material within the localizing band exhibits strain softening whereas that immediately adjacent unloads elastically. The general difficulty with standard smeared algorithms is that the uncracked material cannot unload fast enough, and the tangent equilibrium equations necessarily force a distributed solution (Hunt & Baker, 1995). Our contention is that the tangent elasticity is insufficient to capture localization and that unloading needs to be induced by some additional principle. The authors have argued previously (Chen & Baker, 1998) that the correct bifurcation load, and consequent post - bifucration path, can be predicted by minimizing the increment of "global" second order work of the whole structure. That is, a discontinuous bifurcation analysis, while valuable in detecting breakdown of a constitutive model, corresponds to a local bifurcation. However, softening and quasibrittle fracture arise with reference to the state of the whole structure, as noted in many experiments, where cracks begin and then close "elastically" while others grow unbounded. In this article, we formulate the problem based on direct energy minimization. We note that for plastic flow problems, as distinct from holonomic loading, we must minimize increments of work, but show that only second order work needs to be tested. We implement these ideas with a softening plasticity model, having tried Drucker-Prager and Rankine models of mode I fracture in concrete (Feenstra & de Borst, 1995). The solution strategy we use is a local optimization algorithm based on the direct search scheme of Powell. Gradient techniques, while faster, often break down when the constitutive law has a sharp peak, as is often chosen for tension softening of concrete. We demonstrate the algorithm on mode I problems of a simple panel in tension and pure bending of a beam. The results capture localization and unloading exactly as required. That is, we provide no computational trigger to form strain localization bands in a particular location, such as perturbations of geometry or material properties. Yet, cracks form without interference at appropriate spacings. In the simple mode I problems, in fact we obtain one localized crack across the panel, and one central crack in the beam. Naturally, standard plasticity does not accurately capture localization in shear problems, because of the high strain gradients across a shear band. Hence, we suggest an extension to gradient plasticity for the constitutive model in mode II problems. However, this does not change our overall energy minimization process for solution control.

REFERENCES
[1]Chen, G. and Baker, G. (1998), "Strain localization in softening solids: extremum principles and path dependence", Under review. [2]Hunt, G.W. and Baker, G. (1995), "Principles of localization in the fracture of quasi-brittle structures", Jnl. Mechs Phys. Solids, 43(7), 1127-1150. [3]Feenstra, P. and de Borst, R. (1995), "A plasticity model and algorithm for mode I cracking in concrete", Int. Jnl. Numer. Meths. Engrg., 38, 2509-2529. [4]Rots, J. and Blaauwendraad, J. (1989), "Crack models for concrete: Discrete or smeared ? fixed, multi-directional or rotating?", Heron, 34(1), 59pp

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SOME REMARKS ON ILL-POSEDNESS IN CONTINUUM PROBLEMS


A. Benallal
(1) - Laboratoire de Mecanique et Technologie. E-mail : benallal@lmt.ens-cachan.fr

ABSTRACT
The concept of ill-posedness is very common in mechanics and particularly in failure mechanics. Many contributions have been devoted to the analysis of this concept mainly because of the numerical difficulties encountered in the description of rupture and its accompagning phenomena such as instabilities and localisation. When defined rigorously and extending the classical definition of Hadamard, necessary and sufficient conditions for ill-posedness to occur have been obtained. In the context of solid mechanics and in the framework of rate-independent continua, these conditions can be explicitely determined. For a general rate-independent solid, these conditions can be resumed to three local conditions. The first one is the loss of ellipticity of the continuing equilibrium equations, the second is the boundary complementing condition and the third one is the interfacial complementing condition present only when the solid is heteregeneous. Te first one is related only to the constitutive behaviour whereas the second and the third are linked to the constitutive behaviour but also to the type of boundary conditions and interfacial conditions. Although the mechanical interpretation of all these conditions are understood in the case of an infinite or a semi-infinite solid, this interpretation is not clear in the case of a finite solid. The main objective of this talk is to bring some light to this question. Moreover, for a finite solid and in many practical situations, these conditions are first met in one point of the solid. The ill-posedness and its consequences ( numerical for instance) need to be clarified. The talk will also discuss this topic.

A NEW REGULARIZATION METHOD FOR LOCALIZED FAILURE IN STRAINSOFTENING SOLIDS BASED ON ASSUMED LOCAL FLUCTUATION MODES ON A MICRO-STRUCTURE
C. Miehe and M. Lambrecht
(1) - Institute fur Mechanik (Bauwesen), Lehrstuhl I. E-mail : cm@mechbau.uni-stuttgart.de (2) - Institute fur Mechanik (Bauwesen) Lehrstuhl I

ABSTRACT
The simulation of localized failure in strain - softening solids, for example in the form of shear bands, yields the typical mesh - dependent postcritical results within standard finite element formulations. We here propose a new regularization technique based on a micromechanically motivated approach which overcomes this problem. The key idea is the introduction of a micro - structure at a typical Gauss - point of the finite element mesh which bifurcates in the form of an assumed fluctuation field when macroscopic localization occurs. The intensity of the fluctuation is determined based on an assumed equilibrium state of the micro - structure. The proposed numerical procedure is inspired by recently developed computational homogenization concepts of heterogeneous materials with micro - structures as outlined in [2]. A two step algorithm proceeds at a typical local integration point of the finite element mesh as follows. In the first step we consider a macroscopic homogeneous elastoplastic solid with a characteristic strain softening response. Here, a pre - critical localization analysis determines the onset of localization based on a standard accompanying check of the accoustic tensor. After localization has occured, we assume locally at a typical Gauss point of the macro - structure a fictive micro - stucture whose volume coincides with the volume associated with the integration point. This local micro - structure is characterized alternatively by a slip - type discontinuity or a regularized band-type discontinuity, see e.g. [1], aligned to the localized direction. Inspired by homogenization procedures [2], we compute the amount of the discontinuity on the basis of a local equilibrium condition restricted to the micro-structure. This is in contrast to other treatments of strong discontinuities in the literature, where the discontinuities are typically determined based on the global equilibrium condition associated with the macro-structure. As a consequence, our
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approach is restricted to a local integration point of the macro-structure. Hence, the approach works in the context with any finite element formulation and unstructured meshes.

REFERENCES
[1] Miehe, C., Schrder, J., [1994], "Post-Critical Discontinuous Localization Analysis of Small-Strain Softening Elastoplastic Solids", Archive of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 64, 267 - 285. [2] Miehe, C., Schrder, J., Schotte, J., [1997], "Computational Homogenization Analysis in Finite Plasticity. Simulation of Texture Development in Polycystalline Materials", Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, in press. [3] Miehe, C., Lambrecht, M., [1998], "Finite Element Analysis of Localized Failure in Strain - Softening Solids Based on an Assumed Fluctuation Mode on a Micro-Structure", Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, submitted.

ON LOCALIZATION IN HYDRO-MECHANICALLY COUPLED PROBLEMS


R. Larsson and J. Larsson
(1) - Division of Solid Mechanics. Chalmers University of Technology. E-mail : Ragnar.Larsson@sm.chalmers.se (2) - Division of Solid Mechanics. Chalmers University of Technology

ABSTRACT
In the present paper we propose an approach to the analysis of a developing localization zone in the hydro-mechanically coupled problem. The governing equations are based on the porous media theory applied to an elastic-plastic solid phase at small deformations. The concept of regularized strong discontinuity is extensively utilized in the paper at the application to the conservation laws of momentum and mass. As a result, we obtain a coupled localization condition that is used to signal the onset of (coupled) discontinuity development in terms of displacement and excess pore pressure. In the numerical treatment, it is convenient to establish the finite element approximation in such a way that nodal values represents the continuous (=compatible) portions of the displacement and pore pressure fields. For thus purpose, the strain and the drainage flux are represented in the spirit of the "enhanced strain approach", Simo and Rifai (1990). A mixed variational formulation is thereby introduced for the momentum balance and the fluid mass conservation, where the enhanced quantities are interpreted as regularized displacement and pore pressure discontinuities of an element embedded localization zone, cf. Larsson et al. (1996). By using a "projection" argument on the element level, it appears that the discontinuity parameters can be solved locally in a consistent fashion with respect to the localization condition. The formulation has been implemented in a FE-code using triangular LST approximation for the displacement and CST approximation for the pressure. In this respect, the present developments represent extensions of those in Larsson et. al (1996) for the undrained response. Numerical results are presented, where particular interest is focused on the influence of drainage conditions (modeled via the permeability and the boundary conditions) on the development of localization zones.

REFERENCES
[1] Simo, J.C. and Rifai, M.S. (1990), "A class of mixed assumed strain methods and the method of incompatible modes", Int. J. Num. Meth. Engng. 29, 1595-1638. [2] Larsson, R., Runesson, K. and Sture, S. (1996), "Embedded localization band in undrained soil based on regularized strong discontinuity - Theory and FE-analysis", Int. J. Solids Structures, 33, (20-22) 3081-3101.

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF LOCALIZATION CONSIDERING STOCHASTIC MATERIAL DEFECTS


M.A. Gutierrez and R. de Borst
(1) - Koiter Institute Delft
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(2) - Delft University or Technology. E-mail : rdb@dutcg11.tudelft.nl

ABSTRACT
Localization in softening solids can be described properly by inelastic models that have been enriched using rate-dependent or gradient-dependent terms. In this fashion, the inelastic models do not suffer from mathematical ill-posedness, which is observed at the onset of a descending branch in the equivalent uniaxial stress-strain diagram when local, rate-independent inelastic models are used. As is well-known now, this ill-posedness manifests itself by the emergence of infinite (inelastic) strains within a zone of measure zero, while no energy is dissipated upon failure. Finite element solutions approximate this process, in the sense that they attempt to accommodate this zero-width failure zone in a single row of elements. Rate-dependent or gradient-dependent regularizations remedy this unphysical behaviour and result in failure zones of a finite thickness and a finite energy dissipation. However, a well-posed mathematical description of the boundary value problem is not sufficient to comprehend all aspects of the behaviour of a solid in which localization takes place, since the position and magnitude of material defects and imperfections may play a crucial role in setting the final failure mode. Indeed, imperfections are often placed in a rather random manner in numerical analyses of localization problems, thus leading to the possibility that the most critical mode is not triggered. In this study, the role of material defects in setting the final failure mode, including the probability that a certain mode occurs, will be elucidated. In particular, material parameters like the initial yield stress in viscoplastic solids, or the damage threshold in gradient-enhanced damage models, or imperfections in the applied boundary conditions, are considered as random fields and are coupled to "failure", which can be either the peak load, the energy dissipation or some critical deformation measure, through a nonlinear finite element algorithm. The finite element reliability method is then used to obtain realizations of the material random fields that furnish a local maximum of the probability density of failure. This is achieved using a gradient-based optimization algorithm. Having obtained the local maxima, the marginal probability of different modes and the global probability of failure is computed.

NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF STRAIN LOCALIZATION IN INELASTIC SOLIDS BY USING MESHLESS METHODS


S. Li and W.K. Liu
(1) - Dept. of Mech.l Engineering. Tech. Institute, Northwestern University. E-mail : sf-li@nwu.edu (2) - Northwestern University Department of Mechanical Engineering. E-mail : w-liu@nwu.edu

ABSTRACT
This paper presents the latest development in using the meshless technology to numerically simulate strain localization problem in inelastic solids. There are two themes in this presentation: (1) using meshless method to directly simulate shear-band formations in inelastic solids; (2) develop a new PetrovGalerkin procedure to capture the strain localization problems in rate independent plastic masterials. As an latest invention of computational technology, meshless methods (e.g. Belytschko et al. [1994] Int. J. Num. Methods Eng. Vol. 37, pp 229 - 256; and Liu et al. [1995], Int. J. Num. Methods Fluids Vol. 20, pp 1081 1106 ) possess some special capacities, which the mesh-based numerical methods, such as finite element method, are intrinically lacking; one of such qualities is the "mesh" or article distribution objectivity; precisely speaking, in a local region, the given meshless particle distribution tends to attain the maximum symmetry in its spatial orientation. This quality and others provide a new and efficient remedy for the mesh dependance pathology that has plagued the computation of localized deformation / bifurcation of inelastic solids for a long time. With the meshless discretization and interpolation, a simple explicit, displacement based formulation is implemented, and the high resolution shear band formations are obtained in both two - dimensional case and three - dimensional case without recourse any mixed formulations, reduced integration / hour - glass control schemes, and special mesh design. The numerical solutions obtained are insensitive to the orientation of the particle distributions, which, in a large extent, relieves the mesh alignment sensitivity that conventional finite element method suffers. Moreover, a simple h - adaptivity procedure can be easily implemented in meshless discretization to be used in the shear-band calculation, and at the same time it preserves so - called particle distribution objectivity. By utilizing the newly proposed meshless hierarchical partition of unity ( Li & Liu [1998] ), a simple wavelet
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adaptivity procedure is also implemented to obtain the spectral refinement solutions. In addition, the phenomenon of multiple shear band and mode switching can be observed in a relatively coarse particle distribution in contrast to the costly fine scale finite element simulations. In the second approach, we are currently developing a wavelet - Petrov-Galkerin procedure to capture the shear-band formation in the conventional rate-independent plastic materials. As well known, lacking the intrinsic length scale, the shear-band width in the conventional rate-independent materials is infinitely thin, which is the major source of mesh-dependent pathology. In this paper, a novel Petrov-Galerkin procedure is proposed to capture the weak discontinous bifurcation of strain localization problem in rate-independent materials.

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF FRACTURE AND FRAGMENTATION


M. Ortiz
(1) - Graduate Aeronautical Laboratories. E-mail : ortiz@aero.caltech.edu

ABSTRACT
Advances in adaptive mesh refinement and other computational methods presently enable the simultaneous resolution of full-system fields as well as near-tip fields, with the result that the latter need not be accounted for - buried - in the fracture criterion. The explicit resolution of the near-tip fields has the far-reaching consequence that only the actual surface-separation processes need to be comtemplated in the fracture criterion. In this work, those separation processes are modelled by recourse to cohesive theories of fracture and their computational embodiment, cohesive elements. We have conducted a number of verification and validation studies aimed at establishing the fidelity of cohesive theories in situations involving brittle and ductile fracture, possibly leading to fragmentation. As a first validation case, we have taken the dynamic drop-weight test as a convenient basis for assessing the predictive ability of cohesive models in applications involving dynamic crack growth. The numerical simulations have proven highly predictive of a number of observed features, including: the crack growth initiation time; the trajectory of the propagating crack tip; and the formation of shear lips near the lateral surfaces. The simulations therefore establish the feasibility of using cohesive models of fracture and cohesive elements to predict dynamic crack-growth initiation and propagation. A second validation case concerns the expanding ring tests of Grady and Benson (1983). This case tests the predictive ability of cohesive models in situations involving ductile dynamical fracture. Attention has been rescricted to 1100-0 aluminum samples. The numerical simulations are highly predictive of a number of observed features, including: the number of dominant and arrested necks; the fragmentation patterns; the dependence of the number of fragments and the fracture strain on the expansion speed; and the distribution of fragment sizes at fixed expansion speed. We also present results from a third validation case concerned with the dynamic response of concrete in tension. The particular configuration contemplated in the study is the brazilian cylinder test performed in a Hopkinson bar. The simulations give accurate transmitted loads over a range of strain rates, which attests to the fidelity of the model where rate effects are concerned. The model also predicts key features of the fracture pattern such as the primary lens-shaped cracks parallel to the load plane, as well as the secondary profuse cracking near the supports. The primary cracks are predicted to be nucleated at the center of the circular bases of the cylinder and to subsequently propagate towards the interior, in accordance with experimental observations. The primary and secondary cracks are responsible for multiple peaks in the load history, also in keeping with experiment. These results validate the theory as it bears on mixed-mode fracture and fragmentation processes in concrete.

COMPUTATION OF GEOMETRICALLY NON-LINEAR FRACTURE MECHANICS PROBLEMS


D. Ackermann and P. Steinmann

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(1) - Institute for Technical Mechanics, University of Kaiserlautern (2) - Institute for Technical Mechanics, University of Kaiserlautern. E-mail : ps@rhk.uni-kl.de

ABSTRACT
This contribution aims in the computation of fracture mechanics problems within a geometrically nonlinear finite element setting. To this end we consider the formulation of the geometrically nonlinear balance equations of continuum mechanics on the material manifold. Then, the new approach consists in a straightforward Galerkin discretization of the corresponding balance of momentum equation. The resulting node point quantities, which we shall denote material node point forces, are demonstrated to be of the same qualitative importance for the assessment of a fracture mechanics problem as the classical J-integral. The computational examples of typical fracture mechanics problems will focus on: - the quantitative comparison of the new approach with classical J - integral evaluations, - the influence of true geometrically nonlinearities on the predictive capacities of the new approach and the classical J - integral, - the influence of the discretization density on the accuracy of the new approach, - the incorporation of material inhomogeneities as for example present in the problem of an interface crack within a bi-material, - the extension to elasto-plastic materials at large strains based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. In conclusion the new methodology allows to evaluate relevant quantities for the assessment of fracture mechanics problems in an algorithmically straightforward and consistent fashion both for the geometrically linear and nonlinear case.

EXPERIMENTAL COMPARISON AND MODEL ASSESSMENT FOR A NOVEL APPROACH TO INELASTIC FRACTURE
M.M. Rashid and R. Roy
(1) - Dept. of Civil and Env. Engineering University of California at Davis. E-mail : mrashid@ucdavis.edu (2) - Dept. of Civil and Env. Engineering University of California at Davis

ABSTRACT
Effective theoretical and computational modeling of fracture processes remains a challenge for situations in which significant inelastic deformation precedes fracture. The traditional J-type contourintegral approach to crack-tip characterization has been successfully applied to many such situations, but nonetheless suffers from a number of well-known limitations. Recently, some success has been achieved with a "cell-model" approach. This approach can be described as a hybrid theoretical-computational model. Cell models employ fracture criteria which make reference to local states of strain and/or stress near the crack front - a very physically appealing feature. However, the finite element mesh itself is an intrinsic part of any cell model, so that questions of generality in relation to unsymmetric loading and apriori unknown crack paths remain open. An alternative modeling framework, the Exclusion Region theory, has recently emerged, in which a small, tube-like material region surrounding the moving crack front is subject to a generalized constitutive description. This generalized description derives entirely from the local constitutive model used in the bulk continuum, along with an assumed form for the displacement field within the tube-like "exclusion region." The result is a theoretical framework that is completely independent of any numerical implementation, and that allows for the design of quite general fracture criteria that depend on local conditions in the neighborhood of the crack front. The Exclusion Region theory has been implemented in a two-dimensional total-Lagrangian finite element code that includes a standard J2-plasticity material model. Instead of employing an adaptive remeshing capability, the code accommodates arbitrary crack paths by using the "Arbitrary Local Mesh Replacement" (ALMR) method. This recently-developed method involves a circular "mesh patch" that remains centered on the moving crack tip, and that overlies the user-defined background mesh. The finite element displacement interpolant from the mesh patch replaces that from the background mesh inside the patch. Compatibility of the two interpolants is enforced weakly at the patch/background interface. Also, a
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new method of material state remapping, called Area-Intersection Remapping, has been developed to transfer the material state to the new mesh after each increment of crack extension (and mesh patch movement). This computational methodology will be described, along with a series of comparative analyses involving three-point-bend and compact-tension tests with ductile steels.

DYNAMIC CRACK GROWTH IN A COMPRESSIVE SHEAR STRENGTH TEST ALONG A POLYMER-GLASS INTERFACE
P. Rahulkumar, A. Jagota, S. Bennison and S. Saigal
(1) - ANSYS, Inc. (2) - E. I. Dupont de Nemours & Co. E-mail : Anand.Jagota@usa.dupont.com (3) - E. I. Dupont de Nemours & Co.

ABSTRACT
Cohesive finite elements are an attractive computational tool for the modeling of arbitrary interfacial failure in materials. Since the underlying cohesive zone models are phenomenological, their application to well established experiments leads to both refinement of these models as well as their validation. Dynamic 2D and 3D cohesive elements have been developed and are used to simulate a compressive shear strength (CSS) test. The CSS test is employed in the polymer industry to extract polymer adhesion levels. The computational framework is first verified against existing analytical solutions for dynamic crack growth in double cantilever beam specimens. The phenomenon of stable crack growth followed by unstable crack growth observed in the CSS experiment is simulated. Various crack growth behaviors, obtained for different sizes of the initial pre-flaw in the interface, are studied. The phenomenon of dynamic crack pop-in, consisting of dynamic crack growth followed by crack arrest and stable crack growth, is investigated. The influence of the cohesive zone model parameters on crack pop-in as well as stability of crack growth are studied. A 3D simulation of a square plan form CSS test is performed to explain the influence of edge effects not encountered in the plane strain simulations.

SIMULATION OF MODE I CRACK GROWTH IN POLYMERS BY CRAZING


M.G. Tijssens, E. van der Giessen and L.J. Sluys
(1) - Delft University of Technology. E-mail : M.G.A.Tijssens@wbmt.tudelft.nl (2) - Delft University of Technology (3) - Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geosciences. Delft Univ. of Technology. E-mail : L.J.Sluys@ct.TUDelft.nl

ABSTRACT
The deformation and final fracture of polymers often occurs through the mechanism of crazing. A craze can be described as a crack-like defect in which the crack flanges are still bridged by a highly stretched network of polymer material with a low volume fraction. Crazing is a local mechanism of deformation of the polymer and as such, breakdown of the craze structure may cause brittle crack growth without significant energy dissipation. Recently, a new cohesive surface model for craze formation based on micromechanical considerations has been proposed [1] with which it is possible to explore crazing of polymers without a priori specifying where crazing may occur. The methodology in which cohesive surfaces are immersed in the continuum was first proposed by Xu and Needleman [2] to describe brittle crack growth. The method separately specifies the constitutive behaviour of the continuum and the cohesive surfaces thus enabling the separate description of continuum deformation and final loss of displacement continuity, along with their mutual interaction. The numerical experiments are done within the context of the finite element method in which cohesive surfaces are used along all boundaries of each continuum element. Although strictly speaking the craze path is still limited to a finite number of possibilities, a sufficient density of
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cohesive surfaces should lead to a globally converged craze path. This opens up the possibility to explore craze branching as a function of the model parameters and its influence on the toughness of the polymer. In this paper we present a numerical study of crazing under plane strain mode I conditions. The initiation condition for crazes are taken according to a stress-state dependent criterion in which the normal traction on the cohesive surface and the hydrostatic stress in the continuum are the main parameters. The cohesive surface model for crazing uses a rate dependent evolution law for the traction transmitted by the cohesive surface. The combined action of initiation, widening and breakdown of the crazes and applied loading rate thus influences the spreading of the craze zone around the crack. The influence of the parameters in the model governing the evolution of the craze and the influence on steady-state fracture toughness will be explored.

REFERENCES
[1] M.G.A. Tijssens, E. van der Giessen, L.J. Sluys, "Micromechanically Motivated Cohesive Surface Modelling of Crazing in Polymers", Proceedings of ICES'98 (Int. Conf. on Eng. Science), Atlanta (GA), Modelling and Simulation based Engineering, Eds. S.N. Atluri and P.E. O'Donoghue, II, 1468-1473, 1998. [2] X.-P. Xu and A. Needleman, "Numerical Simulations of Fast Crack Growth in Brittle Solids." J. Mech. Phys. Solids., 42(9), 1397-1434, 1994.

CRACK GROWTH WITH ENRICHED FINITE ELEMENTS FOR MINDLINREISSNER PLATES


T. Belytschko, J. Dolbow and N. Mos
(1) - Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Northwestern University. E-mail : t-belytschko@nwu.edu (3) - Northwestern University. E-mail : Nicolas.Moes@lmt.ens-cachan.fr

ABSTRACT
A technique for the modeling of quasi static crack growth in plates using an enhanced finite element formulation is presented. We enrich a standard approximation near a crack tip by incorporating the asymptotic fields through the partition of unity method. This enrichment provides for both coarse mesh accuracy and the simulation of quasi static crack growth with minimal remeshing. To obtain the mixedmode stress intensity factors, we also derive appropriate domain forms of the J-integral in the framework of Reissner-Mindlin plate theory. Several numerical studies are provided to illustrate the accuracy and utility of the new formulation in comparison to existing element technology.

MODEL FOR LARGE STRAIN FAILURE ANALYSIS OF CONCRETE AND ITS APPLICATIONS TO IMPACT AND BLAST
Z.P. Bazant, F. Caner, M. Adley and S. Akers
(1) - Northwestern University, Department of Civil Engineering. E-mail : z-bazant@nwu.edu (2) - Dept. of Civil Engr. and Material Science. Northwestern University (3) - Waterways experiment Station

ABSTRACT
The paper deals with finite-strain generalization of microplane model for damaging pressure sensitive frictional behavior of quasibrittle materials such as concrete, soils, rock and composites. Examples of certain difficulties with the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor in modeling friction, yield and strength limits on the microplane are given. Consequently, the back-rotated Cauchy (true) tensor is adopted as the stress measure (although the back-rotated Kirchhoff stress tensor would be only slightly less convenient). However, the strain tensor conjugate to the back-rotated Cauchy (or Kirchhoff) stress
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tensor is found to be nonholonomic (i.e., path-dependent) and thus unsuitable. The nonconjugate Green's Lagrangian tensor is adopted as the strain measure because only for this tensor its components on one microplane suffice to characterize the stretch in the direction normal to the microplane and the shear angle on that microplane. The adopted nonconjugate strain and stress tensors are shown to be admissible because the following four conditions are satisfied: - There is a unique correspondence between the nonconjugate constitutive law and the conjugate constitutive law in terms of Green's Lagrangian strain tensor; - if a micro-macro kinematic constraint of microplane model imposed in terms of one type of strain tensor, a kinematic constraint is satisfied for any other finite strain tensor; - the elastic parts of strains are always small, which ensures the energy dissipation caused by elastic deformations formulated in terms of nonconjugate stress and strain tensors to be always negligible; and - the inelastic stress drops to the yield or boundary surface, used in the time steps of numerical solution, occur at constant strain and always dissipate energy. Examples of computational modeling of impact of missiles into concrete walls and blast effects on hardened concrete structures confirm good performance for very large strains.

SOME COMPUTATIONAL ASPECTS IN NON-LOCAL DAMAGE MODELS


A. Rodriguez-Ferran and A. Huerta
(1) - Departament de Matematica Aplicada. ETSECCPB. E-mail : rodriguez@lacan.upc.es (2) - Departament de Matematica Aplicada. ETSECCPB. E-mail : huerta@etseccpb.upc.es

ABSTRACT
Nonlocal damage models are nowadays a standard approach to simulate failure of engineering materials such as geomaterials. The use of a nonlocal quantity to describe the evolution of damage is essential to regularize the problem and avoid the pathological mesh dependence of local damage models. Nonlocal damage models typically lead to highly nonlinear systems of equations. Complex snapthrough or snap-back responses are common. The efficient solution of these problems demands the use of appropriate numerical techniques. Some crucial issues, for instance, are an adaptive technique based on error estimation, the choice of the control variable, the convergence acceleration and the automatic update of the arc-length. The proposed approach is illustrated by means of some numerical examples, including the Brazilian cylinder-splitting test for the determination of the tensile strength of concrete, and a single-edge notched beam subject to four-point antisymmetrical bending.

A GENERAL FRAMEWORK FOR DAMAGE THEORIES AND ITS APPLICATION


F. Armero and S. Oller
(1) - Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering. University of California at Berkeley. E-mail : armero@ce.berkeley.edu (2) - ETSECCPB-UPC. E-mail : oller@etseccpb.upc.es

ABSTRACT
We present in this contribution a general framework for the modeling of damage in inelastic solids. The proposed framework is based on a kinematic decomposition of the strains in elastic, damage and, if needed, plastic parts. The evolution equations for the different internal variables characterizing the irreversible response of the material are then derived in a consistent thermodynamic framework. In this context, we obtain an unifying framework for the constitutive modeling of the different mechanisms active in the material deformation process. This structure is directly reflected in the algorithms that we have
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developed for the numerical integration of the resulting models. The proposed framework also leads naturally to its extension to the finite deformation range in the context of multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. The application of the resulting models in the study of the final failure of the material, localized failures in particular, is of the main interest. The proposed framework allows for the decoupling of the localized and the bulk responses of the material, thus leading to a full and general characterization of either component. In particular, the localized response can be modeled in the large-scale limit through the consideration of discontinuous deformation fields and the corresponding singular strain fields. In this way, the resulting models dissipate the energy objectively, leading naturally to mesh-size independent numerical solutions. We will discuss in detail the implementation of these ideas in the context of the finite element method. Representative numerical simulations will be presented to show the performance of the proposed methodology.

A RATE-DEPENDENT DUCTILE FAILURE MODEL AND ITS NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION


Q.H. Zuo, F.L. Addessio, P.J. Maudlin and J.N. Johnson
(1) - Theoretical Division. Los Alamos National Laboratory. (2) - Theoretical Division. Los Alamos National Laboratory. (3) - Theoretical Division. Los Alamos National Laboratory. E-mail : pjm@lanl.gov

ABSTRACT
A rate-dependent constitutive model has been developed for the dynamic deformation of ductile materials. The model considers the damage and ductile failure by using the Gurson yield surface which couples damage and plasticity through the porosity and the plastic strain in the materials. Under intensive tensile loading, the size of the yield surface decreases as the porosity develops with deformation, resulting in an ill-posed initial-boundary value problem associated with the rate-independent material model. Strain rate dependency is introduced in the model to keep the problem well-posed and hence to eliminate the mesh dependency of the numerical solutions. A Mie-Gruneisen equation of state is used to provide a nonlinear relationship between the increment in the pressure and the elastic part of the volumetric strain increment. More importantly, it enables the model to include the effects of plastic shearing on the volumetric behavior of the material. An implicit numerical integration algorithm has been developed for the material model. The current algorithm allows for all the state variables (such as pressure, von-Mises stress and porosity) to change during each time increment, according to their evolution equations. The associated flow rule for the plastic strain is enforced at the end of a time step, namely, the return direction itself is not known a priori. The resulting four nonlinear coupled equations are solved by a local Newton iteration method which converges quadratically. Results on some typical strain-controlled numerical tests show that the new algorithm is much more robust than the explicit algorithm that was previously used and that it allows for significantly larger time steps. The new algorithm has been implemented into EPIC95, a finite-element code for elastoplastic impact analysis. Numerical results of high speed Taylor cylinder impact and notched tensile bar problems will be presented.

COMPUTATIONAL MEASURES OF STRUCTURAL DAMAGE FOR GLOBAL FAILURE ANALYSIS


Y. Petryna, W.B. Kraetzig and F. Stangenberg
(1) - Institute for Statistics and Dynamics. E-mail : petryna@sd.bi.ruhr-uni-bochum.de
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(2) - Institute for Statics and Dynamics. Ruhr-University Bochum. E-mail : kraetzig@mail.sd.bi.ruhr-uni-bochum.de (3) - Institute for Statistics and Dynamics. Ruhr-University

ABSTRACT
This contribution is concerned with computational approaches to the analysis of structural failure under damages of different nature. A new numerical measure of structural damage is proposed in the form of a global damage indicator and applied to the estimation of structural failure. It is not surprising that due to the specific design of each structure with regard to load, material and structural parameters, there is no simple, commonly accepted numerical simulation procedure to estimate structural damage. Engineering necessity to quantify the reduction of structural capacity (global failure) has caused the development of numerous damage indicators. However, they remain mostly local and are usually referred to the levels of material point or some critical cross-section. Obviously, they can only exceptionally provide correct information about the failure of the whole structure. On the contrary, the new damage measure is proposed on the basis of computational methods of global nonlinear structural analysis. It is evident for each member of the "finite element society" that informations about structural capacity are implicitly embedded in the global stiffness matrix. Any change of the material or structural properties able to be directly modeled by the FEM will be immediately reflected in the properties of the stiffness matrix. Therefore, the new global damage indicator is based on the change of such properties due to structural damage. This estimated amount of the accumulated damage characterises simultaneously a distance between the current structural state and the global failure. In the present paper, the necessary theoretical basis for the new damage indicator will be presented, and the related computational aspects will be discussed. Sensitivity of the proposed numerical measure with respect to different damage types will be demonstrated by hand of numerous numerical examples. In application to reinforced concrete structures, such mechanical damages as tensile cracking and compression failure of concrete, yielding and rupture of reinforcement as well as such typical deterioration effects as surface degradation of concrete and corrosion of reinforcement will be considered. Numerical examples vary from simple structural elements to complex objects of bridge and power plant engineering.

COMPUTATIONAL FAILURE ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SHELLS


W.B. Kraetzig and S.Y. Noh
(1) - Institute for Statics and Dynamics. Ruhr-University Bochum. E-mail : kraetzig@mail.sd.bi.ruhr-uni-bochum.de (2) - Institute for Statics and Dynamics. Ruhr-University Bochum

ABSTRACT
Failure of engineering structures is always initiated by local effects on material point or sectional level, if global kinematic deformations as coarse construction errors are excluded. A central question in the current research of computational structural analysis thus is the transfer during the response simulation of local damages or deteriorations into global failure effects. The paper will demonstrate a very efficient computational scheme for this purpose, a so-called multi-level-analysis-concept as part of the FE-simulation. The transfer of the local failure reasons onto the structural level therein is imbedded into the usual incremental -iterative solution procedure of the tangent stiffness relation. In the presentation it will be therefore emphasized how local damage and deterioration effects influence in particular the global stiffness of a structure on its way to failure. Thus the way to failure can be prosecuted by a family of novel damage indicators, based on eigenvalues, eigenfrequencies or Ritz-parameters of the tangent stiffness matrix. At this point the proposed paper will draw close parallels to the second offered treatment on "Computational Measures of structural damage for global failure analysis" by Petryna et. al., more general in all structural damage and deterioration aspects. The present paper will specialize on reinforced concrete shells in order to concentrate on some real engineering material, especially there on damage effects due to tension-cracking. For this reason, the nonlinear material properties of reinforced concrete are decribed and additionally the finite elements
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applied. As an example, the response of a large cooling tower shell under wind and temperature actions is simulated, and the crack-initiation as well as the crack-evaluation is demonstrated within a rotating smeared crack model. The successive weakening of the whole shell structure then will be quantified by the new damage indicators mentioned above. Further, a series of interesting nonlinear response phenomena will be mirrowed in these damage indicators.

ADAPTIVE STRATEGY FOR GRADIENT-REGULARIZED PLASTICITY


T. Svedberg and K. Runesson
(1) - Division of Solid Mechanics. Chalmers University (2) - Department of Solid Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology. E-mail : keru@solid.chalmers.se

ABSTRACT
At the FE-analysis of localization phenomena in continua, it is possible to utilize nonlocal theories in order to avoid mesh dependence. However, for problems where the localization zone width decreases progressively with deformation, due to the development of damage, it is found that every (stationary) mesh eventually becomes not fine enough to resolve the proper localization scale and mesh dependence thus seems unavoidable. The obvious way to remedy this situation is to adopt an adaptive strategy. In this paper the gradient regularization proposed by Svedberg and Runesson(1997, 1998, 1999) is used as a basis for the adaptive refinement. The most comprehensive approach is to consider the equilibrium as well as the constitutive subproblem (which is a full-fledged FE-problem) when establishing the error estimators of residual type in the proper energy norm. A simplified method is obtained by focussing on the error in the plastic multiplier, which is obtained from the mixed FE-format of the constitutive subproblem, whereas the displacements are left "as is". The effectiveness of these approaches is shown in the numerical examples.

REFERENCES
[1] T. Svedberg and K. Runesson , "A thermodynamically consistent theory of gradient-regularized plasticity coupled to damage", Int. J. Plasticity, 13(6-7):669-696, 1997. [2] T. Svedberg and K. Runesson , "An algorithm for gradient-regularized plasticity coupled to damage based on a dual mixed fe-formulation." Comp. Meth. Appl. Mech. Engng., 161:49-65, 1998. [3] T. Svedberg and K. Runesson , "Gradient-regularized hyperelasto-plasticity coupled to damage - Thermodynamics and Numerical algorithm." European J. Mechanics Solids, 1999. Submitted.

MECHANISM-BASED STRAIN GRADIENT PLASTICITY


H. Gao, Y. Huang, W.D. Nix and J.W. Hutchinson
(1) - Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University. E-mail : gao@am-sun2.stanford.edu (2) - Department of Mechanical Engineering. Stanford University. (3) - Department of Mechanical Engineering. Stanford University.

ABSTRACT
A mechanism-based theory of strain gradient plasticity (MSG) is proposed based on a multiscale framework linking the microscale notion of statistically stored and geometrically necessary dislocations to the mesoscale notion of plastic strain and strain gradient. This theory is motivated by our recent analysis of indentation experiments which strongly suggest a linear dependence of the square of plastic flow stress on strain gradient. While such linear dependence is predicted by the Taylor hardening model relating the flow stress to dislocation density, existing theories of strain gradient plasticity have failed to explain such behavior. We believe that a mesoscale theory of plasticity should not only be based on stress-strain behavior obtained from macroscopic mechanical tests, but should also draw information from
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micromechanical, gradient-dominant tests such as micro-indentation or nano-indentation. According to this viewpoint, we explore an alternative formulation of strain gradient plasticity in which the Taylor model is adopted as a founding principle. We distinguish the microscale at which dislocation interaction is considered from the mesoscale at which the plasticity theory is formulated. On the microscale, we assume that higher order stresses do not exist, that the square of flow stress increases linearly with the density of geometrically necessary dislocations, strictly following the Taylor model, and that the plastic flow retains the associative structure of conventional plasticity. On the mesoscale, the constitutive equations are constructed by averaging microscale plasticity laws over a representative cell. An expression for the effective strain gradient is obtained by considering models of geometrically necessary dislocations associated with bending, torsion and 2D axisymmetric void growth. The new theory differs from all existing phenomenological theories in its mechanism-based guiding principles, although the mathematical structure is quite similar to the theory proposed by Fleck and Hutchinson. A detailed analysis of the new theory is presented in Part II of this paper.

GRADIENT-VISCOPLASTIC MODELING OF 3D SHEAR BANDING


L.J. Sluys and W.M. Wang
(1) - Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geosciences. Delft Univ. of Technology. E-mail : L.J.Sluys@ct.TUDelft.nl (2) - Delft University of Technology

ABSTRACT
In this paper a so-called consistency viscoplastic model is used for the computational modeling of shear bands. A length scale contribution is introduced via a rate-dependent yield surface. The standard Kuhn-Tucker conditions for rate-independent plasticity then still apply. A formulation with and without the inclusion of higher-order strain gradients (multiple length scales) is discussed.The model will be explained for 2D and 3D stress situations in a small-strain and finite-deformation framework. Simple finite elements will be used, namely for 3D 8-noded brick elements and 4-noded tetrahedral elements, both with the necessary mode enhancement to avoid locking behaviour. 2D and 3D examples of mode-II failure problems will be analyzed and the main goal is to determine whether a 2D schematization of a shear band is allowed especially when the evolution of the shear band in the third direction is non-uniform and non-planar. An important issue that will be discussed in the paper is the propagation of shear bands in structured and unstructured, 2D and 3D meshes. When a viscoplastic continuum model is used to describe shear banding very small finite elements are needed inside the shear band. This results in very inefficient meshes when the location of the shear band is not known in advance. 3D calculations of shear banding are therefore extremely time consuming. For these analyses mesh adaptation will be applied. A method that is proposed here is the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) technique by which mesh adaption can be carried out during computation. The principle idea of the method is to decouple nodes from material particles, so that nodes can move arbitrary (i.e. independent of the material). Hence, nodes can move from the elastic part of the body inside the shear band.

STRAIN LOCALIZATION IN 3D PRESSURE-SENSITIVE ELASTOPLASTIC COSSERAT CONTINUA


M.M. Iordache and K.J. Willam
(1) - Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen Inc. E-mail : iordache@hks.com (2) - CEAE Department. University of Colorado at Boulder. E-mail : willam@bechtel.colorado.edu

ABSTRACT

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Localization properties of Cosserat continua have been an ongoing research topic in the recent years in the hope to avoid/delay strain localization and shear band formation and thus mesh dependency in numerical failure simulations In ref.[1] we studied analytically the localization properties of Cosserat continua and compared them to localization properties of classical continua. Following up this study, in ref.[2] we analyzed localization differences when the von Mises yield function depends on the symmetric versus the nonsymmetric stress tensor. For illustration we studied in detail the problem of `simple' shear for which the numerical simulations of failure of these two Cosserat models exhibit intriguing features such as mode conversion in two-dimensional plane stress. In the present paper we will concentrate on localization properties of three-dimensional Cosserat continua with a generalized hyperbolic Drucker - Prager yield function which accounts for pressure sensitivity. This permits a systematic study of confinement effects when failure in shear is considered analytically and numerically in terms of one, two, and three -dimensional strain localization studies in Cosserat continua.

REFERENCES
[1] Iordache, M. M. and Willam, K., (1998), "Localized Failure Analysis in Elastoplastic Cosserat Continua", Comp. Meth. Appl. Mech. Engrg., Vol. 151, pp 559 - 586. [2] Iordache, M. M., and Willam, K., (1998), "Localization Properties of Non - Symmetric Elastoplastic Cosserat Formulations", CD-ROM of IV World Congress for Computational Mechanics, June 29 - July 2, 1998, Buenos Aires, Argentina, S. Idlesohn, E. Onate and E.N. Dvorkin (eds.), Section 7, Paper 8.

ON THE CONSISTENCY OF VISCOPLASTIC FORMULATIONS


A. Carosio and G. Etse
(1) - Laboratorio de Estructuras. Univ. Nac. De Tucuman. Argentina. E-mail : acarosio@herrera.unt.edu.ar (2) - Structural Engineering Laboratory. National University of Tucuman. E-mail : getse@herrera.unt.edu.ar

ABSTRACT
In the last five years, a new viscoplastic theory and formulations has been proposed, which resembles the mathematical framework of the well known classical elastoplastic flow theory has been proposed. (Ponthot, 1995; Wang, 1997). By means of this advance, the well established rate independent plasticity and damage models may be extendend to account for time dependent material behavior. In addition the constitutive integration and the development of consistent material operator algorithms can be used by few modifications. There are no shortcomings on this viscoplastic theory and to the consistent transition to plasticity and elasticity in the extreme cases, but an extra ad hoc assumption has to be used concerning the second time derivative of the viscoplastic multiplier in order to avoid a differential second order viscoplastic consistency condition. Usually, the first order Euler Backward time integration is used to this end. In this work the viscoplastic consistency condition is solved at the differential level and then relation with the incremental framework is developed. Also, a constitutive integration and consistent material operators are proposed.

THE VARIATIONAL FORMULATION OF STRESS-UPDATE ALGORITHMS IN THE CASE OF NON-STANDARD BEHAVIOURS


M. Hjiaj, G. de Saxce and G. Guerlement
(1) - Faculte Polytechnique de Mon. Service de Mecanique des Materiaux et des Structures. (2) - Faculte Polytechnique de Mon. Service de Mecanique des Materiaux et des Structures. (3) - Faculte Polytechnique de Mons. Service de Mecanique des Materiaux et des Structures.

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ABSTRACT
Regardless of the solution procedure used in finite element analysis of problems involving nonlinearity, it becomes necessary to integrate, at some points, the constitutive relations. In a displacement formulation, this process is strain-driven, i.e. the givens are the strain increment and the initial conditions and the sought outcome is the updated state. For standard materials, plastic flow rules can be expressed equivalently either by a rate equation or by a variational inequality. Stress-update algorithms taking the rate formulation as the basis of the straightforward application of the backward Euler scheme have received abundant attention. They are based, in the non standard case, on non-symmetric tangent stiffness matrix and lead to some numerical troubles even if the displacements are the controlled variables. In many respects, the variational formulation is very interesting. Based onthis formulation, elastic predictor - plastic correctors have been developed. The corresponding algorithms, lend themselves in a natural way tothe satisfaction of incremental consistency. Moreover the stress increment is uniquely determined even if the yield surface is non-smooth. It is well knownthat such uniqueness may not hold for the rate formulation, as for a surface with corners the plastic strain rate varies within limits determined by the corner angles. Using convex analysis tools, Moreau shows the equivalence between the variational inequality which is the expression of Hill's maximum principle and of another inequality, called Fenchel inequality, that links two convex functions called superpotentials. Moreover, the superpotentials can beused to derive stress-update algorithms thanks the inf-convolution procedure. The flow rule and its inverse are then expressed in terms of the subdifferential of these superpotentials. Such functionals allow to derive, ina much more natural way, variational principles which are the rational basis for the space discretization procedure. The existence of solutions can be asserted and proved in a simpler fashion. Unfortunately for non-standard materials superpotentials are not availables and the question arise : How can you extend these concepts to these non-standard materials ? Two main features seems to be crucial : the convexity and the normality rule. In this paper we present a variational inequality based on a Fenchel's generalization. The key-idea is to conserve the normality rule but in a weak form of a implicit relation while the global convexity is relaxed. The two superpotentials give the place to a unique function of both the plastic strain and the stress. From this function and by a straightforward integration we derive two dualsvariational principles. Due to the good properties of the bipotentiel, the inf-convolution operation remain possible and a consistant time integration is performed. The displacement problem and the stress problem became coupled. The procedure is applied succesfully to non standard models. The examples show that the algorithm is convergent.

ON CONTINUUM AND DISCRETE MODELS INDUCED BY STRONG DISCONTINUITY KINEMATICS


J. Oliver, M. Cervera and O. Manzoli
(1) - ETSECCPB. E-mail : oliver@etseccpb.upc.es (2) - ETSECCPB. E-mail : cervera@etseccpb.upc.es (3) - ETSECCPB. E-mail : manzoli@etseccpb.upc.es

ABSTRACT
Local failure in rate independent solids is often associated to the bifurcation of the stress -strain fields. Such bifurcation states the in ception of a strain-localization path (weak discontinuity), which is accompanied by a loss of uniqueness of the quasi-static B.V. problem. This lack of uniqueness can be explained by the fact that the bandwidth of the weak discontinuity remains undetermined when usual rateindependent (local) constitutive equations are considered. This is frequently termed as "lack of internal length" and supplying such internal length to the constitutive equation is an usually adopted remedy for that problem. Another procedure to provide uniqueness to the B.V. problem is to induce after the bifurcation "strong discontinuities" i.e.: actual discontinuities in the displacement field which, in turn, can be regarded as the limit case of a weak discontinuity whose bandwidth collapses to zero. An additional advantage of such procedure is that it provides a clear link to the classical non-linear fracture mechanics methods based on the use of de-cohesive traction-jump constitutive equations at the discontinuous interface. The so-called "strong discontinuity analysis" supplies some necessary conditions for the appearance of a strong discontinuity which, in general, lie on the singularity of the localization (acoustic)
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tensor for a null value of the hardening/softening parameter. However, this condition is not, in general, fulfilled at the bifurcation stage thus precluding the possibility of bifurcation in a strong discontinuity fashion. This suggests the necessity of a model that provides the transition from the bifurcation (in general in weak discontinuity regime) to the strong discontinuity regime. Different versions of such a model are presented and considered in the paper, and several families of elasto-plastic constitutive equations are examined regarding their weak and strong discontinuity properties. The consequences of alternative strategies that do not consider the aforementioned transition models are also examined. Trough numerical simulations it is shown that, in the context of failure or collapse structural analyzes, the collapse load can be overestimated if strong discontinuity models are imposed in comparison with the results obtained using transition mechanisms.

MODELING FAILURE AS A STRONG DISCONTINUITY WITH THE MATERIAL POINT METHOD


H.L. Schreyer and D.L. Sulsky
(1) - Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. E-mail : schreyer@slider.unm.edu (2) - Dept. of Mech. Eng., Math. and Statistics. University of New Mexico. E-mail : sulsky@math.unm.edu

ABSTRACT
Examples of material failure which might be modeled as a strong discontinuity in displacement include the fracture of quasibrittle materials, delamination of composites, shear banding, void development along grain boundaries, rupture of ductile materials, and the debonding of inclusions and fibers. We suggest that a single model of decohesion might be appropriate for all cases provided suitable values of parameters related to failure initiation and energy dissipation are used together with reasonable choices of constitutive equations based on plasticity and damage for representing ductile and brittle behavior, respectively, prior to the initiation of decohesion. In addition, we think that the material point method is a particularly useful numerical approach because material points are followed through the complete load path so that the usual problems of remeshing and interpolation of history variables never arise. In the development of the computational algorithm, the following assumptions are made: (i) once failure initiates the material unloads elastically, (ii) traction equilibrium is invoked at each material point, and (iii) the kinematic constraint of compatibility is invoked weakly. The result is that the failure process is reflected merely as the implementation of a constitutive equation which is no more complicated than a conventional elastic-plastic algorithm. Example calculations show convergence and insensitivity to mesh orientation with regard to load-deflection curves and energy dissipation.

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF SLIP SURFACES IN ROCK


R.A. Regueiro, C.M. Stone, J.G. Arguello, A.F. Fossum and R.I. Borja
(1) - Solid and Material Mechanics Department. E-mail : raregue@sandia.gov (2) - Solid and Material Mechanics Dept. Sandia National Laboratories (3) - Solid and Material Mechanics Department Sandia National Laboratories

ABSTRACT
The evolution of slip surfaces in underground rock formations is studied via a novel finite element (FE) method (Simo et al. 1993, Armero & Garikipati 1995, and Borja & Regueiro 1998). What sets this method apart from others is the underlying plasticity theory formulated with strong discontinuity (jump in displacement) and the implementation within an assumed enhanced strain FE method. For simple model problems like plane strain compression the method has demonstrated mesh-independence, a

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necessary feature of any meaningful FE analysis, which is not attained for many numerical approaches to modeling localized deformation without special regularization techniques. A rate-independent, non-associated, strain-softening Drucker-Prager plasticity model formulated within the context of strong discontinuities is reviewed. A noteworthy result is that the slip surface orientation and localization condition are determined explicitly in closed form - as opposed to numerically - and are functions solely of the material dilation constant. The stress-displacement relation governing the jump displacement evolution along the slip surface is pressure-dependent. The implementation of this plasticity model along with an enhanced hexahedral element within the framework of an assumed enhanced strain FE method is described. The enhanced strains and enhanced strain variations are likewise dependent upon the material dilation constant. Slip surfaces appear naturally in underground rock formations and thus are of great interest to those who construct in this environment (e.g., oil companies, mining companies, and those responsible for nuclear waste repositories). Numerical simulations using the aforementioned novel FE method will attempt to predict the evolution of and movement along slip surfaces (i.e., fault systems) in underground rock formations. At present, the effect of fluid flow is neglected.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the United States Government under contract. Accordingly the United States Government retains a non - exclusive, royalty - free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

A NUMERICAL PROCEDURE TO SIMULATE THE EVOLUTION OF LOCALIZATION WITHOUT USING HIGHER ORDER MODELS
Z. Chen
(1) - University of Missouri-Columbia Department of Civil Engineering. E-mail : chen@risc1.ecn.missouri.edu

ABSTRACT
Higher order models, such as nonlocal and gradient models, have been used to simulate the evolution of localization with mesh-independent solutions. However, the use of higher order terms in space makes it difficult to perform large scale computer simulation, due to the limitation of current computational capabilities. As shown in the previous research, the evolution of localization might be equally well characterized by the formation and propagation of a moving material surface associated with a phase change. With the use of a moving material surface, a partitioned-modeling approach has been proposed for localization problems. The basic idea of the approach is that simple constitutive models are used inside and outside the localized deformation zone with a moving boundary being defined between different material domains. As a result, the extrapolation of material properties beyond the limitations of current experimental techniques can be avoided in identifying the evolution of localization. An attempt has also been made to investigate the use of the jump forms of conservation laws in defining the moving material surface. By taking the initial point of localization as that point where the type of the governing differential equations changes, i.e., a hyperbolic to an elliptic type for dynamic problems and an elliptic to another elliptic type for static problems, a moving material surface can be defined through the jump forms of conservation laws across the surface. Because the transition from a hyperbolic equation to an elliptic one is represented by a parabolic one which governs a diffusion process, an analytical solution has been obtained for a one-dimensional softening bar with the use of a simple diffusion equation, where the evolution of localization can be simulated without invoking higher order models. To applied the previous research results to a general case, the governing differential equations are formulated in a three dimensional framework, and a diffusion equation is proposed in this paper, based on the physics involved in the evolution of localization. A numerical procedure is being developed via a moving interpolation procedure. Sample problems will be shown to demonstrate how the evolution of localization can be simulated without using higher order models. It is believed that the proposed numerical procedure can be developed into a robust one for computer simulation of those problems involving different governing differential equations in a single computational domain.

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FAILURE ANALYSIS OF ELASTO-PLASTIC MATERIAL MODELS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF OBSERVATION


E. Kuhl, E. Ramm and K. Willam
(1) - Institute for Structural Mechanics University of Stuttgart. E-mail : kuhl@statik.uni-stuttgart.de (2) - Institute of Structural Mechanics, University of Stuttgart. E-mail : eramm@statik.uni-stuttgart.de (3) - CEAE Department. University of Colorado at Boulder. E-mail : willam@bechtel.colorado.edu

ABSTRACT
This contribution aims at characteristic failure mechanisms of cohesive-frictional materials at different levels of observation. Thereby, the criteria for the loss of uniqueness and the loss of ellipticity will be discussed for a macroscopic as well as a microplane-based anisotropic plasticity formulation. On the macroscopic scale, the behavior of cohesive-frictional materials is characterized through a generalized Drucker-Prager plasticity formulation [1] with a yield function, which depends not only on the second invariant of the stress deviator but also on the trace of the stress tensor itself. Since the elastoplastic tangent operator takes a classical rank-one update structure, closed form solutions can be derived for the loss of uniqueness and the loss of ellipticity. Isotropic material models such as the Drucker-Prager plasticity formulation perform well under proportional loading conditions. For non-proportional load scenarios, however, more enhanced anisotropic models are needed. The microplane concept [2], [3], which serves as the basis for a wide class of anisotropic constitutive formulations, generalizes the classical notion of frictional sliding on characteristic planes of weaknesses. Thereby, the pointwise constitutive response is the aggregate of integrating nonlinear material processes on each microplane over all possible orientations. A well-known example of this class of models is the theory of crystal plasticity, which, however, is restricted to pressure - insensitive behavior. In order to account for the characteristic behavior of cohesive - frictional materials, we will introduce a pressure-sensitive version on each microplane along the lines of Drucker - Prager plasticity. Thereby, individual yield functions are introduced on each microplane by replacing the two invariants of the Drucker-Prager continuum model by the volumetric and the tangential stress components on each microplane. Since the structure of the microplane-based tangent operator is very complex, its analy- sis has to be restricted to numerical simulations of different failure scenarios. It will be demonstrated geometrically, how the critical failure mode is related to different microplanes exhibiting active plastic sliding. Finally, the failure characteristics of the microplane model will be compared with the analytical results of the generalized Drucker - Prager formulation with examples of simple model problems, see also [4].

REFERENCES
[1] Liebe, T. (1998), Analytical and geometrical representation of localization analysis of curvilinear Drucker Prager plasticity, Diploma thesis, CEAE Department, University of Colorado Boulder. [2] Bazant, Z. P. and Prat, P. (1988), Microplane Model for Brittle Plastic Material J. Eng. Mech., Vol. 114, pp. 1672-1702. [3] Kuhl, E. and Ramm, E. (1998), On the linearization of the Microplane Model, Mech. Coh. Frict. Mat., Vol. 3, pp. 343 - 364. [4] Kuhl, E. and Ramm, E. and Willam, K. (1999), Failure analysis of elasto-plastic material models, to be submitted for publication in special issue of IJSS.

DISCRETE AND SMEARED MODELING OF SNAP-THROUGH FRACTURE IN BUILDINGS


J.G. Rots and P.H. Feenstra
(1) - TNO Building and Construction Research. E-mail : J.Rots@bouw.tno.nl (2) - TNO Building and Construction Research. E-mail : P.Feenstra@bouw.tno.nl

ABSTRACT
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Over the past few years, softening continuum and discontinuum models for quasi-brittle materials have been extensively tested, tuned and compared with each other for the case of single-element problems and laboratory-sized specimen. Although many features like the performance of the models under rotating stress conditions, mesh (in-) objectivity and stress locking can be illustrated in this way (e.g. [1,2]), other features remain unobserved. This especially holds for the ability of the various models to reproduce snap-through or snapback behaviour associated with fracture in real world large-size structures. Here, the amount of elastic energy stored in the structure versus the fracture energy consumed in crack propagation is quite different from that in small-scale tests, which may have implications on the performance and numerical stability of the models. In this paper we present recent experiences with softening models for large-size structural problems. In particular, we focus on the example of settlement damage in a masonry facade at Amsterdam. The new North-South line subway in Amsterdam will be build as a bored tunnel underneath the historical city center. With bored tunnels in soft soil, a settlement trough will emerge and spread out in three dimensions above the tunnel. The settlement trough will affect the historical buildings on pile foundations. In particular, cracks may emerge in the (unreinforced) masonry facades. There is a need for damage classification systems that include new knowledge of fracture mechanics, whereby numerical simulation plays a key role. A typical facade of 15 by 18 meters is subjected to a settlement trough that is incremented until and beyond failure using four smeared models: multiple-fixed crack model with decomposed strain concept, rotating crack model with total strain concept, Rankine plasticity based crack model and an isotropic damage model. In all cases, a fracture energy based regularization for the softening is used. It appears that the fixed smeared crack model gives a stiff response dependent on the shear retention factor, while the rotating crack model performs better in that respect. The convergence with the Rankine model is superior in the pre-peak regime, but once a spurious mode occurred near the peak the solution could not be continued. Furthermore, the elastic unloading inherent to plasticity models appears to be too stiff to handle inactive cracks. The isotropic damage model is a kind of compromise. It does not suffer from stiff results with stress-locking, while the inherent secant unloading performs well. Independent of these mutual differences, all smeared models have difficulties in identifying the post-peak snap-back regime, even though indirect displacement control techniques over the active crack were used. Here, a method using interface elements as predefined potential discrete cracks, the locations of which were based on the smeared predictors, was successful in tracing the sharp snap-back associated with through-depth cracking of the entire wall. Similar experiences were gained with ULS-predictions of stability and SLS-studies on restrained shrinkage [3].

REFERENCES
[1] J.G. Rots , "The smeared crack model for localized mode-I tensile fracture", Proc. First Bolomey Workshop on Numerical Models and Material Parameters for Concrete Cracking (Eds. F.H. Wittmann et al.), ETH-Zurich, 6675, 1992. [2] P.H. Feenstra and R. de Borst , "A plasticity model for mode-I cracking", Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng. 38, 2509 - 2529, 1995. [3] J.G. Rots (Ed.), "Structural Masonry - An Experimental/Numerical Basis for Practical Design Rules", A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 152 pp., 1997.

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Minisymposium

Computational Mechanics of Tunneling


Gernot Beer and Gnther Hofstetter
SESSION 1
Keynote : SOME ASPECTS OF THE ELASTO-PLASTIC AND TIME-DEPENDENT ANALYSIS OF TUNNELS G. Gioda, A. Cividini and D. Sterpi ..................................................................................................................................50 APPLICATION OF INELASTIC CONSTITUTIVE MODEL WITH STRAIN SOFTENING TO TUNNEL MECHANICS T. Adachi ..........................................................................................................................................................................50 NUMERICAL-EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF COMPRESSED AIR TUNNELING A.A. Javadi and C.P. Snee ................................................................................................................................................51 PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF DISCRETE ELEMENT ANALYSIS IN COMBINATION WITH COUPLED FINITE ELEMENT / BOUNDARY ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF ROCK CAVERNS FOR CERN FACILITIES H.C. Kurzweil and G. Jedlitschka.....................................................................................................................................52 DESIGN OF SHOTCRETE TUNNEL LININGS - AN ENGINEERS PERSPECTIVE H. Walter ..........................................................................................................................................................................52

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Keynote : SOME ASPECTS OF THE ELASTO-PLASTIC AND TIME-DEPENDENT ANALYSIS OF TUNNELS


G. Gioda, A. Cividini and D. Sterpi
(1) - Department of Structural Engineering Technical University of Milan. E-mail : ggiod@grisc.stru.polimi.it (3) - Department of Structural Engineering. Technical University of Milan

ABSTRACT
Tunneling engineering is a peculiar branch of soil/rock mechanics which in general involves complex problems from the stress analysis view point. In fact, the vast majority of these problems have a three-dimensional nature and are characterized by nonlinear and, in some cases, time dependent material behavior. In addition, their solution is markedly influenced by the geometrical changes due to the sequence of excavation / construction steps which lead to the completion of the tunnel. The obvious complexity of these problems led to the spreading use of numerical, computer oriented, procedures for their solution. Among them, the finite element method is still perhaps the most commonly adopted in practice, while a growing use is observed of the companion boundary element method. In some cases the results of these calculations are used at the design stage to assess the safety of the excavation or to define the characteristics of its supporting structures. In other instances, they are used for interpreting the behavior observed in situ during construction. This contribution intends to summarize some examples of the stress analysis of tunnels based on the finite element method. They concern various situations of potential practical interest, like the interaction between adjacent tunnels, the effects of pore pressure on the overall behavior of the opening, the back analysis of the displacements measured during excavation, the comparison between the results of calculations and the behavior observed during small scale laboratory tests on a tunnel model. Two problems are treated in static conditions and refer to situations in which the soil/rock mass can be considered as a continuous body obeying elasto-plastic or time dependent constitutive laws. Consequently, the effect of possible discontinuities in the rock mass is not explicitly taken into account. These examples permit to show some of the developments that in the past years concerned the application of numerical methods to the stress analysis of tunnels. On their bases some conclusions are drawn about the possible future directions of research in this particular branch of soil/rock engineering.

APPLICATION OF INELASTIC CONSTITUTIVE MODEL WITH STRAIN SOFTENING TO TUNNEL MECHANICS


T. Adachi
(1) - Faculty of Engineering. Kyoto University. E-mail : adachi@toshi.kuciv.kyoto-u.ac.jp

ABSTRACT
In this paper, the characteristic curve, known as Fenner-Pacher curve in NATM (New Austrian Tunneling Method), is investigated based on Adachi-Okas elasto-plastic constitutive model which can not only describe strain - hardening but also strain-softening and dilatancy as well. As an example, a tunnel project is analyzed with FEM based on the model. The model has the features of satisfying the uniqueness of the solution in initial and boundary value problems and less size dependency in FEM analysis. In the FEM analysis, the material parameters involved in the constitutive model are determined from laboratory tests and converged solutions can be obtained within a few steps. The results obtained from calculation illustrate that the Fenner-Pacher curve can be simulated based on a fitting constitutive model with strainsoftening. The comparison between calculated results and observed data indicate that the calculated results agree well with the observed data.

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NUMERICAL-EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF COMPRESSED AIR TUNNELING


A.A. Javadi and C.P. Snee
(1) - Dept. of Civil and Env. Engineering University of Bradford. E-mail : a.arabpourjavadi@Bradford.ac.uk (2) - Dept. of Civil and Env. Engineering University of Bradford

ABSTRACT
In driving tunnels under compressed air, adoption of a tunnel pressure and the required volume of air to maintain that pressure, are currently based on judgement and empirical formulae. The risks associated with leakage of air from tunnels are not addressed by these methods. Such risks include surface settlement, uplift of structures, tunnel collapse and blow-out. A principal reason for these shortfalls is that the path and zone of influence of air leakage and the distribution of the air pressure in the ground cannot be predicted. Furthermore, the effects of the compressed air flow on the state of stress, strength and settlement of the ground have not been understood. In view of paucity of a scientific guidance for predicting these, a numerical model has been developed that simulates the consequences of using compressed air in soils. The model is based on finite element analysis of the flow of air through the ground in compressed air tunneling. The numerical model predicts the zone of influence of the air flow, the distribution of the pore-air pressure in the ground, the deformed shape and location of the groundwater profile and the air losses from tunnel face and walls. The model was verified using the field data from a tunnel driven under compressed air in Munich and the technique of parameter identification with the back analysis of the field data were used to specify a relationship for time-dependency of the permeability of shotcrete. Furthermore, a procedure has been established to predict the changes in the shear strength and also the settlement of the ground due to the flow of compressed air. The procedure is based on integration of the results of the numerical model and some concepts and theories of unsaturated soil mechanics. A program of multistage triaxial testing has been carried out in a modified triaxial apparatus to study the effects of the flow of air on the shear strength and volume change of the ground. The results show the way in which the compressed air flow helps to increase the strength and stability of the ground. The results of the tests have been used to define a shear strength envelope, which can be used to predict the change in the shear strength of the ground due to the flow of compressed air and changes in the air pressure. Also, a combination of the volume change theory for unsaturated soils and the results of the numerical model were used to predict the contribution of the air flow to the surface settlement in compressed air tunneling. The developed model provides a powerful tool to predict the consequences of compressed air tunneling. It also improves the current understanding of the complicated fluid-soil-tunnel interaction associated with this tunneling method.

PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF DISCRETE ELEMENT ANALYSIS IN COMBINATION WITH COUPLED FINITE ELEMENT / BOUNDARY ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF ROCK CAVERNS FOR CERN FACILITIES
H.C. Kurzweil and G. Jedlitschka
(1) - GEOCONSULT ZT. E-mail : gje@ges.co.at (2) - GEOCONSULT ZT

ABSTRACT
The European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) is the world's largest research laboratory for sub-atomic particle physics. The laboratory occupies 602 ha across the Franco - Swiss border and includes a series of linear and circular particle accelerators. Its main circular accelerator (Large Electron
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Positron accelerator - circumference of 26.7 km) will be replaced in 2005 by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), that will use all existing LEP structures, but will also require new surface and underground works. The ground consists of about 50 m of granular moraine over an alternating sequence of weak marls, sandy marls and strong sandstones. Directly above and below the caverns there are two layers of weak marls with swelling capability. The overburden above crown is about 70 m. In the 3D calculations only a simplified geological model was used. Except of the weak (swelling) layers no distinct geological features were modelled. This paper presents experiences in the application of different numerical methods for the design of one new cavern system (namely Point 5) for the LHC accelerator. The following studies are presented: 2D analysis with the Discrete Element Method (UDEC) employing a realistic geological and geotechnical model including distinct modelling of the various horizontal geotechnical layers. This enables to simulate the rock mass behaviour under realistic geotechnical conditions. Short term and long term load cases such as excavation, water pressure, creeping and swelling including all possible load case combinations were calculated. 3D Coupled Finite Element/Boundary Element Analysis (BEFE) with simplified geotechnical models to investigate local 3D effects on the cavern system, especially at intersections of theinner lining structure. The less accurate modelling of the rock mass was compensated by calibrating the 3D model to the results of the 2D model. The full range of load cases and load case combinations as for the 2D analysis were evaluated. 3D Boundary Element Analysis (BEFE) to investigate the global behaviour of the rock mass during excavation including the new cavern system as well as the existing structures. Again the model involved a simplified geotechnical model. The paper contains a brief description of the calculation methods, the calculation models and the used input parameters and a comparison and discussion of calculation results.

DESIGN OF SHOTCRETE TUNNEL LININGS - AN ENGINEERS PERSPECTIVE


H. Walter
(1) - Ingenieurgemeinschaft fuer Geotechnik und Tunnelbau. E-mail : h.walter@igt.co.at

ABSTRACT
Shotcrete linings are an essential component of the primary lining of tunnels driven according to NATM principles. Analyses are typically part of the design stage of a tunnel project; lining thickness and the amount of reinforcement must be specified. A group of models with a varying degree of sophistication is available as an analysis tool. A constitutive model for shotcrete which covers the most important properties of young shotcrete - time dependent parameters, nonlinear stress-strain-relations, creep etc. - has been added to a commercial FE - program. Applications of this constitutive law in combination with 2-D- and 3-D-models of tunnels are described. In addition to discussing the model and other, more simple tools, this paper also provides a careful consideration of many practical limitations, including the lack of sufficient material data, deficiencies of the FE - models, and commercial constraints.

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Computational Dynamics
Pl Bergan, Sanjay Govindjee, Robert L. Taylor and Nils-Erik Wiberg
SESSION 1: CONSERVING PROPERTIES OF TIME INTEGRATION ALGORITHMS I
Keynote : ON NON-LINEAR DYNAMICS OF RODS AND SHELLS P. Wriggers, J. Sansour and C. Sansour...........................................................................................................................57 SHELL DYNAMICS OF ENHANCED ASSUMED STRAIN ELEMENTS FOR THE GENERALIZED ENERGY-MOMENTUM METHOD D. Kuhl and E. Ramm.......................................................................................................................................................57 NON-LINEAR RIGID BODY DYNAMICS: ENERGY AND MOMENTUM CONSERVING ALGORITHM F.A. Rochinha and R. Sampaio.........................................................................................................................................58 ON THE FORMULATION OF DISSIPATIVE TIME-STEPPING ALGORITHMS FOR NON-LINEAR ELASTODYNAMICS F. Armero and I. Romero..................................................................................................................................................59 STRUCTURE PRESERVING AND APPROXIMATELY STRUCTURE PRESERVING ALGORITHMS FOR INITIAL VALUE PROBLEMS D. Lewis............................................................................................................................................................................59

SESSION 2: CONSERVING PROPERTIES OF TIME INTEGRATION ALGORITHMS II


Keynote : SPACE-TIME FINITE ELEMENT METHODS FOR SECOND-ORDER HYPERBOLIC SYSTEMS AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS: CONSERVATION LAWS T.J.R. Hughes ...................................................................................................................................................................60 ENERGY CONSERVING TIME STEPPING SCHEMES OF ARBITRARY ORDER FOR CLASSICAL MECHANICS AND ELASTODYNAMICS P. Betsch and P. Steinmann ..............................................................................................................................................61 TIME DISCRETIZED OPERATORS: TOWARDS THE THEORETICAL DESIGN OF A NEW GENERALIZED FAMILY OF OPERATORS FOR STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS K.K. Tamma, D. Sha and X. Zhou.....................................................................................................................................61 NOVEL TIME INTEGRATION METHODS IN COMPUTATIONAL MECHANICS A. Marthinsen and B. Owren ............................................................................................................................................62 THE NEED FOR MOMENTUM CONSERVATION IN MULTI-TIME STEP METHODS FOR STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS W.J.T. Daniel....................................................................................................................................................................63

SESSION 3: TRANSIENT AND PARALLEL COMPUTATIONS


AN 8-NODE TETRAHEDRAL FINITE ELEMENT SUITABLE FOR EXPLICIT TRANSIENT DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS S.W. Key, M.W. Heinstein and C.R. Dohrmann ................................................................................................................63 ADAPTIVE COMPUTATIONAL WAVE PROPAGATION IN STRUCTURES D. Aubry, D. Clouteau, B. Tie and J.M. Leclere ...............................................................................................................64 ERROR ESTIMATION AND ADAPTIVE SPACE-TIME FINITE ELEMENT PROCEDURE IN DYNAMIC PLASTICITY X.D. Li and N.E. Wiberg...................................................................................................................................................64 A PARALLEL NUMERICAL PROCEDURE FOR THE SOLUTION OF CONTACT-IMPACT PROBLEMS L. Nilsson and P. Persson.................................................................................................................................................65 A FULLY DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHOD FOR SPACE-TIME ELASTODYNAMIC ANALYSIS L. Yin, N. Sobh, A. Acharya, R.B. Haber and D.A. Tortorelli ...........................................................................................66 NETWORK-DISTRIBUTED MULTIBODY DYNAMICS GLUING ALGORITHMS AND IMPLEMENTATIONS F.C. Tseng and G.M. Hulbert ...........................................................................................................................................66

SESSION 4: MULTIBODY SYSTEMS AND MODAL SYNTHESIS


FLEXIBLE GEAR DYNAMICS MODELING IN MULTIBODY ANALYSIS A. Cardona and D. Granville............................................................................................................................................67 COUPLING BETWEEN RIGID MULTIBODY AND DEFORMABLE CONTINUA USING AN AUGMENTED LAGRANGIAN APPROACH.

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Computational Dynamics

J.H. Heegaard and C.B. Hovey.........................................................................................................................................68 QUASI-STATIC MODE COMPENSATION FOR TRANSIENT DYNAMIC ANALYSIS AND DYNAMIC DATA RECOVERY J. Gu, G.M. Hulbert and Z.-D. Ma....................................................................................................................................69 ASYMPTOTIC MODELS OF COMPLEX VIBRATORY SYSTEMS P.E. Barbone ....................................................................................................................................................................69 AN ALTERNATIVE CONTROL STRATEGY FOR NON-LINEAR DYNAMIC SYSTEMS D.A. Tortorelli and S. Okubo............................................................................................................................................70 A NEW FORCE-DISPLACEMENT MODEL FOR ELASTO-PLASTIC COLLISION AND EXTRACTION OF MODEL PARAMETERS FROM EXPERIMENT L. Vu-Quoc and X. Zhang .................................................................................................................................................71

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Computational Dynamics

Keynote : ON NON-LINEAR DYNAMICS OF RODS AND SHELLS


P. Wriggers, J. Sansour and C. Sansour
(1) - Institut fur Baumechanik und Num. Mechanik. Universitat Hannover. E-mail : wriggers@ibnm.uni-hannover.de (2) - Institut fur Baumechanik und Num. Mechanik. Universitat Hannover. (3) - University of Karlsruhe. Institut fuer Baustatik

ABSTRACT
In this paper we discuss the nonlinear dynamical behaviour of shells and rods undergoing large deformations. Of interest are the nonlinear formulations, integration schemes for long term dynamics (also including large strains) and nonlinear dynamical phenomena. Especially we will address the following themes. - Shell formulations: Briely two shell formulations will be considered: shells of the Cosserat-type where rotations are explicitly included in the formulation, as well as non-Cosserat-type ones circumventing the use of a rotation tensor. - Integration schemes: Energy-momentum methods for both formulations are given. The algorithms can be used independently of the nonlinearity envolved in the formulation. Also algorithms for linear and nonlinear constitutive laws will be discussed. - Numerical examples of nonlinear vibrations, also those of chaotic motion including period doubling mechanism, and free large over, all motion will be presented. - In the context of determining the active degrees of freedom using the POD method, a possible dimension reduction will be discussed.

SHELL DYNAMICS OF ENHANCED ASSUMED STRAIN ELEMENTS FOR THE GENERALIZED ENERGY-MOMENTUM METHOD
D. Kuhl and E. Ramm
(1) - Institute of Structural Mechanics, Ruhr-University Bochum. E-mail : detlef.kuhl@ruhr-uni-bochum.de (2) - Institute of Structural Mechanics, University of Stuttgart. E-mail : eramm@statik.uni-stuttgart.de

ABSTRACT
In the last years time integration schemes and finite shell elements were developed which enable the stable integration of the non-linear initial boundary value problem of thin walled elastic structures undergoing large deformations and rotations. Recently, the authors have presented the combination of a spatial discretization by finite shell elements and a temporal discretization by an unconditionally stable time marching scheme for the numerical analysis of such kind of motions. A pure displacement approach of Reissner/Mindlin type has been extended by [1] including an extensible shell director field and permitting the application of three dimensional material laws without modification or reduction. Furthermore, the time stepping was verified by a generalization of the Energy-Momentum Method, originally introduced by [5], associating classical Newmark approximations, numerical dissipation and Simo's idea of the algorithmic stress tensor computation. This generalized method was first presented by [2] and successfully applied to non-linear adaptive shell dynamics by [3]. However, there is still an open question concerning the prevention of locking phenomena as the Poisson-locking, membrane locking and shear locking, when it comes to dynamics in shell analysis. If for example the Reduced Integration Technique is applied in order to avoid membrane and shear locking, the lack of the energy conservation property of the time stepping scheme can be observed. In order to avoid the locking phenomena without losing algorithmic stability, the Enhanced Assumed Strain Concept by [4] has to be adjusted to the time discrete algorithmic calculation of the internal virtual work of the generalized Energy - Momentum Method. In the present contribution, the suggested time discrete formulation of the Enhanced Assumed Strain Concept will be developed and applied to the extensible director shell element. The performance of
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the shell element in non-linear dynamics will be demonstrated by several representative numerical examples.

REFERENCES
[1] Buchter, N.; Ramm, E.; Roehl, D., "Three-Dimensional Extension of Nonlinear Shell Formulation Based on the Enhanced Assumed Strain Concept", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 37, 25512568, 1994. [2] Kuhl, D.; Crisfield, M.A., "Energy Conserving and Decaying Algorithms in Non-Linear Structural Dynamics", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, accepted, 1998. [3] Kuhl, D.; Ramm, E., "Generalized Energy-Momentum Method for Non-Linear Adaptive Shell Dynamics", Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, accepted, 1998. [4] Simo, J.C.; Rifai, M.S., "A Class of Mixed Assumed Strain Methods and the Method of Incompatible Modes", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 29, 1595-1638, 1990. [5] Simo, J.C.; Tarnow, N., "The Discrete Energy-Momentum Method. Conserving Algorithms for Nonlinear Elastodynamics", Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics 43, 757-792, 1992.

NON-LINEAR RIGID BODY DYNAMICS: ENERGY AND MOMENTUM CONSERVING ALGORITHM


F.A. Rochinha and R. Sampaio
(1) - Mechanical Engineering Department. EE-COPPE-UFRJ. E-mail : faro@serv.com.ufrj.br (2) - Mechanical Engineering Department. EE-COPPE-UFRJ

ABSTRACT
The dynamics of flexible systems, such as robot manipulators, mechanical chains or cables, is becoming increasingly important in engineering. The main question arising from the numerical modelling of large overall motions of multibody systems is an appropriate treatment for the large rotations. In the present work an alternative approach is proposed leading to a a time-stepping numerical algorithm which acieves stable solutions combined with high precision. In particular, in order to check the performance of the proposed approach, two examples having preserved constants of the motion are presented.

ON THE FORMULATION OF DISSIPATIVE TIME-STEPPING ALGORITHMS FOR NON-LINEAR ELASTODYNAMICS


F. Armero and I. Romero
(1) - Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering. University of California at Berkeley. E-mail : armero@ce.berkeley.edu (2) - Dept. of Civil and Env. Engineering. University of California at Berkeley.

ABSTRACT
The formulation of time-stepping algorithms for nonlinear elastodynamics have received a significant amount of attention recently, the main motivation being the observed relatively poor performance of traditional schemes in the fully nonlinear range. In this way, integration algorithms that have been shown to be unconditionally stable in time, and even dissipative, in linear problems have exhibited numerical instabilities when applied to nonlinear problems. These instabilities usually manifest themselves in the form of an uncontrollable growth of the energy of the system. Furthermore, the need for energy dissipation in the high-frequency range to avoid the error introduced mainly by spatial discretizations in this part of the spectrum is well documented for many practical applications in structural dynamics, as it has been developed in the linear range. Numerical schemes possessing similar dissipative properties, rigorously proven in the nonlinear range, are lacking to a large extend.

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We will describe in this contribution some recent results in the formulation of integration schemes that possess this controllable dissipation in the high-frequency range for general models of finite elastodynamics. In particular, we will present analyses of the newly developed methods showing rigorously their dissipative character in the high-frequency range. Additional analyses illustrating the treatment of other properties of the continuum problem (like symmetries of the dynamical system and the associated momenta and relative equilibria) will also be presented for both the newly proposed methods and some standard time-stepping schemes. Furthermore, different aspects of the numerical implementation of the new schemes in the context of the finite element method will be discussed as well. We will consider applications in the context of continuum models of finite elasticity and geometrically exact theories of beams and rods. Representative numerical simulations will be presented illustrating the performance of the newly proposed methods.

STRUCTURE PRESERVING AND APPROXIMATELY STRUCTURE PRESERVING ALGORITHMS FOR INITIAL VALUE PROBLEMS
D. Lewis
(1) - University of California, Santa Cruz. E-mail : lewis@count.UCSC.EDU

ABSTRACT
Geometric integrators, or structure-preserving algorithms, are schemes designed to preserve "exactly" (i.e. to machine precision or to the order of accuracy to which some implicit equation is solved) certain features of the dynamical system being simulated, independent of the overall accuracy of the method. The particularly rich structure of Hamiltonian systems includes such features as time reversability and preservation of energy, momentum, and the symplectic or Poisson structure. More generally, many dynamical systems "live" on nonlinear manifolds embedded in vector spaces; algorithms generating trajectories remaining within the appropriate manifold can be viewed as preserving the true phase space of the system. While the fluctuation in a supposedly conserved quantity can often be used to bound the error in a computed trajectory from below, the role of structure preservation in bounding errors from above is more subtle. The level sets of constraint functions are typically large enough to allow for significant quantitative and qualitative errors in trajectories exactly satisfying the constraints. For example, the socalled backward error analysis results for symplectic algorithms state that for sufficiently small time-steps the algorithmic flow is exponentially near to the flow of some Hamiltonian system with Hamiltonian near the true one; however, many key features of Hamiltonian systems are not preserved under perturbation of the Hamiltonian. Even in two dimensions one can easily construct examples of symplectic and/or energy preserving schemes that fail to capture key features of the dynamical system being modeled. Loosely speaking, nongeneric systems have infinite "condition number"; a backward error analysis is of little practical value if the behavior of a nearby problem is qualitatively different from that of the exact problem. Using results from dynamical systems theory to identify promising test cases, we explore the behavior of several classes of geometric integrators. Our intent is to develop a collection of cautionary examples, analogous to those typically used in introductory numerical analysis texts to motivate the introduction of the condition number in linear equation solving or implicit IVP integrators. In particular, we focus on the relationships, or lack thereof, between the preservation of some structures and the accurate modeling of key features (fixed points, hetero- or homoclinic cycles, additional conservation laws, etc.) of the exact system. In addition, we survey some techniques for determining a class of systems in which a given dynamical system is generic and for constructing algorithms that preserve all the defining features of such classes.

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Keynote : SPACE-TIME FINITE ELEMENT METHODS FOR SECOND-ORDER HYPERBOLIC SYSTEMS AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS: CONSERVATION LAWS
T.J.R. Hughes
(1) - Stanford University Div. of Mechanics and Computation. E-mail : hughes@am-sun2.stanford.edu

ABSTRACT
The types of methods we consider amount to full, space-time discretizations of the governing equations by way of finite elements on so-called "space-time slabs" which are slices of space-time with thickness equal to the time-step size. The time-step may vary from slab to slab and a completely independent, unstructured space-time mesh may be employed on each slab. Thus, continuity of the finite element basis functions is maintained within each slab but not in general from one slab to another. The appropriate displacement and velocity continuity conditions across slab interfaces occurs "naturally" within the variational formulation. The approach provides a useful setting for space-time adaptive strategies. Methods of this kind were introduced in [1]. The basic constructive elements are the Discontinuous Galerkin Method and Stabilized Methods, which enable a complete a priori error analysis to be performed for the formulation in [1]. Noteworthy features include the following: The issue of time integrators is obviated by the choice of space-time interpolation; unconditional stability in total energy is achieved in all cases; and any order of accuracy can be achieved by selecting sufficiently high-order space-time finite elements. Through the addition of Discontinuity Capturing methodology to the basic formulation, it was shown in [2] that higher-order accurate schemes could be developed which simultaneously possess good shock capturing properties. A literature review of various space-time approaches is also presented in [2]. In this presentation I examine the approach from the standpoint of conservation laws. Conservation properties of schemes for structural dynamics and elastodynamics has been a topic of considerable recent interest. I show what conditions are necessary in the space-time approach to satisfy conservation laws of energy, linear momentum and moment of momentum (a.k.a. angular momentum).

REFERENCES
[1] T.J.R. Hughes and G.M. Hulbert , "Space-time finite element methods for elastodynamics: Formulation and error estimates", Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, vol. 66, 339-363 (1987). [2] G.M. Hulbert and T.J.R. Hughes, "Space-time finite element methods for second-order hyperbolic equations", Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, vol. 84, 327-348 (1990).

ENERGY CONSERVING TIME STEPPING SCHEMES OF ARBITRARY ORDER FOR CLASSICAL MECHANICS AND ELASTODYNAMICS
P. Betsch and P. Steinmann
(1) - Dept. of Mech. and Proc. Engineering. University of Kaiserslautern. E-mail : pbetsch@rhrk.uni-kl.de (2) - Institute for Technical Mechanics, University of Kaiserlautern. E-mail : ps@rhk.uni-kl.de

ABSTRACT
We are concerned with the development of implicit one-step methods for the numerical integration of systems of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. In particular we focus on the equations of motion for classical mechanics and the semidiscrete equations resulting from the spatial discretization of nonlinear elastodynamics. The related systems of nonlinear ordinary differential equations can be often classified as "stiff". In this case time stepping schemes inheriting the energy conserving property of the underlying conservative dynamical system are very attractive especially in view of the numerical stability of the method.

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We will present a newly developed family of energy conserving time stepping schemes of arbitrary order [1]. Within the general context of classical mechanics our numerical method conserves the Hamiltonian function of the underlying autonomous holonomic system. Moreover, the time-discrete formulation automatically conserves the generalized momenta corresponding to ignorable coordinates. Time-continuous semidiscrete elastodynamical systems are treated as natural dynamical systems where the Hamiltonian function is equivalent to the total energy. We will show that our method contains other well-known energy conserving algorithms as special cases provided certain approximations are applied. These approximations destroy the symmetry of the underlying time-continuous system, that is, they lead to unsymmetric tangent operators. In contrast with this the method advocated by us retains the symmetry. Our lecture will be concluded with representative numerical investigations including N-body problems as well as elastodynamics of shells.

REFERENCES
[1] P. Betsch and P. Steinmann , "Energy conserving time stepping schemes of arbitrary order for classical mechanics", Submitted to Journal of Computational Physics, 1998.

TIME DISCRETIZED OPERATORS: TOWARDS THE THEORETICAL DESIGN OF A NEW GENERALIZED FAMILY OF OPERATORS FOR STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS
K.K. Tamma, D. Sha and X. Zhou
(1) - Department of Mechanical Engineering. 325E Mechanical. Engineering. University of Minnesota. E-mail : ktamma@sp.msi.umn.edu

ABSTRACT
Abstract:The objectives and motivation of the present exposition are to describe the generic design, development and formal theory toeards a new family of generalized time discretized operators possessing excellent algorithmic attributes as related to the notion of atability and accuracy, and which closely mimic the properties of the exact solution of dynamic systems and which also lead to other time discretized operators. The generalized form theoretically inherits Nth order accuarcy and encompasses both implicit and explicit representations. The family of Nth order implicit representations and its special cases lead to L-stability for damped systems and energy conserving for undamped systems. The family of explicit representations (in a nonlinear sense) inherit unconditionally stable features. Applications to computational structural dynamics are illustrated.

NOVEL TIME INTEGRATION METHODS IN COMPUTATIONAL MECHANICS


A. Marthinsen and B. Owren
(1) - Department Of Mathematical Sciences, Ntnu, Trondheim. E-mail : Arne.Marthinsen@math.ntnu.no (2) - Department Of Mathematical Sciences, Ntnu, Trondheim. E-mail : Brynjulf.Owren@math.ntnu.no

ABSTRACT
We focus on the integration of initial value problems of ODE's on manifolds, problems which frequently occur in computational mechanics. Standard integration methods typically work in linear spaces, on manifolds they are realized only in terms of a choice of coordinates. In mathematics, it is common to specify such differential equations without any reference to a particular coordinate system, frequently this is done by means of actions by Lie groups and their Lie algebras. Although it seems that computations eventually have to be done in coordinates, much can be gained by designing and analyzing numerical integration methods in terms of actions, in particular how to conserve first integrals and other structures can be seen more clearly in such a framework. Also this approach affects the ideas of software
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design for numerical integration, being more consistent with recent developments in computer science regarding software development. In ongoing research programmes at NTNU, Norway, Cambridge, UK, and various other places, this line of thought has resulted in a new generation ODE solvers. In this talk, we will present a selection of these techniques and we will in particular focus on their applicability to problems in mechanics. We will also discuss software issues exemplified through the object-oriented MATLAB toolbox DIFFMAN.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work was in part sponsored by The Norwegian Research Council under contract no.\ 111038/410, through the SYNODE project. WWW: http://www.math.ntnu.no/num/synode/

THE NEED FOR MOMENTUM CONSERVATION IN MULTI-TIME STEP METHODS FOR STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS
W.J.T. Daniel
(1) - Mechanical Engineering Department. University of Queensland. E-mail : bill@mech.uq.edu.au

ABSTRACT
Algorithms permitting use of different timesteps in different regions of a finite element mesh when solving transient dynamics problems by explicit integration have been proposed and are actively used, for instance in LS-DYNA. Stability of such algorithms depends on their ability to conserve energy at the timestep interface. Daniel has shown that in the absence of energy dissipation in a model, some published algorithms are only stable in a statistical sense, as narrow ranges of unstable timesteps can theoretically occur (reference 1). Daniel proposed a family of multi-timestep algorithms that do achieve energy conservation (reference 2), but momentum balance across a timestep interface is still not achieved. This can still lead to accuracy problems at timesteps approaching the stability limits of these algorithms, as the update of a large timestep interface node can make a poor estimate of the impulse transferred to it from a small timestep neighbour, due to sampling the small timestep state only once per major cycle. This can be remedied by applying impulses summed over minor cycles to the large timestep interface node, so that the history of deformation across the timestep interface is taken into account. However, the energy conservation property is disrupted by this change, leading to stability problems. If high frequency dissipation is introduced however, it is possible to obtain an algorithm that conserves momentum at the timestep interface, while dissipating energy. An example is given extending the explicit generalized alpha algorithm.

REFERENCES
[1] W.J.T. Daniel, "A study of the stability of subcycling algorithms in structural dynamics", Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 156 (1998), 1-13. [2] W.J.T. Daniel, "Subcycling first and second order generalizations of the trapezoidal rule", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 42 (1998), 1091-1119.

AN 8-NODE TETRAHEDRAL FINITE ELEMENT SUITABLE FOR EXPLICIT TRANSIENT DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS
S.W. Key, M.W. Heinstein and C.R. Dohrmann
(1) - Sandia National Laboratories. E-mail : swkey@sandia.gov (2) - Sandia National Laboratories. (3) - Sandia National Laboratories. E-mail : crdohrm@sandia.gov

ABSTRACT
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Considerable effort has been expended in perfecting the algorithmic properties of 8-node hexahedral finite elements. Today the element is well understood and performs exceptionally well when used in modeling three-dimensional explicit transient dynamic events. However, the automatic generation of all-hexahedral meshes remains an elusive achievement. The alternative of automatic generation for alltetrahedral meshes is a reality. Unfortunately, in solid mechanics the 4-node linear tetrahedral finite element is a notoriously poor performer (its wide spread use notwithstanding), and the 10-node quadratic tetrahedral finite element while a better performer numerically is computationally expensive. To use the all-tetrahedral mesh generation extant today, we have explored the creation of a quality 8-node tetrahedral finite element (a four-node tetrahedral finite element enriched with four mid-face nodal points). The derivation of the element's gradient operator, studies in obtaining a suitable mass lumping and the element's performance in applications are presented. In particular, we examine the 8-node tetrahedral finite element's behavior in longitudinal plane wave propagation, in transverse cylindrical wave propagation, and in simulating Taylor bar impacts. The element only samples constant strain states and,therefore, has 12 hourglass modes. In this regard, it bears similarities to the 8-node, mean-quadrature hexahedral finite element. Given automatic all-tetrahedral meshing, the 8-node, constant-strain tetrahedral finite element is a suitable replacement for the 8-node hexahedral finite element and "hand- built" meshes.

ADAPTIVE COMPUTATIONAL WAVE PROPAGATION IN STRUCTURES


D. Aubry, D. Clouteau, B. Tie and J.M. Leclere
(1) - MSSMat Ecole Centrale Paris. E-mail : aubry@mss.ecp.fr (2) - MSSMat Ecole Centrale Paris (3) - MSSMat Ecole Centrale Paris

ABSTRACT
From an application point of view noise reduction inside transportation vehicles is nowadays a crucial issue even for high frequencies. The analysis of wave propagations along thin structures and across their junctions has been studied for many years but essentially from an analytical point of view and thus mainly for simple structures.Thus the propagation and scattering of waves through complex structures for which only a numerical approach can be envisaged becomes itself an important research topic. The classical approach using a rather uniform fine mesh is not adequate both with respect to CPU and accuracy, especially because not only velocity amplitudes should be estimated but also phases and time arrivals. Furthermore waves propagating along the junctions are especially difficult to capture and require accurate computations. It is proposed in this communication to deal with three aspects: - numerical wave propagation through connected plates - appropriate a posteriori error estimator - evolutionnary mesh refinement/unrefinement strategy The theory will be illustrated with numerical results for various configurations.

ERROR ESTIMATION AND ADAPTIVE SPACE-TIME FINITE ELEMENT PROCEDURE IN DYNAMIC PLASTICITY
X.D. Li and N.E. Wiberg
(1) - Chalmers University of Technology Department of Structural Mech. (2) - Chalmers University of Technology Department of Structural Mech. E-mail : sm@sm.chalmers.se

ABSTRACT

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In this paper we study error estimation and adaptivity for dynamic elastoplastic problems based on the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) space-time finite element method. The main objective is to develop an efficient adaptive algorithm that is able to update the spatial mesh and the time step size automatically so that both spatial and time discretization errors are controlled within specified tolerances. We consider the DG method that approximates both displacements and velocities as piecewise linear functions in space and time and permits them being discontinuous at the discrete time levels. Implementation and adaptivity of this method have been presented previously for the analysis of twodimensional linear elastodynamic problems. It is shown that the DG method leads to A-stable, higherorder accurate time-stepping schemes and can introduce numerical dissipation for spurious high modes without change of the form of original equations. In this paper, the DG method is extended to nonlinear dynamic plasticity analysis. Over the recent years, considerable effort has been devoted to the development of a posteriori error estimates and adaptive finite element procedures for nonelliptic and nonlinear problems. In this paper, we pay our attention on the work that extend the postprocessed type of error estimate, namely, the Zienkiewicz - Zhu error estimate based on the SPR technique, from linear elasticity to nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we seek the proper error measure and postprocessing technique for elastoplastic materials. We also consider the issues of how to select suitable finite element meshes changing with time and place, how to transfer data from one mesh to another adaptively generated one and to implement an optimal adaptive procedure.

A PARALLEL NUMERICAL PROCEDURE FOR THE SOLUTION OF CONTACTIMPACT PROBLEMS


L. Nilsson and P. Persson
(1) - E-mail :larni@ikp.liu.se

ABSTRACT
A main strategy to solve finite element problems on parallel computers is to use domain decomposition and a message passing paradigm. With a domain decomposition algorithm, large portions of the problem to be solved are distributed to different processors. The problem is said to be "coarse grained". With domain decomposition in explicit finite element analyses, large portions of the problem can be handled in parallel, often 95-98%, depending on the size of the problem. Some synchronisation of the processors will be necessary to form the solution of the problem. In many engineering applications, a substantial part of the solution time is spent on treating contacts. Thus, much effort has been spent on developing efficient contact algorithms. Often, there is no information available a priori on where contacts will take place. Thus, the contact part of a problem cannot be treated independently. Parts of a finite element model that interact may reside in different domains and must be handled by different processors. Information of what parts of a decomposed problem that can come into contact with another part must be distributed to all processors involved. Since the model is divided into sub-domains, an ordinary contact searching cannot be performed. Instead a somewhat new approach for contact searching is needed. An existing contact-impact algorithm has been revised and ported to a parallel (MIMD) platform. The algorithm uses a hierarchical concept for contact searching, and Lagrange multipliers for evaluation of contact forces. A so-called defence node strategy is used to reduce the contact system into a fictitious node to node contact system. In this algorithm the Lagrange multipliers can be explicitly evaluated, without the solution of an equation system. Several problems have been solved to demonstrate the merits of the proposed algorithms. In a tube to tube lateral impact an accurate solution is obtained, even with a very large difference in material stiffness between the two tubes. This is a situation where penalty methods usually fail. The efficiency and accuracy are also demonstrated on industrial size problems including a frontal car crash and a sheet metal forming process.

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A FULLY DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHOD FOR SPACE-TIME ELASTODYNAMIC ANALYSIS


L. Yin, N. Sobh, A. Acharya, R.B. Haber and D.A. Tortorelli
(2) - Center for Process Simulation and Design. University of Illinois. (3) - Center for the Sim. of Adv. Rockets. Dept. of Civil and Env. Engineering. University of Illinois. (4) - Dept. of Mech. and Ind. Engineering. Univ. of Illinois. E-mail : dtort@acm6.me.uiuc.edu

ABSTRACT
This paper describes a space-time discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for elastodynamic analysis with independent displacement and velocity fields. We use a solution space that admits jumps in the field variables across all boundaries of the space-time partition, irrespective of their orientation relative to the time axis. Attractive features of the new method include the ability to model jumps across moving interfaces, local conservation properties, high-order convergence rates, as well as a natural mechanism for handling irregular nodes and jumps in polynomial order that may arise in hpadaptive grid enrichments. On properly constructed grids, the discrete equations can be solved by direct element-by-element procedures. Thus, the new method requires minimal storage and has inherent linear complexity. The formulation is constructed entirely in the space-time setting, using the stress-momentum tensor to express balance of linear momentum on an arbitrary subdomain (corresponding to an individual finite element) in E4. Appropriate jump conditions for surfaces of discontinuity are enforced on the interelement boundaries. Two applications of the Stokes Theorem in space-time are essential steps in the weak formulation. Numerical results indicate that the method is exceptionally accurate, and works well without additional stabilization or shock-capturing operators. The new formulation represents a generalization of existing time-discontinuous Galerkin methods which restrict discontinuities to boundaries with special orientations. For example, our formulation coincides with the method presented by Hughes and Hulbert when inter-element discontinuities are limited to boundaries with normals parallel to the time axis. It is analogous to the method recently proposed by Oden, Babuska and Baumann (for diffusion problems) when discontinuities are restricted to boundaries with normals orthogonal to the time axis.

NETWORK-DISTRIBUTED MULTIBODY DYNAMICS GLUING ALGORITHMS AND IMPLEMENTATIONS


F.C. Tseng and G.M. Hulbert
(1) - Dept. of Mech. Engineering and Applied Mechanics. University of Michigan. E-mail : fanchung@engin.umich.edu (2) - Computational Mechanics Laboratory. University of Michigan. E-mail : hulbert@engin.umich.edu

ABSTRACT
The widespread availability of LANs and the in ternet has made the combined processing power of clusters of workstations a prosperous approach for computationally-intensive applications. Moreover, it provides an ideal platform to incorporate heterogeneous hardware and software. In this investigation, net work-distributed computation of multibody dynamics is explored. Rather than reinvent tools, our effort is devoted to the gluing algorithms that can bring separately developed multibody codes to work together for integrated system simulation. Multibody dynamics systems are characterized by rigid/deformable bodies joined together at a finite number of joints. In our scenario, individual parts have already gone through an initial design and analysis stage by separate groups on possibly various platforms with possibly different CAE tools. We want to glue all the pieces together in order to assess the overall system performance via simulation and conduct iterations of the design and analysis steps of individual parts to meet desired performance criteria.

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We first propose a joint-based decomposition scheme which is natural for our purpose. The resulting model is best described in the form of differential-algebraic equations. Various numerical approaches in the literature - namely, local parameterization approach, stabilized constraint approach, perturbation approach and waveform relaxation method, are examined. Several unobtrusive algorithms which may well serve the gluing role are proposed / rediscovered. Numerical experiments are conducted and the merits of individual algorithms are commented. Network-distributed computing may be perceived as a virtual parallel machine for engineering applications. numerous distributed models have been developed and deployed. The client-server paradigm [1] is adopted based on its obvious role in internet technology. An interface described in the CORBA IDL [2] will be used to illustrate the overall framework.

REFERENCES
[1] Alok Sinha, "Client - Server Computing", Communications of the ACM, 35(7) 77-98,1992. [2] Sean Baker, "CORBA Distributed Objects," Addison-Wesley, 1997.

FLEXIBLE GEAR DYNAMICS MODELING IN MULTIBODY ANALYSIS


A. Cardona and D. Granville
(1) - CIMEC-INTEC (Univ. Nac. Litoral/Conicet). E-mail : acardona@intec.unl.edu.ar (2) - Samtec SA

ABSTRACT
A formulation for describing flexible gear pairs in three dimensional analysis of multibody systems is presented [1,2]. The set of holonomic and non-holomonic constraint eqautions that defines the behavior of gears is developed. The formulation is able to represent any kind of gears used in industry: spur gears, hypoid gears, racks, etc. All reaction forces due to gear engagement are accounted for. Teeth flexibility, clearance and mesh stiffness fluctuation are introduced in the model by relating deformation along the normal pressure line to the normal forces acting on teeth. Mesh stiffness is made dependent on the pitch displacement to account for stiffness fluctuation effects. It can be described either by a force/pitch displacement law or in terms of geometrical and material parameters following the recommendations of the ISO 6336 norm. Exact second order derivatives of all terms are calculated to allow computing vibration frequencies. Several examples of application are shown.

REFERENCES
[1] A. Cardona , "Flexible three dimensional gear modelling", Revue Europeene des Elements Finis, 4:663-691, 1995. [2] A. Cardona , "Three dimensional gears modelling in multibody systems analysis", Int. J. Num. Meth. Engng., 40:357-381, 1995.

COUPLING BETWEEN RIGID MULTIBODY AND DEFORMABLE CONTINUA USING AN AUGMENTED LAGRANGIAN APPROACH.
J.H. Heegaard and C.B. Hovey
(1) - Division of Biomechanical Engineering. Stanford University. E-mail : heegaard@bonechip.stanford.edu (2) - Department of Mechanical Engineering. Stanford University

ABSTRACT
Many mechanical systems cannot be conveniently modeled as either rigid bodies or deformable ones but rather as a rigid-deformable mix. Standard analytical dynamics techniques fail to describe the continuum nature of the configuration space while the continuum mechanics formulation may introduce
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unnecessary complexity to describe the motion of the rigid part. When dynamical effects are dominant, for instance with fast spinning devices, the continuum configuration space of the deformable body may be effectively discretized using modal analysis. In other instances where dynamical effects are less important, deformation may occur primarily as a result of applied and body forces. In such cases the finite element method has proven to be an effective way to discretize the configuration space of the deformable bodies. Although dynamical effects may not be important, quasi-static analyses of the deformable structure alone often fail due to the presence of possible rigid body modes in the system. The objective of this research is to develop a formalism to couple multibody systems in which inertial effects are not dominant with deformable continuum bodies that can undergo large displacements. The rigid multibody dynamics are governed by the variational form of Lagrange's equation. Parameterization of the configuration space by generalized coordinates allows the equations of motion for multiple linkages or bodies pinned to a reference frame to be efficiently described. The deformable body dynamics are governed by the variational form of the nonlinear elastodyanamics equations, which may also be derived from Lagrange's equation if the potential energy term is written to include energy contributions from stretching. The configuration space for the deformable domain is approximated with the finite element method. This approach allows for accurate representation of detailed geometry while providing stress and deformation information. The deformable and rigid bodies are coupled through interfaces that are represented by constraint equations on the configuration space. For convenience, these equations take on the same spatial discretization as the deformable body at the interface. The discretized constraint equations, along with the governing equations for the rigid body dynamics and elastodynamics, are coupled into a single system of nonlinear, semi-discrete equations using an augmented Lagrangian operator to ensure stability of the resulting numerical solution scheme. Newton's method is used to linearize the motion and constraint equations. These linearized equations, when combined with a time stepping algorithm such as Newmark's method, allows motion, velocity, and acceleration of the rigid and deformable bodies to be computed. The augmented Lagrange multipliers, part of the vector of unknowns, are simultaneously obtained and describe the generalized force necessary to enforce the constraints at the interface. Examples from human locomotion biomechanics are discussed to illustrate the efficiency of the scheme to compute stresses in the joints during walking. Structures like the bones undergo large quasirigid motion with little deformation taking place. However, knowing the stresses developing in the joints during a physiological activity become important when studying the progression of degenerative diseases affecting a joint.

QUASI-STATIC MODE COMPENSATION FOR TRANSIENT DYNAMIC ANALYSIS AND DYNAMIC DATA RECOVERY
J. Gu, G.M. Hulbert and Z.-D. Ma
(1) - Computational Mechanics Lab Dept of Mechanical Engineering. E-mail : gujianmi@engin.umich.edu (2) - Computational Mechanics Laboratory. University of Michigan. E-mail : hulbert@engin.umich.edu (3) - Dept. of Mech. Engineering and Appl. Mech., University of Michigan. E-mail : mazd@umich.edu

ABSTRACT
Component mode synthesis (CMS) is a well established method for efficiently constructing models to analyze the dynamics of large complex structures, which are often described by separate component models. Most standard CMS methods currently employ static component modes, such as constraint modes, which originate from static compensation or the mode-acceleration methods. However, as the frequency bandwidth of interest increases, the constraint modes method's accuracy decreases. Based on the quasi-static compensation technique of Ma and Hagiwara [1], a new CMS method has been developed by the authors [2, 3]. It combines the computational efficiency of the standard constraint modes approach with high accuracy typically seen in high-order and more expensive expansion methods via the use of a new class of component modes, namely the quasi-static modes (QSM). It has been shown that the new CMS method is suitable for eigenvalue problems associated with any bounded frequency range including mid-frequency band with both higher and lower normal modes omitted. In the present work, the new method is implemented into transient response analyses including stress
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calculations. Numerical examples using both simple FE models and industrial FE models are shown which demonstrate the improved accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method. Compared with standard CMS methods, the new CMS method with QSM or multiple QSM is substantially more accurate, particularly in computing stress resultants and capturing local mode effects, with the same number of generalized DOF. Static compensation techniques have also been applied in the post-processing stage to recover and correct the modal solutions and improve accuracy after a standard modal analysis or a flexible multibody dynamics simulation is done. At present, the mode-acceleration method is the most frequently used approach in dynamic data recovery. A new dynamic data recovery method using quasi-static compensation is presented. It is shown that for structural dynamics, both higher and lower modes in modal solutions may be omitted when the new recovery method is applied in data recovery and improved accuracy can be achieved.

REFERENCES
[1] Z.D. Ma and I. Hagiwara, "Improved mode-superposition technique for modal frequency response analysis of coupled acoustic-structural systems", AIAA Journal, 29, 1720-1726, 1991. [2] W.H. Shyu, Z.D. Ma and G.M. Hulbert , "A new component mode synthesis method: quasi-static mode compensation", Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 24, 271-281, 1997. [3] W.H. Shyu, J. Gu , G.M. Hulbert and Z.D. Ma , "On the use of multiple quasi-static mode compensation sets for component mode synthesis of complex structures", Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, submitted, 1998.

ASYMPTOTIC MODELS OF COMPLEX VIBRATORY SYSTEMS


P.E. Barbone
(1) - Dept. of Aerospace & Mech. Engineering Boston University. E-mail : Barbone@bu.edu

ABSTRACT
Complex mechanical systems can exhibit behaviors "en masse" that significantly differ from the behaviors of their component parts. In simulations involving complex systems, it is useful to directly model the global behavior of the complex system, rather than each of their many interacting components. Not only is the simulation much more computationally efficient, but the effort of defining and modeling the complex system and each of its components is eliminated with a global behavior model. This is analogous to modeling a complicated composite medium in terms of its effective material properties [1]. We focus on complicated vibratory systems in the time domain. We identify the mean modal frequency spacing as an asymptotic parameter which is inversely related to the ``complexity'' of a system. We expand the response of a generic elastic system in an asymptotic sequence of the frequency spacing, and obtain full error bounds. In doing so, we identify several key parameters which govern the response of "infinitely" complex systems [2]. This analysis allows us to derive a simple to use, low parameter model to represent complex vibratory systems. We show examples where systems with hundreds or thousands of degrees of freedom are accurately represented by three system parameters and a single second order system.

REFERENCES
[1] Paul E. Barbone, "Effective dynamical properties", Proc. ASME Noise Control and Acoustics Division, Proceedings of the 1998 International Mechanical Engineering Congress, Anaheim, CA, November 15 - 20, 1998. [2] Paul E. Barbone, Aravind Cherukuri and Daniel Goldman, "Canonical representations of complex vibratory subsystems: Time domain Dirichlet to Neumann Maps", International Journal of Solids and Structures, to appear 1999.

AN ALTERNATIVE CONTROL STRATEGY FOR NON-LINEAR DYNAMIC SYSTEMS

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D.A. Tortorelli and S. Okubo


(1) - Dept. of Mech. and Ind. Engineering. Univ. of Illinois. E-mail : dtort@acm6.me.uiuc.edu (2) - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. E-mail : s-okubo@uiuc.edu

ABSTRACT
Control of nonlinear dynamic systems is often hard to achieve through the closed loop strategies currently available. Plant model accuracy and the computational expense of solving nonlinear systems in real time is often the cause of such difficulty. A viable alternative to closed loop control is open loop control based on rigorous off-line dynamic analyses. A computational method for the design of an open loop controller for nonlinear dynamic continuum systems is presented. The goal of the open loop control design problem is to produce a desired response output by manipulating the input. The design is accomplished through the use of optimization techniques. The magnitude of the difference between the desired response and the response due to a current control input is defined as the objective function to be minimized. The input to the system that yields the minimum objective function is adopted as the open loop controller. The gradients of the objective function, which are required by the optimization algorithm, are computed via the expedient direct differentiation method in favor of the less efficient finite difference method. Multiple solutions to the optimization problem may exist for some formulations. In such occurrences, uniqueness is achieved through regularization. The response of the system used in the optimization analysis is computed through a dynamic continuum model of the physical system that has been discretized in space via the finite element method and in time via the Newmark time integration scheme. The resulting nonlinear equations are solved using a Newton-Raphson method. Requirements for lightweight terrestrial and space robot manipulators has resulted in the need to control highly flexible structures. The proposed open loop control design methodology is applied to produce a large displacement slewing motion of a highly flexible link with negligible residual vibration. In this example, the Simo-Vu Quoc finite strain inertial beam formulation is used to model the beam. This model is compared with the more traditional, small strain Euler-Bernoulli floating frame formulation to exemplify the need for accurate continuum models.

A NEW FORCE-DISPLACEMENT MODEL FOR ELASTO-PLASTIC COLLISION AND EXTRACTION OF MODEL PARAMETERS FROM EXPERIMENT
L. Vu-Quoc and X. Zhang
(1) - Aerospace Engineering. University of Florida. E-mail : vu-quoc@ufl.edu (2) - Aerospace Engineering. University of Florida.

ABSTRACT
We present a simple and accurate model for the normal force-displacement (NFD) relation for contacting spherical particles, accounting for the effects of plastic deformation. This NFD model, based on the formalism of the continuum theory of plasticity, is to be used in granular flow simulations involving thousands of particles; the efficiency of the model is thus a crucial property. The accuracy of the model allows for an accurate prediction of the contact force level in the plastic regime. Being more accurate than a previously proposed NFD model, the proposed NFD model will lead to a coefficient of restitution that is a function of the approaching velocity of two particles in collision. The novelty of the present NFD model is the additive decomposition of the contact area, and the correction of the radius of the particles at the contact point due to plastic flow. The accuracy of the proposed model is validated against nonlinear finite element results involving plastic flow in both loading and unloading conditions. We also present a general method to extract the model parameters of the above elasto-plastic NFD model-such as the coefficient of restitution, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and the yield stress of granular materials - from simple experimental measurements. These mechanical properties are important in the simulation of granular flows, but are not readily available and/or cannot be measured through direct experiments. Using the elasto-plastic NFD model to simulate both the drop test and the compression test of a particle, the mechanical properties of a particle can be extracted by minimizing, in the least square

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sense, the difference between the experimental and simulated force-displacement relation. An application of the proposed method to ellipsoidal particles is presented.

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Minisymposium

Advances in Boundary Element Methods


Jacob Bielak, T.L. Cruse, Giulio Maier and Ronald Pak
SESSION 1: SYMMETRIC AND HYBRID BEM FORMULATIONS
SYMMETRIC GALERKIN BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD APPLIED TO INHOMOGENEOUS SOLIDS A. Frangi, G. Maier and M. Resta ....................................................................................................................................75 SYMMETRIC MIXED BEM FOR ELASTOSTATIC PROBLEMS WITH CRACKS USING NON-SINGULAR ELEMENTS H. Yi, X. Zeng and J. Bielak..............................................................................................................................................75 STIFFNESS MATRICES FOR PLATE BENDING MACRO-ELEMENTS BY THE SYMMETRIC GALERKIN BEM S. Miccoli and S. Sirtori....................................................................................................................................................76 THE SIMPLIFIED HYBRID BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD N.A. Dumont and R. Chaves .............................................................................................................................................77

SESSION 2: FRACTURE MECHANICS


SIMULATION OF 3D CRACK GROWTH USING A SYMMETRIC GALERKIN BEM FORMULATION P. Wawrzynek, M. Mear and A. Ingraffea.........................................................................................................................77 FORMULATION OF WEAKLY SINGULAR, WEAK FORM INTEGRAL EQUATIONS FOR FRACTURE ANALYSIS S. Li and M.E. Mear .........................................................................................................................................................78 GALERKIN BOUNDARY ELEMENT ANALYSES ON INTERFACE CRACK PROPAGATION IN FRPSSTRENGTHENED CONCRETE STRUCTURE C.E. Zhangzhi, C. Tianzhi, W. Bo and W. Zhishen............................................................................................................79 GREEN'S FUNCTION LIBRARY FOR FRACTURE ANALYSIS IN COMPLEX STRUCTURES S. Lu, F.J. Rizzo, C.V. Berger and L. Ayari ......................................................................................................................80 BEM SIMULATION OF A KINETICALLY DRIVEN INTERFACIAL INSTABILITY L.J. Gray, T. Kaplan, W. Barvosa-Carter and M.J. Aziz...................................................................................................80

SESSION 3: NONLINEAR AND INVERSE PROBLEMS


A CONSISTENT FORMULATION FOR PLASTICITY AND VISCOPLASTICITY MODELS IN BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHODS G.H. Paulino and Y. Liu ...................................................................................................................................................81 EXTERNAL FORMULATIONS FOR ELASTIC-PLASTIC ANALYSIS BY BOUNDARY INTEGRAL EQUATIONS A. Carini and A. Salvadori ...............................................................................................................................................81 A BEM-BASED INVERSE APPROACH TO IDENTIFYING UNKNOWN MULTIDIMENSIONAL THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF NON-HOMOGENEOUS MATERIALS E. Divo, A.J. Kassab and F. Rodriguez.............................................................................................................................82 AN INTEGRAL FORMULATION FOR STEADY-STATE ELASTOPLASTIC ROLLING/SLIDING CONTACT OVER A COATED HALF-PLANE C. Dong and M. Bonnet ....................................................................................................................................................83

SESSION 4: ANALYTICAL AND COMPUTATIONAL ASPECTS


RECENT ADVANCES IN THE METHOD OF FUNDAMENTAL SOLUTIONS G. Fairweather and A. Karageorghis ...............................................................................................................................84 ERROR ANALYSIS AND ADAPTIVITY IN LINEAR ELASTICITY BY THE USUAL AND HYPERSINGULAR BOUNDARY CONTOUR METHOD Y. Mukherjee and S. Mukherjee ........................................................................................................................................85 SINGULAR BOUNDARY ELEMENTS FOR MIXED BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS B. Guzina and R. Pak........................................................................................................................................................85 ON INTEGRATIONS OF THE WEAKLY-SINGULAR BIE A. Jorge, G. Ribeiro and T.A. Cruse .................................................................................................................................86 GALERKIN FAST MULTIPOLE BOUNDARY INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD FOR CRACK PROBLEMS K. Yoshida, N. Nishimura and S. Kobayashi.....................................................................................................................87 FAST BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHODS Y. Fu, J. Overfelt and G. Rodin.........................................................................................................................................88

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SESSION 5: STRUCTURAL AND CONTINUUM MECHANICS APPLICATIONS


ADVANCES IN THE ANALYSIS OF THIN AND LAYERED STRUCTURES BY THE BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD Y. Liu, N. Xu and J. Luo....................................................................................................................................................89 BOUNDARY INTEGRAL EQUATION METHODS APPLIED TO ACCURATE ANALYSIS OF RIB-STIFFENED ELASTIC PLATES M. Tanaka, T. Matsumoto and S. Oida .............................................................................................................................89 3D BEM MODELING OF FRACTURE PROBLEM IN COMPOSITE LAMINATES E. Pan, G. Cai and F.G. Yuan ..........................................................................................................................................90 SIMULATION OF SUSPENSION FLOWS USING A MULTIPOLE ACCELERATED BEM M. Ingber and A. Mammoli...............................................................................................................................................91

SESSION 6: BEM-FEM COUPLING AND COUPLED PROBLEMS


SIMULATION OF THE PROPAGATION OF TENSILE CRACKS IN POROELASTIC MEDIA E. Detournay and S. Mogilevskaya...................................................................................................................................92 A DIRECT FORMULATION OF THE BEM FOR PIEZOELECTRICITY BY THE FUNDAMENTAL SOLUTIONS FOR POINT FORCE/CHARGE AND DISPLACEMENT/ELECTRIC POTENTIAL DISCONTINUITY M. Denda..........................................................................................................................................................................92 BOUNDARY ELEMENT MODELING IN DEFECTS IN PIEZOELECTRICS X.L. Xu and N. Rajakapse.................................................................................................................................................93 DEVELOPMENT OF A BEM-FEM COUPLED ALGORITHM FOR DYNAMIC SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION ANALYSIS D. Rizos ............................................................................................................................................................................93 HP-ADAPTIVE BE MODELING OF THE HUMAN EAR CANAL ACOUSTICS L. Demkowicz, T. Walsh and R. Charles...........................................................................................................................94

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SYMMETRIC GALERKIN BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD APPLIED TO INHOMOGENEOUS SOLIDS


A. Frangi, G. Maier and M. Resta
(1) - Department for Structural Engineering, Politechnico di Milano (2) - Department for Structural Engineering, Politechnico di Milano. E-mail : maier@elia.stru.polimi.it (3) - Department for Structural Engineering, Politechnico di Milano

ABSTRACT
In this contribution a "symmetric boundary element method" (SGBEM), see e.g. Bonnet et al. 1998, is developed for analysing dam-foundation systems and heterogeneous (piecewise homogeneous) materials accounting for possible decohesion along the interfaces between different solid phases. All nonlinearities, here described by means of the "cohesive crack model" (CCM), are relegated to these interfaces. The consequent presence of a dominant linear-elastic background tends to privilege BEMs over finite element methods (FEMs) and, in particular, the SGBEM among BEMs, mainly because of the reasons outlined below. - The SGBEM involves only variables on the external boundary and on the interfaces and the former variables can be condensed economically by inverting a symmetric matrix. - The resulting discrete influence operator preserve the essential properties of the continuum one, i.e. symmetry and negative definiteness, or semidefiniteness, of the associated quadratic form. - The SGBEM exhibits superior accuracy and convergence properties with respect to traditional BEMs, as it is now widely recognized, whereas the significant mathematical and numerical difficulties related to the hypersingular integrations nowadays can be regarded as largely overcome. Possible overall instabilities and bifurcations (in particular loss of periodicity) due to decohesion along interfaces with softening are investigated. The issue of providing the complete set of solutions is a challenging task which is here tackled by means of mathematical programming tools for the solution of linear and non-linear complementarity problems.

REFERENCES
[1] Bonnet M., Maier G., Polizzotto C., "Symmetric Galerkin boundary element method", Appl. Mech. Rev., 51, 669704, 1998 [2] Maier G., Frangi A., "Symmetric boundary element method for 'discrete' crack modelling of fracture processes", Comp. Assisted Mech. and Engng. Science, 5, 201-226, 1998 [3] Maier G., Diligenti M., Carini A., "A variational approach to boundary element elastodynamic analysis and extension to multidomain problems", Comp. Meth. Appl. Mech. Engng., 92, 192-213, 1991

SYMMETRIC MIXED BEM FOR ELASTOSTATIC PROBLEMS WITH CRACKS USING NON-SINGULAR ELEMENTS
H. Yi, X. Zeng and J. Bielak
(1) - Algor, Inc (2) - Algor, Inc (3) - Carnegie Mellon University. E-mail : jacobo_bielak@love.cml.cs.cmu.edu

ABSTRACT
This paper presents a novel variational boundary element formulation in which both displacements and tractions are treated as unknown variables, and domain decomposition ideas are used to divide the original computational domain into subdomains. An attractive feature of this formulation is that the tractions are not explicitly required to be continuous across interfaces, as these continuity conditions are natural and are satisfied automatically through the variational formulation. At the finite element discretization level, this allows one to condense the tractions locally within each element, and to express
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the problem exclusively in terms of displacements at boundaries and interfaces. In addition, the resulting stiffness matrix is naturally symmetric because of its variational nature. The validity of the method is illustrated with several examples in 2D and 3D elastostatics, some of which involve cracks. Only regular elements with piecewise polynomials are used for approximating the solutions even for the case of cracks.

STIFFNESS MATRICES FOR PLATE BENDING MACRO-ELEMENTS BY THE SYMMETRIC GALERKIN BEM
S. Miccoli and S. Sirtori
(1) - Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Meccanica. E-mail : stefano.miccoli@polimi.it (2) - Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Meccanica. E-mail : sergio.sirtori@polimi.it

ABSTRACT
The aim of this work is to exploit symmetric Galerkin BE solutions to 2D plane stress and to Kirchhoff plate bending problems to obtain the stiffness matrix of a flat, thin shell macro-element. Such a macro-element is a generic n-sided flat element, with six degrees of freedom per node, which can be assembled in 3D problems along with other such macro-elements or standard shell FE's. The formulation for this approach was described in [1] for BEM-FEM coupling of Continuum Mechanics problems. In the present paper that technique is extended to the coupling of membrane and bending stiffness for flat shell elements in 3D. The formulation is illustrated by computational examples in which the behavior of the newly formulated macro-elements is compared, in terms of accuracy and computational cost, with patches of more traditional "quad" finite elements. This element could be of interest in 3D structures formed by large flat "thin" faces, connected along common edges. In fact at present the formulation is not able to properly model curved shell behavior.

REFERENCES
[1] S. Sirtori , S. Miccoli , and E. Korach, "Symmetric coupling of finite elements and boundary elements". In J. H. Kane, G. Maier , N. Tosaka, and S. N. Atluri, editors, Advances in Boundary Element Techniques, pages 407 427. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1993.

THE SIMPLIFIED HYBRID BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD


N.A. Dumont and R. Chaves
(1) - Civil Engineering Department - PUC-Rio. E-mail : dumont@civ.puc-rio.br (2) - Civil Engineering Department - PUC-Rio

ABSTRACT
The hybrid boundary element method was introduced in 1987. Since then, the method has been applied successfully to different problems of elasticity and potential, time-dependent effect included. However, some important aspects of the method have remained open to investigation. The simplified hybrid boundary element method was born as a byproduct of some theoretical assessments along with the introduction of a simplifying, non-variational assumption. Notwithstanding, this novel method may be formulated on bases that are completely independent from any previous boundary element formulation. When applicable, the method performs computationally faster than and possibly as accurately as any other numerical implementation. As proposed in the hybrid boundary element method, the displacements in the interior of an elastic body may be expressed directly as a series of fundamental solutions for singular forces applied along the boundary - a procedure that requires no integral equation considerations. Then, by evaluating nodal displacements at nodal points one constructs a matrix equation of the type [U*]{p*} =
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{d} (1), in which [U*] is a symmetric, flexibility-like matrix relating singular nodal forces {p*} to nodal displacements {d}. Note that two questions are open in this formulation: unknown rigid body displacements implicit in [U*] and how to evaluate elements about its main diagonal, when force and displacement refer to the same node, since one is dealing with a singular fundamental solution. On the other hand, one obtains from virtual work considerations (or, but not necessarily, from the hybrid boundary element method) the equilibrium equation transpose([H]){p*} = {p} (2), in which [H] is a cinematic transformation matrix and {p} is a vector of equivalent nodal forces applied to the boundary. This matrix [H] is the same one introduced decades ago in the frame of the conventional boundary element method, although the context of the present considerations is completely different. One may evaluate {p*} in equation (1) and substitute it into equation (2), thus arriving at transpose([H])inverse[U*]{d} = {p} (3), provided that [U*] is completely obtainable and invertible. In fact, it is shown that, for physical consistency, all matrices and vectors in equations (1) and (2) must share some spectral properties (as orthogonality to rigid body displacements), which eventually leads to the evaluation of the remaining elements of the matrix [U*]. The resulting matrix [U*] turns out singular, for bounded regions. However, inverting it, if needed, is a straightforward task in terms of generalized inverses (as a Bott-Duffin inverse). In equation (3), the stiffness-like matrix [K] = transpose([H])inverse[U*] (4) is non-symmetric, since its derivation is based on equation (1), which involves a non-variational assumption. This formulation is extremely accurate and rather inexpensive, since (boundary) integration is only required for the evaluation of the matrix [H]. Including body forces is a straightforward procedure. Some numerical examples of two-dimensional elasticity and potential problems for both finite and infinite domains validate the theoretical achievements.

SIMULATION OF 3D CRACK GROWTH USING A SYMMETRIC GALERKIN BEM FORMULATION


P. Wawrzynek, M. Mear and A. Ingraffea
(1) - Civil & Environmental Engineering. Cornell University. E-mail : paw4@cornell.edu (2) - The University of Texas at Austin. E-mail : mmear@max.ae.utexas.edu (3) - School of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Cornell University. E-mail : ari1@cornell.edu

ABSTRACT
This paper describes two programs that are used in conjunction to simulate arbitrary threedimensional crack growth. FADD3D is a new boundary element analysis program developed for the analysis of linearly elastic, three- dimensional solids containing cracks [1]. FRANC3D has been under development for over ten years. It performs the solid modeling, meshing, visualization, and geometry updating tasks needed to simulation crack propagation in three dimensions [2]. FADD3D uses a symmetric Galerkin boundary element method. The formulation is based upon weak-form displacement and traction equations. As both are only weakly singular, only the boundary displacement data (not their derivatives) need be continuous, and standard C0 elements can be employed. A special crack-tip element is used, which incorporates degrees of freedom associated with the gradients of the displacements at the crack tip. As a result, a higher degree of approximation is achieved for the relative displacement data on the crack and, further, the stress intensity factors are obtained directly in terms of the crack-front nodal data. Stress intensity factors computed with FADD3D have been shown to be highly accurate, even for relatively course meshes. FRANC3D is an analysis pre- and postprocessor, which has been developed especially for problems with cracks and crack propagation. The program maintains a geometric model of an object being analyzed. It allows an analyst to insert cracks, assign material properties and boundary conditions and generate surface meshes. The program then generates files for a deformation analysis. Once the analysis has been performed, the program allows the analyst to view the computed displacements, stresses, and stress intensity factors. It will also predict how the crack will grow, automatically update the geometry and the mesh to grow the crack. In all this, the analyst is aided with a graphical user interface.

REFERENCES
[1] Li, S., Mear, M.E., Xiao, L., "Symmetric weak-form integral equation method for three-dimensional fracture analysis", Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics, 151, pp. 435-459, 1998.
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[2] Carter, B. J., Chen, C-S., Ingraffea, A. R., Wawrzynek, P. A. "A topology based system for modeling 3D crack growth in solid and shell structures", Advances in Fracture Research, Vol 4, Ninth International Congress on Fracture, Sydney, Australia, Elsevier Science Publishers, pp. 1923- 1934, 1997.

FORMULATION OF WEAKLY SINGULAR, WEAK FORM INTEGRAL EQUATIONS FOR FRACTURE ANALYSIS
S. Li and M.E. Mear
(1) - The University of Texas at Austin (2) - The University of Texas at Austin. E-mail : mmear@max.ae.utexas.edu

ABSTRACT
A systematic procedure is followed to develop singularity-reduced integral equations for displacement discontinuities in three-dimensional linear elastic media. The procedure readily reproduces and generalizes, in a unified manner, various integral equations previously developed by other means, and it leads to a novel stress relation from which a general weakly-singular, weak-form traction integral equation is established. An isolated discontinuity is treated first, after which an extension is made to treat cracks in a finite domain. In this extension, emphasis is given to a pair of weakly-singular, weak-form displacement and traction integral equations since these form the basis of an effective numerical procedure for fracture analysis (Li et al., 1998). A noteworthy aspect of the development is that there is no need to introduce Cauchy principal value integrals much less Hadamard finite part integrals. Finally, the utility of the systematic procedure presented here for use in obtaining singularity-reduced integral equations for discontinuities in a half-space and an unbounded bi-material is described.

REFERENCES
[1] S. Li and M.E. Mear , "Singularity-Reduced Integral Equations for Discontinuities in Linear Elastic Media", (1999), Int. J. Fracture, to appear. [2] S. Li , M.E. Mear and L. Xiao, "Symmetric Weak-Form Integral Equation Method for Three Dimensional Fracture Analysis", Comput Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg., 151 (1998) 425-459.

GALERKIN BOUNDARY ELEMENT ANALYSES ON INTERFACE CRACK PROPAGATION IN FRPS-STRENGTHENED CONCRETE STRUCTURE
C.E. Zhangzhi, C. Tianzhi, W. Bo and W. Zhishen
(1) - Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University (2) - Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University (3) - Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University

ABSTRACT
In the collocation boundary element method (BEM), the system matrix usually turns out to be non - symmetric. Therefore, an alternative method, the Galerkin boundary element method (GBEM), has been proposed by Sirtori et al. to formulate a symmetric system matrix in elasticity. Maier and his coworkers developed this method into elastoplasticity, indirect methods and elastodynamic analyses. Up to now, much research work in this field has been carried out and a lot of achievements have been reached. For many problems, the multi-zone technique is effective. There are interfaces between subdomains in this technique. Moreover, since boundary conditions can be given on the interface, more problems, such as the cohesive crack, can be analyzed. However, for interface problems, the symmetry of system matrix for each subdomain cannot be completely achieved because both the displacements and the traction on the interface are unknown. Therefore, it is necessary to find a way to remain the symmetry for interface problems and to develop a symmetric GMZBEM.

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Gray and Paulino studied a fully symmetric GMZBEM in heat transferring. This method is based on the usual Galerkin equations on non-interface boundaries in each subdomain, together with an appropriate combination of equations on the interface. In the present paper, a fully symmetric GMZBEM will be proposed for the crack growth. The non-symmetry will be solved by considering the coefficient matrix as the sum of a symmetric part and a non-symmetric one and adopting a proper assembly. This proposed method (GMZBEM) is used to simulate the interfacial shear fracture (debonding)along the fiberreinforced plastic sheets (FRPS) -concrete interfaces bounded by epoxy. The cracks are assumed as the cohesive crack and a cohesive shear crack model (CCM and CSCM). Because the structures subjected to the combined load of bending and shearing can damage in several ways and their failure phenomena are very complex, it is difficult to simulate this process. In each increment step, we determine the location, where crack initiated, predict the direction of the crack growth (Cracks in mode I and mode II grow along the direction of the maximum principal stress and the interfaces, respectively.), and adjust boundary element meshes to process iteration. This iteration includes another iteration, which can determine the crack state (elastic, craze or crack) according to CCM and CSCM. Numerical results show the growth of cracks, not only in concrete, but also between FRPS and concrete (i.e. debonding). By comparison with experimental results, these results are reasonable.

GREEN'S FUNCTION LIBRARY FOR FRACTURE ANALYSIS IN COMPLEX STRUCTURES


S. Lu, F.J. Rizzo, C.V. Berger and L. Ayari
(1) - Aeroengine and Thermal-Power-Eng. Dept. Northwestern Polytechnical Univ. (2) - Dept. of Aerospace Engineering and Eng. Mech. Iowa State University (3) - Division of Engineering. Colorado School of Mines.

ABSTRACT
Frequently in fracture safety assessment in complex structures, the stress intensity factor must be found for a variety of crack plane orientations and crack locations. For large structures of complicated geometry, the usual analysis method employed is finite element analysis with many degrees of freedom, on the order of 1000 or more. In order to perform the fracture safety assessment therefore requires repeated solutions of very large systems of equations. Recently [1], the idea of a Green's function library has received attention with an aim toward addressing problems such as that described above. The idea is to use boundary elements to produce discretized approximations to the exact Green's function to the problem. For complicated geometries, the matrix or matrices which comprise this approximate Green's function can then be stored. A variety of loading scenarios can then be performed by simple matrix multiplication, or small changes to the more complicated outer geometry can be made. Such an approach yields a very efficient method of analysis for problems in stress analysis, ultrasonics, acoustics, etc., where the majority of the geometry involved in solving the problem remains unchanged. In this paper we will discuss the application of the Green's function library idea to fracture analysis. We explore two approaches to the problem. In the first, we store the discretized Green's function for a simple two-dimensional rectangle, and allow the crack to be moved anywhere within the rectangular domain. Following the idea of partitioning of the Green's function developed in [1], we then only require the portion of the problem associated with the crack to be solved for each new crack location. The boundary conditions on the boundary of the outer domain are prescribed by the large-scale finite element analysis of the full structure. Of interest with this analysis is the variation of stress intensity with crack location and orientation. The second method of analysis we explore involves storing the Green's function for the entire structure, and applying the previously mentioned partitioning technique in order to introduce a crack. The advantage here is that the assumption of the crack not disturbing the local displacement field to any great extent is avoided. We will conclude with a discussion of similar strategies to related problems.

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BEM SIMULATION OF A KINETICALLY DRIVEN INTERFACIAL INSTABILITY


L.J. Gray, T. Kaplan, W. Barvosa-Carter and M.J. Aziz
(1) - Oak Ridge National Laboratory. E-mail : ljg@ornl.gov (2) - Oak Ridge National Laboratory. E-mail : tsk@ornl.gov (3) - HRL Laboratories. E-mail : wbc@hrl.com

ABSTRACT
It is well known that the surfaces of stressed solids are generally subject to an elastic strain energy-driven morphological instability. However, the growth and morphology of a solid is determined not only by the energetics of the relevant phases but also by the mobilities of the interface atoms involved in growth. Boundary integral calculations modeling solid-phase epitaxial growth in non-hydrostatically stressed silicon have established that the experimentally observed instability in this system is driven by the stress-dependence of the mobilities. Modeling the evolution of the crystalline/amorphous interface required determining the stress tensor along this surface, and these calculations were carried out using a Galerkin boundary integral algorithm. The initial calculations only considered a two-dimensional elastic analysis of the crystalline phase, subsequent work has incorporated a viscous flow model for the amorphous phase.

A CONSISTENT FORMULATION FOR PLASTICITY AND VISCOPLASTICITY MODELS IN BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHODS
G.H. Paulino and Y. Liu
(1) - Dept. of Civil and Env. Engineering. University of Illinois. E-mail : paulino@uiuc.edu (2) - Dept. of Mech., Ind. and Nucl. Engineering. University of Cincinnati. E-mail : Yijun.Liu@uc.edu

ABSTRACT
A novel non-linear boundary element method (BEM) for elasto-viscoplasticity using the consistent tangent operator (CTO) concept is presented. Both kinematic and isotropic hardening are considered. When viscoplastic deformation occurs, the effective stress in the non-linear region is allowed to exceed the loading surface, and the purely plastic theory is not suitable for this situation. Thus, the viscoplatic problem is investigated, and an implicit algorithm, using the CTO concept within a BEM framework, is presented in detail. Numerical examples are given, which validate the proposed model. With respect to the viscoplastic fluidity parameter, the numerical results support the fact that the solutions approach two limit cases, i.e. the purely elastic solution as this parameter tends to infinity (numerically), and the rate independent plasticity solution as this parameter approaches zero.

EXTERNAL FORMULATIONS FOR ELASTIC-PLASTIC ANALYSIS BY BOUNDARY INTEGRAL EQUATIONS


A. Carini and A. Salvadori
(1) - Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of Brescia (2) - Department of Structural Engineering, Politecnico of Milan

ABSTRACT
In the context of the symmetric Galerkin boundary integral equations, the aim of the present communication is to provide a further contribution to the theoretical foundations of the variational
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methods for time-independent problems with reference to linear elasticity and elastoplasticity. For the linear elastic case, distributed discontinuities of tractions on the constrained boundary and of displacements on the free boundary are assumed as unknown sources. Following a method proposed by J.H. Bramble and J.E. Pasciak [1], the matrix of elasticity integral operators is transformed into an equivalent one, still based on the unknowns p and u, which turns out to be symmetric and positive definite with respect to a suitable bilinear form. As a consequence of the symmetry and positive definiteness achieved, the unknown tractions and displacements u turn out to be characterized by a "global extremum property". It is worth noting that, in contrast to the present extremum property, the characterization of the unknowns in the traditional symmetric BIE formulation is of the saddle-point type [2,3]. Following a similar technique, the incremental elastic-plastic problem is transformed into a new one which is equivalent to a minimum problem in the incremental tractions and incremental displacements on the boundary and incremental plastic multipliers in the volume. It is worth noting that the traditional symmetric BIE formulation for elastic - plastic problem is equivalent to a saddle-point formulation [5] or a minimum formulation but, in this case, the inversion of at least one matrix is needed [6]. The proposed extremal formulations exhibit the following features. (1) The extremal formulations are particularly suitable for finding numerical solutions of the problem through direct solution procedures associated with optimization techniques (like the conjugate gradient method). The value of the functional during the descend process may be used as a measure of the convergence and the value of the functional at the solution may be used to evaluate the approximation error. (2) The use of the conjugate gradient method for the solution of the discretized system of linear equations allows to consider a single-level iteration procedure. Moreover, the application of the conjugate gradient method to the transformed problems gives, in a natural way, an optimal converging scheme. The transformed elastic-plastic problem allows to use optimization techniques based on modified gradient methods and quadratic programming procedures (see, e.g. [7]). (3) In the range of boundary integral equations for elastic problems, the present positive definite formulation appears to be of particular interest in BEM-FEM coupled and in eigenvalue problems.

REFERENCES
[1] J.H. Bramble and J.E. Pasciak , "A preconditioning technique for indefinite systems resulting from mixed approximations of elliptic problems", Mathematics of Computation, 50, n. 181, 1-17, 1988. [2] C. Polizzotto, "An energy approach to the boundary element method, part I: elastic solids", Comp. Meth. Appl. Mech. Eng., 69, 167-184, 1988. [3] S. Sirtori , G. Maier , G. Novati and S. Miccoli , "A Galerkin symmetric boundary element method in elasticity: formulation and implementation", Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., 35, 255-282, 1992. [4] G. Maier and C. Polizzotto, "A Galerkin approach to boundary elements elastoplastic analysis", Comp. Meth. Appl. Mec. Eng., 60, 175-194, 1987. [5] C. Polizzotto, "An energy approach to the boundary element method, part II: elastic-plastic solids", Comp. Meth. Appl. Mech. Eng., 69, 263-276, 1988. [6] G. Maier , G. Novati and S. Sirtori , "Symmetric formulation of an indirect boundary element method for elasticplastic analysis and relevant extremum properties", in Boundary Element Methods in Applied Mechanics (M. Tanaka and T.A. Cruse Eds.), pp. 215-224, Tokyo, 3-6 October 1988. [7] O. De Donato and A. Franchi, "A modified gradient method for finite element elastoplastic analysis by quadratic programming", Comp. Meth. Appl. Mec. Eng., 2, 107-131, 1973.

A BEM-BASED INVERSE APPROACH TO IDENTIFYING UNKNOWN MULTIDIMENSIONAL THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF NON-HOMOGENEOUS MATERIALS
E. Divo, A.J. Kassab and F. Rodriguez
(1) - Mech., Materials, and Aerospace Eng. Department. Univ. of Central Florida (2) - Mech., Materials, and Aerospace Eng. Department. Univ. of Central Florida. E-mail : kassab@mail.cc.ucf.edu (3) - Mech., Materials, and Aerospace Eng. Department. Univ. of Central Florida

ABSTRACT
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Many modern industrial materials material exhibit property heterogeneities designed in response to increasingly harsh environmental demands placed on materials. However, since the distribution of heterogeneity in a material is only controllable to some extent in the manufacturing process, there arises the need for a practical means to identify properties of such materials. This leads naturally to an inverse formulation. In the case of heat conduction, the goal is to estimate the unknown thermal conductivity, k(x), with the aid of additional information supplied by measured temperatures at the interior or at the surface. This is termed parameter estimation, and, in this paper, the conductivity identification problem is solved in steady state by drawing on concepts of inverse problems, objective function regularization, nongradient-based evolutionary minimization algorithms, and boundary integral equations. An inverse method is developed based on a boundary integral formulation that solves heat conduction in non-homogeneous media using only boundary data [1-3]. Surface temperature measurements which can be provided invasively by thermocouples or non-invasively by thermochromic liquid crystals or infrared thermography are used as additional input data to prescribe Cauchy conditions along the portions of the exposed boundary where measurements are taken. In the inverse algorithm, given a current estimate for k(x), a least-squares functional measuring deviation of BEM-predicted and measured temperatures is minimized. As errors are expected in input temperatures, this functional is regularized by sequentially least-squares fitting the polynomial expression for k(x) through a set of anchor points at which values of the conductivity are estimated by the optimization algorithm. Thus, the anchor point values of k(x) are the actual design variables, while the least-squares fit provides the coefficients in the polynomial expression for k(x). The optimization process is carried out using a genetic algorithm that features a global search for a minimum. Details of the GA adopted in this study are provided along with numerical implementation of the fundamental solution. Analytical integration of the fundamental solution for a given polynomial functional dependence of k(x) provides explicit evaluation of influence coefficients, however, these expressions contain nonlinear relations involving the coefficients of the polynomial for k(x). Linearization is accomplished using either a Taylor series or a Chebyshev polynomial expansions, and numerical integration of influence coefficients is evaluated only once. Subsequnet updated are performed algebraically. It is also shown that Chebyshev expansion provides superior and robust results. The linearization feature of the algorithm offers significant speed-up in the iteration process. Numerical examples are provided for 2-D anisotropic cases to validate the approach. The method developed in this study can be extended to orthotropic and anisotropic problems, and directly implemented to other applications of interest such as the hydraulic transmissivity estimation inverse problem in ground water flow. An example demonstrating application of the method to retrieval of hydraulic transmissivity is also presented.

AN INTEGRAL FORMULATION FOR STEADY-STATE ELASTOPLASTIC ROLLING/SLIDING CONTACT OVER A COATED HALF-PLANE
C. Dong and M. Bonnet
(1) - Laboratoire de Mecanique des Solides. (UMR CNRS 7649) (2) - Laboratoire de Mecanique des Solides. (UMR CNRS 7649)

ABSTRACT
A boundary-domain integral equation for a coated half-space in 2D plane strain (elastically isotropic homogeneous substratum, possibly anisotropic coating layer) is developed. This formulation is tailored for half-space geometries: the discretization is limited to the potential contact zone (boundary elements), the potentially plastic part of the substratum and the coating layer (domain integration cells). Steady-state elastoplastic contact analysis is implemented within this framework, in order to investigate rolling and/or sliding contact problems, for linear-kinematic-hardening constitutive plastic behavior. The integration with respect to load step is of implicit type. In order to improve accuracy and computational efficiency, infinite elements are used. Comparison of numerical results with other sources, when available, is satisfactory. The present formulation is also used to compute the (a priori unknown) contact pressure for an isotropic (or anisotropic) coating on an isotropic homogeneous half-space indented by an elastic roller. The influence of the coating on contact pressure is studied.

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RECENT ADVANCES IN THE METHOD OF FUNDAMENTAL SOLUTIONS


G. Fairweather and A. Karageorghis
(1) - Dept. of Math. and Computer Sciences. Colorado School of Mines. E-mail : gfairwea@mines.edu (2) - Dept. of Math. and Statistics. University of Cyprus. E-mail : andreask@ucy.ac.cy

ABSTRACT
The method of fundamental solutions (MFS) is a technique for the numerical solution of certain elliptic boundary value problems which falls in the class of methods generally called boundary methods. Like the Boundary Element Method, it is applicable when a fundamental solution of the differential equation in question is known. The basic ideas of the MFS were first proposed by Kupradze and Aleksidze in the early 60's but it was not until the late 70's that the method was formulated as a numerical technique by Mathon and Johnston. In the MFS, the approximate solution is expressed as a linear combination of fundamental solutions with sources placed outside the domain of the problem. The locations of these sources are determined along with the coefficients of the fundamental solution so that the approximate solution satisfies the boundary conditions in a least squares sense. The resulting nonlinear problem can be solved using standard library software. Early uses of the method were for the solution of various linear potential problems in two and three space variables. It has since been applied to a variety of more complicated problems such as plane potential problems involving nonlinear radiation-type boundary conditions, biharmonic problems, elastostatics problems and wave scattering problems. In this paper, we describe recent applications of the MFS. We first consider its use in the solution of various free boundary problems, in particular, harmonic and biharmonic problems arising in fluid dynamics, and two- and three-dimensional Signorini problems, a special class of free boundary problems. The nonlinear nature of the MFS can incorporate the nonlinear nature of free boundary problems in a natural way. We also discuss the MFS for solving axisymmetric potential, acoustic and elastostatic problems. In this case, the fundamental solutions of the governing equations are complicated and involve elliptic integrals but these can be handled effectively by using widely available software for their evaluation. The application of the MFS to heat conduction problems in layered materials is also described. In such problems, either special fundamental solutions which accommodate the interface conditions between materials are chosen or a domain decomposition method is employed. The latter is also used in the MFS solution of plane elasticity problems in anisotropic bimaterials. Finally, we discuss a possible MFS approach for time-dependent problems.

ERROR ANALYSIS AND ADAPTIVITY IN LINEAR ELASTICITY BY THE USUAL AND HYPERSINGULAR BOUNDARY CONTOUR METHOD
Y. Mukherjee and S. Mukherjee
(1) - DeHan Engineering Numerics. E-mail : dehaneng@aol.com (2) - Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. Cornell University. E-mail : sm85@cornell.edu

ABSTRACT
The boundary contour method (BCM) is a variant of the usual boundary element method (BEM). The main idea in the BCM is the exploitation of the divergence-free property of the usual BEM integrand and an application of Stokes' theorem, to convert surface integrals on boundary elements (for threedimensional (3-D) problems) to line integrals on closed contours that bound these elements. The BCM has been applied to 3-D linear elasticity problems ([1], [2]). Recently ([3]), the regularized hypersingular boundary integral equation (HBIE) has also been converted to boundary contour form - resulting in the hypersingular boundary contour method (HBCM). It has been demonstrated ([4]) that use of both the usual and hypersingular BIE for twodimensional (2-D) potential problems allows one to define a hypersingular residual that provides an error
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estimate for the boundary value problem. The goal of the present paper is to use the usual and hypersingular BCM to derive a hypersingular residual for 3-D linear elasticity problems. This residual is then used to obtain local error indicators on boundary elements. Finally, an h- adaptive meshing scheme is developed based on these error indicators. Numerical examples are presented for several elasticity problems.

REFERENCES
[1] A. Nagarajan, S. Mukherjee and E. Lutz, "The boundary contour method for three-dimensional linear elasticity". ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, 63, pp. 278-286, 1996. [2] Y.X. Mukherjee, S. Mukherjee X. Shi and A. Nagarajan, "The boundary contour method for three -dimensional linear elasticity with a new quadratic boundary element". Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 20, pp. 35-44, 1997. [3] S. Mukherjee and Y.X. Mukherjee, "The hypersingular boundary contour method for three-dimensional linear elasticity. ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, 65, pp. 300-309, 1998. [4] G. Menon, G.H. Paulino and S. Mukherjee , "Analysis of hypersingular residual error estimates in boundary element methods for potential problems". Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 173, pp. 449-473, 1999.

SINGULAR BOUNDARY ELEMENTS FOR MIXED BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS


B. Guzina and R. Pak
(1) - Department of Civil Engineering. University of Minnesota. E-mail : guzina@wave.ce.umn.edu (2) - Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering. E-mail : pak@holly.colorado.edu

ABSTRACT
One of the common features of mixed boundary value problems in solid mechanics is the presence of non-smooth boundary and interfacial surfaces. As evidenced by a number of authors (e.g. Williams 1952, Dempsey and Sinclair 1981), sharp geometries often give rise to the theoretical occurrence of singular contact tractions which can cause inaccuracy and poor convergence in numerical analyses. To effectively deal with such computational issues and pursue a truly rigorous solution to this class of problems in the context of boundary integral formulations, the development of specialized boundary elements capable of representing singular tractions would clearly be beneficial. Origins of such concept date back to Cruse and Wilson (1977) on the treatment of problems in linear fracture mechanics. Complicating the analysis further, however, is the coincidental presence of non-unique tractions at boundary corners and edges. The latter problem can be mitigated by the use of double nodes, tangential derivatives, or discontinuous boundary elements (e.g., Rego Silva et al. 1993, Stamos and Beskos 1995). To further advance the performance and flexibility of boundary integral equation methods in dealing with the foregoing aspects simultaneously in three-dimensional solid mechanics, a set of four-node semidiscontinuous singular edge and corner elements is developed for modeling such boundary tractions. In contrast to the singular elements used in conventional fracture mechanics where the square-root singularity is of interest exclusively (e.g. Luchi and Rizzuti 1993), the constructed traction shape functions can be used to represent the power-type singularities of any order. Apart from being capable of handling arbitrary power-type traction singularities and discontinuities across the domain boundaries and interfaces, these elements also permit a smooth transition to standard isoparametric quadrilateral elements away from the edges. Complemented with a family of bilinear displacement and geometric shape functions, the singular surface elements are incorporated into a computational platform for the regularized boundary integral formulation. Ameliorated by the foregoing developments, the regularized direct boundary integral equation method is found to perform well, with fast and stable convergence to the benchmark result. In addition to its direct applications, the analysis proposed also provides a rational basis for extensions of the methodology to the rigorous treatment of more general power-logarithmic-type traction singularities arising in solutions to mixed boundary value problems.

REFERENCES
[1] T. A. Cruse and R. B. Wilson, "Boundary-Integral Method for Elastic Fracture Mechanics", Report AFOSR-TR78-0355, November 1977.
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[2] J.P. Dempsey and G.B. Sinclair, "On the Singular Behavior at the Vertex of a Bi-material Wedge", Journal of Elasticity, 11, 3, pp. 317-327, 1981. [3] J.J. Rego Silva, H. Power and L.C. Wrobel, "Boundary Element Method for 3D Time-Harmonic Elastodynamics: Numerical Aspects", Boundary elements XV, eds. C.A. Brebbia and J. J. Rencis, pp. 423-439, Elsevier, 1993. [4] M. Luchi and S. Rizzuti, "Special Crack Tip Elements for 3D Problems", Advances in Boundary Element Methods for Fracture Mechanics, eds. C.A. Brebbia and M.H. Ali abadi, pp. 173-200, Elsevier, 1993. [5] A.A. Stamos and D.E. Beskos, "Dynamic Analysis of Large 3D Underground Structures by the BEM", Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 24, pp. 917-934, 1995. [6] M.L. Williams, "Stress Singularities Resulting From Various Boundary Conditions in Angular Corners of Plates in Extension", Journal of Applied Mechanics, ASME, 74, pp. 526-528, 1952.

ON INTEGRATIONS OF THE WEAKLY-SINGULAR BIE


A. Jorge, G. Ribeiro and T.A. Cruse
(1) - EFEI - Federal Engineering School at Itajuba. E-mail : ariosto.b.jorge@vanderbilt.edu (2) - UFMG - Federal University of Minas Gerais. E-mail : gabriel@dees.ufmg.br (3) - Vanderbilt University School of Engineering. E-mail : thomas.a.cruse@vanderbilt.edu

ABSTRACT
A major concern when adopting Bounary Integral Equation (BIE) methods to the solution of both Potential Problems and Elasticity Problems is that for every source point in the boundary, an integral has to performed for all field points in that boundary. The algorithm leads to an improper, strongly singular or hypersingular integral when both source and field points coincide. Many approaches have been adopted to overcome this problem, or to solve these integrals. The self-regular approach is a formulation in which the original, singular BIE is rewritten in such a way that at those points where the integrals would be singular, a convenient expression is subtracted, and only regular integrals have to be performed. It should be noted that this subtraction gives total zero contribution and doesn't change the meaning of the original BIE at all. Self-regular formulations have been developed by Cruse and his co-workers during the last years. These formulations use Green's Identity and it's Gradient Form for Laplace's Equation, or use equivalent expressions in Elasticity, leading to Displacement-BEM and Stress-BEM formulations. The various steps that lead to these formulations are resumed. The discretization into Boundary Elements is implemented and in the final Boundary Element Method (BEM) algorithm, only weaklysingular integrals have to be evaluated, so that there is no need to treat singular integrals using Cauchy Principal Value (CPV) or Finite Part (FP) concepts. Stated otherwise, what starts with a regular problem, remains regular using self-regularized Potential and Gradient formulations. The previous results for Laplace's Potential and Gradient formulations, and for 2D Elastostatics problems with the displacement BEM formulation, confirm their validity and the fact that they are fully competitive with the standard, strongly singular BIE models. A somewhat poorer convergence was found in the 2D Elastostatics problem while using the Stress BEM formulation and standard quadratic interpolations. Excellent convergence, competitive with the results for standard, strongly-singular formulations require quartic interpolations. Convergence characteristics were very comparable based on the numbers of degrees of freedom. The source of numerical errors in the self-regular hypersingular formulations in potential theory and elasticity is associated with the relaxed continuity algorithm. The theoretical and practical aspects of the numerical errors and the reasons behind the need for higher order interpolants will be discussed. Some examples are performed to compare efficiency and accuracy of these approaches with respect to the standard BIE model, and some integration issues are addressed.

REFERENCES
[1] P. A. Martin, F. J. Rizzo, and T. A. Cruse, "Smoothness - relaxation strategies for singular and hypersingular integral equations", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 42, 2, pp. 885-906, 1998. [2] J. D. Richardson and T. A. Cruse, "Weakly singular stress-BEM for 2D Elastostatics", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 45, 1, pp.13-35, 1999. [3] T. A. Cruse and J. D. Richardson, "Self-regularized hyper-singular BEM for Laplace's equation", Proceedings to the Conference Analysis, Numerics and Applications of Differential and Integral Equations, Paris, France, 1998.

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GALERKIN FAST MULTIPOLE BOUNDARY INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD FOR CRACK PROBLEMS
K. Yoshida, N. Nishimura and S. Kobayashi
(1) - Department of Global Environment Engineering Kyoto University (2) - Department of Global Environment Engineering Kyoto University. E-mail : nchml@gee.kyoto-u.ac.jp (3) - Department of Global Environment Engineering Kyoto University

ABSTRACT
The full matrix property of BIEM has been a serious problem in applying BIEM to large scale problems, since the construction of the matrix requires operations of the order of N square, where N is the number of unknowns. This number even increases to N cube when one solves such matrix equations with direct solvers. Because of this drawback the maximum size of the problem one can solve with BIEM remained smaller than those solved with other conventional methods. Recent investigations of the so called fast methods such as the Fast Multipole Method (FMM) seem to be changing the situation. Indeed, FMM, initially introduced by Rokhlin[1] as a fast method to solve integral equations numerically, is characterised by the operation count of the order of N, or slightly larger than N, and the storage requirement of order N. The combination of this technique with BIEM and iterative matrix equation solvers has been tested successfully in large problems by several authors. One may mention papers by Rodin et al.[2] and the present authors [3] as examples of such trials in 3 dimensional elastostatics. The proposed paper extends our previous efforts in the collocation FMBIEM (Fast Multipole BIEM) for three dimensional elastostatic crack problems[3] to the Galerkin approach. The proposed formulation is based on the multipole expansion of the elastostatic potentials in terms of 4 types of moments; this approach was introduced in our previous paper[3]. This formulation is different from the one proposed independently by Rodin et al.[2] where the double layer potential is expanded with 12 types of moments. Our 4-moment formulation is applied with Galerkin's method to the variational formulation for crack problems. This approach is found to be much superior to our previous collocation FMBIEM in crack problems in terms of the accuracy. Therefore one can now solve problems involving really a large number of cracks with confidence since one may use coarser mesh for each crack with the Galerkin FMBIEM than with collocation in order to obtain solutions with the same accuracy. In a typical example we could solve a problem of 512 interacting circular cracks subject to a uniaxial tension using an approximately 240,000 DOF mesh. The CPU time was about 20,000 sec. with a DEC alpha compatible machine. The proposed paper also includes discussion on extensions of the proposed method to elastodynamics.

REFERENCES
[1] V. Rokhlin, J. Comp. Phys., 60, 187-207, (1985). [2] Y. Fu , K.J. Klimkowski, G.J. Rodin et al., Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., 42, 1215 - 1229 (1998). [3] K. Yoshida , N. Nishimura and S. Kobayashi , J. Appl. Mech. JSCE 1, 365-372, (1998) (in Japanese).

FAST BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHODS


Y. Fu, J. Overfelt and G. Rodin
(1) - Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics (2) - Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics. (3) - Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics. E-mail : gjr@ticam.utexas.edu

ABSTRACT
Fast boundary element methods allow one to solve large problems arising in micromechanics using only O(N) memory and operations, where N is the number of unknowns. That is, fast boundary
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element methods require less memory and operations to solve the problem than conventional methods require to formulate the matrix. At the heart of any fast boundary element methods is an iterative strategy in which matrix-vector multiplication is performed in O(N) operations, without forming the matrix. In this talk, we elucidate the link between the kernels appearing in integral equations and fast matrix-vector multiplication strategies. We consider integral equations corresponding to most important linear elliptic boundary-value problems, including anisotropic linear elasticity theory for which the fundamental solutions cannot be expressed in closed form. Representative example problems involve microstructures with more than thousand particles and more than one million unknowns.

REFERENCES
[1] Fu, Y., Klimkowski, K. J., Rodin, G. J., Berger, E. , Browne, J. C., Singer, J. K. , Van De Geijn, R. A. and Vemaganti, K. S. (1998) "A Fast Solution Method For Three-Dimensional Many-Particle Problems Of Linear Elasticity," Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engrg . 42, 1215-1229. [2] Fu, Y., Overfelt, J. R. and Rodin, G.J. (1999) "Integral Equations and Fast Summation Methods," in Pitman Research Series in Mathematics, editor A.-M. Saendig and W. Wendland, 128-139. (Invited chapter for the volume dedicated to Professor Vladimir G. Mazya.)

ADVANCES IN THE ANALYSIS OF THIN AND LAYERED STRUCTURES BY THE BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD
Y. Liu, N. Xu and J. Luo
(1) - Dept. of Mech., Ind. and Nucl. Engineering. University of Cincinnati. E-mail : Yijun.Liu@uc.edu (2) - Dept. of Mech., Ind. and Nuclear Engineering. University of Cincinnati.

ABSTRACT
Recent development of the boundary element method (BEM) in the analyses of thin shell-like and layered structures will be reported at the Fifth USNCCM Congress. The non-degenerate nature of the BEM formulation for thin structures, contrary to the crack-like case, will be reviewed. Effective methods in computing nearly-singular integrals, which are crucial to the successful applications of the BEM to thin bodies, will be discussed. Numerical examples, ranging from thin shell-like structures, multi-layer coatings/thin films, thin interphases in fiber- reinforced composites, and sound and thin-shell structure interactions, will be presented at the Congress, to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the BEM in the analyses of these emerging materials and structures.

REFERENCES
(downloadable from: http://urbana.mie.uc.edu/yliu/Papers/Papers.htm) [1] Liu, Y. J., and Rizzo, F. J. (1997). "Scattering of elastic waves from thin shapes in three dimensions using the composite boundary integral equation formulation.", J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 102 (2) (Pt.1, August), 926-932. [2] Liu, Y. J. (1998). "Analysis of shell-like structures by the boundary element method based on 3-D elasticity: formulation and verification.", Int. J. for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 41, 541-558. [3] Luo, J. F., Liu, Y. J., and Berger, E. J. (1998). "Analysis of two-dimensional thin structures (from micro- to nanoscales) using the boundary element method.", Computational Mechanics, 22 (5), 404-412. [4] Liu, Y. J., Xu, N., and Luo, J. F. (1998). "Modeling of interphases in fiber-reinforced composites under transverse loading using the boundary element method.", ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, in review. [5] Chen, S. and Liu, Y. J. (1999), "A unified boundary element method for the analysis of sound and shell-like structure interactions: I - formulation and verification.", J. Acoust. Soc. Am., in review. [6] Luo, J. F., Liu, Y. J., and Berger, E. J. (1999). "Interfacial stress analysis for multi-coating systems using an advanced boundary element method.", Computational Mechanics, in review

BOUNDARY INTEGRAL EQUATION METHODS APPLIED TO ACCURATE ANALYSIS OF RIB-STIFFENED ELASTIC PLATES
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M. Tanaka, T. Matsumoto and S. Oida


(1) - Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Shinshu University. E-mail : dtanaka@gipwc.shinshu-u.ac.jp (2) - E-mail :toshiro@gipwc.shinshu-u.ac.jp (3) - E-mail :oida@homer.shinshu-u.ac.jp

ABSTRACT
The linear bending problem of elastic plates is one of the fields in which the boundary element methods or the integral equation methods can be successfully applied. A number of papers on the topics have been published so that accurate analysis can be carried out by one of the standard solution procedures for single plates with an arbitrary contour as well as plate structures subject to arbitrary boundary conditions [e.g. , 1-3]. However, for the bending problem of rib-stiffened elastic plates there are still a few investigations using the boundary element methods[4,5], although the boundary element methods would be successfully applicable to such problems. This paper is concerned with application of the boundary element method to the elastic bending problem of rib-stiffened plates. It is assumed that the rib-stiffener is a straight beam which is attached to the surface of the elastic plate, and that the plate and beam are in a line contact. The interaction between the plate and beam is assumed such that the forces and moments are distributed along the contact line. The beam is subjected to distributed bending moment, axial torque and lateral load all of which are unknown, while the plate is subjected to these reactions. It should be taken into account that deflection and slope are continuous on the contact line. The plate bending problem is formulated in the usual manner into a set of the integral equations including unknown line-distributed lateral force and two components of distributed moments. The problem of beam stiffener is also formulated into a set of integral equations including distributed unknown force and moments. In order to obtain a numerical solution of the integral equations, the plate contour and the contact lines are discretized into a series of isoparametric quadratic elements. A consistent set of equations for the nodal values are then derived from the set of integral equations, and then solved for the nodal unknowns under the given boundary conditions of the stiffened plate. The usefulness of the proposed solution procedure is demonstrated through numerical computation of some examples and comparison with other solutions available in the literature.

REFERENCES
[1] Beskos, D.E. (Ed.), "Boundary Element Analysis of Plates and Shells", Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg-Berlin, (1991). [2] Stern, M. and Lin, T.-L., "Thin elastic plates in bending", Chapter 4, Developments in Boundary Element Methods-4, Banerjee, P.K. and Watson, J.O. (Eds.), Elsevier Science Publishers/UK, (1986), pp.91-119. [3] Tanaka, M., Matsumoto, T. and Shiozaki, A., "Application of boundary-domain element method to the free vibration problem of plate structures", Computers and Structures, Vol. 66, No. 6, (1998), pp.725-735. [4] Tanaka, M. and Bercin, A.N., "A boundary element method applied to the elastic bending problem of stiffened plates", Boundary Elements XIX, Brebbia, C.A., et al. (Eds.), CM Publications, Southampton/UK, (1997), pp.203-212. [5] Private communications by J.T. Katsikadekis at the BEM XIX Conference in Rome/Italy, 1997.

3D BEM MODELING OF FRACTURE PROBLEM IN COMPOSITE LAMINATES


E. Pan, G. Cai and F.G. Yuan
(1) - Structures Technology, Inc. E-mail : Pan@ipass.net (2) - Dept. of Mech. and Aerospace Eng. North Carolina State University. (3) - Dept. of Mech. and Aerospace Eng. North Carolina State University.

ABSTRACT
A three-dimensional single-domain boundary element formulation is developed for the fracture analysis in composite laminates. Instead of using the Kelvin-type Green's functions, the three dimensional layered Green's functions derived recently by Yuan and Yang (1999) are implemented into the displacement and traction boundary integral equations with the formal being applied to the no-crack boundary only and the latter to one side of the crack surface only. Since the layered Green's functions satisfy exactly the interlaminar continuities along the interfaces a priori, the model becomes truly twoPage 80 USNCCM99

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dimensional and discretization is only needed along the crack surfaces and the possible outer boundaries. Numerical examples of stress intensity factors (SIFs) calculation are given for both isotropic and anisotropic infinite laminates when a uniformly pressurized square - shaped crack is located horizontally within one of the layers. It is found that because of the effect of top and bottom free surfaces, the SIFs calculated for an infinite plate have larger values than the corresponding infinite 3D- space case. It is also observed that the SIFs strongly depend on material anisotropy and material layering.

SIMULATION OF SUSPENSION FLOWS USING A MULTIPOLE ACCELERATED BEM


M. Ingber and A. Mammoli
(1) - Department of Mechanical Engineering. University of New Mexico (2) - Department of Mechanical Engineering. University of New Mexico

ABSTRACT
The simulation of multiphase flows, namely, suspensions in viscous shear, is computationally difficult not only because of the large number of particles required of representative volume elements, but also because the particles tend to form chains and agglomerations. The geometries are extremely complex and evolve as the microstructure evolves. The boundary element method is a preferred method to perform these simulations because of the relative ease with which these complex geometries can be modeled and discretized. However, traditional boundary element methods limit the number of particles that can be contained in a simulation because of both CPU and memory requirement limitations. The multipole technique has recently received attention by boundary element analysts because of the reduction in both CPU and memory requirements. The order of data storage can be reduced from O(N**2) to O(N) and the operation count can be reduce from either O(N**3) (direct solvers) or O(N**2) (indirect solvers) to O(Nlog N) using multipole methods where N is the number of degrees of freedom used to approximate the source densities in discrete form. For many problems in fluid mechanics, the boundary conditions are specified by known inflow, outflow, or surface velocities. In these cases, the direct boundary element formulation results in a Fredholm equation of the first kind which, upon discretization, produces ill-conditioned systems of equaitons. The indirect boundary element formulation, on the other hand, results in Fredholm integral equations of the second kind, which generally produce better conditioned systems of equations. Nevertheless, particle clustering and rigid -body equations of motions can cause ill-conditioning even for indirect BEM formulations. In this research, a two-dimensional multipole-accelerated BEM is developed to study a variety of suspension flows. A physics-based preconditioner is coupled to an indirect BEM formulation which is sufficiently well conditioned to allow the simulation of on the order of 1,000 suspended particles. Several example problems are considered in piston-driven devices, pipes, and Couettes to show the capabilities of the method.

SIMULATION OF THE PROPAGATION OF TENSILE CRACKS IN POROELASTIC MEDIA


E. Detournay and S. Mogilevskaya
(1) - University of Minnesota, Department of Civil Engineering. E-mail : detou001@tc.umn.edu (2) - University of Waterloo, Department of Earth Sciences. E-mail : sofia@panda.uwaterloo.ca

ABSTRACT
This paper presents a numerical analysis of the propagation of tensile hydraulic fractures in a poroelastic hydrocarbon reservoir. It focuses on the deviation of hydraulic fractures associated with
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poroelastic perturbation of the in-situ stress field caused by fluid injection and pumping in the reservoir. Two different cases are considered. In the first case, change of the in-situ stress is caused by alteration of the pore pressure field due to fluid injection and pumping in a system of two wells. The initial fracture is assumed to be midway between the injection and the pumping well and the geometry of the fracture deviation from its straight-ahead path is investigated. In the second case, the poroelastic perturbation of the stress state in the reservoir is caused by production of hydrocarbons from a primary hydraulic fracture. The poroelastic mechanism creates conditions that are favorable to the propagation of a secondary fracture in a direction perpendicular to the primary one. Both of these models are studied numerically with the complex variables boundary element method (CVBEM). One of its main features is its capability to provide a smooth path of propagation. The numerical algorithm simulates the fractures path in a stepwise fashion. Several mixed-mode fracture criteria are discussed, as well as the use of circular arc (straight segment as a degenerated case) to model the crack path increment at each propagation stage. The perturbation of the in-situ stress caused by fluid injection or withdrawal is calculated using singular sources solutions of the theory of poroelasticity. A number of numerical results are given for the two particular problems considered in this paper. It is shown that the geometry of the fractures paths is controlled by three dimensionless parameters associated to the far-field stress deviator, the time, and the rock toughness.

A DIRECT FORMULATION OF THE BEM FOR PIEZOELECTRICITY BY THE FUNDAMENTAL SOLUTIONS FOR POINT FORCE/CHARGE AND DISPLACEMENT/ELECTRIC POTENTIAL DISCONTINUITY
M. Denda
(1) - Dept. of Mech.l & Aerospace Engineering. Rutgers University. E-mail : denda@jove.rutgers.edu

ABSTRACT
A Boundary Element Method is presented for two-dimensional static piezoelectric solids. We extend a physical interpretation of Somigliana's identity to piezoelectricity and give a direct formulation of the BEM in terms of continuous distributions of point force/point charge and displacement/electric potential discontinuity in an infinite piezoelectric domain. The method is applied to piezoelectric and piezoelectric composite materials that typically consist of piecewise homogeneous materials among which holes and cracks are special cases when the material has zero elastic moduli. With the help of LekhnitskiiEshelby-Stroh formalism for generalized plane piezoelectricity coupled with analytic function theory, we derive several key Green's functions for point force/point charge and displacement/electric potential discontinuity. Several applications of these Green's functions in the formulation of the direct Green's function BEM will be shown with numerical examples. For cracked bodies we extend Somigliana's identity and represent the crack by the continuous distribution of displacement/electric potential discontinuity. The mixed mode stress intensity factors are determined accurately with the help of the conservation integral of piezoelectricity.

BOUNDARY ELEMENT MODELING IN DEFECTS IN PIEZOELECTRICS


X.L. Xu and N. Rajakapse
(1) - Department of Civil and Geological Engineering. University of Manitoba. (2) - Department of Civil and Geological Engineering. University of Manitoba.

ABSTRACT
Due to their intrinsic electroelastic coupling behaviour, piezoelectric materials have wide applications in the field of smart (adaptive) structures. Piezoceramics are the most commonly used piezoelectric materials. The main drawback of piezoceramics is their brittleness. Fracture may occur under
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complex electromechanical service loading. Many researchers studied voids and cracks in piezoceramics using analytical methods. These analytical solutions are often restricted to some special loadings and boundary conditions. Others have employed finite element method to analyze fracture of piezoelectrics. The boundary element method has been recognized as an efficient alternative approach for complex boundary value problems. However, the development of boundary element methods for piezoelectrics and their numerical implementations are not well established when compared to numerous studies reported for elastic materials The main purposes of this study are to examine electroelastic field around cavities in piezoelectrics and further develop the technique of crack closure integral with 2-D boundary element analysis for fracture mechanics of piezoelectric materials. The development of a multi-domain boundary element code for piezoelectrics is briefly reviewed. Then the energy release rates for piezoceramics (mechanical, electrical and total) are derived explicitly in terms of boundary element nodal data (stress, displacement, electric potential and electric displacement). The size of the crack front elements is not an explicit parameter in the final expression of energy release rates. Both modes I and II cracks can be analyzed. The validity of the approach is established by comparison with analytical solutions for Mode I cracks given in literature. It is found that a small number of conventional quadratic boundary elements are sufficient for accurate calculations. Only five boundary elements are used to model the crack surface in the numerical examples.Finally the approach is applied to an edge crack problem. The influence of electric loading on strain energy release rate is investigated. The case of an arbitrarily oriented elliptical cavity in a piezoelectric plane is modeled using the boundary element code. The accuracy of the boundary element results is established by comparison with an analytical solution. It is shown that defect orientation with respect to polarization has a significant influence on critical electroelastic fields.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work is supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada grant A-6507.

DEVELOPMENT OF A BEM-FEM COUPLED ALGORITHM FOR DYNAMIC SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION ANALYSIS


D. Rizos
(1) - Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska. E-mail : drizos1@unl.edu

ABSTRACT
Coupled Finite Element-Boundary Element (FE-BE) formulations for Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) analysis have gained popularity in recent years for their ability to incorporate the traveling wave effects and the infinite extends of the soil medium into traditional dynamic structural analysis models. The coupled FE-BE formulations, in general, follow three approaches. The first one is FE centered, and the Boundary Elements are treated as equivalent FE superelements. In this case the BE are assembled directly into the FE equations. The second one is BE centered, and the FE region is treated as an equivalent BE one. The corresponding FE equations are incorporated into the BE coefficient matrices. The third approach computes FE and BE solutions separately and enforces the compatibility equations along the interface between the two regions by considering the solutions of one region to serve as boundary conditions to the other. For dynamic direct time domain analysis this approach yields staggered time marching solutions. Such solutions have been reported for the scalar wave propagation analysis and fluidstructure interaction applications. In the present work a coupled FE-BE formulation is presented for 3-D elastic wave propagation and SSI analysis in the direct time domain. The Boundary Element method is used to model the soil region while the Finite Element Method models the structure. The Boundary Element formulation is based on the B-Spline fundamental solutions for the infinite 3-D elastodynamic space reported by Rizos and Karabalis. The BE solutions provide the B-Spline impulse responses of the soil region. These solutions can be assembled in a matrix form that is equivalent to time-dependent flexibility matrices of the soil. Subsequently, the displacement of the soil region to arbitrary external excitations and to the interaction forces with the structures is computed through a mere superposition of the impulse responses. A standard FE procedure along with Newmarks method provides the response of the structures to any external forces and the displacements at the soil-structure interface computed by the BE method. Consequently, the

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solution of the soil-structure system is obtained in a time marching scheme, with the BE and FE methods providing the boundary conditions to each other within each time step. The proposed BE-FE formulation presents a number of advantages. The computation of the BSpline impulse response of the soil medium, a computationally demanding task, is independent of the actual structure, and is carried out only once. The B-Spline impulse responses are of finite duration, which, in general, is much shorter than the duration of the external excitations, restraining, thus, the accumulation of numerical errors. In addition, the duration of the time step is not required to be the same for the two methods, allowing, thus, independent selection of time steps that will satisfy any stability requirements of each method. The efficiency and accuracy of the method is demonstrated through a number of examples pertaining to SSI analysis.

REFERENCES
[1] Rizos D.C. and Karabalis D.L., "A Time Domain BEM for 3-D Elastodynamic Analysis Using the B-Spline Fundamental Solutions", Computational Mechanics, 22, No1, 1998.

HP-ADAPTIVE BE MODELING OF THE HUMAN EAR CANAL ACOUSTICS


L. Demkowicz, T. Walsh and R. Charles
(1) - The Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics. E-mail : leszek@ticam.utexas.edu (2) - The Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics. E-mail : twalsh@ticam.utexas.edu (3) - University of California at San Diego Supercomputing Center. E-mail : charlesr@sdsc.ed

ABSTRACT
The paper presents an application of hp-adaptive boundary element method to modeling of acoustical wave propagation/scattering in the human ear canal. These are results of the early stages of an extensive computational study on the acoustical properties/response characteristics of the human auditory system, with the ultimate goal of furthering the understanding of the physics involved and thus advancing the hearing aid technology. The initial problem involves computing the pressure distributions around the external ear and the inlet to the ear canal. Later studies will consider the so-called middle/inner ear where the input will be the pressure impinging on the eardrum, as calculated in the present study. The geometrical complexities associated with the middle and inner ear, along with the possiblility of singular solutions in such domains, necessitates the use of adaptive finite elements. Also, reconstructing these finescale details with uniform meshes would require extraordinarily high dof counts, overwhelming even the most powerful supercomputers. Adaptive methods minimize the number of dof required to achieve a given level of accuracy, and for problems of this type, can lead to orders of magnitude savings in computational cost compared to standard regular meshes. In this study, the three-dimensional problem of the external ear is converted to an equivalent Burtn-Miller integral equation, later discretized using hp-boundary elements. The analysis is based on the steady-state pressure formulation, although future simulations of more complex auditory phenomena, including localization, and otoacoustic emmision, may necessitate transient analysis. Since most of the existing experimental data is tabulated in terms of pressure, a pressure formulation is chosen rather than the equivalent velocity or velocity/pressure ('mixed' method) formulations.

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Scott A. Cannan, Steve J. Owen and Sunil Saigal
SESSION 1: GENERAL SESSION
Keynote : ON AUTOMATING THE GENERATION OF HEX MESHES FOR ASSEMBLY GEOMETRIES T.J. Tautges ......................................................................................................................................................................99 ON ELEMENT SHAPE MEASURES FOR MESH OPTIMIZATION P. Labbe, J. Dompierre, F. Guibault and R. Camarero....................................................................................................99 AN OPTIMIZATION-BASED APPROACH TO SIMPLICIAL MESH UNTANGLING AND IMPROVEMENT L.A. Freitag and P. Plassmann.......................................................................................................................................100 INTERVAL ASSIGNMENT FOR VOLUMES WITH HOLES J. Shepherd, S. Benzley and S. Mitchell ..........................................................................................................................101 AUTOMATIC SCHEME SELECTION FOR TOOLKIT HEX MESHING D.R. White and T.J. Tautges ...........................................................................................................................................102

SESSION 2: HEXAHEDRAL MESHING


H-MORPH: AN INDIRECT APPROACH TO ADVANCING FRONT HEX MESHING S.J. Owen and S. Saigal ..................................................................................................................................................103 INTELLIGENT LOCAL APPROACH FOR AUTOMATIC HEXAHEDRAL MESH GENERATION Y. Wada, S. Yoshimura and G. Yagawa ..........................................................................................................................104 GENERATING A MIXED MESH OF HEXAHEDRA, PENTAHEDRA AND TETRAHEDRA FROM AN UNDERLYING TETRAHEDRAL MESH S. Meshkat and D. Talmor ..............................................................................................................................................104 MULTI-BLOCK MESH EXTRUSION DRIVEN BY A GLOBALLY ELLIPTIC SYSTEM J.C. Vassberg..................................................................................................................................................................105 HEXAHEDRAL MESHING OF NON-LINEAR VOLUMES USING VORONOI FACES AND EDGES A. Sheffer, M. Etzion, A. Rappoport and M. Bercovier ...................................................................................................106 AUTOMATED HEXAHEDRAL MESH GENERATION BY GENERALIZED MULTIPLE SOURCE TO MULTIPLE TARGET SWEEPING M. Lai, S. Benzley and D.R. White..................................................................................................................................107

SESSION 3: ANISOTROPIC MESHING


HYBRID GRID GENERATION FOR TURBOMACHINERY AND AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS A. Khawaja and Y. Kallinderis .......................................................................................................................................108 ALGORITHMIC AND IMPLEMENTATION ASPECTS OF GENERATING ISOTROPIC AND ANISOTROPIC TETRAHEDRAL MESHES T.J. Baker and J.C. Vassberg..........................................................................................................................................108 GENERATION OF NON-ISOTROPIC UNSTRUCTURED GRIDS VIA DIRECTIONAL ENRICHMENT R. Lohner and J. Cebral .................................................................................................................................................109 BOUNDARY SENSITIVE MESH GENERATION USING AN OFFSETTING TECHNIQUE J. Krause and W. Fichtner ..............................................................................................................................................110 MESH QUALITY AND CONTROL IN BOUNDARY LAYER MESH GENERATION FOR VISCOUS FLOWS R.V. Garimella and M.S. Shephard.................................................................................................................................111

SESSION 4: TET MESHING


TRIANGULATION OF ARBITRARY POLYHEDRA B.K. Karamete, M.W. Beall and M.S. Shephard .............................................................................................................111 THREE DIMENSIONAL MESH GENERATION USING A DELTAHEDRAL BUILDING BLOCK FOR ANATOMICALLY ACCURATE BIOLOGICAL MODELS J.Q. Zhang and J.M. Sullivan Jr. ....................................................................................................................................112 ON THE PARALLELIZATION OF GUARANTEED-QUALITY 3D DELAUNAY MESH GENERATORS N. Chrisochoides and D. Nave........................................................................................................................................113 DYNAMIC BUBBLE SYSTEM: AN AUTOMATIC MESH GENERATION SYSTEM FOR 2D AND 3D FINITE ELEMENT MESH GENERATION IN ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD COMPUTATIONS V. Cingoski, T. Yokoyama and H. Yamashita..................................................................................................................113
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BITING: ADVANCING FRONT MEETS SPHERE PACKING X.Y. Li, S.H. Teng and A. Ungor.....................................................................................................................................114 AN ALGORITHM FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL MESH GENERATION FOR ARBITRARY REGIONS WITH CRACKS J.B. Cavalcante Neto, P.A. Wawrzynek, M.T. Carvalho, L.F. Martha and A.R. Ingraffea..............................................116

SESSION 5: ADAPTIVITY / REMESHING


AN ADAPTIVE UNSTRUCTURED MESH METHOD FOR TRANSIENT FLOWS INVOLVING MOVING BOUNDARIES L.B. Bayne, O. Hassan, K. Morgan and N.P. Weatherill ................................................................................................116 MESH GENERATION AND MESH ADAPTATION BY MESH TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION T. Coupez........................................................................................................................................................................117 SURFACE REMESHING BY LOCAL HERMITE DIFFUSE INTERPOLATION A. Rassineux, J.M. Savignat, O. Stab and P. Villon ........................................................................................................118 LONGEST-EDGE ALGORITHMS: NON-DEGENERACY PROPERTIES IN 3 DIMENSIONS M.C. Rivara and A. Plaza...............................................................................................................................................119 SPECIFIC FEATURES OF FE-MESHES USED IN LAGRANGE FORMULATION FOR THE ANALYSIS OF METAL FORMING PROCESSES E. Doege and J. Meinen..................................................................................................................................................120 MESH GENERATION FOR HP-TYPE FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF PLATES S.M. Holzer.....................................................................................................................................................................120

SESSION 6: SURFACE MESHING


AUTOMATED GENERATION OF F.E.A. MODELS THROUGH IDEALIZATION OPERATORS L. Fine, L. Remondini and J.C. Leon ..............................................................................................................................121 EDGE RECOVERY METHOD ON AN EXISTING SURFACE MESH FOR BOUNDARY LAYER MESHING B.K. Karamete, R.V. Garimella and M.S. Shephard .......................................................................................................122 EXTENDING METRIC-BASED SURFACE MESHING TO G1-CONNECTED PATCH COMPLEXES J. Peters..........................................................................................................................................................................123 ABOUT PARAMETRIC SURFACE MESHING H. Borouchaki, P. Laug and P.L. George .......................................................................................................................124 ADAPTATION OF CAD SURFACE MESHES TO A MAP OF SIZES THROUGH THE IGATOMM CONCEPT F. Noel............................................................................................................................................................................125 A RESULTANT-BASED ALGORITHM FOR RAY INTERSECTION S.A. Vavasis ....................................................................................................................................................................125

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Keynote : ON AUTOMATING THE GENERATION OF HEX MESHES FOR ASSEMBLY GEOMETRIES


T.J. Tautges
(1) - Sandia National Laboratories. E-mail : tjtautg@sandia.gov

ABSTRACT
The finite element method is being used today to model component assemblies in a wide variety of application areas, including mechanical components, fluid simulations, and others. Generating hexahedral meshes for these assemblies usually requires the use of geometry decomposition, with different meshing algorithms applied to different regions. While the primary motivation for this approach remains the lack of an automatic, reliable all-hexahedral meshing algorithm, requirements in mesh quality and mesh configuration for typical analyses are also factors. For these reasons, this approach is also sometimes required when producing other types of unstructured meshes. This paper will review progress to date in automating many parts of the hex meshing process, which has halved the time to produce all-hex meshes for large assemblies. Particular issues which have been exposed due to this progress will also be discussed, along with their applicability to the general unstructured meshing problem. Finally, issues in the automation and parameterization of these meshes will be discussed.

ON ELEMENT SHAPE MEASURES FOR MESH OPTIMIZATION


P. Labbe, J. Dompierre, F. Guibault and R. Camarero
(2) - Centre de Recherche en Calcul Appliqu (CERCA). E-mail : julien@cerca.umontreal.ca (3) - Centre de recherche en calcul appliqu (CERCA). E-mail : francois@cerca.umontreal.ca (4) - Dpartement de gnie mcanique. cole Polytechnique de Montral. E-mail : ricardo@cerca.umontreal.ca

ABSTRACT
Shape measures are needed during mesh optimization to quantify the element regularity. The purpose of this paper is first to examine several shape measures for triangles and tetrahedra. It is then proved that they are all equivalent, which means that they are all as good, in the context of mesh optimization. In a third part, shape measures are derived for quadrangles, prisms and hexahedra. A simplex is a triangle in 2-D and a tetrahedron in 3-D. A simplex is regular if all its edges have the same length. A simplex is degenerate if its vertices are collinear in 2-D and collinear or coplanar in 3D. There are so many tetrahedron shape measures in the literature [1] that we "suggest" the following global definition, introduced in [2]: DEFINITION 1: A simplex shape measure is a continuous function that evaluates the quality of a simplex. It must be invariant under translation, rotation, reflection and uniform scaling of the simplex. It must be maximum for the regular simplex and it must be minimum for a degenerate simplex. For the ease of comparison, it should be scaled to the interval [0, 1], and be 1 for the regular simplex and 0 for a degenerate simplex. In this paper, we analyze and give a precise definition of a few shape criteria including radius ratio, mean ratio, minimum of the solid angles and inverse of the interpolation error. It is shown that the edge length ratio and the dihedral angle are not valid shape measures in the sense of Def. 1. Shape criteria are written using only the length of the edges of the simplex. In fact, a simplex is completely characterized by the length of its edges and all characteristics (area, volume, inradius, circumradius) can be rewritten in terms of edge lengths. Furthermore, shape measures of triangles are visualized by using 2-D graphs, as suggested in [3]. In the context of mesh optimization, there are only minor consequences of using one shape criterion or another. This is proved through the notion of measure equivalence, following Liu and Joe [2].

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DEFINITION 2: Let u and v be two different simplex shape measures with values in interval [0,1]. u and v are equivalent if there exist positive constants C0, C1, E0 and E1 such that C0*pow(u,E0) <= v <= C1*pow(u,E1). A sketch of the proof of the conjecture presented in [4] is provided: THEOREM: All simplex shape measures that satisfy Definition 1 are equivalent in the sense of Definition 2. This equivalence between simplex shape measures implies that if one of these simplex shape measures approaches zero, which indicates a poorly-shaped simplex, then so do the others. Conversely, if one of these simplex shape measures approaches unity, then so do the others. This theorem implies that any shape measure can be used for steering a mesh optimization process. This is verified on a 2-D testcase: the same mesh optimizer gives the same optimal mesh by using different triangle shape measures. Finally, these shape measures are extended to non simplicial elements: the quadrilateral element in 2-D, the prism and the hexahedron in 3-D. A non simplicial element is regular if its surface is minimum for a given volume. The shape measure of a non simplicial element is defined by the minimum of the shape measure of the simplexes originating from each of the vertices of the non simplicial element. This value is scaled in order to satisfy Def. 1 for a regular element.

REFERENCES
[1] V. N. Parthasarathy, C. M. Graichen and A. F. Hathaway, "A Comparison of Tetrahedron Quality Measures", Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, Vol. 15, pp. 255-261, 1993. [2] A. Liu and B. Joe, "Relationship between Tetrahedron Shape Measures", Bit, Vol. 34, pp. 268-287, 1994. [3] M.-G. Vallet, "Generation de maillages elements finis anisotropes et adaptatifs", Ph.D. Thesis. Universit Pierre et Marie Curie, France, 1992. [4] J. Dompierre , P. Labbe , F. Guibault and R. Camarero , "Proposal of Benchmarks for 3D Unstructured Tetrahedral Mesh Optimization", 7th International Meshing Roundtable, Dearborn, MI, pp. 459-478, October 1998.

AN OPTIMIZATION-BASED APPROACH TO SIMPLICIAL MESH UNTANGLING AND IMPROVEMENT


L.A. Freitag and P. Plassmann
(1) - Math. and Comp. Science Division. Argonne National Laboratory. E-mail : freitag@mcs.anl.gov (2) - Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering. Pennsylvania State University. E-mail : plassman@cse.psu.edu

ABSTRACT
We describe a local optimization-based approach for both removing invalid or inverted elements from a simplicial mesh and for subsequently improving those elements. In this method, the position of an individual vertex is adjusted to obtain improvement in a neighborhood around that vertex. Some number of sweeps over the adjustable vertices are performed to achieve overall improvement in the mesh. This approach has been used to improve the elements of a local submesh, e.g. [1], and in this talk we focus on the modifications necessary for mesh untangling. The general operation for the optimization-based approach to mesh untangling is given by x_new = Untangle(x, V, V, conn(V)) where x_new is the proposed new position of v, |V| is the number of adjacent vertices, and conn(V) is the adjacent vertex connectivity information. Ideally, x_new will either untangle the local submesh, or improve the local submesh in such a way that it can be untangled in a succeeding sweep through the mesh. The action of the operator Untangle can take a variety of forms ranging from heuristic procedures such as Laplacian smoothing to optimization techniques that directly improve mesh quality as measured by a particular metric such as minimum angle in the mesh. We show that the quality metrics commonly used for mesh improvement are not suitable for mesh untangling because they cannot be guaranteed to converge for an invalid mesh. Instead we use a formulation based on minimum element area (volume in 3D) which is not ideal for mesh improvement but is suitable for mesh untangling. Because this function is linear in x_new, we formulate the untangling problem as a linear program which is solved using the simplex method. We give the conditions for which

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this technique can be guaranteed to converge, and show cases for which this technique succeeds when heuristic approaches, such as Laplacian smoothing, fail. We present typical results in both two and three dimensions that show the effectiveness of this approach for mesh untangling. We show that increasing the amount of overlap a tangled element has with neighboring elements significantly increases the number of untangling passes required to create a valid mesh. In contrast, increasing the number of inverted elements has no effect on the number of sweeps required to untangle the mesh.

REFERENCES
[1] Lori Freitag and Carl Ollivier-Gooch, "Tetrahedral mesh improvement using swapping and smoothing", International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering, 40, 1997.

INTERVAL ASSIGNMENT FOR VOLUMES WITH HOLES


J. Shepherd, S. Benzley and S. Mitchell
(1) - Civil and Environmental Engineering Department. E-mail : shepjas@et.byu.edu (2) - Dept. of Civil and Env. Engineering. Brigham Young University. E-mail : seb@byu.edu (3) - Parallel Computing Sciences Dept. Sandia National Laboratories. E-mail : samitch@sandia.gov

ABSTRACT
Surface meshing algorithms require certain relationships between the number of mesh edges (intervals) on the curves bounding a surface. For example, mapping requires that the number of intervals on opposite sets of curves be equal. Assigning the number of intervals to all of the curves in the model such that all relationships are satisfied is called interval assignment. Volume meshing algorithms also require certain relationships between numbers of intervals that are not always captured by the surface meshing requirements. For example, sweeping a cylindrical shell requires that the numbers of intervals between the top and bottom annuluses are the same for the inner and outer cylinder walls. This paper presents a new technique for automatically identifying volume constraints. Volume constraints are grouped with surface constraints and are solved simultaneously. This technique reduces the amount of user time required to mesh models composed of sweepable volumes with holes; previously a user often had to manually identify constraints and set intervals before these volumes would successfully mesh. A sweepable volume has source, target, and linking surfaces. Each maximal edge-connected set of linking surfaces defines a blind-hole, a through-hole, or the outer shell of the volume. Note the outer shell is topologically equivalent to a through-hole. Within a linking set, nothing special needs to be done for the volume because the numbers of intervals between source and target surfaces are already favorably constrained by the surface mapping constraints. However, between two linking sets the numbers of intervals need to be explicitly constrained for the volume. The algorithm described in this paper uses graph algorithms to identify linking sets, and determine if they correspond to through-holes or blind-holes. For blind-holes, the algorithm generates constraints that prevent the hole from being too deep in interval parameter space and penetrating opposite target surfaces. Each source/target surface has a variable representing its level in the sweep. For each linking set, the adjoining source and target surfaces are partially ordered by the structure of the linking set. Representative chains of curves capture this partial ordering; the level of a surface at the end of a chain must be equal to the level of the surface at the beginning of the chain plus the number of intervals assigned to the chain. We find a small set of representative paths for each linking set; all source/targets pairs do not generate a path. The representative paths for all linking sets are gathered and distilled by Gaussian elimination into a small set of constraints. Interval assignment has other considerations besides meshing scheme constraints: a user sets the number of intervals on individual curves, and designates them as hard-set (cannot be modified) or soft-set (merely a goal). Note that in some cases there is no interval assignment solution. The interval assignment constraints and goals are solved by a series of (integer) linear programs. The resulting numbers of intervals are assigned to each curve in the model, and subsequently meshing the surfaces and volumes will not change these numbers.

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AUTOMATIC SCHEME SELECTION FOR TOOLKIT HEX MESHING


D.R. White and T.J. Tautges
(1) - Sandia National Laboratories. E-mail : drwhite@sandia.gov (2) - Sandia National Laboratories. E-mail : tjtautg@sandia.gov

ABSTRACT
In the absence of a single hex meshing algorithm, the toolkit-based approach of meshing solid models has become mainstream. New volume meshing tools such as multi-sweep and submapping are being combined with traditional sweeping, mapping and primitive meshing to produce automated meshing. This paper presents another tool for further automation. It presents a method for automatically selecting schemes for meshing. The algorithm relies on geometric characteristics but is also heavily dependent on the types and variety of tools existing in the CUBIT toolkit. Within automatic scheme selection, two algorithms in this paper will be detailed. First an algorithm for finding sweepable volumes, called 'automatic sweep detection', is described. This algorithm uses the surface schemes to form several loops of chained side surfaces. Through the existence of these loops, and proper traversal thereof, a volume can be determined sweepable. Additionally, the source and target surfaces for the sweep fall out automatically in this algorithm, further reducing user input. Second, a method for grouping and ordering sweepable volumes for meshing is also presented. Often, a complicated assembly of parts is decomposed into several groups of non-manifold volumes. While each of the volumes can be easily meshed alone, meshing the collection often requires serial ordering. Sweep grouping finds the order, if one exists, for each collection of volumes to be meshed. The automatic scheme selection algorithm in CUBIT has been used to reduce meshing time. In one example, a Neutron Generator Ion Target (Figure 1) at Sandia National Laboratories was decomposed initially from 67 initial parts to 243 volumes. Automatic scheme selection was used and returned 21 volumes that could not be meshed, reducing the users problem scope from 243 down to 21.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Sandia National Laboratories is operated for the U.S. DOE under contract No. DE-AL04-94AL8500. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. DOE.

H-MORPH: AN INDIRECT APPROACH TO ADVANCING FRONT HEX MESHING


S.J. Owen and S. Saigal
(1) - Dept. of Civil and Env. Engineering. Carnegie Mellon University. E-mail : steve.owen@ansys.com (2) - Dept. of Civil and Env. Engineering. Carnegie Mellon University. E-mail : saigal+@cmu.edu

ABSTRACT
H-Morph is a new automatic algorithm for the generation of a hexahedral-dominant finite element mesh for arbitrary volumes. As an extension of the ideas initially introduced in the Q-Morph algorithm [1] for quadrilateral surface meshing, the H-Morph method starts with an initial tetrahedral mesh and systematically transforms and combines tetrahedra into hexahedra. Input to the algorithm is a set of quadrilateral surface facets. The quad facets are first split into triangles and sent to a tetrahedral mesh generator. H-Morph is an advancing front method where the initial front consists of the quadrilateral surface facets, and where each quadrilateral is associated with two triangle faces of the internal tetrahedral mesh. Fronts are individually processed by recovering each of the six quadrilateral faces of a hexahedron from the tetrahedral mesh. Recovery techniques similar to those used in boundary constrained Delaunay mesh generation [2] are used. Tetrahedra internal to the six hexahedral faces are then removed and a hexahedron is formed. A state-machine approach similar to that used by plastering [3], a direct
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advancing front hex meshing algorithm, is used to determine the priority for processing fronts. The procedure continues until no tetrahedra remain within the volume, or tetrahedra remain which cannot be transformed or combined into valid hexahedral elements. Any remaining tetrahedra are typically towards the interior of the volume, generally a less critical region for analysis. Transition from tetrahedra to hexahedra in the final mesh is accomplished through pyramid shaped elements [4]. Several advantages of the proposed algorithm over existing methods will be illustrated. Some of these advantages include: (1) its ability to conform to an existing surface mesh; (2) costly surface intersection calculations needed when using a direct advancing front method are eliminated; and (3) at any time during the procedure, a valid mixed tetrahedra-hexahedra mesh is defined. The proposed method has been implemented and successfully tested on a limited number of cases. Example test cases and performance will be presented.

REFERENCES
[1] Owen, Steven J., Matthew L. Staten, Scott A. Canann and Sunil Saigal "Q-Morph: An Indirect Approach to Advancing Front Quad Meshing", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering. Vol 44. No. 9 (1999) 1317-1340 [2] George, P. L., F. Hecht and E. Saltel, "Automatic Mesh Generator With Specified Boundary", Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 92 (1991) 269-288 [3] Hipp, Jim and Randy Lober "Plastering: Automated All-Hexahedral Mesh Generation Through Connectivity Resolution", Proceedings, 3rd International Meshing Roundtable (1994) [4] Owen, Steven J., Scott A. Canann and Sunil Saigal, "Pyramid Elements for Maintaining Tetrahedra to Hexahedra Conformability", Trends in Unstructured Mesh Generation, AMD-Vol. 220 (1997) 123-129

INTELLIGENT LOCAL APPROACH FOR AUTOMATIC HEXAHEDRAL MESH GENERATION


Y. Wada, S. Yoshimura and G. Yagawa
(1) - School of Engineering..University of Tokyo. E-mail : wada@garlic.q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp (2) - Dept. of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science. The University of Tokyo. E-mail : yoshi@garlic.q.t.utokyo.ac.jp (3) - Dept. of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science. University of Tokyo. E-mail : yagawa@q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

ABSTRACT
Unstructured mesh generation for the FEM is in general a very labor-intensive and timeconsuming process. Recently, the portion of the mesh generation process in the analysis increases, because the model of analysis tends to become very complex and the complexity of mesh also increases. Quadrilateral elements and hexahedral elements, the automatic generation of which is still an open problem, are strongly demanded for some problems. This is because these elements are more suitable to strongly nonlinear problems than triangular and tetrahedral elements, and large aspect ratio elements are usable. Some hexahedral mesh generation method such as Paving and Plastering method [1-2], Whisker Weaving[3] and HEXAR [4] have been developed. However, these methods sometimes fail to generate meshes and cannot control element size and aspect ratio as human does manually. An automated mesh generation method named Intelligent Local Approach (ILA)[5], which can control both size and aspect ratio of hexahedral element, will be presented. To efficiently deal with the complicated geometrical constraints for high quality hexahedral elements, a fuzzy knowledge processing technique is effectively utilized. ILA is applied to mechanical parts and CFD model. In the present paper performances of ILA are demonstrated and discussed in detail.

REFERENCES
[1] T.D. Blacker, M. B. Stephenson and S. Canann, "Analysis automation with paving: A new quadrilateral meshing technique", Advances in Engineering Software, Elsevier, Vol.56, Number 13, pp.332-337, (1991) [2] T.D. Blacker and Meyers R.J., "Seams and Wedges in Plastering : A 3D Hexahedral Mesh Generation Algorithm", Eng. with Comp., Vol.2, Number 9, pp.83-93, (1993) [3] T.J. Tautges, T. D. Blacker and S. A. Mitchell, "The Whisker Weaving Algorithm: A Connectivity-Based Method for Constructing All-Hexahedral Finite Element Meshes", Int. Journal for Num. Methods in Eng., Vol 39, pp.3327-3349, (1996)

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[4] N. Kimura, Y. Mochizuki and K. Mikami, "The HEXAR System as a Software Tool Designed for Automatic, All Hexahedral, Boundary-Fitted Unstructured Grid Generation", Proceedings of JSCES Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp.683-686, (1996) (in Japanese). [5] S. Yoshimura , Y. Wada and G. Yagawa , "Automatc Mesh Generation of Quadrilateral Elements using Intelligent Local Approach", Computer Methods in Applied Mechnics and Engineering, in print.

GENERATING A MIXED MESH OF HEXAHEDRA, PENTAHEDRA AND TETRAHEDRA FROM AN UNDERLYING TETRAHEDRAL MESH
S. Meshkat and D. Talmor
(1) - LMS CADSI. E-mail : tdafna@cs.cmu.edu (2) - LMS CADSI. E-mail : tdafna@cs.cmu.edu

ABSTRACT
The decomposition of an arbitrary polyhedral domain into tetrahedra is currently more tractable than its decomposition into hexahedra. However, for some engineering applications, a mesh composed of hexahedra, or even a mixture of hexahedra, pentahedra and tetrahedra, is preferable. One such application is the p-type finite element method, where the total number of elements should be as small as possible. We show in this paper, that given a tetrahedral decomposition, some of the tetrahedra can be efficiently combined into hexahedra and pentahedra. The basis of the method is a classification, using a generalized graph representation, of all possible tetrahedral decompositions of pentahedra and hexahedra. We then present a tetrahedral merge algorithm that utilizes this result to search for the sub-graphs of hexahedra and pentahedra in a tetrahedral mesh. The problem of finding an optimal solution is NPcomplete. We present heuristics to maximize the number of hexahedra and pentahedra, given a reasonable amount of computation time. The algorithm has been implemented in the PolyFEM mesher. We'll presents examples showing the typical merge success of the algorithm.

MULTI-BLOCK MESH EXTRUSION DRIVEN BY A GLOBALLY ELLIPTIC SYSTEM


J.C. Vassberg
(1) - Geometricon, LLC and Hydro-Aero Consulting Group. E-mail : jcv@hydroaero.com

ABSTRACT
The application of nonlinear computational methods typically require that a mesh be generated throughout the domain of interest. For consideration to the accuracy of the computed solution, the boundaries of these meshes are usually required to be body conforming, clustered in regions of high gradients and adhere to acceptable limits on skewness, aspect-ratio, etc. In two dimensions, these qualities can be maintained through use of conformal transformations. However in three dimensions, the utilization of conformal transformations is limited to planar cross sections of the domain. Over the past 15 years, several techniques have been developed which address the generation of structured grids for three-dimensional problems. These include elliptic equations[1], trans-finite interpolation and marching schemes based on either hyperbolic[2] or locally-elliptic equations. Yet to mesh even a semi-complex domain, some level of unstructured coarse-grain decomposition is usually required, whether it be point match, zonal or over-set regions. Fully unstructured-mesh techniques have dramatically streamlined the grid-generation process[3], especially for complex geometrical cases. Unfortunately, not all problems are conducive to employing an unstructured mesh.

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Generating a volume mesh using stencil-based elliptic equations or trans-finite interpolation requires that the user first define a surface mesh on all six boundaries of each block. While these "fill-in" techniques are fairly robust, the quality of the resulting mesh depends on the nature of the user-generated surface grids at the block boundaries. Additionally, this process is very time consuming by the shear number of surface meshes the user must manually generate. The prospect of extruding a mesh from one boundary outward was first achieved through use of hyperbolic equations, then later refined with locally-elliptic smoothing. Due to the nature of these techniques, the advancing front is driven only by the mesh behind it and oblivious to possibly pertinent information about the domain ahead of it. As a result, these methods are generally not as robust as the "fill-in" techniques. The present work develops a 3-D extrusion technique based on a globally elliptic system which encodes all of the information about the domain boundaries in such a manner that the advancing front is equally cognizant of the domain ahead of it as it is of that behind it. The quality of the resulting volume mesh rivals that of two-dimensional meshes based on conformal mappings.

REFERENCES
[1] J.F.Thompson, Z.U.A.Warsi and C.W.Mastin, "Numerical Grid Generation, Foundations and Applications", North-Holland, New York, 1985. [2] J.Q.Cordova and T.J.Barth, "Grid Generation for General 2-D Regions Using Hyperbolic Equations", AIAA Paper 88-0520, January 1988. [3] T.J.Baker and J.C.Vassberg, "Tetrahedral Mesh Generation and Optimization", Proc. 6th Int. Conf. Numerical Grid Generation, (ed. M.Cross), Greenwich, UK, July 1998, pp 337-349

HEXAHEDRAL MESHING OF NON-LINEAR VOLUMES USING VORONOI FACES AND EDGES


A. Sheffer, M. Etzion, A. Rappoport and M. Bercovier
(1) - Institute of Computer Science, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. E-mail : sheffa@cs.huji.ac.il (2) - The Institute of Computer Science. Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem. E-mail : michals@cs.huji.ac.il (3) - Institute of Computer Science. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. E-mail : arir@cs.huji.ac.il

ABSTRACT
In our recent work a new approach for automatic hexahedral meshing was presented [2]. The presented algorithm decomposes the object into simple parts based on the Embedded Voronoi Graph (EVG) [1]. The EVG contains the complete symbolic information of the Voronoi diagram (or the medial axis) of the object, and a tolerance based geometric approximation to the real geometry. The EVG is used for decomposing the object, with the guiding principle that resulting sub-volumes are sweepable. Subvolumes are meshed independently, and the resulting meshes are easily combined and smoothed to yield the final mesh. This approach possesses several advantages: - the algorithm for computing the EVG is provenly correct, stable and easy to implement; - the approach is well defined and valid on shapes of any geometry, including shapes whose medial axis is degenerate; - the decomposition is order independent and prevents intersections between decomposition surfaces; - the number of sub-volumes generated is not large since every sub-volume contains a different Voronoi face; - since the directions and entities involved in each decomposition are defined by the medial axis, there are no intersection computations; - since a decomposition is used, as opposed to template, there is only a minimal need for medial axis geometry; and - mesh quality seems high since the decomposition avoids generation of sharp angles, and sweep and other basic methods are used to mesh the sub-volumes. The algorithm as presented in [2] is not complete. First, while it is shown that most of the subvolumes resulting from the decomposition are sweepable or hexahedral, some sub-volumes that result
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from decomposing along one or more Voronoi edges might be not meshable by the available basic algorithms. Second, though a general explanation is given on handling non-polyhedral volumes, it was not fully defined or implemented . In this work the algorithm is developed further, to address the issues unresolved in the previous publication. The decomposition algorithm is expanded to further decompose the problematic sub-volumes mentioned above. The purpose of the decomposition is to create sub-volumes sweepable along previously unaddressed medial edges. The EVG computation and analysis are expanded to non-linear objects, enabling the meshing of non-polyhedral volumes. The algorithm is demonstrated on several real life examples.

REFERENCES
[1] M. Etzion , A. Rappoport , "Computing Voronoi Skeletons of a 3-D Polyhedron by Space Subdivision", Technical Report TR-8-97, Institute of Computer Science, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1997. [2] A. Sheffer , M. Ezion, A. Rappoport , M. Bercovier "Hexahedral Mesh Generation using the Embedded Voronoi Graph", Proc. 7th International Meshing Roundtable, Dearborn, USA, October 26-28, 1998. Accepted to 'Engineering with Computers'.

AUTOMATED HEXAHEDRAL MESH GENERATION BY GENERALIZED MULTIPLE SOURCE TO MULTIPLE TARGET SWEEPING
M. Lai, S. Benzley and D.R. White
(1) - Civil Engineering. Brigham Young University. E-mail : mingwul@et.byu.edu (2) - Dept. of Civil and Env. Engineering. Brigham Young University. E-mail : seb@byu.edu (3) - Sandia National Laboratories. E-mail : drwhite@sandia.gov

ABSTRACT
Traditional sweeping techniques create all hexahedral finite element meshes by projecting an existing single surface mesh along a specified trajectory to a specified single target surface. This technique has proven to be one of the most efficient and robust methods for generating all hexahedral meshes on the subset of volumes that are defined by a source and target surfaces linked by a continuous sidewall. This paper presents an extension to this traditional sweeping technique by accommodating multiple unconnected source and target surfaces. The new algorithm is based on the extensive use of Boolean operations to define segments of target surfaces that must be imprinted on related source surfaces. Within the algorithm the source, target, and linking surfaces are first identified. Next the linking surfaces are all meshed with either a mapping or submapping procedure. This linking surface mesh is then used to classify all source and target surfaces with an identifying layer. The source surfaces are then imprinted with segments of their related target surfaces. This imprinting process is the crucial component of the algorithm. Our complete paper specifies the four basic conditions that lead to proper imprint operations. After the imprinting operations are completed, some or all of the source surfaces may have been redefined with additional internal (i.e. imprinted) edges. These source surfaces are now easily meshed with a paving technique. With the source surfaces meshed, the sweeping process can commence. This process begins at the uppermost source surface(s). When target surfaces are encountered, the nodes are divided into two groups, one group being the nodes that will lie on the target surface and the other group consisting of the remaining nodes that will continue in the sweep direction until another target in encountered. When all targets have been reached, the process is complete. The major features of this process include 1) the generation of all hexahedral finite elements on solids that consist of multiple source and target surfaces that allow single axis sweeping, 2) the use of Boolean operations to accommodate a virtual decomposition of the body, and 3) the maintenance of the original mathematical representation of the solid. Numerous examples of meshed objects are provided in the complete paper to show the versatility of technique.

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HYBRID GRID GENERATION FOR TURBOMACHINERY AND AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS


A. Khawaja and Y. Kallinderis
(1) - Dept. of Aerospace Engineering. The University of Texas at Austin. E-mail : aly@acelab.ae.utexas.edu (2) - Dept. of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mech. University of Texas. E-mail : kallind@mail.utexas.edu

ABSTRACT
A hybrid prismatic/tetrahedral grid generation method is described and applied to complex turbomachinery and aerospace geometries. The high aspect ratio prisms cover the region close to each body's surface for good resolution of viscous gradients, while tetrahedra tessellate the rest of the domain. An adaptive prismatic grid redistribution scheme is used to better resolve boundary layers. The work introduces the concepts of multi-zone mesh generation and local variation of the number of prismatic layers (unstructured prism generation). Both these ideas are aimed to allow different levels of grid resolution within the same geometry and to treat disparate geometric length scales. The grid generator is tested with various complex geometriesand the resulting hybrid meshes are presented. The applicability of the adaptive hybrid grid generator over the wide range of geometries with minimal user interaction demonstrates the robustness and universality of the method. The validity of the generated grids is tested via turbulent flow simulations.

ALGORITHMIC AND IMPLEMENTATION ASPECTS OF GENERATING ISOTROPIC AND ANISOTROPIC TETRAHEDRAL MESHES
T.J. Baker and J.C. Vassberg
(1) - Dept. of Mech. and Aerospace Engineering. Princeton University. E-mail : baker@tornado.princeton.edu (2) - Geometricon, LLC and Hydro-Aero Consulting Group. E-mail : jcv@hydroaero.com

ABSTRACT
The tetrahedral mesh generator GTO (Generation of Tetrahedra and Optimization) exploits a Delaunay triangulation technique, edge/face swapping procedures to reconstruct the boundary surface, and a combination of circum-center point insertion plus mesh optimization to create meshes whose tetrahedral elements display a consistently high quality [1]. OTO is now a key component in Pointwise's software Gridgen and has been ported to several different Unix platforms as well as NT windows. The mesh generator has proved to be robust and versatile. In this paper we will discuss a number of aspects whose resolution and implementation have significantly improved the flexibility and capability of the OTO mesh generator. These include: 1) A priori mesh size estimates. We will describe an algorithm to estimate the mesh size and hence memory allocation required when computing a volume mesh of tetrahedra for a given boundary surface triangulation. These estimates enable one to implement dynamic memory allocation in an efficient manner by significantly reducing the number of calls for further memory allocation. 2) Non-manifold boundary surfaces. The presence of membrane surfaces (triangular facets that represent internal barriers having mesh tetrahedra on both sides), and also the possibility of multiple components joining at common edges or vertices, complicates the data structure requirements for manipulating the boundary triangulation. A linked list data structure has been implemented to store and manipulate these more general boundary components in an efficient manner. 3) Anisotropic meshing. For many problems the presence of singular features such as shockwaves, boundary layers and cracks requires a mesh that is highly stretched in a particular direction. Although there is still some controversy about the stability and accuracy of finite element computations with highly stretched tetrahedra, we believe that tetrahedral meshes are very satisfactory for many applications exhibiting anisotropy provided there are no large angles. To achieve a good quality stretched mesh that avoids large dihedral angles, we combine a point placement strategy in physical space with an affine transformation of the metric used for the Delaunay in-sphere test. The placement of points in physical space at locations normal to the boundary of the singularity allows one to maintain precise
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control over the position of the mesh nodes. On the other hand, the use of a modified metric in the Delaunay test ensures good connectivity with a layered arrangement of tetrahedra in the region of anisotropy. The paper will discuss these various aspects in detail and present a number of examples to demonstrate their implementation in the GTO software.

REFERENCES
[1] T.J.Baker and J.C.Vassberg, "Tetrahedral Mesh Generation and Optimization" ,Proc. 6th Int. Conf. Numerical Grid Generation, (ed. M.Cross et al.), Greenwich, UK, July 1998, pp 337-349

GENERATION OF NON-ISOTROPIC UNSTRUCTURED GRIDS VIA DIRECTIONAL ENRICHMENT


R. Lohner and J. Cebral
(1) - Inst. for Comp. Sciences & Informatics. George Mason University. E-mail : rlohner@science.gmu.edu (2) - Lab for Computational Fluid Dynamics. George Mason University. E-mail : jcebral@science.gmu.edu

ABSTRACT
The generation of isotropic unstructured grids has reached a fairly mature state, as evidenced by the many publications that have appeared over the last decade on this subject and the widespread use of unstructured grids in industry. The two most widely used techniques are the advancing front technique and the Delaunay triangulation. Hybrid schemes, that combine an advancing front point placement with the Delaunay reconnection have also been used successfully. These isotropic mesh generation techniques tend to fail when attempting to generate highly stretched elements, a key requirement for Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) calculations with turbulence models that reach into the sublayer. A number of specialized schemes have been proposed to remedy this situation. The domain to be gridded was divided into isotropic and stretched element regions. In addition, a blending procedure to transition smoothly between these zones was provided. Typically, the stretched mesh region was generated first. Although we have used such an "advancing layers" scheme for a number of years, we have found several situations in which the requirement of a semi - structured element or point placement close to wetted surfaces is impossible. This is especially the case for points with multiple surface normals, implying that either special procedures have to be invoked or the construction of a grid with non-negative elements is impossible. In view of these difficulties, which tend to surface as the level of geometrical complexity increases, a new procedure was developed, which may be summarized as follows: - Generate an isotropic mesh; this can be done with any unstructured grid generator; - Remove all points in regions where stretched elements are to be generated; - Using a constrained Delaunay technique, introduce points in order to generate highly stretched elements; - Introduce the points in ascending level of stretching, i.e. from the domain interior to the boundary. This procedure has the following advantages: - No surface recovery is required for the Delaunay reconnection, eliminating the most problematic part of this technique; - Proper meshing of concave ridges/corners is obtained; - The meshing of concave ridges/corners requires no extra work; - Meshing problems due to surface curvature are minimized; - In principle, no CAD representation of the surface is required; and - It guarantees a final mesh, an essential requirement for automation. The disadvantages are the following: - As with any Delaunay technique, the mesh quality is extremely sensitive to point placement. This new RANS gridding technique has been operational for the last year, and has been used for a number of complex geometries. The present paper reports on improvements and extensions that have been incorporated over the last year. These recent developments have significantly improved the quality of grids generated, as well as the range of applicability of the technique.

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BOUNDARY SENSITIVE MESH GENERATION USING AN OFFSETTING TECHNIQUE


J. Krause and W. Fichtner
(1) - Integrated Systems Laboratory. ETH Zurich. E-mail : jens.krause@iis.ee.ethz.ch (2) - Integrated Systems Laboratory. ETH-Zentrum. E-mail : fw@iis.ee.ethz.ch

ABSTRACT
In the simulation of semiconductor processes and devices it can be necessary to generate surface parallel meshes. One important examples is electron current flow along the silicon surface underneath a gate. It is desired beneficial in terms of accuracy to have rather long mesh edges parallel and rather small edges orthogonal to those currents. For most of the devices quadtree techniques have been used with big success [1]. If the interface is not axis aligned an quadtree based approach does not generate meshes of this quality, resulting in a larger numerical error. We present here a modified advancing front generator, that inserts surface parallel mesh lines; the interior of the region is filled with layers of nearly rectangular quadrilaterals, and not triangles as in conventional advancing front generators. Here we follow references [2] and [3], but we use a different point location scheme, in that sense that the opposite face of the quadrilateral is kept parallel if possible. At each layer the marching distance is increased by a coarsening factor; refinement is therefore controlled by the initial marching distance and the coarsening factor. A maximum edge length is guaranteed. As it turns out the final mesh quality depends on the initial boundary discretization. Especially at areas of high curvature a fine grid is necessary. The generation of offsetting layers stops when the front intersects itself and the remaining polygon is triangulated. As a final step the mesh is converted to a Delaunay conforming mesh by swapping edges and inserting points. In this algorithm a set of edges is restricted from being swapped; beside the interface edges these are the parallel edges in the offsetting process. The implementation in two dimensions has been tested successfully in device simulations. In order to resolve internally boundary layers, e.g. steep doping gradients in a process simulation we can incorporate an appropriate set of isolines into the initial front.

REFERENCES
[1] G. Garreton, "A Hybrid Approach to 2D and 3D Mesh Generation for Semiconductor Device Simulation", PhD thesis, Integrated Systems Laboratory, ETH Zurich, 1999 [2] B.P. Johnston, J.M. Sullivan, "Fully Automatic two dimensional mesh generation using normal offsetting", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 1992, Vol. 33, 425 - 442 [3] T.D. Blacker, M.B. Stephenson , "Paving: A New Approach to Automated Quadrilateral Mesh Generation", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 1991, Vol. 32, 811 - 847

MESH QUALITY AND CONTROL IN BOUNDARY LAYER MESH GENERATION FOR VISCOUS FLOWS
R.V. Garimella and M.S. Shephard
(1) - SCOREC. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. E-mail : garimell@scorec.rpi.edu (2) - Dept. of Civil and Env. Engineering. Brigham Young University. E-mail : shepjas@gere.et.byu.edu

ABSTRACT
Simulation of viscous flows exhibits strong directionality of gradients. To capture the solution characteristics of these flows with a manageable number of elements, anisotropic meshes are needed in boundary layers and free shear layers. These simulations also require careful control over the sizes, gradation, anisotropy and quality of elements in the mesh.
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The Generalized Advancing Layers Method has been developed as a mesh generation technique providing such control for the generation of boundary layer meshes. In addition, the mesh generator is designed to reliably generate boundary layer mesh for large, arbitrarily complex, non-manifold domains. The procedure starts from a surface mesh and constructs highly stretched anisotropic meshes next to surfaces expected to carry boundary layers. The rest of the domain is filled with an isotropic mesh created by a general mesh generator. The Generalized Advancing Layers Method, in conjunction with the surface mesh generator, the volume mesh generator and mesh optimization techniques, is able to create multimillion element meshes with good control of meshes. The paper focuses on the constructs and techniques for mesh control for boundary layer mesh generation. The issues of validity assurance using concepts of multiple growth curves and topological compatibility checks are discussed. Concepts of blend elements to inherently improve mesh quality are described. Various techniques for a-priori and a-posteriori mesh quality improvement in the boundary layer mesh are also dealt with. The paper discusses issues that arise in combining a highly anisotropic boundary layer mesh with an isotropic mesh. In particular, techniques for shielding the stretched faces of the anisotropic mesh from the isotropic mesh. Finally, the discussion focuses on strategies for controlling the boundary layer mesh to account for changing flow characteristics over surfaces. Results of mesh generation are presented to demonstrate the viability of meshing complex domains while providing good control over the mesh. Two example simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method in capturing viscous flow phenomena (a) Laminar flow over a flat plate (b) Turbulent flow in a sharply expanding pipe.

TRIANGULATION OF ARBITRARY POLYHEDRA


B.K. Karamete, M.W. Beall and M.S. Shephard
(1) - (SCOREC) Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). E-mail : kaan@scorec.rpi.edu (2) - Scientific Computation Research Center (SCOREC). E-mail : kaan@scorec.rpi.edu (3) - Dept. of Civil and Env. Engineering. Brigham Young University. E-mail : shepjas@gere.et.byu.edu

ABSTRACT
In this study, an algorithm is developed for the triangulation of arbitrary non-convex complex polyhedral regions (cavities) with prescribed boundaries. The boundary of a cavity is specified by a set of triangular mesh faces which bound an empty region. The algorithm is needed for completing the volume meshing process of difficult complex sub-domains. Recovery of the boundary of an arbitrary polyhedra is not an easy task. In some cases recovery of the boundary facets will require inserting extra vertices, but mesh quality and algorithm robustness demand that the number of inserted vertices be kept to a minimum. To address this need, a robust Delaunay algorithm with an efficient face recovery method is the most appropriate approach. The algorithm begins with Delaunay vertex insertion which is followed by a face recovery method that conserves the boundary of the cavity by utilizing local mesh modification operations such as edge split, collapse and swap. The face recovery algorithm takes into account the geometric intersections between the Delaunay mesh of the cavity and the boundary facets. To integrate the cavity mesh into the previously meshed portion of the domain a merging algorithm, which ensures geometrical and topological compatibility, is applied. The algorithm is robust and had been tested against complex manifold and non-manifold cavities. Although the algorithm is designed to be applicable for difficult sub-domain meshing, the complete volume mesh prescribed by surface triangulation can be meshed by the present algorithm. Therefore, if the model is composed of non-manifold parts, the cavity meshing procedure can be applied consecutively to each non-manifold region represented by triangular surface mesh faces. The computational tips of 3D Delaunay triangulation are also described in the context to clarify the issues that makes the algorithm robust such as numerical instability, searching the location of to-be inserted vertex and Delaunay degeneracy.

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THREE DIMENSIONAL MESH GENERATION USING A DELTAHEDRAL BUILDING BLOCK FOR ANATOMICALLY ACCURATE BIOLOGICAL MODELS
J.Q. Zhang and J.M. Sullivan Jr.
(1) - Baystate Technologies (2) - Mechanical Engineering Department. Worcester Polytechnic Institute. E-mail : sullivan@wpi.edu

ABSTRACT
A fully automatic 3D mesh generation approach is presented. It is capable of describing arbitrary complex geometries exhibiting concave, convex, and planar surfaces. A major advancement in this work is the development of a deltahedral building block for mesh generation. This building block unit creates a higher percentage of regular shaped tetrahedron mesh elements compared to existing strategies. A second critical advancement described herein is our ability to refine locally N levels without reducing the overall mesh quality. The validity of this new mesh generation strategy and implementation is demonstrated via the numerous anatomically accurate models presented. These models include up to 15 distinct material regions; bone, muscle, adipose tissue, bladder, etc. Within each of these models the arbitrary nature of the physical boundaries is evident. Multiple material boundaries are preserved in each mesh with fidelity.

ON THE PARALLELIZATION OF GUARANTEED-QUALITY 3D DELAUNAY MESH GENERATORS


N. Chrisochoides and D. Nave
(1) - Computer Science & Engineering. University of Notre Dame (2) - Computer Science & Engineering. University of Notre Dame. E-mail : Demian.M.Nave.2@nd.edu

ABSTRACT
In this paper we address basic problems related to the correctness and efficiency of parallel mesh generators based on 3D sequential, quality-guarantee, Delaunay tetrahelization algorithms. We discuss their solution under different computational characteristics: synchronization, strictness, and concurrency. We analyze the complexity and performance of implementations that appear to solve these problems. Finally, based on our experience, we explore possible new approaches for developing efficient parallel 3D mesh generators that maintain the same high-quality as the existing sequential ones. The Bowyer-Watson (B-W) kernel has been used successfully by Chew and Ruppert to generate guaranteed-quality meshes for 2D domains, and by Shewchuk for 3D piecewise linear complexes (under certain constraints). Variations of this kernel have been used by many others; the main difference between the various algorithms is in the treatment of the domain boundaries (constraints). Traditionally, the B-W kernel is parallelized using domain decomposition; the challenge then is to maintain the Delaunay property across the boundaries of the subdomains. The main step in the B-W kernel, cavity expansion, is based on a breadth-first search over the mesh's data structures; sequentially, this is a very simple task to accomplish. In parallel, however, cavity construction becomes much more difficult, since cavities may extend across the boundaries (interfaces) separating adjacent regions of the mesh. The expansion of these multi-region (MR) cavities can be synchronous or asynchronous, either halting or allowing the creation of new cavities in regions participating in the cavity expansion. In an asynchronous implementation, it is possible for MR cavities to intersect (share tetrahedra or faces with) local cavities or other MR cavities, which can result in a non-Delaunay retetrahedralization of the intersecting cavities. We analyze the possible intersection cases with respect to four different computational models, and study their impact on (1) the correctness of the algorithm, (2) the resulting concurrency, and (3) the setbacks in the progress of the algorithm. In addition to the difficulties of cavities which extend over multiple regions, problems with correctly updating a region in the face of concurrency also arise. For example, in a straightforward asynchronous/strict parallelization of Shewchuk's conforming constrained Delaunay tetrahedralization algorithm, one must do away with the ordering on the splitting of edges, faces, and elements called for by
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the original algorithm. Not only is mesh quality affected by this change, but neither the correctness of the resulting mesh, nor the termination of the algorithm, can be proved. These problems exemplify the need for the creation of a wholly new parallel algorithm for Delaunay mesh generation. While the parallelization of an existing algorithm seems appropriate at first glance, our experience shows that there is a need for the creation of purely parallel algorithm. This new algorithm will be developed keeping in mind the errors, the inconsistencies, and the inefficiencies that arise due to concurrency. The complexity and the performance of our current parallel implementation clearly demonstrate the need for such an algorithm. Our results also show that parallel Delaunay meshing based on the B-W kernel is a foreseeable goal, although much work remains to be done to realize an efficient guaranteed - quality parallel mesh generator.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
CISE Challenge on Crack Propagation for Teraflop Computers, NSF grant #9726388

DYNAMIC BUBBLE SYSTEM: AN AUTOMATIC MESH GENERATION SYSTEM FOR 2D AND 3D FINITE ELEMENT MESH GENERATION IN ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD COMPUTATIONS
V. Cingoski, T. Yokoyama and H. Yamashita
(1) - Electric Machinery Laboratory, Hiroshima Univerisity. E-mail : vlatko@eml.hiroshima-u.ac.jp (2) - Electric Machinery Lab., Faculty of Engineering Hiroshima Univerisity. E-mail : vlatko@eml.hiroshima-u.ac.jp

ABSTRACT
A large number of methods and techniques for automatic mesh generation have already been proposed, among which the ideas based on the so called Voronoidiagram and the Delaunay algorithm seem best suited for finite element mesh generation [1]. However, for the Delaunay tessellation algorithm to be employed, one must have a set of nodes which are optimally distributed inside the analysis domain. The authors recently developed a new method for automatic mesh generation in 2D and 3D space based on dynamics of the bubbles according to the Second Newton's Law of Dynamics [2]. The proposed method features setting a small number of initial data for meshing at several typical points inside the domain, such as vertices that bounds the entire domain. Later, using simple functions, we compute centers and radii of each bubble. After filling the entire analysis domain with bubbles which are defined three parameters: coordinates of a center, mass and radius, a set of dynamic forces will act on each bubble causing bubbles to move inside the analysis domain. These movements are performed until the stable condition for the entire dynamic system of bubbles is achieved. Afterwards, each center of an existing bubble becomes one vertex of the finite element mesh which is generated utilizing the Delaunay tessellation algorithm over this set of vertices. The main features of the proposed dynamic bubble mesh generation system are: - Easy applicable for meshing complex geometrical domains; - Requires very small amount of input data for meshing; - Generates meshes with graded mesh density control, which is easily regulated with setting a small initial bubble radius around nodes where dense mesh is required, and opposite, setting a large initial bubble radius at a node results in coarse mesh density around that node; - Provides easy regulation of the nodes distribution according to the user defined functions. Since we use this method in connection with electromagnetic field computations where the field potential drops exponentially, using exponential functions enables almost optimal distributions of nodes and elements for a given problem. For different problems, different node distribution functions can be used; - provides finite elements with very good quality - almost equilateral triangles or tetrahedrons; - easy extendable for adaptive mesh generations.

REFERENCES
[1] D. N. Shenton and Z. J. Cendes, "Three-Dimensional Finite Element Mesh Generation Using Delaunay Tessellation", IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, November 1985, Vol. 21, No. 6, pp.2535-2538. [2] V. Cingoski , R. Murakawa, K. Kaneda and H. Yamashita , "Automatic mesh generation in finite element analysis using dynamic bubble system", Journal of Applied Physics, 15 April 1997, Vol. 81, No. 8, Part 2, pp. 4085 4087.
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BITING: ADVANCING FRONT MEETS SPHERE PACKING


X.Y. Li, S.H. Teng and A. Ungor
(1) - Department of Computer Science. University of Illinois at Urbana. E-mail : xli2@cs.uiuc.edu (2) - Computer Science. University of Illinois. E-mail : steng@cs.uiuc.edu (3) - Computer Science Department. University of Illinois. E-mail : ungor@cs.uiuc.edu

ABSTRACT
A key step in the finite element method is to generate a high quality mesh that is as small as possible for an input domain. Several meshing methods and heuristics have been developed and implemented. Methods based on advancing front, Delaunay triangulations,and quadtrees/octrees are among the most popular ones. Advancing front uses simple data structures and is efficient. Unfortunately, in general, it does not provide any guarantee on the size and quality of the mesh it produces. On the other hand, the sphere - packing based Delaunay methods generate a well - shaped mesh whose size is within a constant factor of the optimal. In this paper, we present a new meshing algorithm, the biting method, which combines the strengths of advancing front and sphere packing. In this paper, we show that the advancing front method can be used to efficiently construct a quality sphere-packing. At a high level, this new advancing front based packing algorithm first finds a sphere packing of the boundary of the domain and then grows the packing towards the interior of the domain. Each time when a new sphere is added to the interior, a larger protection sphere is removed (bitten away) from the domain so that no future sphere will overlap with this one. By doing this, it builds the sphere packing by adding spheres one at a time, or a layer at a time, in the same spirit as the standard advancing method; our new method uses advancing front to construct a sphere packing instead of the mesh elements themselves. We show that this advancing front based method does generate a well - spaced point set, whose Delaunay triangulation is well-shaped. We will refer this new method as the biting method and show that it can be made as practical as the standard advancing front meshing methods. Biting sphere at a point x is B(x, c*h(x)), where c is a constant less than 1. At this point, we should note that biting spheres are different from the packing spheres due to technical reasons that will be discussed in full paper. Usually advancing front is represented as a circular list of already placed points. In our method, it is represented as a set of arcs and boundary segments. We always choose the next Steiner point on the front itself. In other words, the front itself is a subset of the feasible region for the selection of new mesh vertices, making it easier to choose the next point. This makes the placement step easier. The intersection of two arcs or an arc and a boundary segment provides a good candidate for a new Steiner point, whose biting sphere will reduce the interior. Isn't this the way we take a bite on a biscuit or an apple? We center our bite more or less around a sharpest nose. Then bite after bite, we eat away the boundary of the food and move to its interior. The basic idea of the biting method is to first compute the control spacing function of the mesh. We then try to find a point set by constructing a sphere packing with respect to the spacing function. For making sure that the biting process results in a sphere packing, we use the following simple idea: at every step, we choose a center on the advancing front and remove its biting sphere The removal of its biting sphere ensures that the future packing spheres will not intersect with the packing sphere of this center. The Delaunay triangulation is then used to generate the mesh from the resulting sphere packing. Noting that, for protecting the boundary of the input domain, we use the vertex protection and edge protection to ensure that the boundary element is well-shaped. For more detail, please see the full paper. We show that biting method generates a well-shaped mesh. Moreover, the size of this mesh is within a constant factor of the optimal. For the first claim we prove that the points placed by the biting method is well-spaced. In other words, there exists a b-sphere-packing (based on this point set) with respect to a 1-Lipschitz spacing function f. Second claim follows from the maximality of the spacing function and a volume argument. Although biting method uses the advancing front technique to bite the spheres from the domain, it is not necessary to always bite from the boundary of the remaining domain. A biting strategy that picks a sphere centered at any point in the remaining domain still results a sphere - packing and hence a wellshaped mesh. However the biting method proposed in this paper is an easy way to place the biting spheres
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and, to our intuition, practically promises better -shaped meshes. The effectiveness of our method will be supplemented by the experimental results.

REFERENCES
[1] M.Bern, S.Mitchell and J.Ruppert, "Linear-size non-obtuse triangulation of polygons", Proc. of 10th Symp. on Computational Geometry, New York, 221-230, 1994. [2] T.D.Blacker, Paving, "A new approach to automated quadrilateral mesh generation", Int. Jour. for Numerical Methods in Eng., 32:811-847, 1991. [3] X.-Y.Li, S.-H.Teng and A.Ungor, "Simultaneous refinement and coarsening: adaptive meshing with moving boundaries", Proc. 7th Int. Meshing Roundtable, Dearborn, Mich., 201-210, 1998.

AN ALGORITHM FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL MESH GENERATION FOR ARBITRARY REGIONS WITH CRACKS
J.B. Cavalcante Neto, P.A. Wawrzynek, M.T. Carvalho, L.F. Martha and A.R. Ingraffea
(2) - Civil & Environmental Engineering. Cornell University. E-mail : paw4@cornell.edu (3) - Cornell Fracture Group. Cornell University (4) - Civil & Environmental Engineering. Cornell University. E-mail : paw4@cornell.edu

ABSTRACT
This paper describes an algorithm for generating unstructured tetrahedral meshes for arbitrarily shaped regions. The algorithm works for regions without cracks, as well as for regions with one or multiple cracks. The algorithm incorporates aspects of well known meshing procedures and includes some original steps. It includes an advancing front technique, but uses an octree procedure to develop local guidelines for the size of generated elements. The advancing front technique is based on a standard procedure found in the literature with two additional steps to ensure valid volume mesh generation for virtually any domain. To improve mesh quality (as far as element shape is concerned), an a posteriori local mesh improvement procedure is used. The algorithm was designed to meet four specific requirements. First, the algorithm should produce well shaped elements, avoiding elements with poor aspect ratios, if possible. While the algorithm does not guarantee bounds on element aspect ratios, care is taken at each step to generate the best shaped elements possible. The second requirement is that the algorithm generates a mesh that conforms to an existing triangular mesh on the boundary of the region. This is important in the context of crack growth simulation because it allows remeshing to occur locally in a region near a growing crack. Many of the other meshing algorithms described in the literature generate the mesh on a region's boundary along with the volume mesh. As implied above, for the present algorithm a surface mesh is a required input. We do not consider this a significant limitation, however, because there are a number of good surface triangular mesh generators which can be used to generate the required surface mesh. The third requirement of the algorithm is that it has the ability to transition well between regions with elements of very different sizes. In a crack analysis, it is not uncommon for the elements near the crack front to be two orders of magnitude smaller than other elements in the problem. The fourth requirement is the specific modeling capability for handling cracks. This requirement arises because cracks are usually idealized as having no volume. That is, the surfaces representing the two sided of a crack face are distinct, but geometrically coincident. This means that nodes on opposite sides of crack faces may have identical coordinates. The algorithm must be able to discriminate between the nodes and select the one on the proper crack face.

AN ADAPTIVE UNSTRUCTURED MESH METHOD FOR TRANSIENT FLOWS INVOLVING MOVING BOUNDARIES

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L.B. Bayne, O. Hassan, K. Morgan and N.P. Weatherill


(1) - Department of Civil Engineering University of Wales Swansea. E-mail : O.Hassan@swansea.ac.uk (2) - Department of Civil Engineering. University of Wales Swansea. E-mail : O.Hassan@swansea.ac.uk (3) - Department of Civil Engineering. University of Wales Swansea. E-mail : K.Morgan@swansea.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
Unstructured mesh methods are now widely employed for the simulation of steady 3D aerodynamic flows involving complex geometrical configurations. The attractive features of the approach are the ease with which domains of arbitrary geometrical shape can be meshed and the ability to incorporate mesh adaptivity in a natural and straightforward manner. As confidence in the approach increases, researchers are beginning to turn their attention to the possibility of extending its range of application. In this paper, we will consider one such extension to the simulation of transient inviscid compressible flows with moving boundary components. The spatial domain is discretised into a mesh of linear tetrahedral elements, with the initial discretisation being achieved by a Delaunay approach, with automatic point creation [1]. To enhance the efficiency of the resulting computational procedure, an edge based representation of the mesh is adopted [2]. The unsteady Euler equations are spatially discretised using a Galerkin method, with stabilisation and discontinuity capturing achieved by the adoption of a numerical flux function of JST form. The solution is advanced in time by an explicit multi-stage scheme. The implementation of the resulting procedure in a manner likely to produce results within acceptable timescales is a significant challenge. Parallelisation of the approach and the use of a parallel computing platform, such as the CRAY T3D, is one method of addressing this problem. Another promising way to achieve good speed up whilst maintaining the time accuracy is to employ a domain decomposition technique [3]. Instead of using a single timestep throughout the computational domain, it will be shown that the elements can be grouped according to the maximum allowable timestep size and be advanced independently within each group. It will be demonstrated that a high level of efficiency can be accomplished by the use of an appropriate domain decomposition procedure. To allow for boundary movement, the mesh has to be modified as the solution progresses. Different possible methods of achieving this are considered and the approach adopted involves mesh movement with local mesh regeneration. An important feature in the success of the algorithm is to ensure local boundary recovery during the mesh regeneration. Mesh adaptation is also employed to enhance the definition of moving flow features, such as shocks. A number of different examples will be presented which demonstrate the numerical performance of the proposed approach in the transonic range, including the transient 3D inviscid simulation of the separation of a shuttle vehicle from its booster. The procedures have also been applied to the simulation of the unsteady flow over an oscillating B60 aircraft configuration, consisting of wings, pylons and powered engines. The initial mesh consists of 745198 elements and 135760 nodes and the starting condition is the converged steady state solution obtained in the absence of oscillation. Figure 1 shows the computed pressure contour distributions on the aircraft surface at different times during the second cycle of the computation. Tables 1 and 2 show the performance statistics achieved for the oscillating B60 using two domain decomposition methods. (Figure and tables omitted)

MESH GENERATION AND MESH ADAPTATION BY MESH TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION


T. Coupez
(1) - cole Nationale Suprieure des Mines de Paris. E-mail : thierry.coupez@cemef.cma.fr

ABSTRACT
The work presented here is in continuation of the work of the author concerning the 3D remeshing (tetrahedral elements) in forming processes [1-4]. Some examples will be given of remeshing in 3D large deformation calculation using a Lagrangian descritption and a convected mesh and dealing with unilateral contact condition. These examples will show the robustness of a particular meshing method.
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The theoretical aspect of this meshing method will be addressed. It is based on a new definition of a mesh which is introduced using a geometrical result based on a minimal volume principle. The equivalence between this definition and the classical one is proven. The mesh topology can be defined independently of the geometry and can be changed locally with respect to topological rules only. Then, it is shown that non conform meshes can be optimized in order to recover a conform mesh, giving rise to a simple mesh generation method. The theoretical hypothesis behind the cut paste operation in a mesh topology are specified. The generic form of the global optimization algorithm will be presented; it is based on the combination of local improvement of the neighborhood of the nodes and the edges. The performance of the mesh generator will be discussed on complex examples providing the speed of performing a mesh without internal node and respecting exactly a given surface mesh. The mehing method is also designed to improve a mesh, by optimising a a mesh quality function and by inserting internal node. The surface and the volume remeshing can be strongly coupled. For that purpose, a layer of virtual boundary elements is introduced which closes the mesh. The boundary faces can be treated as internal, the geometrical constraint being to maintain a null volume to the virtual elements. A mesh size map can be introduced directly in the shape factor of elements. The mesh optimization of the modified shape factor provides implicitly the adapted mesh. Finally the adaptation cycle is presented, which consists in computing a mesh size map on the current mesh, to adapt the mesh, to compute again the mesh size map and to adapt again until a convergence state is reached. Examples in static and dynamic adaptation will be given.

REFERENCES
[1] T.Coupez. "A mesh improvement method for 3d automatic remeshing",, In N. P. Weatherill et al., editor, Numerical Grid Generation in Computational Fluid Dynamics and Related Fields, pages 615 - 626. Pineridge Press, 1994. [2] T.Coupez, "Automatic remeshing in three-dimensional moving mesh finite element analysis of industrial forming" in Shan-Fu Shen et al., editor, Numerical Methods in Industrial Forming Processes - NUMIFORM 95,pp 407412. A.A. Balkema, 1995. [3] T.Coupez, "Parallel adaptive remeshing in 3d moving mesh finite element", In B.K. Soni et al., editor, Numerical Grid Generation in Computational Field Simulations, volume 1, pp 783 - 792. Mississipi State University, 1996. [4] T.Coupez, "Adaptive meshing for forming processes", In M. Cross et al, editor, Numerical Grid Generation in Computational Field Simulation. U. of Greenwich, Mississipi State University, July 1998.

SURFACE REMESHING BY LOCAL HERMITE DIFFUSE INTERPOLATION


A. Rassineux, J.M. Savignat, O. Stab and P. Villon
(1) - Universite de Technologie de Compiegne. E-mail : alain.rassineux@utc.fr (2) - Universite de Technologie de Compiegne Laboratoire (3) - Centre de Gotechnique et d'Exploitation du Sous-sol Ecole des Mines de Paris. E-mail : stab@cges.ensmp.fr

ABSTRACT
We propose a method to build a three dimensional adapted surface mesh with respect to a mesh size map driven by surface curvature. The data needed to optimize the mesh have been reduced to an initial mesh. The building of a local geometrical model but continuous over the whole domain is based on a local Hermite diffuse interpolation calculated from the nodes of the initial mesh and from the normal vectors to the surface. The whole mesh optimization procedure can be described as follows: Singularities such as sharp edges, contour lines and singular points are identified. The geometrical support is build by a weighted least squares approximation method on a local window denoted as diffuse approximation. In our case, interpolating weights have been chosen. The objective is to determine a local surface equation (second degree) using the nodes of the initial mesh and the normals to the surface calculated from the mesh. The interpolating nodes belong to the set of elements sharing at least one node with the element that includes the point where we calculate the interpolation. Local coordinates are calculated by projection on an average plane. Our goal is to measure the maximun bending of the surface by calculating the principal curvatures given by the fundamental forms on a Monge patch z = f(x,y). This measure is linked to our geometrical error estimator. The diffuse interpolation leads to the minimization of a criterion which is provided by nodal interpolation and
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colinearity of normal vectors. The minimization leads to solve a linear system in order to determine the coefficients of the surface. The determination of a local equation enables us to locate nodes on the surface and on the contours with respect to the curvature during a refinement process. It also allows us to control the coarsening of the mesh. An error estimator measuring the accuracy with which the mesh describes the geometry has been used. The error is given by determining an approximate deformation gradient tensor between a reference configuration and the current configuration. Mesh optimization procedures based on optimum mesh size are carried out in an iterative process. The method involves extracting sub-shells from the surface mesh which are then remeshed to improve their quality.

REFERENCES
[1] Nayroles B., Touzot G., Villon P., " L'approximation diffuse", C.R. Acad. Sci, Paris 313, s,rie II, pp 293-296, 1991 [2] A. Rassineux , "Generation and optimization of tetrahedral meshes by advancing front technique", International journal for numerical methods in engineering, vol 41, pp 651-674, 1998.

LONGEST-EDGE ALGORITHMS: NON-DEGENERACY PROPERTIES IN 3 DIMENSIONS


M.C. Rivara and A. Plaza
(1) - Department of Computer Science. University of Chile. E-mail : mcrivara@dcc.uchile.cl (2) - Departamento de Matematicas Univ. de las Palmas de Gran Canaria. E-mail : angel@dma.ulpgc.es

ABSTRACT
Longest-edge algorithms have become useful and flexible mathematical tools not only for the quality refinement of quality unstructured triangulations but also for the improvement of bad-quality Delaunay meshes [Rivara, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 1997]. However until 1998, there had not been mathematical results available guaranteeing the non-degeneracy properties of the 3 -dimensional mesh. The first nondegeneracy properties on a 3-dimensional refinement algorithm (fill-ing a gap in the theory) are discussed in this paper. These have been obtained by studying an 8-tetrahedra longest-edge algorithm which generalizes the 4 triangles longest-edge refinement algorithm. Statistical and fractal nondegeneracy properties over this 3D refinement algorithm have been proved: (1) the asymptotic average number of tetrahedra surrounding each vertex is equal to 24; (2) the number of tetrahedra sourrounding each fixed vertex remains constant after a few local itera-tive refinement around such vertex; and (3) the algorithm improves each triangular face produced as the refinement proceeds. Empirical study not only supports these results but also shows that, consistently throughout the refinement levels both the distribution of quality tetrahedra and the volume percentage covered by better tetra-hedra tend to be improved, and that the distribution of the number of tetrahedra surrounding each vertex tends to have a constant standard deviation around a mean value that rapidly approaches the asymptotic value.

SPECIFIC FEATURES OF FE-MESHES USED IN LAGRANGE FORMULATION FOR THE ANALYSIS OF METAL FORMING PROCESSES
E. Doege and J. Meinen
(1) - Universitaet Hannover. E-mail : meinen@office.ifum.uni-hannover.de (2) - Universitaet Hannover. E-mail : meinen@office.ifum.uni-hannover.de

ABSTRACT

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Due to steadily increasing demands on die forging industry, the process simulation is of continuously importance. The Finite Element Method (FEM) is frequently used to simulate forming processes for the purpose of predicting the quality of the final product and the loading on the tool. Most forging processes reduce the original height of the workpiece by 60-70 percent. Therefore, considerable distortions of the finite element mesh occur and some elements can even degenerate. Consequently, the results obtained are unreliable and it may even be impossible to pursue the calculation any further. In order to continue the analysis for such large deformations, it becomes necessary to define a new mesh during the FE Simulation (remeshing) and the values of the field variables (stress, velocities, etc.) must be transferred to the new mesh elements (rezoning). The numerical results are depending on the element shape, so it is important to have a good quality mesh to become reliable results. If in a meshing-algorithm, the element length depends on geometrical and/or numerical criteria, it is called an adaptive meshing. So, one needs a small element length where the gradients of the field variables are big and vice versa. In the numerical simulation of bulk metal forming processes the gradients are normally big at the workpiece surface and at part details with small dimensions. A priori one should use a mesh with fine elements on the surface and bigger elements in the inner site of the workpiece. Also, the meshing-module has to be robust, conform, work automatically and should be able to mesh any kind of geometry, because of the different shapes of the workpiece during the simulation. It is very important that there is nearly no change of volume during the remeshing. A general automatic, adaptive meshing procedure for 2D problems, which takes into account the issues described above, has been developed at the Institute of Metal Forming and Metal Forming Machine Tools (IFUM). It can be used to remesh a deformed mesh as well as to generate the initial one. The meshing module is based on triangle-elements. Some metal forming examples should be shown and discussed. Next, we present a meshing-module for 3D geometry based on tetrahedron - elements. This kind of element is particularly well suited to describe a complex geometry. The 3D meshing-module employs an optimised algorithm to create automatically, adaptive mesh with good quality elements. The input requirement is a discrete description by a grid of triangular facets of the surface of the part to be meshed. Based on this surface grid, the meshing-algorithm creates automatically a new volume mesh, which has optimised features for the analysis of metal forming processes.

MESH GENERATION FOR HP-TYPE FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF PLATES


S.M. Holzer
(1) - Informationsverarbeitung im Konstruktiven Ingenieurbau. E-mail : stefan.holzer@po.uni-stuttgart.de

ABSTRACT
It is possible to obtain exponential convergence in error norm in the numerical analysis of plate bending problems based on Reissner-Mindlin theory when p-extension is performed on a mesh which takes proper care of nonsmooth influences in the exact solution. Emphasis is on good a priori mesh design. Proper mesh design includes point refinements for point singularities. This part of the problem is standard. However, in addition to point singularities, the Reissner-Mindlin theory is characterized by boundary layer effects, most significantly a boundary layer in the shear force on soft simply supported and free edges. Anisotropic mesh refinement is essential for regaining exponential convergence under these circumstances. The corresponding boundary refinements have to be carried out before generating the rest of the mesh. Strategies for combining point and boundary refinements will also be discussed. Apart from these local refinements, the mesh ought to be as coarse as possible. This means in essence that the required mesh density is mainly governed by the edge size of the original structure. Curved edges will be mapped by blending function techniques and therefore pose no extra problem. We discuss how to generate a mesh that is, apart from the refinements mentioned before, "purely quadrilateral and as coarse as possible". The basic strategy is advancing front meshing, combining two triangular elements into one quadrilateral "on the fly". In order to control the meshing algorithm, an additional uniform fine triangular background mesh ("carelessly" created) is used which provides the required local mesh densities. A smooth density distribution is generated by solving an auxiliary problem on the background mesh. The auxiliary problem is a Dirichlet problem of the Laplacian where the boundary data correspond to the required edge size on the boundary. This problem is solved by a fast finite element analysis using constant strain triangle elements. In addition to the local mesh density, this
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auxiliary problems provides mesh density gradients as well, which are essential in determining mesh gradation towards areas of small element size, such as around small holes or other tiny features. In addition to serving as a finite element mesh for solving the auxiliary mesh density problem, the background mesh serves at the same time as a data evaluation mesh for the result presentation and superposition of the original plate bending problem (primary problem). Therefore, the (small) amount of computer time required for generating this mesh is not lost labour, but the background mesh serves a dual purpose. In our presentation, we will also show that the computer time required for solving the auxiliary problem is negligible in comparison to the time required for solving the primary problem. The key influence on the total computational cost is creating as little primary elements as possible. In order to retrieve the mesh density infomation quickly, the nodal points of the auxiliary mesh are stored in a point quadtree. This quadtree can also be exploited for extremely fast result computation after solving the primary problem. The lecture will include a live presentation of the techniques described, demonstrating the high efficiency of the approach.

AUTOMATED GENERATION OF F.E.A. MODELS THROUGH IDEALIZATION OPERATORS


L. Fine, L. Remondini and J.C. Leon
(1) - Laboratoire Sols Solides Structures. GRENOBLE. E-mail : Lionel.Fine@hmg.inpg.fr (2) - Laboratoire Sols Solides Structures. GRENOBLE. E-mail : Laurent.Remondini@hmg.inpg.fr (3) - Laboratoire Sols Solides Structures. GRENOBLE. E-mail : Jean-Claude.Leon@hmg.inpg.fr

ABSTRACT
The use of Finite Element Analysis (F.E.A) during a design process is often restricted to validation phases because of the time needed to generate the mechanical model used for an analysis. Indeed, the generation of F.E.A. models needs a significant expertise from engineers to avoid computer resources to be wasted. To save engineers time, such models ought to be generated as automatically as possible. To this end, automatic processes that generate meshes directly from CAD data are more and more incorporated into F.E. softwares. However, these meshes are produced essentially from the geometric description of a part and do not care of specific mechanical data (i.e. boundary conditions, ...). Therefore, it is desirable to modify the geometric model through selective removal of irrelevant features. To this end, various defeaturing and dimensional reduction approaches are developed[1] [2] [3]. In the approach presented here, an automated idealization process, managed by a mechanical criterion, is described. This process, based on transformations of polyhedral geometry, allows important geometry modification including topology modification (like hole removing or dimensional reduction). Polyhedra are used as geometric representations for geometry adaption purposes because of their significant freedom for shape modifications. Indeed, modification of C.S.G or B-rep geometry is restricted by their mathematical representation, whereas polyhedral geometry, which are only defined as a set of elementary faces, edges and vertices, allows real and effective shape transformations. These idealizations are carried out through a vertex removal process Which transforms geometry of a part according to a discrete envelope defined around its initial geometry [4]. This envelope is generated from a mechanical criterion which can be based either on an a posteriori error estimator [5] [6] or on a priori estimation. The use of this criterion ensures that all geometric transformations which keep the geometry of the part within this envelope do not significantly change the results of the F.E.A. More than strictly respecting this envelop, operators used for idealization are also able to transfer specific data (like boundary conditions) from initial to idealized geometry. Such operators allow a broader automation of geometry simplification and idealization and ensure that the new geometry is more suited to the element size requirements attached to the mesh generation process. The insertion of mechanical criteria into the process of geometry adaption, as presented in this paper, adds flexibility to F.E.A. tools, thus improving their integration into the design process. This approach is illustrated and validated through an example.

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REFERENCES
[1] Anton V.Mobley, Michael P.Carroll, Scott A.Canann, "An object oriented approach to geometry defeaturing for Finite Element Meshing", 7th International Meshing Roundtable, Sandia Nationnal Laboratories, Dearborn, Michigan, October 1998. [2] C.G. Armstrong, R.J. Donaghy and S.J. Bridgett, "Derivation of appropriate Idealisations in Finite Element Modelling", the Third International Conference on Computational Structures technology, Budapest 1996. [3] S. Dey , M. S. Shephard, M. K. Georges, "Elimination of the adverse effects of small model features by the local modification of automatically generated meshes", Engineering with Computers, p134-152, 1997 [4] P. Veron, J-C. Leon, "Static polyhedron simplification using error measurements", Computer-Aided Design, Vol.. 29, No 4, pp. 287-298, 1997. [5] O.C. Zienkiewicz , J.C. Zhu, "Adaptivity and mesh generation", International Journal For Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol 32, pp 783-810, 1991. [6] P. Coorevits, P. Ladeveze , J.P Pelle, "An automatic procedure with a control of accuracy for finite element analysis in 2D elasticity", Comp. meth. in appl. mech and engng., Vol. 121, pp. 91-120, 1995

EDGE RECOVERY METHOD ON AN EXISTING SURFACE MESH FOR BOUNDARY LAYER MESHING
B.K. Karamete, R.V. Garimella and M.S. Shephard
(1) - (SCOREC) Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). E-mail : kaan@scorec.rpi.edu (2) - SCOREC. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. E-mail : garimell@scorec.rpi.edu (3) - Dept. of Civil and Env. Engineering. Brigham Young University. E-mail : shepjas@gere.et.byu.edu

ABSTRACT
This study describes an algorithm for recovering an edge which is arbitrarily inserted onto a pretriangulated surface mesh. The recovery process does not rely on the parametric space of the surface provided by the geometric modeler. The topological and geometrical validity of the surface mesh is preserved through the entire recovery process. The ability of inserting and recovering an arbitrary edge onto a surface mesh is used for boundary layer mesh generation[1]. The coupling of edge recovery and boundary layer construction process is explained. The edge recovery algorithm utilizes local surface mesh modification operations of edge swapping, collapsing and splitting. The mesh modification operations are decided by the results of pure geometrical checks such as point and line projections onto faces and faceline intersections. The accuracy of these checks on the recovery process are investigated and the substantiated precautions are devised and discussed in this study. The boundary layer mesh generation utilizing the edge recovery algorithm is demonstrated over a set of complex surface triangulations.

REFERENCES
[1]. Rao V. Garimella, Ph.D. Thesis, "Anisotropic Tetrahedral Mesh Generation", Dept. of ME and Ae. Eng. and Mechanics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 USA.

EXTENDING METRIC-BASED SURFACE MESHING TO G1-CONNECTED PATCH COMPLEXES


J. Peters
(1) - CISE, University of Florida. E-mail : jorg@cise.ufl.edu

ABSTRACT
Given a surface, or surface piece represented as a map from a two - dimensional domain to 3space, say a NURBS patch, [Chen,Bishop 97], [Cuillere 98] and [Tristano, Owen, Canann 98] have developed efficient mesh generation techniques and tools based on the metric or first fundamental form of the surface (see also [George, Borouchaki 98]).
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A recurring challenge in NURBS-based CAD systems is the smooth stitching together of such NURBS patches, each being supported on a "separate" domain, e.g. when more or less than four tensorproduct patches join at a point to form a tangent-continuous surface. (Already due to the Euler number such points must occur if the free-form surface has a topological genus other than one.) G1 - connected patch complexes address this problem by ensuring the appropriate geometric continuity by local reparametrization (see for example [Peters 95] and references therein). To allow the application of the efficient advancing front techniques for smooth surfaces across separate domains, it is shown how to locally invert the reparametrizations underlying the geometrically continuous patch complex and join separate domains into larger, overlapping domains analoguous to the classical extension of charts to form an atlas.

REFERENCES
[1] Hao Chen and Jonathan Bishop (1997), "'Delaunay Triangulation for Curved Surfaces", Proceedings, 6th International Meshing Roundtable, pp.115-127. [2] J. C. Cuilliere, (1998), "An adaptive method for the automatic Triangulation of 3D parametric surfaces", Computer-Aided Design, vol 30, no. 2, pp.139-149. [3] J. Peters , (1995) "C1 - surface splines", SIAM - J - NUM. ANAL. ,32 (2) 645 - 666. [4] Paul-Louis George and Houman Borouchaki (1998), "Delaunay Triangulation and Meshing: Application to Finite Elements", Hermes. [5] Joseph R. Tristano, Steven J. Owen and Scott A. Canann, (1998), "'Advancing Front Surface Mesh Generation in Parametric Space Using a Riemannian Surface Definition", 7th International Meshing Roundtable.

ABOUT PARAMETRIC SURFACE MESHING


H. Borouchaki, P. Laug and P.L. George
(1) - UTT-INRIA University of Technologis of Troyes. E-mail : houman.brouchaki@univ.troyes.fr (2) - UTT-INRIA University of Technologis of Troyes. E-mail : patrick.laug@inria.fr (3) - INRIA - Institut de Recherche en Infomatique et en Automatique. E-mail : Paul-Louis.George@inria.fr

ABSTRACT
Parametric surface meshing is of utmost importance in many numerical fields including the finite element method. Actually, surface meshing is a necessary step when one wants to construct the mesh of a solid domain in three dimensions. A wide range of surfaces can be defined by means of composite parametric surfaces. Indeed, most of the surfaces are approximated by polynomial or rational parametric patches as it is in most of the CAD - CAM modelers. In this paper, we would like to make some remarks about a method suitable to generate a constrained mesh of a parametric patch. The constraint consists of a metric map, which prescribes a size for every direction and also a shape quality about the mesh elements. The aim is then to construct a mesh that conforms to the specifications included in the metric map and such that its elements are as regular as possible. A mesh of a parametric patch whose element vertices belong to the surface is suitable if the two following properties hold: - all mesh elements are close to the surface, - every mesh element is close to the tangent plane related to its vertices. The first property allows us to bound the gap between the elements and the surface. This gap measures the greatest distance between an element (any point of the latter) and the surface. The second property means that the surface is locally of order G1, in terms of continuity. To obtain this, the angular gap between the element and the tangent plane at its vertices must be bounded. In this paper, we show that a mesh satisfying the two above properties conforms to a special metric map, a called geometric map. Then, we introduce a method for surface mesh generation based on a mesh construction in the parametric space in such a way as to follow the above geometric map. The flowchart of the method is as follows: - A first mesh (in the parametric space) is constructed which is fine enough to capture the local curvature variation. This mesh is then mapped onto the surface. - The specified metric is defined at all vertices of this surface mesh.
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- After a metric transformation step, this metric map is induced in the parametric space. The parametric mesh along with this metric define a Riemaniann structure. - The parametric space is then meshed with unit length element edges (where the unity is related to the Riemaniann structure). In this way, a so-called unit mesh is created, - This unit mesh is mapped onto the surface. Various application examples (including what follows) are provided to illustrate the capabil-ities of the above mentioned method. (figures omitted)

ADAPTATION OF CAD SURFACE MESHES TO A MAP OF SIZES THROUGH THE IGATOMM CONCEPT
F. Noel
(1) - Unite de Formation et de Recherche de Mec. .Univ. Joseph Fourier. E-mail : Frederic.Noel@hmg.inpg.fr

ABSTRACT
Within a finite element step, whatever the kind of part under focus (either 3D volume or 3D freeform surfaces) one of the main sub-steps concerns the generation of a mesh adapted to the purpose of the analysis. The number of papers, which are published up to now, shows that the various solutions do not solve entirely this issue. If big advances have been obtained for 3D volume meshes [1], the case of 3D surfaces stays hard to address. Basic solutions exist when single patches are concerned [2]. When multiple patch surfaces are undertaken the well-known technique that merges the meshes from single patches does not suit the treatment of industrial CAD cases where hundred of trimmed patches describe the whole surface [3]. Face to the complexity of mesh generation, when free-form surfaces issued from CAD environment are under focus, the author has developed the IGATOMM concept (Independent Geometric And Topologic Operators for Mesh Management). IGATOMM is based on a geometric operator able to place nodes at their best location (according to the shape of elements) through a patch independent process [4]. This operator does not modify the connections between nodes. A set of topologic operators is in charge to manage connections of the mesh regardless to the positions of nodes [5]. These operators allow either to cut or to swap selected edges or to remove selected nodes. We call connectivity of a node the number of edges connected to this node. The swapping operator is used to decrease the connectivity of over-connected nodes. When edges are cut down related faces are split according to predefined topologic schemes and a refined grid is produced. On another hand when a node is removed every related faces are also removed. A topologic approach re-meshes the hole that has been produced and a coarsening operator is defined. Topologic operators do not care the position of nodes; therefore they need the geometric operator to be applied consecutively to their application, for relaxing the mesh grid in order to make the shapes of faces the most equilateral as possible. Applied successively, these operators allow either to coarsen or to refine meshes over the whole domain or in a local area. This technique controls the sizes of elements and can be used to make the mesh match a map of sizes defined according to purpose of the analysis.

REFERENCES
[1] P. L. George, F. Hermeline, "'Delaunay's mesh of a convex polyhedron in dimension d. Application to arbitrary polyhedra", International Journal For Numerical Methods In Engineering. Vol. 33, pp. 975-995 (1992). [2] X. Sheng, B. E. Hirsch, "Triangulation of trimmed surfaces in parametric space", Computer Aided Design. Vol. 24, N. 8, pp. 185-194 (ao-t 1992). [3] J. C. Leon, "Modelisation et construction de surfaces pour la CFAO' HERMES", Paris (mai 1991). [4] F. Noel , J. C. Leon, P. "A new approach to free-form surface mesh control in a CAD environment", International Journal For Numerical Methods In Engineering, Vol. 38, pp. 3121-3142(1994). [5] F. Noel , J. C. Leon, P. Trompette, "New adaptive tools dedicated to surfacic meshes integrated into a CAD environment", Proceedings ASME design automation conference, Mineapolis (September 1994).

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A RESULTANT-BASED ALGORITHM FOR RAY INTERSECTION


S.A. Vavasis
(1) - Department of Computer Science. 4130 Upson Hall, Cornell University. E-mail : vavasis@cs.cornell.edu

ABSTRACT
A subroutine important for many mesh generation algorithms is the computation of the point(s) where a ray crosses a parametric patch. This problem can be formulated as solving a system of polynomial equations in two variables with moderate degree. In some uses of this subroutine (such as in a point-inbrep test), it is crucial to robustly detect all crossing points. Therefore, a standard numerical technique like Newton's method by itself is not sufficient for this problem. We propose an algorithm based on a Macaulay's resultant combined with a u-resultant technique. Macaulay and u-resultant algorithms have been proposed in the literature recently by a number of authors including Canny, Demmel, Emiris, Mourrain, and Manocha. These authors suggest solving the resultant using a generalized eigenvalue routine. We modify previous resultant-based algorithms in two ways. First, we develop a new technique for selecting the monomials that weight the rows. Second, we propose a perturbation scheme to handle certain degenerate cases that arise often in mesh generation, such as a patch whose leading coefficents vanish (e.g., a Bezier cubic triangle that happens to be linear). This algorithm is currently implemented (using LAPACK routine dgegv for finding generalized eigenvalues) in the QMG 2.0 mesh generator and appears to be quite robust. Some numerical stability analysis of the new algorithm will also be presented.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Part of this talk represents joint work with Gudbjorn Jonsson of Cornell.

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Ignacio Carol, Woody Ju and George Voyiadjis
SESSION 1
Keynote : DAMAGE MECHANICS: ACCOMPLISHMENTS, TRENDS AND NEEDS D. Krajcinovic ................................................................................................................................................................128 A MODULAR APPROACH TO ANISOTROPIC DAMAGE MODELING OF A CLASS OF QUASI-BRITTLE COMPOSITES D. Halm and A. Dragon..................................................................................................................................................128 SIMULATION OF SIZE EFFECT IN COMPRESSION KINK BAND FAILURE OF FIBER COMPOSITES BY COHESIVE CRACK MODEL AND NON-LOCAL LEFM Z.P. Bazant, G.S. Zi, M. Brocca and E. Becq-Giraudon .................................................................................................129 RATE AND TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT ANISOTROPIC DAMAGE IN METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES FROM A MICRO TO A MACRO SYSTEM G.Z. Voyiadjis and B. Deliktas .......................................................................................................................................130

SESSION 2
EARLY DETECTION OF DAMAGE BY STRESS WAVES B. Guzina and J.F. Labuz ...............................................................................................................................................131 ULTRASONIC CHARACTERIZATION OF DAMAGE IN CONCRETE UNDER CYCLIC TENSION AND COMPRESSION Z. Radakovic-Guzina, M. Meiggs, K.J. Willam and L. Bond...........................................................................................131 MESHFREE NON-LOCAL METHODS FOR STRAIN LOCALIZATION IN DAMAGE MECHANICS J.S. Chen and C.T. Wu....................................................................................................................................................132 ON THE MULTI-SCALE MODELING OF THE DAMAGE BEHAVIOR OF POLYCRYSTALS J.P. Dingli, A. Abdul-Latif and K. Saanouni...................................................................................................................133 MICROMECHANICAL DAMAGE AND CONSTITUTIVE MODELING FOR IMPACT SIMULATION OF RANDOM FIBER COMPOSITE STRUCTURES J.W. Ju, H.K. Lee and S. Simunovic................................................................................................................................133

SESSION 3
AN ANISOTROPIC ELASTO-PLASTIC DAMAGE MODEL: THEORY, CALIBRATION AND VALIDATION A.M. Habraken, M. Wauters and L. Duchne .................................................................................................................134 NUMERICAL PREDICTION OF DAMAGE DURING METAL FORMING PROCESSES Y. Hammi and K. Saanouni.............................................................................................................................................135 ENERGY-BASED CHARACTERIZATION OF ELASTOPLASTIC DAMAGE IN CONCRETE Y.H. Lee and K.J. Willam ...............................................................................................................................................136 ASPECTS OF HIGHER GRADIENT DAMAGE AT LARGE STRAINS T. Liebe and P. Steinmann ..............................................................................................................................................136 AN "EXTENDED" FORMULATION OF ISOTROPIC AND ANISOTROPIC DAMAGE WITH EVOLUTION LAWS IN PSEUDO-LOG SPACE I. Carol, E. Rizzi and K.J. Willam...................................................................................................................................137

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Keynote : DAMAGE MECHANICS: ACCOMPLISHMENTS, TRENDS AND NEEDS


D. Krajcinovic
(1) - Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. Arizona State University. E-mail : krajcino@asuvax.eas.asu.edu

ABSTRACT
The research in damage mechanics is defined as an inquiry into the effect of many small (short) cracks of random size, shape, orientation and location on the macroscopic response, residual strength and failure onset and mode. The objective of this presentation is to highlight the authors opinions of the damage mechanics research that was published during the last four decades and suggest possible trends of the future research. The presentation will summarize the macroscopic (continuum), microscopic and atomic (molecular dynamic) models. The trade of rigor for computational efficiency and the haven of traditional analytical methods is not always possible without large loss of veracity. The random damage, strain and stress fields on the atomic and micro scale cannot always be defined by volume averages (expected values) on the continuum scale. The thermodynamic with internal variables is not always applicable. The existence of potentials is dubious during some important processes and the stubborn focus on the dilute concentration of micro-defects reflects the preference for application of traditional models of mechanics over the actual needs. The presentation will argue that the application of statistical models are needed to provide realistic estimates of the thermodynamic forces that drive and resists damage nucleation and evolution. It seems that this be an essential ingredient of the new set of models that are applicable to more important cases of large concentration of damage. These models are necessary to provide estimates of the residual strength of damaged structures and the onset and mode of the macro-failure.

A MODULAR APPROACH TO ANISOTROPIC DAMAGE MODELING OF A CLASS OF QUASI-BRITTLE COMPOSITES


D. Halm and A. Dragon
(1) - LMPM-ENSMA. E-mail : halm@lmpm.ensma.fr (2) - LMPM-ENSMA. E-mail : dragon@Impm.univ-poitiers.fr

ABSTRACT
Quasi-brittle materials exhibit a progressive deterioration of mechanical properties due to generation and growth of mesocracks. This phenomenon leads to a number of events such as induced anisotropy, dilatancy, moduli degradation and possible recovery when mesocracks close, dissipative friction on closed flaws. Because of the complexity and the multiplicity of the behavior of these materials, a global model appears as a true challenge. This communication attempts to lay foundations of a modular approach of a three-dimensional specific model, each level modelling a particular aspect of the behavior. The starting point is a recent damage model by mesocrack growth inducing anisotropy and residual strain. It is based on a thermodynamic approach by internal variables and its constitutive equations are given by the tensor functions representation theory. This model has proved its efficiency by fairly simulating, f. ex. compression tests with unloading (before crack closure phenomenon) on initially isotropic materials. Two variations deal respectively with the case of vanishing permanent strain encountered for some composites and the case of initially anisotropic materials. The second level treats tension-compression and the like cycles : favorably oriented mesocracks generated during tension phase may close under compressive loading, leading to an 'unilateral behavior', i.e. a moduli recovery phenomenon. Besides micromechanical arguments supporting the modelling of this effect, one resorts to the multilinear functions theory to ensure the complex stress-strain response.

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The third level concerns more general loading paths, f. ex., torsion cycles including frictional sliding on the closed mesocrack lips ; this dissipative friction macroscopically leads to the shear moduli recovery. The sliding threshold, formulated in a particular space, differs from the classical Coulomb criterion. The different parts of this model as well as their interaction have been tested by simulating different aspects of the behavior of quasi-brittle materials (rock-like materials, composites) : tension compression on SiC-SiC, triaxial compression and torsion on sandstone.

REFERENCES
[1] Dragon et Halm, [in] Damage Mechanics in Engineering Materials, Voyiadjis et al. ed., pp. 321-336, 1998. [2] Halm et Dragon, Eur. J. Mech., A) Solids, pp. 439-460, 1998.

SIMULATION OF SIZE EFFECT IN COMPRESSION KINK BAND FAILURE OF FIBER COMPOSITES BY COHESIVE CRACK MODEL AND NON-LOCAL LEFM
Z.P. Bazant, G.S. Zi, M. Brocca and E. Becq-Giraudon
(1) - Northwestern University, Department of Civil Engineering. E-mail : z-bazant@nwu.edu (3) - Department of Civil Engineering. Northwestern University

ABSTRACT
Kink band compression failure of fiber composites is a complex phenomenon involving microfractures coupled with microbuckling of fibers. Current practice relies on plasticity models which, however, exhibit no size effect and no damage localization. Yet recent experiments at Northwestern University on notched geometrically similar PEEK-carbon specimens of size range 1:4 revealed the existence of a strong size effect of the quasibrittle energetic type [1]. The experiments are simulated with a cohesive crack model for the contraction of the kink band [2,3]. The softening relationship of the compressive normal stress across the crack band to the contraction of the width of the band is based on second-order calculation of the microbuckling of fibers and the formation of axial splitting or debonding microcracks between the fibers. The fracture energy of the kink band is considered to represent the energy dissipated by all the axial microcracks per unit length and unit width of the band [2]. Furthermore, equivalent linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) in a new nonlocal form is used to simulate the experimental results. This approach, in which the finite size of the kink band fracture process zone is taken in account in a rather simple manner, captures the shape effect in addition to the size effect, and leads to explicit analytical formulae for the nominal strength of structure [2]. Numerical comparisons confirm the capability of both models to simulate the experiments. The existing plasticity type models appear to be acceptable only for very small sizes.

REFERENCES
[1] Z.P. Bazant and E.-P. Chen (1997). "Scaling of structural failure.", Applied Mechanics Reviews (ASME) 50 (10), 593-627. [2] Z.P. Bazant , J.-J. H. Kim, I.M. Daniel, E. Becq-Giraudon and G. Zi (1999). "Size Effect on Compression Strength of Fiber Composites Failing by Kink Band Propagation", Int. J. of Fracture (Special Issue on Fracture Scaling, ed. by Z.P. Bazant and Y.D.S. Rajapakse), in press. [3] Z.P. Bazant and G. Zi (1999), "Cohesive crack model for kink band failure and size effect analysis of fiber composites", in preparation.

RATE AND TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT ANISOTROPIC DAMAGE IN METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES FROM A MICRO TO A MACRO SYSTEM
G.Z. Voyiadjis and B. Deliktas
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(1) - Department of Civil and Env. Engineering, Louisiana State University. E-mail : cegzv1@unix1.sncc.lsu.edu (2) - Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

ABSTRACT
This work addresses the theoretical formulation and computational implementation of damage in materials. It encompasses the identification and interpretation of damage at different scales and from a micromechanical system to a macromechanical system. It addresses the micromechanical system whereby damage is assessed at the microscale due to the cracks and voids at the level of the different constituents that comprise the material such as the matrix and the fibers for the case of composite materials. It also addresses damage due to the debonding at the interface between the different constituents of the material. This is evaluated numerically by considering a fiber surrounded by the matrix as a micro-system. The boundary conditions for such a system is obtained from the numerical solution of a macro-system such as the structural component of a turbine engine. The simultaneous solution of the two mechanical systems at the micro and macro enables one to obtain the structural behavior of the structural problem. A number of selective points in the macromechanical system is chosen and the micromechanical analysis is performed for these points. Their solution is continuously fed back into the macromechanical system in order to provide an accurate physically based characterization of damage. A rate and temperature dependent anisotropic damage model is developed here for a metal matrix composite system at elevated temperatures. The developed viscous damage model is coupled with a rate dependent plasticity model. The proposed constitutive model will enable one to predict the inelastic response of the individual constituents of the composite material, namely the fiber and matrix as well as the overall composite at different loading rates and temperatures. The formulation is thermodynamically based using the concept of internal state variables. Two sets of internal variables are introduced into the thermodynamic potential. One set characterizes the viscoplastic behavior of the ductile matrix and its effect on the overall inelastic response of the composite while the second set characterizes the damage for each constituent of the composite. The constitutive relations and evolution equations of the internal variables are derived for both the viscoplastic and damage models. Both isotropic and nonlinear kinematic hardening are considered here in the modeling process of both the viscoplastic and damage model. The rate dependency of the initial yield stress and initial damage is also discussed here and analytical expressions are presented to account for these effects on the inelastic and damage response of the composite.

EARLY DETECTION OF DAMAGE BY STRESS WAVES


B. Guzina and J.F. Labuz
(1) - Department of Civil Engineering. University of Minnesota. E-mail : guzina@wave.ce.umn.edu (2) - Department of Civil Engineering. University of Minnesota.

ABSTRACT
Experimental observations have provided a wealth of evidence that relates an increase in microcracks to deterioration of brittle materials. Detecting cracks early in the damage process may lead to shortening of a laboratory testing program and improvement in predicting long-term material performance, or it may lead to timely repair or treatment such that further deterioration is halted. To this end, development of high -resolution sounding techniques that can quantify both the amount and the extent of damage would clearly be valuable. Stress waves provide a basis for the advancement of such methods. It is well known that damage of rock-like materials by introduction of microcracks will affect the propagation of stress waves. Although material stiffness is routinely related to the phase velocity of elastic waves, an additional piece of information not usually included in nondestructive testing, but strongly affected by microcracking, is attenuation. For instance, recent results (Courvreur 1998) indicate that the wave attenuation measurements result in better information on internal damage in rocks than conventional, velocity-based ultrasonic methods. To provide a rational framework for the high-fidelity characterization of damaged materials, the focus of this communication is the development of a nondestructive wave technique that furnishes the simultaneous velocity and amplitude measurements of stress waves in degraded solids and interprets the data consistently within the framework of multi-layered viscoelastic wave propagation. Some computational and physical aspects of the method will be highlighted. Besides
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including the attenuation measurements as an additional indicator of material degradation, the resolving power of the method is enhanced by intrinsically incorporating the effects of material damping on the dispersion of stress waves.

ULTRASONIC CHARACTERIZATION OF DAMAGE IN CONCRETE UNDER CYCLIC TENSION AND COMPRESSION


Z. Radakovic-Guzina, M. Meiggs, K.J. Willam and L. Bond
(1) - Itasca Consulting Group (2) - University of Colorado at Boulder (3) - CEAE Department. University of Colorado at Boulder. E-mail : willam@bechtel.colorado.edu

ABSTRACT
The paper summarizes the results of ultrasonic measurements on prismatic concrete specimens that are loaded cyclically in splitting tension and in uniaxial compression. Different wave velocity measurements are made during loading, and after each unloading cycle, to determine isotropic and transversely anisotropic damage of the elastic stiffness properties, [1,2]. For validation, the ultrasonic measurements are compared with mechanical measurements of elastic stiffness degradation. The issue of stress-induced anisotropy is addressed in terms of velocity changes at several stress levels as well as at different cycles of preloading. For illustration, isotropic and transversely anisotropic damage formulations are implemented in a two-dimensional finite element code to simulate the ultrasonic experiment, and to compare the numerical results of elastic degradation with those of elastoplastic simulations. The computational wave propagation studies are performed to help interpretation of ultrasonic signals in terms of velocity and attenuation measurements. The experimental and numerical studies of elastic damage and plastic degradation are designed to determine the ability of ultrasonics to separate the two dissipation processes in tension and compression in a quantitative manner.

REFERENCES
[1] Radakovic-Guzina, Z., Willam, K. and Bond, L., "Ultrasonic Assessment of Damage in Concrete under Axial Compression", (1999), submitted for publication in NDT&E International. [2] Meiggs, M., "Ultrasonic Evaqluation of Concrete in Tension and Compression", (1999), Independent Study Report, CEAE Department, University of Colorado at Boulder.

MESHFREE NON-LOCAL METHODS FOR STRAIN LOCALIZATION IN DAMAGE MECHANICS


J.S. Chen and C.T. Wu
(1) - Department of Mechanical Engineering. University of Iowa. E-mail : jschen@icaen.uiowa.edu (2) - Dept. of Mech. Engineering & Center for Comp. Aided Design. University of Iowa.

ABSTRACT
The moving least-squares (MLS) and reproducing kernel (RK) approximations employed in the Galerkin based meshfree methods [1-3] possess intrinsic nonlocal properties. In this work, the strain smoothing equations formulated by MLS and RK strain transformation are introduced to in a meshfree framework to regularize the ill-posed conditions in strain oftening problems [4] with particular emphasis on damage mechanics. The enrichment of polynomial basis functions in the MLS and RK strain smoothing assures consistency for the solution prior to bifurcation and for the solution in the non-localized regions. The weight function in MLS and RK strain smoothing introduces nonlocality to regularize illposedness when damage induced strain localization occurs. By imposing appropriate reproducing conditions in the RK nonlocal smoothing, the method can recover strain gradient operator of any type.
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The discrete equilibrium equation is obtained by employing an assumed strain method in the Galerkin approximation. By requiring the orthogonality condition between the enhanced strain and a constant stress, a normalization condition is obtained for the weight function in the MLS/RK strain smoothing equation. This proposed method is essentially uniformly nonlocal, but no kinematic modes are observed in the numerical solution. In this work, the matching between finite element gradient-type method [5] and proposed meshfree nonlocal method is investigated. The proposed MLS and RK strain smoothing can be tailored to provide a gradient type regularization without dealing with the higher order gradient terms and the associated additional boundary conditions in the gradient approach. Numerical examples show that the proposed nonlocal meshfree formulation is sufficient to remedy grid-sensitivity in elastic damage induced strain localization.

REFERENCES
[1] Belytschko, T., Lu Y. Y., and Gu, L., "Element-Free Galerkin Methods", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol 37, pp 229-256, 1994. [2] Liu, W. K., Jun, S., and Zhang, Y. F., "Reproducing Kernel Particle Methods", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, Vol. 20, pp. 1081-1106, 1995. [3] Chen, J. S., Pan, C., Wu, C. T., and Liu, W. K., "Reproducing Kernel Particle Methods for Large Deformation Analysis of Nonlinear Structures", Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 139, pp. 195-227, 1996. [4] Chen, J. S., Wu, C. T., and Belytschko, T., "A Generalized Nonlocal Meshfree Method for Strain Localization in Quasi-Static Rate-Independent Solids", Submitted to International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 1999. [5] Peerlings, R. H. J., De Borst, R., Brekelmans, W. A. M., and De Vree, J. H. P., "Gradient Enhanced Damage for Quasi-Brittle Materials", to International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 39, pp. 33913403, 1996.

ON THE MULTI-SCALE MODELING OF THE DAMAGE BEHAVIOR OF POLYCRYSTALS


J.P. Dingli, A. Abdul-Latif and K. Saanouni
(1) - GSM/LASMIS (2) - GIM/ERBEM IUT de Tremblay (3) - Universite' de Technologie de Troyes. E-mail : khemais-saanouni@univ-troyes.fr

ABSTRACT
A micromechanical model for cyclic behavior of polycrystals, already proposed by the authors, is coupled with isotropic damage variable. The model is expressed in the framework of a self-consistent approach of time dependent plasticity (viscoplasticity) for a small strain theory. In this approach, the elastic part, assumed to be uniform, isotropic and compressible, is estimated at the granular scale. A transgranular isotropic hardening variable is introduced on each crystallographic slip system (css), while the kinematic hardening effect can naturally be described by the self consistent interaction law. From a physical point of view, it is supposed here that the damage occurs on the slip system, where the slip is highly localized. Based on slip theory, a micro-damage scalar state variable is introduced on each css. The generalized thermodynamic force associated is determined as an inelastic energy defined only by the transgranular isotropic hardening without the contribution of the elastic energy. This is different from the macroscopic theory of damaged inelasticity where the force associated is either equal to the elastic energy or equal to the total energy. The damage variable is coupled with the elasto-inelastic constitutive equations at the micro and meso scales. The quasi-unilateral effect, as well as the localization of the fatigue damage on the free surface, are neglected in this approach. The obtained model is tested under different cyclic loading situations (different amplitudes) considering the FCC polycrystalline microstructure in order to reproduce the Manson-Coffin relation. The model can appropriately describe the damaged behavior. In addition, some microscopic and mesoscopic numerical responses are recorded and discussed. Effects of the aggregates on the micro damage heterogeneity and on the low cycle fatigue life are also studied by using different aggregates.

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MICROMECHANICAL DAMAGE AND CONSTITUTIVE MODELING FOR IMPACT SIMULATION OF RANDOM FIBER COMPOSITE STRUCTURES
J.W. Ju, H.K. Lee and S. Simunovic
(1) - Dept. of Civil and Env. Engineering. University of California. E-mail : juj@seas.ucla.edu (2) - Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. University of California

ABSTRACT
Micromechanical damage models are presented to predict impact behavior and damage evolution in random fiber composites. To estimate the overall elastoplastic damage responses, an effective yield criterion is derived based on the ensemble-volume averaging process and the first-order effects of eigenstrains due to the existence of discontinuous fibers. The proposed effective yield criterion, together with the assumed overall associative plastic flow rule and the hardening law, constitutes the analytical foundation for the estimation of effective elastoplastic behavior of ductile matrix composites. Progressive interfacial fiber debonding models are subsequently considered in accordance with Weibull's statistical function to describe the varying probability of fiber debonding. First, the debonded fibers are assumed to be voids in complete debonding model. In the subsequent derivation, the it partial debonding is taken to be the underlying debonding mode; and a partially debonded elastic fiber is replaced by an equivalent, transversely isotropic fiber for the homogenization in ``partial debonding model''. Efficient step-by-step iterative computational algorithms are also presented to implement the proposed damage models. Finally, the progressive damage model is implemented into finite element program DYNA3D to solve large scale problems such as automobile components and structures under impact loading.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This research was sponsored in part by the National Science Foundation, Mechanics and Materials Program, under PYI Grant MSS-9157238, by the Air Base Systems Branch of the Flight Dynamics Directorate, Air Force Wright Laboratories, by the U.S. Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Lightweight Materials Program, under contract DE-AC05-96OR22464 with Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation, and by an appointment to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Postdoctoral Research Associates Program administered jointly by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education. The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract No. DE-AC0596OR22464. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexeclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes.

AN ANISOTROPIC ELASTO-PLASTIC DAMAGE MODEL: THEORY, CALIBRATION AND VALIDATION


A.M. Habraken, M. Wauters and L. Duchne
(1) - Department MSM, University of Lige. E-mail : Anne.Habraken@ulg.ac.be (2) - Department MSM, University of Lige (3) - Department MSM, University of Lige

ABSTRACT
This macroscopic phenomenological model, first proposed by Zhu [1], constitutes a modified version from previous constitutive laws proposed by Cordebois and Sidoroff [2]. It follows the general thermodynamics analysis and takes into account anisotropy at 3 levels : elasticity, plasticity and damage. The elastic and plastic parts follow respectively Hook's and Hill's law. The hardening is not limited to a classical isotropic approach but based on an plastic work equivalence which induces an evolution of the shape of the anisotropic yield locus. The assumption of Zhu's model of using a linear description of the plastic part of the stress-strain curve behavior has been improved and now multilinear description is possible. The damage criterion is a quadratic homogeneous function of the damage energy release rate, it
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uses a second order damage characteristic tensor J. Again J evolution depends on the principle of damage work equivalence. Plastic and damage descriptions are defined in material axes followed by local axes in the FEM approach. Numerous experiments have been performed in order to reach a good accuracy in the parameters calibration for two steel sheets. The geometry of the samples has been optimized to get zones of homogeneous state which size is adapted to the measurement techniques. This allows to check the principle of Young's modulus decrease, as this classical assumption for macroscopic damage model is far from being straightforward for deep drawing steel sheet (IF steel). The superposed effect of texture evolution has been checked for simple plastic tensile tests. The method to extract all the parameters model from experiments is commented, as well as the model sensitivity to some inaccuracy of chosen parameters. The FEM prediction of FLD using this model is compared to experimental results.

REFERENCES
[1] Y.Y. Zhu , S. Cescotto, "A fully Coupled Elasto-Visco-Plastic Damage Theory for Anisotropic Materials", Int. J Solids and Structures, 1995, 32, n 11, 1607-1641 [2] J.P. Cordebois, F. Sidoroff, "Endommagement anisotrope en lasticit et en plasticit", J Mc. Th. Appl., 1982,Numro spcial, 45-60,

NUMERICAL PREDICTION OF DAMAGE DURING METAL FORMING PROCESSES


Y. Hammi and K. Saanouni
(1) - GSM/LASMIS (2) - Universite' de Technologie de Troyes. E-mail : khemais-saanouni@univ-troyes.fr

ABSTRACT
Ductile (or plastic) damage often occurs during metal forming processes due to the large plastic flow localisation. Accordingly it is crucial for numerical tools, used in the simulation of that processes, to use fully coupled constitutive equations accounting for both hardening and damage. This can be used in both cases, namely to overcome the damage initiation during some metal forming processes as forging, stamping, deep drawing or to enhance damage initiation and growth as in sheetmetal cutting or machining. In this paper, a fully coupled constitutive equations accounting for both combined isotropic and kinematic hardening as well as the ductile damage is implemented into the general purpose Finite Element code for metal forming simulation. First, the formulation of the fully coupled anisotropic constitutive equations in the framework of Continuum Damage Mechanics is presented. The particular case of the fully isotropic and isothermal flow is presented in details concerning both the plastic flow and the damage. The associated numerical aspects concerning both the local integration of the coupled constitutive equations as well as the (global) equilibrium integration schemes are presented. A special care is given to the consistent stiffness matrix calculations and the reduction of the number of the constitutive equations. The numerical implementation of the damage is made in such a manner that calculations can be executed with or without damage effect, i.e. coupled or uncoupled calculations. Many numerical results are presented to discuss the capability of the model to predict the damage initiation and growth during the metal forming processes. For some examples, a comparison between coupled and uncoupled solutions are made using both : fully explicit and fully implicit "global" schemes.

ENERGY-BASED CHARACTERIZATION OF ELASTOPLASTIC DAMAGE IN CONCRETE


Y.H. Lee and K.J. Willam

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(1) - Dept. of Civil Engrg. Kon-Kuk Univ., Seoul, Korea (2) - CEAE Department. University of Colorado at Boulder. E-mail : willam@bechtel.colorado.edu

ABSTRACT
A comprehensive constitutive model is presented for the triaxial behavior of plain concrete. The formulation covers the full response spectrum in tension as well as in compression. The concrete model is based on thermodynamics combining the theory of plasticity with elastic damage. A novel triaxial isotropic and anisotropic loading function is presented in terms of three invariants which enforce smoothness throughout the cone- and cap-regions. Evolution of the loading function in the pre-peak region is defined by two friction, one cohesion and one closing parameters. Contraction of the loading function in the post-peak region is described by fracture energy concepts in terms of a single decohsion parameter. A transition point distinguishes between brittle and ductile response regimes where no softening takes place. The loading function -continuity and convexity throughout the entire response regime. Therefore, vertex problems resulting in numerical complexity do not exist. Based on physical observations on post-peak concrete experiments, an energy based damage function is introduced to combine continuum damage and localized plasticity. The resulting damage function expressed as a function of confining pressure and equivalent plastic strain leads to a simple framework to derive the elastoplatic tangent operator combined with elastic damage. To conclude, the fracture energy concept combining elastic damage and plasticity is illustrated with finite element mesh-size sensitivity studies when different height concrete specimens are subjected to uniaxial compression.

ASPECTS OF HIGHER GRADIENT DAMAGE AT LARGE STRAINS


T. Liebe and P. Steinmann
(1) - Dept. of Mech. Engineering Inst. for Mech. Univ. of Kaiserslautern (2) - Institute for Technical Mechanics, University of Kaiserlautern. E-mail : ps@rhk.uni-kl.de

ABSTRACT
Softening at the continuum level due to damage accumulation mimics deterioration processes within the material at the micro scale. E.g. for carbon filled polymers, which can sustain large strains up to several hundert percent, we might think of debonding mechanisms between the molecular chains and/or the carbon fillers. As a consequence of softening, damage and accordingly large deformations tend to accumulate within narrow bands, so called localized zones. In experiments these localization zones display a finite width which is related to the micro structure of the material. Upon further loading lo calized zones then most often form a precursor to the final rupture of the material. On the other hand in a standard continuum description and in particular in the corresponding numerical solution schemes no finite width is obtained, instead pathologically mesh dependent solutions are observed upon refinement of the discretization. Among the most effective remedies against this unphysical behaviour nonstandard continuum theories have been proposed which incorporate higher gradients of those quantities which are responsible for softening. In the small strain regime the recent proposal of de Borst, Pamin, Peerlings & Sluys [1], Peerlings, de Borst, Brekelmans & de Vree [2] and Peerlings, de Borst, Brekelmans, de Vree & Spee [3] to enhance an isotropic damage formulation by spatial gradients has gained much attention for its conceptional beauty and convincing operational performance. The essential ingredient of gradient enhanced damage is an additional equation for the determination of the nonlocal so called damage equivalent strain which is denoted the nonlocal stored energy in this work. Thereby, this averaging equation is derived from an approximation to the integral definition of the truly nonlocal damage equivalent strain and takes the format of a diffusion-adsorptionreaction equation. A noteworthy feature from the numerical point of view is the treatment of the nonlocal damage equivalent strain as an independent variable. Therefore this contribution aims in an extension of a small strain and small deformation formulation of gradient enhanced damage to the geometrically nonlinear case, see also Steinmann [4]. To this end, nonlocal stored energydensities, in short NSE, are introduced as primary variables.

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Fluxesconjugated to the gradients of the NSE are then computed from balance laws which in the small strain limit correspond to the averaging equation well-known in the literature (see above). The principal task is then to establish constitutive laws for these newly introduced NSE-fluxes. Thereby, four different options are investigated which are motivated from Lagrange and Euler averaging procedures together with changes of the metric tensors. Issues of the corresponding FE-formulation and its linearization within a Newton-Raphson procedure are addressed in detail. The different formulations are conceptually compared for the example of a bar in tension whereby large strains are truly envisioned. Finally the response of an axisymmetric notched rubber sample in tension as well as a ct-specimen are considered.

REFERENCES
[1] de Borst R., J. Pamin , R.H.J. Peerlings & H.B. L.J. Sluys , [1995], "On Gradient-Enhanced Damage and Plasticity Models for Failure in Quasi-Brittle and Frictional Materials", Comp. Mech., Vol. 17, pp. 130-141. [2] Peerlings R.H.J., R. de Borst , W.A.M. Brekelmans & J.H.P. de Vree, [1996], "Gradient Enhanced Damage for Quasi-Brittle Materials", Int. J. Num. Meth. Engn., Vol. 39, pp. 3391-3403. [3] Peerlings R.H.J., R. de Borst , W.A.M. Brekelmans, J.H.P. de Vree & I. Spee, [1996], "Some Observations on Localization in Non-Local and Gradient Damage Models", Eur. J. Mech. A/Solids, Vol. 15, pp. 937-953. [4] Steinmann P., [1999], "Formulation and Computation of Geometrically Nonlinear Gradient Damage", Int. J. Num. Meth. Engn., accepted.

AN "EXTENDED" FORMULATION OF ISOTROPIC AND ANISOTROPIC DAMAGE WITH EVOLUTION LAWS IN PSEUDO-LOG SPACE
I. Carol, E. Rizzi and K.J. Willam
(1) - ETSECCPB-Universidad Polytechnica, De Catalunya. E-mail : carol@etseccpb.upc.es (2) - Dip. Ingegneria Strutturale, Poltecnico di Bari. (3) - CEAE Department. University of Colorado at Boulder. E-mail : willam@bechtel.colorado.edu

ABSTRACT
Considerable effort has been devoted in recent years to the formulation of elastic degradation and damage [1,2,3]. Initially, most damage models represented variations of the traditional "(1-D)" scalar formulation. Although less frequent, anisotropic damage based on a second-order integrity tensor (with eigenvalues decreasing between 1 and 0) [4], or its inverse (with eigenvalues varying between 1 and infinity), are also becoming popular. This "basic" anisotropic formulation collapses into the isotropic "(1D)" when the integrity tensor becomes spherical. In the general case, the secant stiffness/compliance represents a restricted form of orthotropy, in which the 9 elastic parameters are simple functions of the undamaged E and nu, plus the three principal values of integrity. The same secant expressions may be reached by assuming the classical framework of Continuum Damage Mechanics with energy equivalence [5], and effective stresses and effective strains which are related to their nominal counterparts by productsymmetrized expressions involving the square root integrity or inverse integrity tensors. As proposed recently by the authors [6], evolution laws in this context may be conveniently established by considering the thermodynamic forces conjugate to the pseudo-log rate of damage, instead of the rate of the integrity tensor itself. In this way, forces become a simple, physically meaningful quantity with convenient properties, and the damage rule decouples additively between isotropic damage (given by its volumetric part) and anisotropic damage (given by its deviatoric part). A first, simple formulation based on these concepts using a smoothed Rankine criterion, has been developed and implemented. It only has 5 parameters: undamaged E and nu, tensile strength ft, fracture energy gf and parameter b >= 0 giving the degree of smoothing of the Rankine corners, and also the degree of anisotropy of the whole model. For b=0, the smoothed Rankine surface degenerates into a pi-plane and the classical istropic damage model is recovered. As the opposite limit case, b -> infinite, for which the surface takes the shape of the original Rankine criterion, with maximum anisotropy in the response. Examples of application include pure tension and Willam's test with rotating pescribed principal strains [7]. In the first case, a general closed-form solution is available, which is what makes it possible to identify the constants with parameters ft and gf. In the second, numerical results exhibit stresses with second peaks and plateaus that end abruptly in normal components, sign inversion in shear components, and princpipal directions that

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rotate faster that those of applied strain. This complex response follows the trends observed in previous multiple cracking models. Latest developments along this line aim at extending the previous formulation to a broader type of anisotropy. This obviously requires to consider aditional damage parameters. General dependencies of secant stiffness/compliance on a given set of damage variables may be obtained using representation theorems. In that way, however, useful intuitive concepts such as effective stress or strain may no longer exist. As a compromise, the authors propose an `extended' secant formulation which is equivalent to a sixparameter form of elastic orthotropy [8]. Traditional CDM concepts including energy equivalence are still fully in place, as well as the pseudo-log rate of damage and the additive decomposition of the damage rule into isotropic/anisotropic contributions. The extension proposed also encompasses a more general type of isotropic degradation, in which the two initial elastic parameters may evolve independently. A first example of application is purely deviatoric, or von Mises type of damage, which fits naturally in the new formulation.

REFERENCES
[1] I.Carol, E.Rizzi K.Willam (1994). "A unified theory of elastic degradation and damage based on a loading surface". Int. J. of Solids and Structures, vol.31, No.20, pp.2835-2865. [2] E.Rizzi, I.Carol, K.Willam (1995). "Localization analysis of elastic degradation with application to scalar damage", J. of Engineering Mechancis, vol.121, No.4, pp.541-554. [3] I.Carol, K.Willam (1996). "Spurious energy dissipation/generation in modeling of stiffness recovery for elastic degradation and damage", Int. J. of Solids and Structures, vol.33, no.20-22, pp.2939-2957. [4] Valanis (1990) "A theory of damage in brittle materials", Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.36, pp.403-416. [5] Cordebois and Sidoroff (1982), "Endommagement anisotrope en elasticite et plasticite'', J. de Mecanique Teorique et Appliquee'', Numero Special, pp.45-60. [6] I.Carol, E.Rizzi, K.Willam (1998). "On the formulation of anisotropic degradation using a pseudo- logarithmic damage tensor'', Report CU/SR-98/1, Dept.CEAE, U. of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0428, USA. [7] K.Willam, E.Pramono, S.Sture (1987). "Fundamental issues of smeared crack models". In SEM-RILEM Int.Conf. on Fracture of Concrete and Rock, Shah, S.P. and Swartz, S.E. editors, Society of Engineering Mechanics, pp.192-207. [8] Carol, Rizzi, Willam (1999). "An 'extended' formulation of isotropic and anisotropic damage with evolution laws in pseudo-log space". Report CU/SR-99/4, Dept.CEAE, U. of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 -428, USA.

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Micromechanical and Multi-Scale Models for Material Processing Applications


Paul Dawson, Lallit Anand and Robert Haber
SESSION 1
GRAIN SIZE EFFECTS IN VISCOPLASTIC POLYCRYSTALS AT MODERATE STRAINS A. Acharya and A.J. Beaudoin ........................................................................................................................................140 INVESTIGATIONS OF MULTIPHASE METALS USING FINITE ELEMENT DISCRETIZATION N. Barton and P. Dawson ...............................................................................................................................................140 TEXTURE INDUCED ANISOTROPY IN TORSION TESTS OF ZIRCALOY-4: EXPERIMENT AND MODELING R.E. Loge, J.W. Signorelli, Y.B. Chastel and R.A. Lebensohn.........................................................................................141 TEXTURE SIMULATION OF POLYCRYSTALS BY THE REPRESENTATIVE VOLUME ELEMENT TECHNIQUE A. Bertram, T. Boehlke and M. Kraska ...........................................................................................................................141 THERMOELASTIC STRESS FLUCTUATIONS IN RANDOM STRUCTURE COMPOSITES AND SOME NONLINEAR PROBLEMS OF MICROMECHANICS V.A. Buryachenko ...........................................................................................................................................................142 EMBEDDING MICROSTRUCTURAL LAWS IN THE MACROMECHANICAL FRAMEWORK A VARIATIONAL MULTISCALE APPROACH K. Garikipati and T.J.R. Hughes.....................................................................................................................................142

SESSION 2
MODELING THE EFFECTS OF PRE-STRAIN ON FORMING LIMIT DIAGRAMS D. Bammann and A.J. Beaudoin.....................................................................................................................................143 ELASTIC/CRYSTALLINE VISCOPLASTIC FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF SINGLE- AND POLY- CRYSTAL SHEET METALS E. Nakamachi, K. Hiraiwa and M. Harimoto .................................................................................................................144 COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF DEFORMATION TEXTURES USING RODRIQUES SPACE A. Kumar and P. Dawson ...............................................................................................................................................144 PARAMETER ESTIMATION OF A RATE DEPENDENT POLYCRYSTAL PLASTICITY MODEL THROUGH INVERSE ANALYSIS S. Kok, A. Beaudoin and D. Tortorelli ............................................................................................................................145 HIGH-RATE MATERIAL MODELING AND VALIDATION USING THE TAYLOR CYLINDER IMPACT TEST P.J. Maudlin, C.N. Tome and G.T. Gray III....................................................................................................................146 A DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN MODEL FOR PRECIPITATE EVOLUTION IN ALUMINUM ALLOY QUENCH PROCESSES N. Sobh, J. Huang, L. Yin, R.B. Haber, D.A. Tortorelli and R. Hyland...........................................................................146

SESSION 3
CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS FOR GRANULAR MATERIALS: APPLICATION TO FORMING OF PARTS FROM POWDER METALS L. Anand and C. Gu ........................................................................................................................................................147 A 2D NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF GRANULAR MATERIALS J. Fortin, G. de Saxce and M. Hjiaj ................................................................................................................................148 MICRO-MACRO SIMULATION OF A LASER REMELTING PROCESS G. Laschet, H.J. Diepers and R. Prieler .........................................................................................................................149 A THERMOMECHANICAL-MICROSTRUCTURAL MODEL OF AN ALUMINUM ALLOY CASTING PROCESS D. Celentano, D. Gunasegaram and T. Nguyen..............................................................................................................149

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GRAIN SIZE EFFECTS IN VISCOPLASTIC POLYCRYSTALS AT MODERATE STRAINS


A. Acharya and A.J. Beaudoin
(1) - Center for the Sim. of Adv. Rockets. Dept. of Civil and Env. Engineering. University of Illinois. (2) - Dept. of Mech. and Industrial Engineering. University of Illinois. E-mail : abeaudoi@uiuc.edu

ABSTRACT
This work deals with the prediction of grain-size dependent hardening in FCC polycrystalline metals at moderately high strains (2%-30%). The model considers 3-D, polycrystalline aggregates of purely viscoplastic single crystals, and simulates quasi-static deformation histories with a hybrid finite element method implemented for parallel computation. The hardening response of the individual single crystals is considered to be isotropic (Taylor model), but modified to include a physically- motivated measure of lattice incompatibility which is supposed to model, in the continuum setting, the resistance to plastic flow provided by lattice defects. The length-scale in constitutive response that is required on dimensional grounds appears naturally from a widely accepted empirical relationship between the flow strength and the dislocation density. Even though the grain-size (D) does not enter explicitly into the model, a linear relationship between the macroscopic flow stress, in uniaxial tension, and 1/D is predicted. This trend is in agreement with experimental results for deformation of FCC polycrystals having grain-sizes below 100 microns and at strains beyond the initial yield (> 2%).

INVESTIGATIONS OF MULTIPHASE METALS USING FINITE ELEMENT DISCRETIZATION


N. Barton and P. Dawson
(1) - Sibley School of Mech. and Aerospace Eng. Cornell University. E-mail : barton@popeye.mae.cornell.edu (2) - Dept. of Theoretical & Applied Mechcs. Cornell University. E-mail : dawson@popeye.mae.cornell.edu

ABSTRACT
Using the finite element method, we model the plastic deformation of multi-phase polycrystalline metals. By discretizing the individual grains in an aggregate, we examine the effects of spatial arrangement on phase interaction and sub-grain level heterogeneities. In particular, we investigate crystallographic orientation (texture) evolution and compare finite element predictions to those from upper and lower bound linking assumptions. While linking assumptions may suffice for the simulation of texture evolution in higher symmetry single-phase materials such as FCC aluminum, spatial arrangement and subgrain heterogeneities play a key role in materials exhibiting more substantial single grain anisotropy.

TEXTURE INDUCED ANISOTROPY IN TORSION TESTS OF ZIRCALOY-4: EXPERIMENT AND MODELING


R.E. Loge, J.W. Signorelli, Y.B. Chastel and R.A. Lebensohn
(1) - E-mail :loge@popeye.mae.cornell.edu

ABSTRACT
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An automatic optimization technique is presented to identify Critical Resolved Shear Stresses (CRSSs) from observable quantities such as texture measurements. This inverse method is based on a viscoplastic self - consistent polycrystalline formulation and allows for mixed boundary conditions - as appropriate in the torsion test - by relaxing some velocity gradient or stress components. Texture measurements are reported for hot torsion tests of the hcp Zircaloy-4 (Zy4), quenched from the high temperature bcc phase, and deformed in the 873-1023 K temperature range. They serve as data for identifying the CRSSs of Zy4 in this temperature range, assuming 4 possible deformation modes, namely prismatic slip, basal slip, pyramidal slip in the <a> direction, and pyramidal slip in the <c+a> direction. The anisotropy induced by the texture evolution is discussed in terms of axial stress and axial elongation, for fixed ends as well as free ends torsion tests.

TEXTURE SIMULATION OF POLYCRYSTALS BY THE REPRESENTATIVE VOLUME ELEMENT TECHNIQUE


A. Bertram, T. Boehlke and M. Kraska
(1) - Institute of Mechanics. University of Magdeburg. (2) - Institute of Mechanics. University of Magdeburg. (3) - Institute of Mechanics. University of Magdeburg.

ABSTRACT
Polycrystalline metals submitted to large permanent deformations exhibit an induced anisotropy that strongly alters their mechanical properties. In the present approach, a representative volume element (RVE) of a polycrystalline material is modelled by a finite-element mesh, taking into account the initial anisotropy of both the elastic behavior and the inelastic one. The RVE is submitted to standard overall deformation processes. The texture induced elastic anisotropy of polycrystalline copper is studied for different deformation paths. The macroscopic elasticity tensors given by volume averages are approximated by stored energy functions having distinct symmetry properties. If a properly defined distance between the elastic properties given by an average and its approximation is smaller than a tolerance, the symmetry can be considered as identified. In this paper an approximation is suggested, which contains the isotropic bounds as special cases if applied to the anisotropic bounds by Voigt and Reuss, and which is furthermore applicable to any forth-order elasticity tensor given by experiments or simulations. The inelastic anisotropy is examined by uniaxial tensile tests in several directions with respect to the deformed simulated specimens. The equivalent stress levels for different yield criteria are recorded. From this data isosurfaces are calculated. Their reduced symmetry reflects the symmetry of the preceeding deformation and is mainly due to the crystallographic texture. For the channel die compression specimen a yield locus is constructed and related to simulated r-values. The results exhibit normality of the mean plastic flow with respect to the yield locus.

THERMOELASTIC STRESS FLUCTUATIONS IN RANDOM STRUCTURE COMPOSITES AND SOME NON-LINEAR PROBLEMS OF MICROMECHANICS
V.A. Buryachenko
(1) - Air Force Research Laboratory. E-mail : buryach@aol.com

ABSTRACT
Linearly thermoelastic composite media are treated, which consist of a homogeneous matrix containing a statistically homogeneous random set of ellipsoidal uncoated or coated inclusions. Effective properties (such as compliance, thermal expansion, stored energy) as well as both first and second statistical moments of stresses in the components are estimated for the general case of nonhomogeneity of
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the thermoelastic inclusion properties. The micromechanical approach is based on Green's function techniques as well as on the generalization of the ``multiparticle effective field'' method (MEFM), previously proposed for the estimation of stress field averages in the components [1]. The application of the theory is demonstrated by calculating overall yield surfaces of composite materials. The influence of the coating is analyzed by the use of both the assumption of homogeneity of the stress field in the inclusion core and of the thin-layer hypothesis. The fundamental roles of stress fluctuations estimated are discussedfor a wide class of nonlinear problems of micromechanics such as nonlinear elasticity, nonlinear viscosity and creeping, elastoplastisity (see e.g [2]), strength and fracture. All these problems are based on estimations of some nonlinear functions of local stresses (e.g.\ the yield condition) taking stress inhomeneities in the components into account.

REFERENCES
[1] Buryachenko V. A., Rammerstorfer F. G., "Thermoelastic stress fluctuations in random structure composites with coated inclusions", Eur. J. Mech. A / Solids, 1998, 17, 763-788. [2] Buryachenko V.A., "The overall elastoplastic behavior of multiphase mater", Acta Mech. 1996, 119, 93 -17.

EMBEDDING MICROSTRUCTURAL LAWS IN THE MACROMECHANICAL FRAMEWORK A VARIATIONAL MULTISCALE APPROACH


K. Garikipati and T.J.R. Hughes
(1) - Division of Mechanics & Computation Stanford University. E-mail : krishna@gloworm.stanford.edu (2) - Stanford University Div. of Mechanics and Computation. E-mail : hughes@am-sun2.stanford.edu

ABSTRACT
Multiscale displacement fields are a commonly-observed feature of the inelastic deformation of solids. Examples include the adiabatic heat lines accompanying metal forming processes, slip lines during compaction of soils and localized strains associated with failure of composites and brittle materials like concrete. High-gradient fine scale fields and relatively smooth coarse scale fields can be identified in such settings. The Variational Multiscale Method involves a formulation of the problem solely in terms of coarse scale components, but one in which the fine scale details are accounted for. This involves the identification of equations that relate the fine scale dispalcements to the coarse scale. In a purely macromechanical setting such equations can be obtained from a weak form of the problem. A method can then be constructed that provides powerful analytic and computational techniques for problems of localized deformation. In this work, attention is turned to cases where the fine scale information comes from considerations entirely separate of the macromechanical, continuum formulation. Included, are microstructural models of material behavior such as the Schmid Law of crystal plasticity, Embedded Fracture Process Zones and atomistic models among others. It will be demonstrated that the Variational Multiscale Method provides a framework for the embedding of such laws in the macromechanical, continuum setting. The formulation is presented in the geometrically nonlinear setting of finite strain multiplicative plasticity. Interesting insights are revealed into the multiplicative multiscale nature of the kinematics. The approach gives rise to a multiscale finite element method and numerical algorithms that are sufficiently general and can be applied to embedding a range of microstructural laws in the macromechanical formulation. Several numerical examples are presented.

MODELING THE EFFECTS OF PRE-STRAIN ON FORMING LIMIT DIAGRAMS


D. Bammann and A.J. Beaudoin
(1) - Sandia National Labs. E-mail : bammann@sandia.gov (2) - Dept. of Mech. and Industrial Engineering. University of Illinois. E-mail : abeaudoi@uiuc.edu

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ABSTRACT
A finite deformation plasticity model is modified to provide better predictions in situations of large changes in the direction of straining. The model incorporates three internal variables to describe the state of the material during large deformations. One tensor and one scalar variable are based upon the evolution of dislocation density and distribution. The third state variable represents porosity or damage and the evolution is based upon the void growth equations proposed by Cocks and Ashby to describe the ductile growth of spherical voids in a creeping material. The deformation gradient is multiplicatively decomposed into elastic, damage (spherical), and plasticity (deviatoric) parts. To more accurately describe the material response during large changes in strain path, the scalar product of the internal tensor variable with the direction of current plastic flow is introduced in the evolution of the scalar hardening variable. This is shown to improve the predictions of the stress state during large strain path changes. Similar effects on the forming limit diagrams are then investigated.

ELASTIC/CRYSTALLINE VISCOPLASTIC FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF SINGLE- AND POLY- CRYSTAL SHEET METALS
E. Nakamachi, K. Hiraiwa and M. Harimoto
(1) - Department of Mechanical Engineering. Osaka Institute of Technology. E-mail : nakamati@med.oit.ac.jp (2) - Department of Mechanical Engineering. Osaka Institute of Technology (3) - Department of Mechanical Engineering. Osaka Institute of Technology

ABSTRACT
The elastic/crystalline viscoplastic constitutive equation based on the hardening and softening evolution equations, those parameters are identified by using the experimental observation, is newly implemented in the dynamic-explicit finite element code. The availability of this finite element analysis code is confirmed by the comparison with the experimental observations. The parameters of these phenomenological evolution equations are identified by using the micro and macro experimental measurements of pure aluminum and aluminum alloy tension tests. The hardening and softening might correspond to the increase and decrease of the dislocation density. But the fundamental mechanism of hardening and softening evolutions in each slip system of the crystal itself are still unclear, and further the mathematical formulation is incomplete. Therefore, the verification of finite element modeling by using the experimental observation is strongly required. In this study, X-ray diffraction analysis, ODF analysis and EBSP analysis are used for identification of the crystalline orientation distribution of the single and poly crystal aluminum materials. Microscope, SEM and AFM observations of tension tests are carried out to measure the deformation and straining of the rectangular plates under the tension loads. Those results are used for the finite element modeling and also the plastic instabilities of rectangular sheet under the tension load are analyzed. Both finite element analyses and experiments show that the deformation induced crystalline rotation, slip bands generation, and strain localization are very much affected by the initial crystalline orientation distribution, crystalline grain boundary and its size, and the shape of the specimen. The heterogeneouse deformation at the crystalline size can be specified by both observations. Finally, the availability of the finite element analysis code is confirmed.

COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF DEFORMATION TEXTURES USING RODRIQUES SPACE


A. Kumar and P. Dawson
(1) - Division of Engineering. Brown University. E-mail : akumar@isaac.engin.brown.edu (2) - Dept. of Theoretical & Applied Mechcs. Cornell University. E-mail : dawson@popeye.mae.cornell.edu

ABSTRACT
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When viewed from the macroscopic scale, the crystallographic texture is a probability distribution for the orientation of the crystal lattices, which often is called the orientation distribution function (ODF). An ODF is defined for a sample of material that contains many crystals, sufficiently many that independent samples render the same texture in a statistical sense. There are a number of techniques for computing the evolution of texture, some of which evolve parametric descriptors of the ODF and some of which update the orientations of a discrete sample drawn from the ODF. Here we discuss a procedure based on the former in which the ODF first is cast over an angle/axis parameterization of orientation space using a finite element discretization of this space. The particular angle/axis parameterization is that of Rodriques, which offers attractive properties in terms of the crystal symmetries. A conservation equation for the volume fractions of crystals provides the evolution equation for the texture in which the lattice spins derived from crystallographic slip determine the reorientation velocities. In this presentation, we discuss computational aspects of this methodology, discuss its extension to reorientation mechanisms other than pure slip, and couple the discretizations over orientation space with texture gradients occurring over the spatial dimensions of a formed component.

PARAMETER ESTIMATION OF A RATE DEPENDENT POLYCRYSTAL PLASTICITY MODEL THROUGH INVERSE ANALYSIS
S. Kok, A. Beaudoin and D. Tortorelli
(1) - Dept. of Mech. and Industrial Engineering. University of Illinois. E-mail : kok@acm6.me.uiuc.edu (2) - Dept. of Mech. and Industrial Engineering. University of Illinois. E-mail : abeaudoi@uiuc.edu (3) - Dept. of Mech. and Ind. Engineering. Univ. of Illinois. E-mail : dtort@acm6.me.uiuc.edu

ABSTRACT
A general power-law rate dependent polycrystal plasticity model [1] is used to predict the stressstrain response of uniaxial test specimens. In this model, internal state variables for each crystal include orientation and flow stress. Strain hardening is modeled through a Voce-type hardening law. The model requires at least five parameters: initial yield stress, initial hardening rate, strain rate sensitivity exponent, saturation stress and a reference slip system shear rate. Other parameters, such as coupling between slip systems, can also be included. The polycrystal plasticity model is used to simulate uniaxial tests. The simulations are performed with a general transient nonlinear finite element analysis, incorporating fully backward Euler time integration. Several hundred crystal are modeled at each Gauss point, where a modified Newton - Raphson scheme is used to solve the crystal stress and state variable update equations. Calculated stress-strain curves at various strain rates are then used in an optimization problem, where the RMS error between the calculated and measured responses are used as the error function. A standard gradient based optimization algorithm is used to determine the material parameters which minimize the error function. Efficient calculation of sensitivities are accomplished through the direct semianalytical method [2]. The optimization problem is solved using different crystal sample sizes in order to determine the minimum sample size that is necessary to provide reliable results. The accuracy of the models are verified by comparing the computed response to that obtained by performing additional experiments.

REFERENCES
[1] U.F. Kocks, C.N. Tome , H.-R. Wenk, "Texture and Anisotropy: Preferred Orientations in Polycrystals and Their Effect on Material Properties", Cambridge University Press, 1998. [2] P. Michaleris , "Design and Analysis of Transient Nonlinear Coupled Systems", PhD Thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1994.

HIGH-RATE MATERIAL MODELING AND VALIDATION USING THE TAYLOR CYLINDER IMPACT TEST
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P.J. Maudlin, C.N. Tome and G.T. Gray III


(1) - Theoretical Division. Los Alamos National Laboratory. E-mail : pjm@lanl.gov (2) - Los Alamos National Laboratory (3) - Los Alamos National Laboratory

ABSTRACT
The importance of an accurate constitutive description for high-rate deformation processes involving anisotropic metallic materials has been demonstrated in many applications. The earring of deepdrawn cups is a classic low - strain-rate example. Over the last decade the computing power (i.e., memory, processor speed and number of processors) available for numerical analysis has increased substantially. As a result, the computational tools available for simulating high deformation problems have recently started to evolve to accommodate more complex descriptions of material behavior. Our interest here is to develop more accurate descriptions of material strength (specifically for anisotropic elastoplastic flow) for certain metals involved in explosive forming applications, and the integration of such descriptions into the appropriate continuum mechanics computer codes. However, even with state-of-the-art computing power there is still a need to be cognizant of the cost of using advanced material modeling in continuum codes and balancing this cost with the realized improvements in problem accuracy. The explosive forming application is a high-rate problem that is best addressed with an explicit continuum mechanics code that can time-resolve the effect of stress waves at a reasonable computer cost. Computed strain rates for explosive forming range from 104 to 107 s-1, and the duration of formation is typically not longer than 500 =B5s. We adapted the Lagrangian EPIC code to include a description of anisotropic elastoplasticity that is economical enough for our application interests. This capability imparted to the EPIC code would be also applicable for industrial high-rate applications such as explosive welding, cutting or perforation, and even for some moderate-rate applications such as machining. Our modeling combines an appropriate elastic stiffness, a physically based flow stress model describing rate and thermally dependent isotropic hardening, and a piece-wise yield surface again physically based on experimental measurements of the crystallographic texture and polycrystal simulations. This elastoplastic property information is utilized in both classical and multi-surface associative flow constitutive formulations using unrotated tensors, with emphasis on cubic and hexagonalclose-packed materials. This approach can be viewed as an effort to bridge the gap between single crystal and continuum length scales in order to address high-rate deformation processes with more accuracy. Taylor Cylinder impact testing is extensively used in our work to validate the constitutive modeling by comparing calculated three dimensional shapes to the measured shapes of post-test specimens. Results from such comparisons will be presented. An explosive forming application problem is used to illustrate the effects of anisotropic behavior on material deformation and stability. Examples and counter-examples of the importance of yield surface topology and texture evolution will be also presented.

A DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN MODEL FOR PRECIPITATE EVOLUTION IN ALUMINUM ALLOY QUENCH PROCESSES
N. Sobh, J. Huang, L. Yin, R.B. Haber, D.A. Tortorelli and R. Hyland
(1) - Center for Process Simulation and Design. University of Illinois. (2) - Center for Process Simulation and Design. University of Illinois. (4) - University of Illinois at Urbana. E-mail : r-haber@uiuc.edu

ABSTRACT
This paper describes a method for simulating precipitate nucleation and growth during quench of aluminum alloy extrusions. In particular, we are interested in determining the density and size distribution of recipitates that form either in the bulk or at grain boundaries. The latter site is of particular concern, since grain boundary precipitates can serve as initiation sites for micro-cracking under extreme deformations, as in crash scenarios. Our microstructure simulation derives from a reaction-rate model for precipitate nucleation and growth. Precipitates are assumed to nucleate and grow in discrete increments, one monomer at a time. In practice, precipitates grow to contain 10^5 monomers or more, so our continuum process model requires as many degrees of freedom per location to describe the size
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distribution. A highly nonlinear system of reaction rate equations describes the evolution of the number densities. We present a discontinuous Galerkin finite element model for continuous quench processes, in which a macroscopic thermal solution drives the microscopic precipitate model. A spatially discontinuous Galerkin procedure (Baumann and Oden) for steady advection-diffusion problems models the thermal problem. A separate discontinuous Galerkin model addresses the massive nonlinear first-order hyperbolic system that arises from the precipitate evolution model. We use an element-by-element solution procedure and exploit the special structure of the evolution equations to achieve linear scaling in both the number of elements and the number of unknowns per continuum location. Systems with 10^7 unknowns can be solved in under an hour on a PC.

CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS FOR GRANULAR MATERIALS: APPLICATION TO FORMING OF PARTS FROM POWDER METALS
L. Anand and C. Gu
(1) - Department of Mechanical Engineering MIT. E-mail : anand@mit.edu (2) - Department of Mechanical Engineering MIT

ABSTRACT
The Coulomb-Mohr yield condition is widely used in soil mechanics to determine the stress required for flow of a granular material, however, the flow rule, that is the equations which govern the flow behavior, is generally not agreed upon. The purpose of this talk is to present a complete constitutive model for the large deformation response of dry granular materials. The model is a generalization of a "double-shearing" plane strain constitutive model which may be traced to the papers of Spencer (1964,1982), Mehrabadi and Cowin (1978), Nemat-Nasser, et al. (1981), Anand (1983), and others. Here, the plane strain model is generalized to three-dimensions including the effects of elastic deformation and the typical pressure-sensitive and dilatant, hardening/softening response observed in granular materials. The constitutive model is enhanced by a "cap" to represent the compaction processes which occur under multiaxial stress states with a high mean-normal pressure. The constitutive model has been implemented in a finite element program. The computational capability is then used to: - predict the formation of shear bands in plane strain compression and plane strain expansion of a cylindrical cavity. The numerical calculations are shown to be in good quantitative agreement with the recent corresponding experiments of Han and Drescher (1993), and Alsiny, et al. (1993) on localization in a dry Ottawa sand under low pressure conditions; and - simulate the compaction of a few representative components made from iron powder. The results from the simulations are shown to compare favorably with our experimental measurements.

A 2D NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF GRANULAR MATERIALS


J. Fortin, G. de Saxce and M. Hjiaj
(1) - Universite des Sciences et Technnologies de Lille. E-mail : fortin@chouia.univ-lille1.fr (2) - Faculte Polytechnique de Mon. Service de Mecanique des Materiaux et des Structures. (3) - Faculte Polytechnique de Mon. Service de Mecanique des Materiaux et des Structures.

ABSTRACT
The quantity of materials in grains or in powders produced by chemical, pharmaceutical, food and agriculture industries has been increasing during the last years. These problems are linked for manufacturers today to storage facilities, dosage. Understanding the complexity of the rheological behavior of granular materials is essential to improve the design of pieces destined in contain or in work granular materials. An alternative consists in using the numerical modelling at the particle scale. As
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opposed to the continuum Mechanics this representation of the Finite Element Method, this model is called the Discret Element Method. In this paper, a 2D numerical simulation of the Contact Dynamics [1] is presented: moving rigid rollers can run into themself or into surrounding walls and are subjected to friction forces during these collisions. The interaction between rollers is described by the unilateral contact law with Coulomb's friction. The complete contact law is a complex non smooth dissipation law including three statuses: no contact, contact with sticking and contact with sliding. This law is non associated. The concept of a superpotentiel developped by Moreau [2] to describe dissipative law cannot be used. de Saxce [3] propose to write the complete contact law in a more compact form of a differential inclusion and to recorver a normality rule structure. The method is based on a generalization of Fenchel's inequality, and leads to a unique function called Bipotential. This approach is simpler than usual approachs which require two predictor-corrector steps, one for the unilateral contact, and the other one for the friction. Using the contact bipotential leads to an algorithm of resolution based on a predictor-corrector scheme [4] and a convergence criterion based on the constitutive law error. The issue is an algorithm involving, at each iteration, a global step of resolution of the dynamics equation, producting a new estimation of the velocity and a local step of resolution of the contact law. The applications show the convergence and the robustness of the algorithm.

REFERENCES
[1] Moreau J.-J., Some numerical methods in multibody dynamics : application to granular materials, Eur.J. Mech, A Solids, 13. N 4 -suppl., 93-114, 1994. [2] Moreau J.-J., Fonctions de resistance et fonctions de dissipation, Seminaire d'analyse convexe, Montpellier, expose n 6, 1971. [3] de Saxce G., Une generalisation de l'inegalite de Fenchel et ses applications aux lois constitutives, C. R. Acad. Sc. Paris, t. 314, Serie II, p. 125-129, 1992. [4] de Saxce G. and Feng Z. Q., The bipotentiel method: a constructive approach to design the complete contact law with friction and improved numerical algorithms, International journal Mathematical and Computer modelling on contact mechanics, accepted for publication.

MICRO-MACRO SIMULATION OF A LASER REMELTING PROCESS


G. Laschet, H.J. Diepers and R. Prieler
(1) - ACCESS e.V. E-mail : g.laschet@access.rwth-aachen.de (2) - ACCESS e.V. (3) - ACCESS e.V.

ABSTRACT
Short time laser treatments of coatings lead to specific microstructure formation due to the high local temperature gradients (grad T > 10^ 4 K/cm). Especially laser remelted Al coatings on steel substrates have interesting material properties such as oxydation and sulfidation resistance at high temperature and can overcome brittleness of Fe-Al bulk materials. A numerical investigation has been realized with the aim to determine the process window for technically relevant Al-Fe systems and to predict the microstructure formation during laser remelting. The main process parameters are the energy per unit surface, the influence time and the beam shape. At first, on the macroscale, a simplified approach is presented which is based on a transient thermal finite element/control volume analysis. This approach evaluates the temperature field and the mean concentration in the melting pool. During the melting process, the concentration of the solid-liquid interface varies from 0% Fe to 100% Fe. As the melting temperatures of pure aluminum and iron are quite different (Fe: 1434 deg C, Al: 655 deg C), the determination of this temperature at the boundary of the liquid pool is of primary importance. Indeed, its deepness is function of the liquid concentration, which itself is function of the eltpool depth. In order to describe this complex interactive phenomenon, a simple model is developed where the concentration of the liquid phase is considered in a first approximation as perfectly mixed [1]. Moreover, in order to define a smooth transition between the melting and the solidification region, the mushy zone is defined by the projection of the liquidus-solidus distance on the solidification speed. The accuracy of this model is illustrated by the comparison of the predicted and experimental geometries of the melting pool in function of the process parameters. Then, from the
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macroscopic analysis, the temperature gradient, the mean concentration and the cooling rate at the solidification front are used to provide input data for the microscale simulation. This simulation is based on a phase field approach [2,3] in order to describe the microstructure and microsegregation profile. The special feature of our approach is the incorporation of a realistic description of the phase diagram in the range [75% Al - 100% Al]. This model takes into account the dependence of segregation on the concentration and the dependence of the melting point on curvature and concentration. The results of this microscale simulation present qualitative agreement with the experimental investigation of the microstructure performed by EDX and microscope analysis. Finally, the sensitivity of the macroscale parameters on the microstructure formation is presented.

REFERENCES
[1] G. Laschet , H.-J. Diepers and I. Steinbach. Micro-macro simulation of laser remelting of an aluminum coating on steel, Proc. of EKLAT 98, Hannover, September 1998, Ed. L. Mordike, DGM editions, pp. 265-270. [2] I. Steinbach & G. Schmitz. Direct simulation of the solidification structure using the phase field method, Proc. of Conf. on Casting, Welding & Advanced Solidification, Ed. B. Thomas & C. Beckermann, TMS Editions, San Diego, June 98, pp. 521-532. [3] A.A. Wheeler, B.T. Murray & R.J. Schaefer. Computation of dendrites using a phase field model, Physica D, vol. 66, 1993, pp 243-262.

A THERMOMECHANICAL-MICROSTRUCTURAL MODEL OF AN ALUMINUM ALLOY CASTING PROCESS


D. Celentano, D. Gunasegaram and T. Nguyen
(1) - Dept. de Ingenieria Mecanica. Universidad de Santiago de Chile. E-mail : dcelenta@lauca.usach.cl (2) - School of Engineering, University of South Australia (3) - CRC for Alloy and Solidif. Tech. (CAST). CSIRO Div. of Man. Tech. Australia

ABSTRACT
During the last years, several thermomechanical models have been developed and used to simulate different casting processes (see [1,2] and references therein) in order to predict the solidification path after the filling and thus to contribute to a better design of the casting system allowing the manufacturing of sound parts according to specified quality controls. On the other hand, a considerable amount of work has been carried out in the study of the microstructure evolution of many alloys during the liquid-solid phase-change by means of thermal-microstructural analyses [3]. Although the thermofluid behaviour considering microstructural phase- change effects has been analysed with particular emphasis on the natural convection phenomenon [4], the material description of the liquid, mushy and solid phases occuring during the solidification and cooling in a unified formulation is still an open field of research. The aim of this paper is to present a coupled hermomechanical-microstructural formulation for the analysis of the whole aluminium alloy casting process once the mould is completely filled with molten metal. It should be noted that this macro-micro approach is the main original contribution of the present work. In this proposed formulation, which is an extension of the thermomechanical model described in [2], the liquid-solid phase-change evolution is given by nucleation and growth laws based on kinetic considerations of dendritic equiaxed solidification [3]. Therefore, in this context the solid fraction does not only depend only on the temperature as in [2], but also on the temperature rate and some microstructural parameters such as the grain density and grain size. Moreover, the influence of the microstructure formation is taken into account in the constitutive laws governing the thermomechanical behaviour of the alloy. The formulation is discretized within the finite element framework. Some important features of the thermo-mechanical-microstructural coupling are also presented. Finally, this formulation is used in the analysis of an aluminium alloy solidification problem subjected to different mould preheats and external cooling conditions. The numerical results provided by the simulation are compared with some available experimental data reported in [5] discussing, additionally, different aspects related to the microstructural behaviour of the alloy during the phase-change.

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REFERENCES
[1] M. Bellet, F. Decultieux, M. Menai, F. Bay, C. Llevaillant, J. Chenot, J. Schmidt and I. Svensson, "Thermomechanics of the cooling stage in casting processes: three dimensional finite element analysis and experimental validation", Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Vol. 27B, 1993. [2] D. Celentano , D. Gunasegaram and T. Nguyen , "A thermomechanical model for the analysis of light alloy solidification in a composite mould", Int. Journal of Solids and Structures, in press, 1999. [3] M. Rappaz, "Modelling of microstructure formation in solidification processes", Int. Materials Reviews, Vol. 34, No. 3, 93-123, 1989. [4] J. Heinrich, S. Felicelli and D. Poirier, "Vertical solidification of dendritic binary alloys", Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 89, 435-461, 1991. [5] D. Gunasegaram , D. Celentano and T. Nguyen , "The effect of cooling a permanent composite mould on air gap formation and heat transfer", Proceedings of the Symposium on Application of Sensors and Modeling of Materials Processing, 126th TMS Annual Meeting and Exhibition, Orlando, U.S.A., 9-13, 1997.

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Minisymposium

Computational Acoustics and Fluid-Structure Interaction


Charbel Farhat, Carlos Felippa, Thomas L. Geers and Roger Ohayon
SESSION 1: ACOUSTICS
HIGH-ORDER STRUCTURAL ACOUSTICS ANALYSIS OF STIFFENED SHELLS S. Dey, J.J. Shirron and L.S. Couchman .........................................................................................................................153 PADE APPROXIMATION OF MULTI-FREQUENCY SOLUTIONS IN COUPLED VIBRO-ACOUSTIC PROBLEMS M. Malhotra, A. Oberai and P.M. Pinsky .......................................................................................................................153 HIGH-ORDER COMPOSITE FINITE-DIFFERENCE METHODS FOR MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN INHOMOGENEOUS MEDIA T.A. Driscoll ...................................................................................................................................................................154 TREFFTZ INFINITE ELEMENTS IN THREE DIMENSIONS I. Harari and P.E. Barbone ............................................................................................................................................155 ACCURATE RADIATION BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR THE TIME-DEPENDENT WAVE EQUATION L.L. Thompson and R. Huan ...........................................................................................................................................155 FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION OF EXACT DIRICHLET-TO-NEUMANN RADIATION CONDITIONS ON ELLIPTIC AND SPHEROIDAL BOUNDARIES L.L. Thompson, R. Huan and C. Ianculescu ...................................................................................................................156

SESSION 2: FSI AND ACOUSTICS METHODS


DOUBLY ASYMPTOTIC, BOUNDARY-ELEMENT CALCULATION OF BUBBLE DYNAMICS K.S. Hunter and T.L. Geers ............................................................................................................................................157 COMPUTATIONAL PROCEDURES FOR HYDRO/AERO-ACOUSTICS A. Oberai, F. Roknaldin and T.J. Hughes .......................................................................................................................158 SOUND AND SHELL-LIKE STRUCTURE INTERACTIONS BY THE UNIFIED BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD Y. Liu and S. Chen ..........................................................................................................................................................159 PARTITIONED FORMULATION OF INTERNAL FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEMS BY LOCALIZED LAGRANGE MULTIPLIERS K.C. Park, C.A. Felippa and R. Ohayon .........................................................................................................................159 AN ENERGY TRANSFER CRITERION FOR ASSESSING PARTITIONED PROCEDURES APPLIED TO THE SOLUTION OF NON-LINEAR TRANSIENT AEROELASTIC PROBLEMS S. Piperno and C. Farhat................................................................................................................................................160 SPACE-TIME ARBITRARY LAGRANGIAN-EULERIAN F.E.MS. OF CRANK-NICOLSON TYPE P. Hansbo and J. Hermansson........................................................................................................................................161

SESSION 3: FSI METHODS AND APPLICATIONS I


COMPUTATIONAL METHODS FOR COUPLED SIMULATIONS OF WIND INDUCED MOTIONS OF LARGE BRIDGES T. Kvamsdal and C.B. Jenssen........................................................................................................................................161 ADAPTIVE MESH MOVEMENT ALGORITHM FOR FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTIONS WITH LARGE STRUCTURAL DISPLACEMENTS T. Kvamsdal, K.M. Okstad, K. Srli and P. Pegon ...........................................................................................................162 DECOMPOSED FLUID-STRUCTURE SYSTEMS INCLUDING STRUCTURAL DAMPING G. Sandberg, P. Davidsson and P.A. Wernberg..............................................................................................................163 GLOBALLY CONSERVATIVE, UNCONDITIONALLY STABLE SPACE-TIME FINITE ELEMENT METHODS FOR FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION B.A. Grohmann, T. Wallmersperger and B. Kroplin.......................................................................................................163 LOOSELY COUPLED SIMULATIONS OF SOLID ROCKET MOTORS I.D. Parsons, P. Alavilli, A. Namazifard, J. Hales, A. Acharya, F. Najjar, D. Tafti and X. Jiao.....................................165 AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF ANGULAR DISTORTIONS FOR 2-D AND 3-D COMPUTATIONAL MESH DYNAMICS P.Z. Bar-Yoseph, S. Mereu, V. Kalro and S. Chippada...................................................................................................165

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SESSION 4: FSI METHODS AND APPLICATIONS II


A DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHOD FOR COMPRESSIBLE FLOW PAST A 3D FLEXIBLE WING I. Lomtev, R.M. Kirby and G.E. Karniadakis..................................................................................................................166 ON THE SIMULATION OF VISCOUS FREE SURFACE FLOWS WITH NON-LINEAR STRUCTURAL INTERACTIONS W.A. Wall, J. Schmidt and E. Ramm ...............................................................................................................................167 INVESTIGATION OF THE AEROELASTIC COUPLING BETWEEN A NOZZLE AND A SUPERSONIC JET E. Schall, B. Koobus and C. Farhat................................................................................................................................168 A COMPUTATIONAL METHODOLOGY FOR THE SIMULATION OF FLOW PROBLEMS PAST ACCELERATING RIGID AND FLEXIBLE OBSTACLES D. Rixen and C. Farhat ..................................................................................................................................................169 FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL INCOMPRESSIBLE VISCOUS FLUID FLOWS K. Kakuda and G. Ishii ...................................................................................................................................................169 EIGENVALUE AND EIGENFUNCTION ERROR ESTIMATES FOR FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATIONS OF SLOSH-STRUCTURE INTERACTION P. Ryan ...........................................................................................................................................................................170

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HIGH-ORDER STRUCTURAL ACOUSTICS ANALYSIS OF STIFFENED SHELLS


S. Dey, J.J. Shirron and L.S. Couchman
(1) - Naval Research Laboratory. Washington. E-mail : dey@cosmic.nrl.navy.mil (2) - Naval Research Laboratory. Washington. E-mail : joseph@helmholtz.nrl.navy.mil (3) - SFA Inc. E-mail : couchman@ccs.nrl.navy.mil

ABSTRACT
The presentation will describe a geometry-based, three-dimensional, high-order, finite element infrastructure and its application to solve structural acoustics problems involving stiffened, elastic, shelllike structures. Unlike most existing low-order formulations that are based on assumption of some specific shell-theory, the present approach is based on the theory of three-dimensional elasticity coupled with highorder finite elements which obviates the need for dealing with numerical difficulties otherwise associated with thin geometries. In addition, for properly designed meshes, the use of high-order finite elements offers exponential rates of convergence of the numerical solution compared to only algebraic rates possible with fixed, low-order formulations. The talk will focus on the following issues that impact the effective implementation of high-order finite and infinite elements for complex geometric domains: - Topology-based hierarchical basis functions, - Accurate mesh geometry representation, and - Continuity enforcement at shell junctions. Issues related to representation and modeling of the problem domains and its spatial discretization will also be discussed in detail. Numerical examples based on plane-wave scattering will be presented to show the validity and the flexibility of the approach for problems involving complex geometric domains.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Acknowledgements: This work was funded by the Office of Naval Research and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

PADE APPROXIMATION OF MULTI-FREQUENCY SOLUTIONS IN COUPLED VIBRO-ACOUSTIC PROBLEMS


M. Malhotra, A. Oberai and P.M. Pinsky
(1) - Division of Mechanics and Computation. Stanford University. E-mail : manish@am-sun2.stanford.edu (2) - Division of Mechanics and Computation. Stanford University. E-mail : oberai@leland.stanford.edu (3) - Department of Mechanical Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford. E-mail : pinsky@stanford.edu

ABSTRACT
We describe an efficient algorithm to compute ``partial-field'' solutions of the exterior structural acoustics problem at multiple frequencies. So-called partial-field solutions arise in cases where the coupled elasticity - Helmholtz equations are desired to be solved only in a part of the computational domain - typically, at a few points in the near-field of the scatterer and/or in the far-field. Such partialfield solutions can be of direct interest, e.g., surface velocities on the elastic scatterer, or be used to compute average quantities, e.g., total noise radiated due to an incompressible, low Mach-number flow in underwater and aero-acoustic applications. The approach is based on the Galerkin finite-element discretization of the coupled problem. We discretize the exterior problem using Galerkin finite-elements. The treatment of the infinite fluid domain is achieved by introducing a separable domain-truncation boundary and by posing a Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN) map on this boundary to incorporate the asymptotic acoustic pressure in the fluid. Instead of solving the typical matrix equations for the pressure at all points in the computational domain, we reformulate the matrix problem into one that only solves for the modal coefficients of the pressure expressed in terms of
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the surface harmonics. This problem is posed in a frequency-dependent ``transfer-function'' form that is typical of multi-input multi-output time-invariant dynamical systems. We describe the finite-element reformulation of the problem, and the use of a recently developed Lanczos-type method to obtain matrix - valued Pade approximants of the transfer function. Numerical tests illustrating the accuracy and efficiency of the method are described. The proposed scheme is shown to achieve desired accuracy levels, with an order or even more cost reductions compared to commonly used direct methods for solution at multiple frequencies.

HIGH-ORDER COMPOSITE FINITE-DIFFERENCE METHODS FOR MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN INHOMOGENEOUS MEDIA


T.A. Driscoll
(1) - Program in Applied Mathematics. University of Colorado at Boulder. E-mail : tad@newton.colorado.edu

ABSTRACT
High-order finite - difference methods for Maxwell's equations (or the acoustic wave equation) are attractive because of low resolution requirements for accurate long - range propagation. However, they can be difficult to use in problems with complicated geometries. A composite approach offers a way to give these methods great geometric flexibility. In large regions of homogeneous or smoothly-varying media, we use a high - order finite difference method on a uniform grid. Previous work has shown that spatially implicit (compact) methods give the best accuracy per flop, and we also stagger the fields, as in Yee's method, to further improve accuracy. In the vicinity of a material interface, we use a block pseudospectral method. General curved interfaces are mapped by a change of variables into straight strips. On each side of the interface, a pseudospectral method is used. The blocks are coupled either by generalized characteristic conditions or by a novel fictitious point technique, in which interface conditions are imposed accurately by means of non-physical points. Experiments on test problems show that the block pseudospectral methods are more accurate at a resolution of 4 points per wavelength (PPW) than Yee's method is at 32 PPW. The uniform background grid and the interfacial grids overlap, which allows flexibility in their design. (As a result, boundary closures for the implicit finite differences are not an important issue.) The different grids are linked by high-order interpolation, which is blended to make a smooth transition between grids. We test the method on two 2-D scattering problems, one with two cylinders and the other with a thin plate. In each case the composite method gives results accurate to about 5% using only 3.6 points per wavelength.

TREFFTZ INFINITE ELEMENTS IN THREE DIMENSIONS


I. Harari and P.E. Barbone
(1) - E-mail :harari@eng.tau.ac.il (2) - Dept. of Aerospace & Mech. Engineering Boston University. E-mail : Barbone@bu.edu

ABSTRACT
Trefftz infinite elements for exterior problems of time-harmonic acoustics are presented. The formulation is based on a functional which provides a general framework for domain-based computation of exterior problems. The exterior problem is partitioned into an inner field in a bounded domain and an outer field in its unbounded complement. Normal derivatives weakly enforce continuity across the interface. For smooth representations of the outer field there is no integration over the unbounded domain.

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Infinite elements are usually based on piecewise smooth functions. In this case we account for possible discontinuities across infinite element boundaries by incorporating a jump term in the formulation. Two prominent features simplify the task of discretization: the infinite elements mesh the interface only and need not match the finite elements on the interface. Various infinite element approximations for two-dimensional configurations with circular interfaces are reviewed. Numerical results demonstrate the good performance of these schemes. A simple study points to the proper interpretation of spectral results for the formulation. The spectral properties of these infinite elements are examined with a view to the correct representation of physics and efficient numerical solution. For three-dimensional configurations with spherical interfaces the infinite element interpolation is based on separation of variables in a spherical system. The lowest - order element approximations combine piecewise-linear azimuthal interpolation, latitude variation described by associated Legendre functions, and oscillatory outgoing radial behavior. Singularities at the poles require careful consideration.

ACCURATE RADIATION BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR THE TIMEDEPENDENT WAVE EQUATION


L.L. Thompson and R. Huan
(1) - Adv. Comp. Mech. Laboratory. Dept. of Mech. Engineering. Clemson University. E-mail : lonny.thompson@ces.clemson.edu (2) - Adv. Comp. Mech. Laboratory. Dept. of Mech. Engineering. Clemson University.

ABSTRACT
Efficient evaluation of accurate radiation boundary conditions for the time-dependent wave equation on unbounded spatial domains has long been an obtacle for the developement of reliable solvers for time domain simulations. Ideally, the artificial boundary would be placed as close as possible to the scatterer, and the radiation boundary treatment would be capable of arbitrary accuracy at a cost and memory not exceeding that of the interior solver. In this paper a modified version of an exact nonreflecting boundary condition (NRBC) first derived by Grote and Keller [1] is developed in a finite element formulation for the scalar wave equation on unbounded domains. The new formulation has dramatically improved accuracy and efficiency for time domain simulations compared to standard boundary treatments [2]. The NRBC annihilate the first N wave harmonics on a spherical artificial boundary. A local in time representation is obtained by solution of an auxiliary Cauchy problem for linear first-order systems of ordinary differential equations on the boundary for each spherical harmonic. We show how standard explicit or implicit time-integrators may be used to solve the semi-discrete finite element equations concurrently with the auxiliary variables on the boundary. Although global over the truncation boundary, the NRBC only requires inner products of spherical harmonics and basis functions in the force vector, and as a result, the NRBC may be computed using standard quadrature and element assembly procedures, and does not disturb the banded/sparse structure of the finite element matrix equations. Fast spherical transforms may be used to improve efficiency. In order to obtain a symmetric system, the NRBC may be reformulated with additional auxiliary variables on the truncation boundary [3]. This modified version gives improved accuracy when only a few harmonics are included in the spherical expansion/transformation. With the exact NRBC the overall finite element method retains its optimal rate of convergence, as the error introduced at the truncation boundary can be always be reduced below the discretization error in the interior computational domain. Numerical studies are performed to assess the accuracy and convergence properties of the NRBC when implemented in the finite element method. The results demonstrate that the modified NRBC is remarkably robust, and highly accurate. In practice, we have found that it is not usually necessary to use more than N=25 terms to obtain accurate solutions. Extensions to the semi-infinite problem resulting from transducers or vibrating structures mounted in a half-plane, and efficient far-field computations are also discussed.

REFERENCES
[1] M.J. Grote and J.B. Keller, "Exact non-reflecting boundary conditions for the time dependent wave equation", SIAM J. of Appl. Math., 55, 280-297, 1995.
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[2] L.L. Thompson and R. Huan , "Implementation of Exact Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions in the Finite Element Method for the Time-Dependent Wave Equation", To appear: Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 1999. [3] L.L. Thompson and R. Huan , "Finite Element Formulation of Exact Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions for the Time-Dependent Wave Equation", To appear: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 1999.

FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION OF EXACT DIRICHLET-TO-NEUMANN RADIATION CONDITIONS ON ELLIPTIC AND SPHEROIDAL BOUNDARIES
L.L. Thompson, R. Huan and C. Ianculescu
(1) - Adv. Comp. Mech. Laboratory. Dept. of Mech. Engineering. Clemson University. E-mail : lonny.thompson@ces.clemson.edu (2) - Adv. Comp. Mech. Laboratory. Dept. of Mech. Engineering. Clemson University.

ABSTRACT
Exact non-local Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN) radiation boundary conditions are derived and formulated in a Galerkin finite element method for the Helmholtz equation in unbounded domains. The DtN map relates Dirichlet to Neumann data and matches the first N wave harmonics exactly at the artificial boundary. DtN conditions in cylindrical and spherical coordinates are derived in [1]. In [2], and independently in [3], exact DtN radiation conditions were first constructed for elliptic and spheroidal boundaries. The use of elliptic and spheroidal boundaries enables the efficient solution of scattering from elongated objects in two- and three- dimensions respectively. Finite difference implementations are given in [3]. Numerical results using the DtN condition in the finite element method on elliptical boundaries are reported in [4]. In this paper, we derive the exact non-local DtN conditions for elliptic and spheroidal boundaries using both eigenfunction expansions and a Dirichlet Green's function approach. Modifications with various local boundary operators are discussed and implemented. Direct implementation in the finite element method involves non-local spatial integrals leading to a dense, fully populated submatrix. When the problem size is large, the computational cost associated with the storage and factorization becomes expensive. A matrix-free interpretation of the non-local DtN map for elliptic and spheroidal boundaries, suitable for iterative solution is described. Numerical examples of scattering from elliptic and spheroidal objects are computed and compared to analytical solutions to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the boundary treatments for elongated structures.

REFERENCES
[1] J. B. Keller and D. Givoli, "Exact non-reflecting boundary conditions", J. Comp. Phys., 82, 172-192, 1989. [2] L. L. Thompson, "Finite element methods for time-harmonic structural acoustics in exterior domains: Derivation of exact DtN maps for elliptic and spheroidal radiation boundaries", ONR Contract Review Meeting, Stanford University, Stanford, CA., April 19, 1994. Technical Report: CMCU-94-01, Advanced Computational Mechanics Laboratory, Clemson University, August, 1994. [3] M. J. Grote and J. B. Keller, "On nonreflecting boundary conditions", J. of Comput. Phys., 122, 231-243, 1995. [4] G. Ben-Porat and D. Givoli, "Solution of unbounded domain problems using elliptic artificial boundaries", Commun. Numer. Meth. Engr., 11, 735-741, 1995.

DOUBLY ASYMPTOTIC, BOUNDARY-ELEMENT CALCULATION OF BUBBLE DYNAMICS


K.S. Hunter and T.L. Geers
(1) - Center for Acoustics, Mech. and Mat. Dept. of Mech. Engineering. Univ. of Colorado. E-mail : Kendall.Hunter@Colorado.EDU (2) - Department of Mechanical Engineering. University of Colorado. E-mail : geers@spot.colorado.edu
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ABSTRACT
A method for simulating the large-motion dynamics of a bubble in a compressible inviscid fluid is described, and computational results for underwater explosion bubbles are shown. The method follows a computational procedure used by several previous investigators. However, the boundary-element equations incorporated in the procedure are based, not on an integral equation for incompressible flow, but on a doubly asymptotic approximation (DAA) that accounts for the effects of fluid compressibility. With R(t) as the position vector for a fluid particle at the bubble's surface, D()/Dt as the material derivative, and v(R) as the velocity potential at the location of the fluid particle, the aforementioned computational procedure utilizes the following bubble - surface equations: Potential-Flow Relation: DR/Dt = Grad(p) Gradient in Local Coordinates: Grad(p) = eN (p/N) + e1 (p/S1) + e2 (p/S2) Bernoulli's Equation: Dp/Dt = (Grad(p) Grad(p)) - (Pgas-Pamb)/d Now the tangential derivatives p/S1 and p/S2 may be obtained by surface differentiation, but p/N cannot. Hence, in the boundary-element procedure based on incompressible flow, recourse is made to the boundary-integral equation p/N = - g p / b, in which b and g are geometry-dependent, boundary-integral operators. In the present formulation, p/N is obtained from the doubly asymptotic approximation p/N = - (g p) / b - (p t) / ct, where c is the speed of sound in the fluid. For purely dilatational motion of a spherical bubble, the DAA produces a bubble-radius equation of motion that is equivalent to those developed over the years by various other methods. In boundary-element form, however, the DAA applies to complete dilatational, translational and deformational motion. In the presentation, computational results based on the DAA-flow model will be compared with those based on the incompressible-flow model.

COMPUTATIONAL PROCEDURES FOR HYDRO/AERO-ACOUSTICS


A. Oberai, F. Roknaldin and T.J. Hughes
(1) - Division of Mechanics and Computation. Stanford University. E-mail : oberai@leland.stanford.edu (2) - Division of Mechanics and Computation. Stanford University. (3) - Stanford University Div. of Mechanics and Computation. E-mail : hughes@am-sun2.stanford.edu

ABSTRACT
Fluid flow over structures is known to produce sound, as well excite and sustain vibrations in the structure. In the most general case, this response may determined by solving the Navier-Stokes equations , coupled to the equations of motion for the structure. However, for many cases this approach is impractical because: (1) In a large part of the fluid domain where the acoustic quantities are desired, the average fluid response tends to be uniform. In this case the simpler equations of acoustics can be employed to effect computational savings. (2) The order of magnitude of acoustic fluctuations tends to be much smaller than other variations in the fluid variables. Thus to capture both these variations in one calculation would require very high precision. To overcome these difficulties a ``hybrid'' approach is proposed. The approach assumes that the structural vibrations and the acoustic fluctuations are small and hence do not alter the fluid flow. This allows us to decouple the non-linear fluid problem from the linear structural-acoustic problem. In the first stage of the proposed procedure, we solve the Navier-Stokes equations in a small region where the flow may be considered non-uniform, while treating the structure as rigid. This yields fluctuations in the fluid variables which are then used as sources to drive a structural acoustic problem. In this problem, the structure may be treated as linear-elastic or rigid, while the fluctuations in the fluid density are governed by a wave equation. This equation is obtained from Lighthill's acoustic analogy, and is driven by the socalled turbulence tensor. This tensor vanishes in the region of uniform flow leading to a homogeneous wave equation in the far field. Our approach differs form other "hybrid" methods based on Lighthill's analogy in the treatment of the acoustic problem. Most approaches, such as Curle's equation, or the treatment of Ffowcs Williams and Hall, employ a specific Green's function for Lighthill's equation to develop semi-analytical formulae for predicting noise. While these formulae are crucial in determining scaling laws for acoustic intensity,
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they are not easily extended to complex configurations. For this reason, we solve the structural-acoustic problem by first transforming it to the frequency domain to arrive at Helmholtz-like equations. Thereafter, we develop a variational formulation of Lighthill's equation, that is solved using the finite element method. In this talk we present representative calculations, which elucidate the comparison of the proposed methodology with existing methods and its applicability to complex problems.

SOUND AND SHELL-LIKE STRUCTURE INTERACTIONS BY THE UNIFIED BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD
Y. Liu and S. Chen
(1) - Dept. of Mech., Ind. and Nucl. Engineering. University of Cincinnati. E-mail : Yijun.Liu@uc.edu (2) - Dept. of Mech., Ind. and Nuclear Engineering. University of Cincinnati

ABSTRACT
Development of the unified 3-D boundary element method (BEM) in the analysis of time harmonic acoustic wave and shell-like structure interactions will be reported at the Fifth USNCCM Congress. The BEM approach, proposed at the last Congress, to analyze the sound and shell-like structure interaction problems has been implemented for both radiation and scattering problems. In the exterior acoustic domain, the composite boundary integral equation (BIE) formulation, using a linear combination of the conventional and hypersingular BIEs, is applied with C0 boundary elements. This composite BIE formulation guarantees unique solutions for all frequencies and any thin shapes of the structure. For the shell-like structure, the conventional BIE for 3-D elastodynamics is utilized where the nearly-singular integrals (existing when two surfaces are close to each other) are computed using a semi-analytical method to provide efficient and accurate integrations no matter how thin the structure is. Numerical results for both radiation and scattering of acoustic waves from thin shell-like structures clearly demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the BEM approach. Studies on using iterative solvers for larger problems and sub-domain methods for slender structures, in order to improve the BEM efficiency, will also be reported at the Congress. The unified BEM approach to structural acoustics offers several advantages over the other numerical methods, such as the finite element / infinite element methods. In addition to the high accuracy, the BEM is much easier in modeling than the other methods for structures with complicated features in the interior (e.g., stiffeners) or the exterior (e.g., the rudders, turbo blades of a submarine). Multiple scatterers (e.g., an array of shell structures) can also be modeled readily by the BEM. Finally, shell structures with nonuniform thickness or coatings (layered shell structures) can be handled accurately by the BIE formulations, especially in the sensitivity analysis.

REFERENCES
(References downloadable from the web at http://urbana.mie.uc.edu/yliu/Papers/Papers.htm) [1] Liu, Y. J., and Rizzo, F. J. (1997), "Scattering of elastic waves from thin shapes in three dimensions using the composite boundary integral equation formulation.", J. of the Acoustical Society America, 102 (2) (Pt.1, August), 926-932. [2] Liu, Y. J. (1998), "Analysis of shell-like structures by the boundary element method based on 3-D elasticity: formulation and verification.", Int. J. Numerical Methods in Engineering, 41, 541-558. [3] Luo, J. F., Liu, Y. J., and Berger, E. J. (1998), "Analysis of two-dimensional thin structures (from micro- to nanoscales) using the boundary element method.", Computational Mechanics, 22, No. 5, 404-412. [4] Liu, Y. J. and Chen, S. (1998), "A new form of the hypersingular boundary integral equation for 3-D acoustics and its implementation with C0 boundary elements.", Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, in press. [5] Chen, S. and Liu, Y. J. (1998), "A unified boundary element method for the analysis of sound and thin shell-like structure interactions.", J. of the Acoustical Society America, in review.

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PARTITIONED FORMULATION OF INTERNAL FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEMS BY LOCALIZED LAGRANGE MULTIPLIERS


K.C. Park, C.A. Felippa and R. Ohayon
(1) - University of Colorado. E-mail : kcpark@titan.colorado.edu (2) - University of Colorado Center for Aerospace Structures. E-mail : carlos@titan.colorado.edu (3) - CNAM Structural Mechanics and Systems Laboratory. E-mail : ohayon@cnam.fr

ABSTRACT
A partitioned formulation of compressible internal fluid-structure interaction problems is presented. The formulation uses displacement models for both fluid and structure. Partitioning is effected by a localized version of the method of Lagrange multipliers, which assigns two independent sets of Lagrange multipliers to the structural and fluid interfaces. Two major features of the present formulation include: an interface compliance normalization that helps capture the predominant physics of interaction phenomena when the interfaces are characterized by two radically different rigidities, and a novel transformation of the displacement model into a fluidpressure model suitable for both transient and vibration analyses. The present formulation first solves for the interface Lagrange multipliers. These are subsequently used to solve for the structural displacements and the fluid displacement, or pressures, via two independent analysis modules.

AN ENERGY TRANSFER CRITERION FOR ASSESSING PARTITIONED PROCEDURES APPLIED TO THE SOLUTION OF NON-LINEAR TRANSIENT AEROELASTIC PROBLEMS
S. Piperno and C. Farhat
(1) - CERMICS. INRIA. E-mail : piperno@viso.inria.fr (2) - University of Colorado Aerospace Engineering. E-mail : charbel@alexandra.colorado.edu

ABSTRACT
We consider the problem of solving large-scale nonlinear dynamic aeroelasticity problems in the time-domain using a fluid/structure partitioned procedure. We present a mathematical framework for assessing some important numerical properties of the chosen partitioned procedure, and predicting its performance for realistic applications. Our analysis framework is based on the estimation of the total energy that is artificially introduced at the fluid/structure interface by the staggering process that is inherent to most partitioned solution methods. This framework also suggests a new approach for time - discretizing the transfer of aerodynamic data from the fluid subsystem to the structure subsystem that improves the accuracy and stability properties of the underlying partitioned method. We apply this framework to the analysis of several partitioned procedures that have been previously proposed for the solution of nonlinear transient aeroelastic problems. Using two- and threedimensional transonic and supersonic wing and panel aeroelastic applications, we validate this framework and highlight its impact on the design and selection of a staggering algorithm for the solution of coupled fluid/structure equations.

SPACE-TIME ARBITRARY LAGRANGIAN-EULERIAN F.E.MS. OF CRANKNICOLSON TYPE


P. Hansbo and J. Hermansson
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(1) - Chalmers University of Technology. E-mail : hansbo@solid.chalmers.se (2) - Department of Solid Mechanics. Chalmers University of Technology

ABSTRACT
We present a new arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) finite element method with application to fluid-structure interaction. The ALE method is based on a space-time finite element method with elements oriented along the space-time deformation of the mesh. Previous work on space-time methods have been based on the time-discontinuous Galerkin method [1-3], which is either only first order time-accurate or, for higher accuracy, involves a much larger system of equations than traditional time-stepping schemes. We propose to use instead a time-continuous finite element method, which leads to second order accurate Crank-Nicolson type methods on deforming meshes. Numerical examples dealing with large deformation fluid-structure interaction problems will be presented.

REFERENCES
[1] P. Hansbo , "Lagrangian incompressible flow computations in three dimensions by use of space-time finite elements", Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 20 (1995) 989-1001. [2] T.E. Tezduyar , M. Behr , and J. Liou, "A new strategy for finite element computations involving moving boundaries and interfaces - the deforming - spatial - domain/ space-time procedure: I. The concept and the preliminary numerical tests", Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg, 94 (1992) 339-351. [3] A. Masud and T.J.R. Hughes, "A space-time Galerkin/least-squares finite element formulation of the NavierStokes equations for moving domain problems", Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg, 146 (1997) 91-126.

COMPUTATIONAL METHODS FOR COUPLED SIMULATIONS OF WIND INDUCED MOTIONS OF LARGE BRIDGES
T. Kvamsdal and C.B. Jenssen
(1) - SINTEF Applied Mathematics,. E-mail : Trond.Kvamsdal@math.sintef.no

ABSTRACT
Herein we address a class of Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) problems characterized by practically incompressible flow conditions, slender structures, i.e., large length to width ratio, and structural analysis performed with beam finite elements. For this class of problems we present computational methods for coupled simulations where the scalability of the involved CFD-code is maintained. The FSI-software used in the present study is composed on the basis of two existing finite element codes, in addition to the developed generic coupling module. The CFD-code used is CBJ (Concurrent Block Jacobi) whereas the structure code is USFOS. The capabilities of the CFD-code include time accurate computations on moving meshes based on an ALE-description. Implicit time stepping is used to avoid limitations on the size of the time step for stability reasons. The code is parallelized by means of a domain decomposition, or multi-block technique which also allows for the computation of flow fields in complex geometries. A coarse grid correction (CGC) scheme is used to solve in parallel the linear system of equations resulting from the implicit time stepping. A Smagorinsky sub grid scale model is implemented to enable Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The chosen mesh movement strategy makes it possible to maintain the scalbility properties of the CFD-code. We have performed a detailed benchmarking of the developed coupling algorithm were we report the time consumption in the diffeent parts of the FSI-coupler. Special focus is put on the scalability aspect for large scale computations on high performance computers. As a validation of the numerical accuracy we have simulated wind induced motion of a suspension bridge deck. The bridge profile considered is that of the 2700 m long suspension bridge which is part of East Bridge of the Great Belt Link in Denmark. The bridge profile is of the box girder type. Several wind tunnel experiments have been carried out on this bridge prior to construction, and the model parameters have been chosen to reproduce these experiments. Estimated aerodynamic derivatives as well as computed flutter speed compares well with wind tunnel experiments.

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ADAPTIVE MESH MOVEMENT ALGORITHM FOR FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTIONS WITH LARGE STRUCTURAL DISPLACEMENTS
T. Kvamsdal, K.M. Okstad, K. Srli and P. Pegon
(1) - SINTEF Applied Mathematics,. E-mail : Trond.Kvamsdal@math.sintef.no (2) - SINTEF Applied Mathematics. E-mail : Knut.M.Okstad@math.sintef.no (3) - SINTEF Applied Mathematics.

ABSTRACT
In coupled analysis of FSI-problems the displacements of the structure and the use of Arbitrary Lagrangian Euler (ALE) formulations for discretization of the fluid domain raises the need for moving the nodes in the fluid domain. In case of flow around slender structures (e.g., risers and pipelines) with large length to width ratio, large displacement of the structure can occur. This implies also large displacements of the fluid nodes in the vicinity of the structure. Hence, the choice of algorithm for the mesh movements is important for the accuracy of the numerical simulations. Our solution to this problem has been to split the mesh movement in two levels; a global and a local level. The method is linked to the use of structured multi-block mesh generation and thus well-suited for parallel computation. A main aspect of multi-block mesh generation techniques is the sub-division of the domain into blocks topologically equivalent to cubes. For problems relevant for FSI-computations the number of blocks are usually a few hundred or less, whereas the number of elements and grid points may be as large as millions. In the global level of the mesh-movement problem an elliptic problem for the location of the block vertices is solved, whereas independent problems for the location of the mesh nodes inside each block are solved afterwards on the local level. Parallelization of the local problem within each block is trivial, as the CFD code is already parallelized over the blocks. This method has the additional advantage that the Young's modulus can vary form block to block, making it possible to keep blocks in the vicinity of the structure almost unchanged in shape, while most of the distortion is taken up by more distant blocks. Furthermore, the present mesh-movement algorithm may also be combined with mesh adaption by means of relocation of nodes. Herein the computed relative error for each block is imposed as a "body-force" in the elliptic problem governing the global mesh movements. The block corner nodes will be moved towards those part of the fluid domain with largest relative error. The present procedure is demonstrated for FSI-simulations of wind induced motion of a bridge undergoing large displacements. FSI-simulations involving large relative motions within a system of offshore risers are also presented.

DECOMPOSED FLUID-STRUCTURE SYSTEMS INCLUDING STRUCTURAL DAMPING


G. Sandberg, P. Davidsson and P.A. Wernberg
(1) - Div. of Structural Mech. Dept. of Mech. and Materials. Lund University. E-mail : goran@byggmek.lth.se (2) - Division of Structural Mechanics. Department of Mechanics and Materials. Lund University (3) - Div. of Structural Mech. Dept. of Mechanics and Materials. Lund University

ABSTRACT
In two previous papers we have dealt with fluid-structure systems rewritten by modal reduction with emphasis on acoustic and structure acoustic problems, the fluid being considered as non-viscous and as being subjected to small vibrations. The first paper, [1], describes how the two domains involved, fluid and structural, can be dealt with separately and then be coupled to a final symmetric standard eigenvalue system. It is well known that the original system is unsymmetric. In paper [2] the procedure is expanded to fluid-fluid systems, large fluid domains being split up into multiple fluid domains, each of which is first reduced by modal coordinates and then coupled to a single symmetric system matrix. Routines for this have been assembled in Matlab as an extension to the finite element toolbox CALFEM, [3]. In this paper we present and discuss two further extensions of the strategies indicated above:
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- Introduction of structural damping. - Automated choice of modes for coupling to higher domain levels. We discuss how the computing of coupled modes can be performed using an intelligent selection of modes from the subdomains. We compare and illustrate the convergence of methods when further modes are added to the coupled solution. We discuss how structural damping can be introduced in the (structural) system and how the coupled system can still be treated as two separate systems and later being coupled so as to be described by a single symmetric system matrix. In this case the result is of course a complex system matrix. For numeric illustrations use is made of a large steel tank for storage of water. The uncoupled modal analysis is carried out using MSC/NASTRAN. The coupled analysis is performed using Matlab/CALFEM in which functions to couple the domains have been implemented.

REFERENCES
[1] G. Sandberg , A new strategy for solving fluid-structure problems, Int.\ J.\ Num.\ Meth.\ Eng., 38:357-370, 1995. [2] G. Sandberg , P. A. Hansson, and M. Gustavsson, Domain decomposition in acoustic and structure-acoustic analysis, Submitted for possible publication, 1998. [3] K. G. Olsson, P. E. Austrell, M. Ristinmaa and G. Sandberg . CALFEM - a finite element toolbox to Matlab, Version 3.2, Report TVSM - 9001, Lund Institute of Technology, Division of Structural Mechanics and and Department of Solid Mechanics, Lund, Sweden, 1999.

GLOBALLY CONSERVATIVE, UNCONDITIONALLY STABLE SPACE-TIME FINITE ELEMENT METHODS FOR FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION
B.A. Grohmann, T. Wallmersperger and B. Kroplin
(1) - Institut fur Statik und Dynamik der Luft- und Raumfahrtkonstruktionen (ISD) Universitat Stuttgart. E-mail : grohmann@isd.uni-stuttgart.de (2) - Institut fur Statik und Dynamik der Luft- und Raumfahrtkonstruktionen (ISD) Universitat Stuttgart. (3) - Institut fur Statik und Dynamik der Luft- und Raumfahrtkonstruktionen (ISD) Universitat Stuttgart. E-mail : kroeplin@isd.uni-stuttgart.de

ABSTRACT
The stabilized space-time finite element approach is employed for the coupled numerical simulation of fluid-structure interaction. It is shown that the time-discontinuous Galerkin/least-squares method yields implicit, unconditionally stable, accurate and globally conservative discretization. In fluid-structure interaction (FSI) two classes of continua are considered. The physics of fluids are governed by systems of conservation laws based on the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. The dynamics of elastic structures are usually described in terms of a minimum energy principle, e.g. Hamilton's law. While the conservation laws for fluid dynamics are partial differential equations (PDEs) of first order in time, the equations of motion in structural dynamics or elastodynamics are of second order in time. This requires different schemes for the temporal discretization of the subdomains in FSI. In the presented work space-time finite elements are employed. The space-time finite element interpolations of the time-discontinuous Galerkin (TDG) method are continuous in space, but may be discontinuous in time between adjacent time steps. This yields implicit, unconditionally stable methods. The fluid dynamics discretization is based on a globally conservative Galerkin weak statement of the conservation of mass, momentum and energy [1]. Structural dynamics are based on the principle of virtual power. Two different TDG formulations are possible [2]: the single-field formulation uses displacement unknowns only, while both the velocities and accelerations are expressed in terms of time derivatives of the displacements. The two-field formulation uses independent interpolations for displacements and velocities. In both cases, the global conservation of mass and momentum is inherent in the formulations. In the case of FSI, the deformation of the fluid domain induced by the structure is modeled by space-time geometry interpolations for the fluid elements. It may be shown that the fluid and both structure discretizations are based on one common formulation. Thanks to this coherence, the coupling in time of the fluid and the structure is automatically conservative. Furthermore, the accuracy and stability of the subdomain discretizations is conserved.

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In addition to the different orders in time, the type of the PDEs in space differs. Structural dynamics are governed by elliptic equations whereas fluid dynamics are governed by convective phenomena. For this reason, elastic structures may usually be discretized by standard finite elements, but additional stabilization in the sense of upwinding is necessary for the hyperbolic/parabolic equations of fluid dynamics. This is attained by a Galerkin/least-squares (GLS) operator. In order to guarantee monotonic solutions near discontinuities or sharp gradients, an additional nonlinear discontinuity capturing (DC) viscosity is applied. Both the GLS and DC stabilizations are consistent. In the case of structural dynamics and especially elastodynamics, additional stabilization suppresses spurious oscillations and may improve the accuracy. Many problems in FSI deal with the stability of self-excited oscillations of the coupled system, e.g. aeroelasticity. In these cases, the exchange of conserved properties at the fluid-structure interface is of primary concern not only for the accuracy of the coupled formulation, but also for the correct prediction of the physical stability behaviour of the entire system. The coupled formulation automatically inherits the stability of the subdomain discretizations if the discrete boundary operators of both adjacent domains at the fluid-structure interface are identical. Thanks to the coherent TDG discretization of the fluid and the structure domains, this is easy to attain. The general methodology developed above is applied to the field of aeroelasticity. Simulations of elastic wings in two-dimensional compressible, inviscid flow demonstrate the performance of the stabilized space - time finite element approach.

REFERENCES
[1] G. Hauke and T. J. R. Hughes, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. , 113, 389-396 (1994). [2] T. J. R. Hughes and G. M. Hulbert, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg., 66, 339-363 (1988).

LOOSELY COUPLED SIMULATIONS OF SOLID ROCKET MOTORS


I.D. Parsons, P. Alavilli, A. Namazifard, J. Hales, A. Acharya, F. Najjar, D. Tafti and X. Jiao
(1) - Center for the Sim. of Adv. Rockets. Dept. of Civil and Env. Engineering. University of Illinois. E-mail : idp@uiuc.edu (2) - Center for the Sim. of Adv. Rockets. Dept. of Civil and Env. Engineering. University of Illinois. (3) - Center for the Sim. of Adv. Rockets. Dept. of Civil and Env. Engineering. University of Illinois.

ABSTRACT
We describe simulations of solid rocket motors that involve coupling between the core fluid flow, the structural response of the propellant and case, and the combustion of the propellant. A standard predictor-corrector algorithm is employed to treat the fluid-structure interaction. The combustion rate of the propellant is coupled to the fluid flow via an empirical power law relationship. Our algorithm loosely couples the physical processes involved, enabling us to use existing codes to perform the bulk of our simulations. We give special consideration to the jump conditions that hold at the fluid-structurecombustion interface, and specialize them for the early burn phase. Results are presented that demonstrate the parallel performance of our code on a variety of architectures and that compare the performance of variants of the predictor-corrector algorithm applied to this particular problem. We will also briefly discuss current efforts directed towards an efficient treatment of the moving combustion interface and the eroding solid.

AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF ANGULAR DISTORTIONS FOR 2-D AND 3-D COMPUTATIONAL MESH DYNAMICS
P.Z. Bar-Yoseph, S. Mereu, V. Kalro and S. Chippada
(1) - Comp. Mech. Lab. Faculty of Mech. Engineering Technion-Israel. E-mail : pby@evanston.fluent.com (2) - FSI Development Group.
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(3) - FSI Development Group, Fluent Inc.

ABSTRACT
The present approach is directed towards structures that undergo large displacements, large rotations but small deformation due to fluid dynamic loads. The procedure is based on loose coupling of three field problems; the flow, the elastic body, and the dynamic mesh (CFD, CSD, and CMD procedures).We selected the ALE form of the Navier-Stokes equations for the fluid, and the updated Lagrangian formulation for the structure. The mesh displacement field is calculated through the solution of a fictitious elastostatic problem. A dynamic mesh generator using triangle elements, based upon the displacements of a net of lineal [1] and torsional [2] springs (the spring coefficient is taken as inversely proportional to its generalized length) was suggested to avoid mesh distortions. The combination of lineal and torsional springs can significantly improve the robustness of the spring analogy method, but can't be used in the general case, due to the possibility of distorted quadrilateral and hexahedral elements. In the present study, this approach to stiffening the mesh has been further extended through the use of continuum and structural elements as mesh stiffeners e.g. adding truss elements along the edges and diagonals (to stiffen the element against shear distortions) of each quadrilateral / hexahedral element and choosing the truss stiffness as inversely proportional to the distortion parameters to increase mesh stiffness. The mesh angular distortion can also be controlled through the elements of the fictitious elastic matrix (ranging from the most anisotropic case to the most simplified isotropic case in which the Poisson ratio is set to zero for minimal mesh distortions). In most practical applications, the fine mesh is typically encountered close to the elastic body. A straightforward use of a fictitious isotropic homogeneous media will tend to distort the small elements in these critical regions. This shortcoming can be overcome by automatically distributing the material properties in such a way that these elements will be much more stiffer than the elements that are away from the moving body. One can use anisotropic and inhomogeneous material properties which will be inversely proportional to the distortion parameters. The major advantage of this approach is that it is based upon elastic properties which can be efficiently used for controlling the mesh quality through the material response of the fictitious media (a physically based approach). A proper material distribution can considerably reduce the need for local / global remeshing. The following possibilities have been tested in FIDAP: (a) stiffened truss grid only, (b) quadrilateral/hexahedral mesh stiffening through the elastic material properties only, and (c) quadrilateral/hexahedral mesh stiffening through the elastic material properties as well as through adding truss elements along the edges and diagonals of all elements (options (a) and (b)). Note that in all those options the updated geometry of the mesh is used, namely the mesh is also automatically stiffened through updating the element geometry. Our preliminary experience shows that option (b) yields the most decent mesh. The approach is currently undergoing more extensive study. It is believed that the resulting scheme will result in a more economical simulation of the motion of complex geometry, three dimensional elastic bodies immersed in temporally and spatially evolving flows.

REFERENCES
[1] J.T. Batina, "Unsteady Euler airfoil solutions using unstructured dynamic meshes", AIAA J., 28, 1381-1388. [2] C. Farhat , C. Degand, B. Koobus , M. Leoinne, "Torsional springs for two - dimensional dynamic unstructured fluid meshes", Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engng., 163, 231-245, 1998.

A DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHOD FOR COMPRESSIBLE FLOW PAST A 3D FLEXIBLE WING


I. Lomtev, R.M. Kirby and G.E. Karniadakis
(1) - Division of Applied Mathematics. Brown University (2) - Division of Applied Mathematics. Brown University (3) - Division of Applied Mathematics. Brown University. E-mail : gk@cfm.brown.edu

ABSTRACT
We will present a new high-order method on unstructured and hybrid grids to simulate viscous compressible flow past a flexible three-dimensional wing. The new method is based on a discontinuous Galerkin treatment of the advective and diffusive component. This, in turn, allows the use of orthogonal
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tensor-product spectral basis in these non-orhogonal subdomains, which results in high computational efficiency. In particular, the computational cost is nel p^(d+1) (where d = 2 or 3 in 2D and 3D, respectively) with nel the number of elements and p the polynomial order in an element. This cost corresponds to differentiation and integration cost on the entire domain and is similar to the cost of such operations in standard global methods in simple separable domains. The only matrix inversion required is that of a "local" mass matrix, which is diagonal, and thus trivial to invert. High-order methods have not been popular in the past for simulations of compressible viscous flows, primarily due to problems associated with solution monotonicity in the presence of shocks. Typically, filtering, limiters or non-oscillatory reconstruction algorithms are involved, which are neither efficient nor robust for most aerodynamic applications. The method presented here borrows from features of finite volumes, finite-elements, and spectral methods, and is both robust and flexible as it is conservative, it does not rely on flux-limiters, and it works on flexible hybrid, i.e. a combination of structured and unstructured, grids. The degenerate case of the new method, corresponding to zeroth order, is the classical finite volume formulation for high-speed flows. We will present simulations of subsonic and supersonic flow past a 3D wing corresponding to NACA 4420 airfoil at a large angle of attack. The wing undergoes prescribed motions both rotations and translations corresponding to six degrees of freedom per node. An Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation is involved with a new algorithm based on the direct-force approoach for moving the mesh so that no remeshing is needed even for very large deformations.

ON THE SIMULATION OF VISCOUS FREE SURFACE FLOWS WITH NONLINEAR STRUCTURAL INTERACTIONS
W.A. Wall, J. Schmidt and E. Ramm
(1) - Institute of Structural Mechanics University of Stuttgart. E-mail : wwall@statik.uni-stuttgart.de (2) - Institut fuer Praktische Mathematik, Universitaet Karlsruhe. E-mail : af10@rz.uni-karlsruhe.de (3) - Institute of Structural Mechanics, University of Stuttgart. E-mail : eramm@statik.uni-stuttgart.de

ABSTRACT
This study focusses on the time-dependent solution of coupled motions of geometrically nonlinear structures and internal or external viscous incompressible Newtonian fluids that may have free surfaces. Typical systems that could be appropriately described with these models are liquid-filled storage tanks under strong excitations like earthquake motion, wind-induced vibrations of chimneys, bridge girders or cables etc. The coupled problem is solved as a computational three-field problem through a partitioned analysis approach employing recently developed, improved staggered time-integration schemes. Common to the adopted single-field solvers are the application of direct integration schemes for the time dimension and the spatial discretization via finite elements. Specifically the structural field employs hybrid-mixed types of finite elements where geometrically nonlinear effects are taken into account in order to capture cases involving large structural displacements at small strains. For the fluid field a fully stabilized finite element method for the instationary, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations formulated within an arbitrary Lagrangean Eulerian (ALE) framework has been developed. The introduced mesh moving scheme, i.e. the solver for the third field in the multifield problem, is realized through a general and efficient pseudo-elasto-static approach. Special emphasis will be given to the developed CFD-solver for time-dependent domains which emerge in this context through moving interfaces with the structural part and also through cases with in which free fluid surfaces are taken into consideration. Finally selected two-dimensional numerical examples demonstrate the performance of the overall computational procedure. It is planned to verify some of the computational results with experimental data, especially for the cases of free surface flows with structural interactions.

REFERENCES
[1] Huerta, A., Liu, W.K., "Viscous Flow with Large Free Surface Motion.", Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 69, 277-324, (1988).

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[2] Lesoinne, M., Farhat, C., "Improved Staggered Algorithms for the Serial and Parallel Solution of ThreeDimensional Nonlinear Transient Aeroelastic Problems.", Computational Mechanics - New Trends and Applications, Proc. 4th World Congress on Computational Mechanics - Buenos Aires, S.R. Idelsohn, E. Onate , E.N. Dvorkin (eds.), CIMNE, Barcelona, Spain (1998). [3] W.A. Wall , E. Ramm , "Fluid - Structure Interaction Based upon a Stabilized (ALE) Finite Element Method.", Computational Mechanics - New Trends and Applications, Proc. 4th World Congress on Computational Mechanics - Buenos Aires, S.R. Idelsohn, E. Onate , E.N. Dvorkin (eds.), CIMNE, Barcelona, Spain (1998)

INVESTIGATION OF THE AEROELASTIC COUPLING BETWEEN A NOZZLE AND A SUPERSONIC JET


E. Schall, B. Koobus and C. Farhat
(1) - INRIA Sophia-Antipolis. E-mail : Eric.Schall@sophia.inria.fr (2) - Universite de Montpellier II (3) - University of Colorado Aerospace Engineering. E-mail : charbel@alexandra.colorado.edu

ABSTRACT
Action of supersonic flows on aerodynamical surfaces can result in steady effects, transient ones, or even unstabilities. A well known example is the unstability of a flat plate when a fast enough supersonic flow is applied along it [1]. A purely longitudinal unstability can be already brought out with 2D calculations relying on a classical Euler model for the fluid flow. Some papers also show this kind of behavior for axisymmetric nozzles under the action of an axisymmetric flow [2]. In that case, the excited mode is not one of the main modes of the structure. Indeed, for generic divergents, the first main modes are not axisymmetrical ones. The purpose of the present work is to consider non axisymmetrical coupling between an inviscid flow and a simplified model of nozzle. For solving the coupled fluid / structure partial differential equations, we use a partitioned procedure in which separate fluid and structural programs execute and exchange data (solver developped at the University of Boulder, [3]). The structural problem is solved by a finite element method and an implicit time-integration scheme. The structural solver can handle small or large displacements, and moderate strains to stay in the elastic domain of structure's material. For the flow simulation, an ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian) formulation based on a finite volume / finite element space discretization method on deforming grids is used. The fluxes are timeintegrated such that the GCL (Geometric Conservation Law) is satisfied, and the numerical scheme is implicit and second-order time- and space-accurate. The time-coupling of the fluid and structural programs is achieved through a second-order timeaccurate algorithm which satisfies the GCL as well as the continuity of both the displacement and velocity fields at the fluid/structure interface. For non matching discrete fluid/structure interfaces, a load and motion transfer algorithm with momentum and energy conservation properties is used. The computational cost of aeroelastic simulations is often very important, mainly due to the flow solver. Therefore the use of parallel tools is very relevant for such calculations. The parallel procedure used for solving the flow problem combines a spatial decomposition of the initial domain in subdomains and a message passing programming model. This technique is efficient and well load balance over all the processors.

REFERENCES
[1] R. L. Bisplinghoff and H. Ashley, "Principles of Aeroelasticity", Dover Publications, In., 1962. [2] E. Lefrancois, G. Dhatt and D. Vandromme, "Fluid-Structural Interactions with Applications to Rocket Engines", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, in press. [3] C. Farhat , "High performance simulation of coupled nonlinear transient aeroelastic problems", Summer school Porquerolles, July 1-6, 1996, France.

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A COMPUTATIONAL METHODOLOGY FOR THE SIMULATION OF FLOW PROBLEMS PAST ACCELERATING RIGID AND FLEXIBLE OBSTACLES
D. Rixen and C. Farhat
(1) - University of Colorado, Center for Aerospace Structures. E-mail : rixen@gnat.colorado.edu (2) - University of Colorado Aerospace Engineering. E-mail : charbel@alexandra.colorado.edu

ABSTRACT
The simulation of flow problems past accelerating obstacles allows the prediction of the evolution of physical quantities as a function of the Mach number. It is an attractive alternative to sampling flow speeds, performing repeated flow simulations at different fixed Mach numbers, and interpolating between the results of the sampled data. In this paper, we address this problem, and present a computational methodology for predicting the behavior of flow problems past accelerating rigid obstacles and flexible substructures. The key components of this methodology are an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation of viscous flow problems with moving boundary conditions, an unstructured dynamic mesh for transmitting the acceleration of an obstacle to the surrounding flow, and a second-order time-accurate staggered procedure for the solution of three-way coupled fluid/structure/mesh equations. We apply our computational approach to the investigation of the variation of the lift and drag coefficients of fixed and vibrating airfoils with the Mach number and the prediction of the dragdivergence Mach number. The continuous parametric identification of an accelerating F - 16 flexible typical wing section is performed using proper windowing of the response to extract instantaneous damping and frequencies. We show that our computational schemes are capable of crossing the boundaries of flow regimes (i.e. subsonic to transonic, and transonic to supersonic), and report on a novel flight testing idea suggested by this type of simulations.

FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL INCOMPRESSIBLE VISCOUS FLUID FLOWS


K. Kakuda and G. Ishii
(1) - Dept. of Math.l Engineering. College of Industrial Technology. E-mail : k7kakuda@ccu.cit.nihon-u.ac.jp (2) - Dept. of Math. Eng., College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University

ABSTRACT
Numerical simulations of incompressible viscous fluid flows have been successfully performed by many computational fluid dynamicists with the use of the finite difference method, the finite volume method or the finite element method. Numerical difficulties have been experienced in the solution of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations at high Reynolds numbers. It is well known that the conventional Galerkin finite element and the centred finite difference approximations lead to spurious oscillatory solutions for flow problems at high Reynolds number. To overcome such oscillations, various upwindtype schemes have been successfully presented in both frameworks. In our previous works, we have proposed a finite element scheme based on the Petrov-Galerkin weak formulation using exponential weighting functions for solving effectively two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations up to high Reynolds number regimes. The Navier-Stokes equations were discretized by a semi-explicit strategy in which the velocity was treated explicitly and the pressure was treated implicitly with respect to the time variable. As the time-marching scheme, the fractional step method was also adopted in the work. The present scheme has been successfully applied to flow and natural convection in a square cavity, flow around an obstacle, and so forth. Moreover, the one was extended to three-dimensional simple flow problems, and as the typical example, the computation of flow in a cubic cavity was demonstrated up to Reynolds number of 10000. The purpose of this paper is to apply the Petrov-Galerkin finite element scheme using exponential weighting functions to three-dimensional incompressible viscous flow for the practical problems. In order to show the workability and the validity of the present approach, flow around a circular cylinder is demonstrated as a typical example. The flow around a circular cylinder is interesting because the drag
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coefficient on the cylinder drops sharply in the subcritical (Re=100000) and supercritical (Re=1000000) regions. The drag crisis has been confirmed heretofore in several experiments. Recently, the computational approaches of the flow have been increasingly presented by some computational fluid dynamicists. The numerical results obtained in the present paper demonstrate that the drag crisis on the cylinder is also obtained by the present method.

EIGENVALUE AND EIGENFUNCTION ERROR ESTIMATES FOR FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATIONS OF SLOSH-STRUCTURE INTERACTION
P. Ryan
(1) - Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics Stanford University. E-mail : pat.ryan@lmco.com

ABSTRACT
In reference [1], we established the rate of convergence of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for a finite element formulation of the problem of an inviscid, incompressible fluid wholly contained in an elastic solid. Here, we extend these results to a finite element method for the calculation of approximate eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of an unrestrained three -dimensional elastic launch vehicle propellant tank. We take into account the effects of gravity and reversed inertia forces on linearized free surface sloshing. For the fluid, we establish the small displacement equilibrium equations from a material description in which the field variables are fluid displacement and material pressure. In order to impose the linearized free surface boundary condition, the spatial pressure is substituted for the material pressure. In the presence of body forces, the material and spatial pressures differ, which causes fluid displacement dependent gravity stiffness terms to appear in the fluid-structure traction boundary condition. These terms result in a non-symmetric matrix eigenvalue problem. In [2], a consistent symmetric system is developed by taking the reference configuration to be one of gravitational pre-stressed equilibrium: this method requires that all substructures in the assembled launch vehicle model be formulated using the same prestress condition for consistency. In [3], the Tong hypothesis [4] is used to force symmetry: this method causes non-physical elastic constraints to appear in translation. Here, we formulate an eigenvalue problem in which the tank wall gravity stiffness terms are ignored and the free surface condition is modified, resulting in an unconstrained fluid-structure system in which the reference configuration is undeformed. We describe a variational formulation of this eigenvalue problem in which the field variables are fluid spatial pressure, fluid boundary displacement and solid displacement. The spatial pressure is expressed at the variational level as the solution to a pure Neumann boundary value problem for an arbitrary volume preserving fluid boundary acceleration field. The undetermined constant component of the pressure field is used as a Lagrange multiplier to enforce the fluid-structure normal displacement continuity. The eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of this two-field variational problem are identified with those of a self-adjoint positive compact operator. A finite element formulation which utilizes three dimensional Lagrange elements for fluid pressure and solid displacement, and two dimensional quadrilaterals for fluid boundary displacement, is used to approximate this variational eigenproblem. Pointwise definition of the normal displacement on the fluid-structure boundary is irrelevant and incompatible fluid structure boundary meshes are admissible for all three fields. Use of standard elements allow the method to be implemented in any commercial finite element code. The eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the resulting matrix eigenvalue problem are then identified with those of a finite dimensional operator . We show that converges to in operator norm. Finally we establish an a-priori error estimate for the rate of convergence of the method.

REFERENCES
[1] Pat Ryan, "Eigenvalue and Eigenfunction Error Estimates for Finite Element Formulations of Linear Hydroelasticity", Presented at IV WCCM (1998), Submitted to Mathematics of Computation. [2] J-P. Morand and R. Ohayon , "Fluid-Structure Interaction", John Wiley & Sons, (1995) [3] H. Berger, J. Boujot, and R. Ohayon , "On a Spectral Problem in Vibration Mechanics: Computation of Elastic Tanks Partially Filled with Liquids", Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 51, 272-298, (1975) [4] P. Tong, "Liquid sloshing in an elastic container", ASQSR 66-0943, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, (1960)

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Minisymposium

Advanced Finite Element Methods


Carlos Felippa, Ekkehard Ramm and Wolfgang Wall
SESSION 1
Keynote : MIXED-ENHANCED METHODS FOR FINITE DEFORMATION R.L. Taylor......................................................................................................................................................................174 TWO- AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL MIXED ENHANCED FINITE ELEMENTS WITH ORTHOGONAL STRESS AND STRAIN FUNCTIONS. R. Piltner ........................................................................................................................................................................174 THE GENERATION OF SHEAR LOCKING FREE BEAM, PLATE AND SHELL ELEMENTS BY THE DISCRETE SHEAR GAP METHOD. K.U. Bletzinger ...............................................................................................................................................................175 HYBRID LEAST SQUARES FINITE ELEMENT METHODS FOR REISSNER-MINDLIN PLATE L.L. Thompson and R. Tong............................................................................................................................................176 PASSIVELY DAMPED VIBRATION OF ROTATING CURVED LAMINATED SHELLS USING ZIGZAG TRIANGULAR ELEMENT. D.G. Lee and J.B. Kosmatka...........................................................................................................................................177

SESSION 2
Keynote : THE FREE FORMULATION - PAST AND PRESENT G. Skeie and P.G. Bergan...............................................................................................................................................177 FINE ANALYSIS OF DEGENERATE MEMBRANE STATES USING A PENALTY PARAMETER MODIFIED CONSTITUTIVE RELATION X. Liu, C.H. Jenkins and W.W. Schur .............................................................................................................................178 THE HU-WASHIZU FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION AS A STRESS RECOVERY METHOD A. Mota and J.F. Abel.....................................................................................................................................................179 AN ASSUMED STRAIN TRIANGULAR SOLID ELEMENT ENRICHED BY BUBBLE FUNCTIONS W.I. Hong, Y.H. Kim and S.W. Lee .................................................................................................................................179 A HIGHER ORDER FOUR NODE LAMINATED SHELL ELEMENT M. Balah and H.N. Al-Ghamedy.....................................................................................................................................180

SESSION 3
Keynote : A METHOD FOR CONNECTING DISSIMILAR FINITE ELEMENT MESHES C.R. Dohrmann, S.W. Key and M.W. Heinstein ..............................................................................................................181 A HIGHLY EFFICIENT ENHANCED ASSUMED STRAIN PHYSICALLY STABILIZED HEXAHEDRAL ELEMENT M.A. Puso .......................................................................................................................................................................181 THEORY AND NUMERICS OF A THREE-DIMENSIONAL SHELL MODEL M. Bischoff and E. Ramm ...............................................................................................................................................182 DEVELOPMENT OF A NON-COLLOCATION METHOD OF SOLUTIONS ON THE SOLID MECHANICS PROBLEMS T. Kawai .........................................................................................................................................................................183 GENERALIZED ADAPTIVE SOLUTION CONTROL FOR NON-LINEAR FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS M.G.D. Geers .................................................................................................................................................................183

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Keynote : MIXED-ENHANCED METHODS FOR FINITE DEFORMATION


R.L. Taylor
(1) - University of California at Berkeley Dept. of Civil Engineering. E-mail : rlt@ce.berkeley.edu

ABSTRACT
The presentation will discuss the development of low order finite elements for use in the solution of finite deformation solid mechanics problems. The development is based on a mixed formulation with added enhanced deformation terms. The basic mixed method uses interpolations for position, stress and deformation gradient fields. In addition enhanced terms are added to the mixed deformation gradient to permit use of the elements for problems which exhibit nearly incompressible behavior. A three-field Hu-Washizu functional for problems in finite elasticity is used as the basis of the initial development. Developments for inelastic material models and transients may then constructed from the resulting variational equations. Two classes of formulations are considered in this presentation: 4-node quadrilateral and 8-node hexahedral elements; and 3-node triangular and 4-node tetrahedral elements. All elements use standard interpolation for the position in the reference and deformed configurations. For the quadrilateral and hexahedral element forms the deformation and stress approximations are expressed in terms of natural coordinates transformed to the current configuration. Effects of various approximations are presented and discussed. For triangular and tetrahedral elements the position approximation is a complete polynomial and enhancement types used for quadrilateral and hexahedral elements fail. Accordingly, for this class of elements a viable approach is to use a three field principle in terms of position, pressure and volumetric deformation. In this form only the pressure/volume terms are treated by the three field principle. For triangular and tetrahedral elements two approaches are considered. The first uses linear continuous interpolations for the position and pressure combined with linear discontinuous interpolation for the volumetric deformation. Enhanced terms deduced from bubbles are added to the deformation gradient for each element. An alternative approach is to use discontinuous constant pressures and volumetric deformation approximations in each element and to apply stabilization approaches involving jump conditions along element interfaces. Example problems are included to indicate the performance of the elements on a set of test problems.

TWO- AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL MIXED ENHANCED FINITE ELEMENTS WITH ORTHOGONAL STRESS AND STRAIN FUNCTIONS.
R. Piltner
(1) - Department of Engineering Mechanics. University of Nebraska-Lincoln. E-mail : rpiltner@unlinfo.unl.edu

ABSTRACT
In recent years "enhanced strain" methods became quite popular since they provide possibilities to improve the performance of low order finite elements. In 1990 Simo and Rifai introduced the method of "enhanced strains" [1]. In their original paper Simo and Rifai demonstrated that the QM6 element of Taylor / Beresford / Wilson can be viewed as an enhanced strain element with four enhanced strain terms. Enhanced strains have been used for both linear and non-linear problems [1-9]. In reference [8] an alternative to the original enhanced strain concept is discussed and an accurate enhanced finite element with two enhanced strain terms (denoted QE2) was presented by Piltner and Taylor. In several linear and non-linear examples, the QE2 element showed excellent performance. Unfortunately, the algorithm for the QE2 element needs the numerical inversion of a 4x4 matrix. In an effort to improve the efficiency of the QE2 element an alternative formulation with assumed stresses and strains in cartesian coordinates led to an efficient four node element [9].

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In order to obtain very efficient versions of mixed enhanced elements for 2- and 3-D problems, orthogonal functions in cartesian and natural coordinates have been used for the assumed stresses and strains in a modified Hu-Washizu variational formulation. For the 2- and 3-dimensional elements different choices of assumed stress and strain functions are discussed. For all elements considered an efficient implementation of the mixed elements with assumed stresses, strains, enhanced strains and displacements will be discussed.

REFERENCES
[1] J.C. Simo and M.S. Rifai, "A class of mixed assumed strain methods and the method of incompatible modes", Int. J. Numer. Meth. Eng., 29, 1595 - 1638, (1990). [2] J.C. Simo and F. Armero , "Geometrically non-linear enhanced strain mixed methods and the method of incompatible modes", Int. J. Numer. Meth. Eng., 33, 1413 - 1449, (1992). [3] J.C. Simo, F. Armero and R. L. Taylor, "Improved versions of assumed enhanced strain tri-linear elements for 3D finite deformation problems", Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg., 110, 359 - 386, (1993). [4] S. Glaser and F. Armero , "Recent developments in the formulation of assumed enhanced strain finite elements for finite deformation problems", Report No. UCB/SEMM-95/13, University of California, Berkeley, 1995. [5] U. Andelfinger, E. Ramm , and D. Roehl , "2D- and 3D-enhanced assumed strain elements and their application in plasticity", Proc. Computational Plasticity IV, ed. E. Onate et al., Barcelona, 1997 - 2007, 1992. [6] M. A. Crisfield, G.F. Moita, G. Jelenic and L.P.R. Lyons, "Enhanced lower-order element formulations for large strains", pp. 293 - 320, in: Computational Plasticity - Fundamentals and Applications, ed. by D.R.J. Owen and E. Onate , Pineridge Press, Swansea, 1995. [7] P. Wriggers and J. Korelc, "On enhanced strain methods for small and finite deformations of solids", Computational Mechanics, 18, 413 - 428, (1996). [8] R. Piltner and R.L. Taylor , "A quadrilateral finite element with two enhanced strain modes", Int. J. Numer. Meth. Eng., 38, 1783 - 1808, (1995). [9] R. Piltner and R.L Taylor, "A systematic construction of B-bar functions for linear and non-linear mixed-enhanced finite elements", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, in print.

THE GENERATION OF SHEAR LOCKING FREE BEAM, PLATE AND SHELL ELEMENTS BY THE DISCRETE SHEAR GAP METHOD.
K.U. Bletzinger
(1) - Institut fur Baustatik, Universitat Karlsruhe. E-mail : kub@bau-verm.uni-karlsruhe.de

ABSTRACT
Classical displacement shear deformable finite elements based on the Timoshenko beam theory or the Reissner/Mindlin plate theory are known to exhibit transverse shear locking, i.e. these elements behave too stiff with respect to shear deformations. The reasons are well known and stem from the independent interpolation of transverse element displacements and rotations neglecting the interaction of shear and bending deformation. The problem attracted an innumerable number of researchers, mathematicians and engineers, who worked on the solution. At this point it is impossible to give even a short overview, however, it should be stated that several ideas are in common to many of the different solution concepts, as e.g. the Kirchhoff mode (KM) concept or the Assumed Natural Strain (ANS) approach. As well, the basic idea of the "shear gap method" can be found at least as part of other approaches, usually in the context of a special formulation for one type of element. In contrast, the main difference of the present concept is that it can be unified and equivalently applied to beams, plates and shells of arbitrary polynomial order of interpolation, quadrilateral or triangular. The method is based on the separation of the shear and bending related parts of eformation. This is done by comparison of nodal displacements with the integration of rotations resulting in "discrete shear gaps" at the nodes. The method is a pure, however modified, displacement formulation and utilizes only the usual displacement and rotational degrees of freedom at the nodes without additional internal parameters. The quadrilateral elements have a certain relation to the ANS or MITC elements. The resulting triangular elements prove to perform particularly well in comparison to existing elements. They might be the still missing link between quadrilateral and triangular KM or ANS elements. Starting from the discussion of the basic general concept and the underlying kinematic geometrically linear and non-linear assumptions for beams and shells, the contribution will show several implementations for special element types, in particular the three
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node element with linear interpolation. Several benchmark examples will show the effectiveness and efficiency of the approach.

HYBRID LEAST SQUARES FINITE ELEMENT METHODS FOR REISSNERMINDLIN PLATE


L.L. Thompson and R. Tong
(1) - Adv. Comp. Mech. Laboratory. Dept. of Mech. Engineering. Clemson University. E-mail : lonny.thompson@ces.clemson.edu (2) - Adv. Comp. Mech. Laboratory. Dept. of Mech. Engineering. Clemson University

ABSTRACT
An assumed-stress hybrid 4-node plate element is developed based on the Hellinger-Reissner variational principle with a generalized least-squares modification for accurate vibration and wave propagation response of Reissner-Mindlin plates. The specialization of the new hybrid least squares method for Timoshenko beams is also given. The least-squares operator is proportional to a weighted integral of a differential operator acting on the residual of the steady-state equations of motion for Reissner-Mindlin plates. Through judicious selection of the design parameters inherent in the least-squares modification, this formulation provides a consistent framework for enhancing the accuracy of mixed Reissner-Mindlin plate elements that have no shear locking or spurious modes. Improved methods are designed such that the complex wave-number finite element dispersion relations closely match the analytical relations for all wave angle directions. For uniform meshes, optimal methods are designed to achieve zero dispersion error along mesh lines. Comparisons of finite element dispersion relations demonstrate the superiority of the new hybrid least-squares beam and plate element over standard hybrid elements, and displacement-based elements with selectively reduced integration. Numerical experiments for wave propagation in semi-infinite plates validate these conclusions.

PASSIVELY DAMPED VIBRATION OF ROTATING CURVED LAMINATED SHELLS USING ZIGZAG TRIANGULAR ELEMENT.
D.G. Lee and J.B. Kosmatka
(1) - Dept. of Applied Mech. and Engineering Sciences. Univ. of California (2) - Dept. of Applied Mech. and Engineering Sciences. Univ. of California. E-mail : kosmatka@ames.ucsd.edu

ABSTRACT
In this work, vibration behavior of rotating curved laminated shells with a embedded damping layer is investigated incorporating layerwise zig-zag theory which best describes the in-plane displacements of laminated structures among the various kinematic relations. Three node flat triangular element which has drilling rotations based on the improved zig-zag theory is developed and applied for vibration analysis of laminated damped pretwisted blades, cambered blades and any arbitrary curved shells. Spinning effects on the stability of composite laminated damped blades are investigated rigorously. Critical rotational speeds with respect to both the inertial frame and the moving frame are calculated for the design aspects. The effects of tailoring of lamination angles and pretwist angles on the stability are investigated. Loss factors for flexural modes of laminated blade with damping layer are calculated with the variation of lamination angles, pretwist angles and the spinning speeds. The characteristic behavior of the loss factors for the non-spinning damped laminated blades and the spinning damped laminated blades which are under tension stress are discussed.

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Keynote : THE FREE FORMULATION - PAST AND PRESENT


G. Skeie and P.G. Bergan
(1) - Det Norske Veritas, Division for Technology and Products (2) - Det Norske Veritas AS. E-mail : Paal.Bergan@dnv.com

ABSTRACT
In 1999 it is 15 years since Bergan and Nygaard [1] presented the free formulation in a paper titled "Finite elements with increased freedom in choosing shape functions". The work consolidated almost a decade of research effort in finite element technology. Guided by convergence requirements specified by the patch test of Irons and the individual element test by Bergan and Hanssen [2] the free formulation represented a new way of generating stiffness matrix coefficients derived from an incompatible displacement field expressed in global coordinates. In the present paper we take a historical tour through the evolution of the free formulation, starting with the initial ideas contained in the patch test that lead to a single element convergence requirement, namely the individual test. This test gave rise to the idea of developing "optimised" stiffness coefficients that may be detached from conventional variational forms. Unfortunately, it proved difficult to do construct stiffnesses in an objective and effective manner. This obstacle led to re-focusing on displacement expansions, and it facilitated to the idea of "freeing" the element displacement expansions of the conventional compatibility constraints. It is noted that the free formulation is aimed at fulfilling the convergence requirements for incompatible displacement elements by construction. The method has resulted in a number of successful elements where, traditionally, sufficient compatibility has been hard to establish; plates, membranes with drilling degrees of freedom and facet shells. The generic formalism of splitting the stiffness matrix in one part that defines consistency (basic stiffness) and another part that assures accuracy and stability (higher order stiffness) has led to similar and refined models such as the extended free formulation and the assumed natural strain method developed by Felippa and co-workers [3,4]. The successful application of the free formulation in relation to membrane elements and so-called drilling freedoms had lead to the search for equivalent success in three- dimensional solid elements with rotation like node connectors. The presentation touch upon the inherent difficulties with rotations in a general 3D model and suggests new solutions to the problem; augmented variational principles and stabilisation to approach the classical free formulation procedure.

REFERENCES
[1] P.G. Bergan and M.K. Nygaard. "Finite elements with increased freedom in choosing shape functions", International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering, 20:643-664, 1984. [2] P.G. Bergan and L. Hanssen, "A new approach for deriving good finite elements". In J.R. Whiteman, editor, The Mathematics of Finite Elements and Applications - Volume II. Academic Press, London, 1976. MAFELAP II Conference, Brunel University, 1975. [3] C.A. Felippa , "The extended free formulation of finite elements in linear analysis", Journal of Applied Mechanics, 56:609-616, 1989. [4] C.A. Felippa and C. Militello, "Variational formulations of high performance finite elements: Parametrized variational principles", Computer & Structures, 36:1-11, 1990.

FINE ANALYSIS OF DEGENERATE MEMBRANE STATES USING A PENALTY PARAMETER MODIFIED CONSTITUTIVE RELATION
X. Liu, C.H. Jenkins and W.W. Schur
(1) - South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (2) - South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. E-mail : CJENKINS@taz.sdsmt.edu (3) - Physical Science Laboratory, New Mexico State University

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ABSTRACT
During the last few decades, significant contributions to the analysis of large deformation, nonlinear structural problems have been made. Yet the analysis of membrane structures, structures that have zero or very small bending rigidity, and that undergo inherently large displacements during loading, remains a difficult problem for which even current finite element methods are challenged [Jenkins and Leonard (1991; 1993); Jenkins (1997).] The primary difficulties lie in the fact that these particular structural system are underconstrained, and stable equilibrium conditions only exist for loading fields that are orthogonal to the set of unconstrained degrees of freedom. Underconstrained behavior leads to large displacements without concomitant strain energy; no - compression behavior leads to a degenerate, wrinkled state. Furthermore, configurations exist that are not in the vicinity of such an equilibrium state. Consequently, large rigid body motions with concomitant, large configuration changes, must take place before elastic response is obtained. We define true membranes as having identically zero bending rigidity, and define elastic sheets as having extremely small but finite bending rigidity. The displacement response to compressive stress in a thin sheet is a (possibly localized) buckling or wrinkling. True membranes cannot sustain compressive stresses; under uniaxial in-plane tension they respond to in-plane contraction, that is in excess of Poisson's effect, by an alternating out-of-plane displacement, i.e., wrinkling. In this paper, we discuss a particular class of membrane structures, the pneumatic envelopes, of which balloons and parachutes are common examples. Next we discuss the phenomena of Tension Fields and wrinkling, and the associated computational difficulty imposed by the degenerate membrane state. We provide a method to analyze pneumatic envelopes through use of a penalty parameter- modified constitutive relation embedded in a nonlinear finite element code. This approach is completely general, in that it is formulated using a non-orthogonal curvilinear geometry. Next we incorporate a method to predict the fine details of the wrinkled state, viz., the wrinkle wavelength and waveheight. Finally, examples are presented: the square membrane web subjected to tensile and shear load and a simple round parachute model.

REFERENCES
[1] Jenkins CH and Leonard JW (1991), "Nonlinear dynamic response of membranes: State of the art", Appl. Mech Rev 44, 319-328 [2] Jenkins CH and Leonard JW (1993), "Dynamic wrinkling of viscoelastic membranes", J Appl Mech 60, 575-582. [3] Jenkins CH (1997), "Nonlinear dynamic response of membranes: State of the art - update", Appl Mech Rev 49, S41-S48.

THE HU-WASHIZU FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION AS A STRESS RECOVERY METHOD


A. Mota and J.F. Abel
(1) - School of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Cornell University. E-mail : aam4@cornell.edu (2) - School of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Cornell University

ABSTRACT
A mixed formulation based on the Hu-Washizu (HW) functional with displacements, stresses and strains as variables, is presented. In reference [1], the writers have shown that this formulation is closely related to such stress recovery methods as extrapolation from superconvergent points, L2 projection, stress smoothing and superconvergent patch recovery (SPR). Consequently, the HW formulation may also be cast as a stress recovery technique. First, a brief review of the HW formulation and its relationship with stress recovery techniques is presented. The similarities and differences are discussed, along with implementation details for geometrically exact membranes and cables. A numerical study based on simulations of the geometrically nonlinear behavior of cable and membrane structures is presented, in which the stress fields obtained by the HW formulation and selected other stress recovery methods are compared.

REFERENCES
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[1] A. Mota and J.F. Abel , "On mixed finite element formulations and stress recovery techniques", Internat. J. Numer. Meths. Engrg.", to appear.

AN ASSUMED STRAIN TRIANGULAR SOLID ELEMENT ENRICHED BY BUBBLE FUNCTIONS


W.I. Hong, Y.H. Kim and S.W. Lee
(1) - Department of Aerospace Engineering. Seoul National University (2) - Department of Aerospace Engineering. Seoul National University. E-mail : yhkim@gong.snu.ac.kr (3) - Department of Aerospace Engineering. University of Maryland

ABSTRACT
The plate and shell elements are classified into two types by their inplane geometry; quadrilateral element and triangular element. As far as modeling of arbitrary geometry is concerned, triangular elements have more advantages than quadrilateral elements because they are convenient for local mesh refinement and automatic mesh generation. However, as the thickness decreases, the Reissner-Mindlin type triangular elements suffer from severe locking effect unless appropriate remedies are implemented. A 12-node assumed strain triangular solid element [1] demonstrates improved performance for the analysis of plates and shells. In the present research, bubble functions [2] are introduced to enhance the performance of the assumed strain triangular solid element. An element with the bubble functions is able to describe higher order deformation without increasing total degrees of freedom. The assumed strain field should be carefully selected to alleviate transverse locking effect and the flat facet element is utilized for modeling of curved geometry to eliminate membrane locking effect. The kinematics of solid yield the formulation free of small angle assumption, thus allow large load increment in the analysis of finite rotation problem. Various numerical tests are conducted to demonstrate accuracy and efficiency of the present formulation.

REFERENCES
[1] Jong Hoon Kim and Yong Hyup Kim, "An efficient assumed strain triangular solid element tailored for shell analysis", Proceedings of AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC 39th Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, AIAA Paper No.98-1714, 1998. [2] P.M.Pinsky and P.V.Jasti, "A mixed finite element formulation for Reissner-Mindlin plates based on the use of bubble functions", Int. J. Numer. Methods, Eng., 28, 1677-1702, 1989.

A HIGHER ORDER FOUR NODE LAMINATED SHELL ELEMENT


M. Balah and H.N. Al-Ghamedy
(1) - King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum & Minerals. Dept. of Civil Engineering (2) - King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum & Minerals. Dept. of Civil Engineering. E-mail : hghamdi@kfupm.edu.sa

ABSTRACT
The paper describes a four-node isoparametric assumed strain finite shell element based on a third order deformation equivalent single layer theory applied to laminated shell type structures undergoing finite rotations. This theory, which is based on a cubic displacement field over the shell thickness, allows a symmetric quadratic shear deformation distribution across the thickness and zeroout of plane normal strain and stress. Based on a novel parametrization proposed recently by the authors in a separate paper, all kinematic constraints resulting from the above assumptions are identically satisfied by design. A singularity-free parametrization of the rotation field is adopted. The constitutive equations, derived with respect to laminate curvilinear coordinates, are applicable to shell elements with an arbitrary

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number of orthotropic layers stacked in a sequence where material principal axes can vary from layer to layer. Particular attention is devoted to the consistent linearization of the shell kinematics in order to achieve quadratic rate of convergence typical for the Newton-Raphson solution procedure. The capability of the finite element developed to deal with strongly nonlinear situations is demonstrated by many examples involving large rotations, buckling and post-buckling analyses. The results are compared with other formulations from the literature.

Keynote : A METHOD FOR CONNECTING DISSIMILAR FINITE ELEMENT MESHES


C.R. Dohrmann, S.W. Key and M.W. Heinstein
(1) - Sandia National Laboratories. E-mail : crdohrm@sandia.gov (2) - Sandia National Laboratories. E-mail : swkey@sandia.gov (3) - Sandia National Laboratories.

ABSTRACT
A method is presented for connecting dissimilar finite element meshes in two and three dimensions. The method combines the concept of master and slave boundaries with the uniform strain approach for finite elements. By modifying the boundaries of elements on the slave surface, corrections are made to element formulations such that first-order patch tests are passed. The method can be used to connect meshes which use different element types. In addition, master and slave boundaries can be designated independently of relative mesh resolutions. Example problems in two and three-dimensional linear elasticity are presented.

A HIGHLY EFFICIENT ENHANCED ASSUMED STRAIN PHYSICALLY STABILIZED HEXAHEDRAL ELEMENT


M.A. Puso
(1) - University of California. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. E-mail : puso@llnl.gov

ABSTRACT
A new method which uses an enhanced assumed strain field to stabilize an eight node brick element with uniformly reduced integration is developed. The element possesses excellent coarse mesh accuracy, yet it is nearly as fast as the single point brick with perturbation hour glass control making it an ideal candidate for mixed explicit/implicit analysis. As with other physical hourglass control methods, the stress field is projected over the element using an approximate strain field and the material stiffness. The element is then integrated in closed form to get the element forces. No artificial parameters are used in contrast with perturbation schemes. Physical stabilization methods reported in [1] and [2] require storage of thirty six hour glass stresses and are not equipped for bending dominated problems. In reference [3] a small strain formulation which relies on a coorotational coordinate system for invariance is developed. This element, developed for isotropic materials, requires the storage of only four hourglass forces (twelve terms) and shows good coarse mesh accuracy. Nevertheless, the coorotational coordinate system for 3D brick elements is awkward and is not invariant to node numberings. In this work, the compatible strain field is projected and enhanced so that it can handle bending and nearly incompressible materials. The enhanced field is chosen so that it produces a diagonal stiffness contribution which is inverted trivially yielding an efficient formulation. Using hyperelasticity or models based on the Truesdell rate, it is shown that four hourglass forces result from the integration of the constitutive law. A simple approximation is used for hypoelastic materials. Furthermore, the resulting
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formulation provides a symmetric stiffness when consistently linearized. A total displacement formulation which does not require storage of any hour glass forces is also developed for hyperelastic materials. Particular attention is paid to operation counts. The new element is within five to fifteen percent as fast as the perturbation hourglass control brick. The new element is shown to be convergent in the patch test. Coarse mesh accuracy is demonstrated on some standard benchmark problems. Hourglassing in problems with highly orthotropic materials is difficult to control for classical stabilization methods but is accurately handled with the new element. An example of this type is illustrated. Also, an example of a mixed explicit/implicit analysis is shown.

REFERENCES
[1] Zhu, Y.Y. and Cescotto, S. (1996), "Unified and Mixed Formulation of the 8-node Hexahedral Elements by Assumed Strain Method", CMAME, 129. [2] Koh, B.C. and Kikuchi, N. (1987) "New imporved hourglass control for bilinear and trilinear elements in anisotropic linear elasticity," CMAME, 65. [3] Belyschko, T. and Bindeman, L.P. (1993) "Assumed Strain Stabilization of the Eight Node Hexahedral Element," CMAME, 105.

THEORY AND NUMERICS OF A THREE-DIMENSIONAL SHELL MODEL


M. Bischoff and E. Ramm
(1) - Institute of Structural Mechanics, University of Stuttgart. E-mail : bischoff@statik.uni-stuttgart.de (2) - Institute of Structural Mechanics, University of Stuttgart. E-mail : eramm@statik.uni-stuttgart.de

ABSTRACT
In recent years, considerable effort has been put onto the development of shell formulations that are able to cope with unmodified, completely three-dimensional constitutive laws within a twodimensional, surface oriented numerical model. One of the basic motivations for the development of such higher order shell models is the increasing importance of sophisticated, three-dimensional material formulations together with the objective to maintain numerical efficiency. The present discussion is related to a 7-parameter formulation, originally proposed by Buchter and Ramm [3]. An optimal balance between kinematic and static variables can be achieved by a proper choice of the function spaces, involving six displacement degrees of freedom and one strain parameter at each point of the shell surface within in multifield variational formulation. It is shown, that the model can thus be regarded as the `lowest possible' shell approach including the fully three-dimensional set of stresses and strains. The decisive step while developing a shell model, from the efficiency point of view, is preintegration of the material stiffness across the thickness. In conventional 5-parameter shell models the resulting kinematic and static variables are usually identified as membrane strains, transverse shear strains and curvatures, as well as resulting forces and moments or simply `stress resultants'. Along with the extension of conventional shear deformable shell formulations with Reissner-Mindlin kinematics from 5 to 7 parameters, additional kinematic and static variables show up. However, their identification as strains and curvatures or stress resultants, respectively, is not possible in the usual manner. It is discussed, how these `higher order' kinematic and static variables can be interpreted from a physical point of view and how they influence the model accuracy. The three-dimensional extension also influences the geometric and static boundary conditions, and thus allows to at least approximately consider three-dimensional effects. To remove well-known locking-effects, like transverse shear locking or membrane locking, meanwhile classical methods like the enhanced assumed strain (EAS) and assumed natural strain (ANS) method are applied. The recently proposed discrete shear gap (DSG) concept by Bletzinger et al. [2] appears to be promising, especially for the design of locking-free triangular elements. An additional `thickness locking' effect, only arising in the 7-parameter shell formulation, can be eliminated by similar procedures (Bischoff and Ramm [1]). The resulting elements are efficient and show limited sensitivity to mesh distortions. The distortion sensitivity can be reduced even further by applying stabilization techniques, as recently proposed for plates by Lyly and Stenberg [4].
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Numerical examples demonstrate the applicability and efficiency of the shell elements in problems with non-linear elastic or elastic-plastic material models, including large strains and rotations. The results are compared to both three-dimensional and classical shell solutions.

REFERENCES
[1] M. Bischoff , E. Ramm . "Shear deformable shell elements for large strains and rotations", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 40, 4427-4449 (1997) [2] K.-U. Bletzinger, M. Bischoff , E. Ramm . "A unified approach for shear-locking-free triangular and rectangular shell finite elements". In S.R. Idelsohn, E. Onate , E.N. Dvorkin (eds.) Computational Mechanics - New trends and applications, Proc. WCCM IV, Buenos Aires, CIMNE, Barcelona, Spain (1998). [3] N. Buchter, E. Ramm , "3D-extension of nonlinear shell equations based on the enhanced assumed strain concept", In C. Hirsch (ed.) Computational Methods in Applied Sciences, Elsevier, pp 55-62 (1992). [4] M. Lyly , R. Stenberg , "Stabilized MITC plate bending elements3D-extension of nonlinear shell equations based on the enhanced assumed strain concept", In M. Papadrakakis , B.H.V. Topping (eds.) Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Computational Structures Technology, Athens, Greece, pp. 11-16 (1994).

DEVELOPMENT OF A NON-COLLOCATION METHOD OF SOLUTIONS ON THE SOLID MECHANICS PROBLEMS


T. Kawai
(1) - Science University of Tokyo. Department of Electrical Engineering. E-mail : kawa@marc.co.jp

ABSTRACT
A "Nodeless" method of solution on the solid mechanics problems is proposed modifying HuWashizu Principle and directly using coefficients of assumed polynomials in usual FE displacement functions as element parameters. Method (1) (called Hellinger - Reissner method) and Method (5) (Trefftz method) do not require presatisfaction of continuity of the state vectors (i.e. displacements and stresses) on the interelement boundaries and from which a new metheod of solution can be derived which has unique feature of easy mesh generation and possibility of finding a new efficient large scale computing method. The remaining five methods will give a new generalized FEM. Further details will be discussed with numerical examples.

GENERALIZED ADAPTIVE SOLUTION CONTROL FOR NON-LINEAR FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS


M.G.D. Geers
(1) - Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. Eindhoven University of Tech. E-mail : geers@wfw.wtb.tub.nl

ABSTRACT
Geometrically or physically nonlinear problems are often characterized by the presence of critical points with snapping behaviour in the structural response. Standard numerical solution techniques become deficient, and adaptive path following techniques are then required. These solution control techniques are constrained Newton-Raphson incremental-iterative procedures, where a dimensionless load factor is used as an additional unknown. A variety of solution techniques has been developed in the past, where physically and geometrically nonlinear problems were generally treated separately. Well-known methods for geometrically nonlinear analyses are the quadratic arc-length method of Crisfield and the linearized arc-length methods [1], e.g. the updated-normal-plane method. Techniques for the solution of a geometrically nonlinear problems are mostly deficient when applied to a physically nonlinear problem, and vice versa. The main reason for this incompatibility, is the existence of zones with strongly localized deformations in the case of physical softening. A global degrees-of-freedom vector, as used for
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geometrically nonlinear problems, cannot properly trace this localization phenomenon. A limited number of specific degrees-of-freedom was therefore used instead, e.g. the indirect displacement control method. A generalized adaptive solution control technique is therefore proposed which can be used for both geometrically and/or physically nonlinear analyses. The constraint equation which is used to determine the load factor is written in terms of a control function, which may be any linear or nonlinear function of the degrees-of-freedom. The adaptive solution control is performed by keeping the increment of the control function constant during the iterative procedure. The control function differs from increment to increment in order to improve the algorithm in the presence of structural or material nonlinearities. Two approaches have been examined. The first approach uses a local control function, which depends on a limited number of degrees-of-freedom, mostly determined from the element connectivity. These local control functions are computed over the entire domain (e.g. in each node or each element). The optimal control function is then selected automatically at the start of each increment. The second approach uses a weighted sum of all the control functions that have been defined over the considered domain. Herein, the weighting factors are redetermined from increment to increment, which permits to cope with the occurring nonlinearities. The general character of this automatic and adaptive solution control method is best illustrated through specific choices of the control function, which leads to the existing classical methods. Direct displacement control implies the use of a local control function which equals the imposed displacement. If the difference of two specific degrees-of-freedom is taken as the control function, the indirect displacement control is found. If the control function equals the length of the degrees-of-freedom vector, the consistently linearized method is retrieved. The latter case is a typical example of a nonlinear control function. Even though conventional path following methods can be easily retrieved, a major difference exists. Most classical methods use a preselected set of degrees-of-freedom in the algorithm. The proposed method modifies the control function at the start of an increment, which involves the degrees-of-freedom differently in each increment. The proposed automatic solution control method permits to carry out the estimation, the adaptation and the correction of the load factor. The performance of the method clearly depends on the type of the applied control function. Examples with several different types of control functions are given for the solution of some geometrically and physically nonlinear problems. A comparison is made with classical path following techniques, which illustrates the efficiency of the generalized technique.

REFERENCES
[1] Clarke, M.J. and Hancock, G.J., "A study of incremental-iterative solution strategies for nonlinear analyses", Int. Jnl. Num. Eng., vol.29, pp. 1365-1391, 1990.

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Computational Advances in Modeling Heterogeneous Materials


Jacob Fish
SESSION 1
Keynote : A "MICRO-MACRO" COMPUTATIONAL STRATEGY FOR ANALYSING HETEROGENEOUS STRUCTURES D. Dureisseix and P. Ladeveze .......................................................................................................................................188 MULTI-SCALE ANALYSIS OF DAMAGE IN HETEROGENEOUS MATERIALS WITH ADAPTIVE VORONOI CELL FEM S. Ghosh .........................................................................................................................................................................189 WAVELET TECHNIQUES IN COMPUTATIONAL MECHANICS P.K. Basu and J. Lin .......................................................................................................................................................189 A STOCHASTIC GEOMETRY CARTOON IN MICROSTRUCTURE MODELING AND PROPERTY COMPUTATION C. Ji ................................................................................................................................................................................190 EFFECTIVE ELASTOPLASTIC BEHAVIOR OF DUCTILE MATRIX COMPOSITES CONTAINING RANDOMLY LOCATED ALIGNED ELLIPTICAL FIBERS J.W. Ju and X.D. Zhang..................................................................................................................................................190

SESSION 2
ON THE NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF GRADIENT VISCOPLASTIC MODELS F. Oka , C. di Prisco and E.C. Aifantis...........................................................................................................................191 SIMULATION OF NON-EQUILIBRIUM EVOLUTION IN HETEROGENEOUS ENGINEERED MATERIALS: NEW ANALYSIS AND ALGORITHMS G. Brown, M.A. Novotny and P.A. Rikvold .....................................................................................................................191 NON-LOCAL EFFECTIVE PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS WITH RANDOM AND PERIODICAL STRUCTURES V.A. Buryachenko ...........................................................................................................................................................192 SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENTS FOR MODELING MATERIALS AT MULTIPLE LENGTH SCALES C.R. Myers......................................................................................................................................................................193 MODELING OF GLOW DYNAMICS IN HETEROGENEOUS FIBER MEDIA USING A LATTICE BOLTZMANN METHOD F.R. Phelan Jr., M.A. Spaid and R.C. Peterson ..............................................................................................................194 NESTED P-TYPE FINITE ELEMENTS FOR MATERIALS WITH LOCAL HETEROGENEITIES K. Darbha and A. Dasgupta ...........................................................................................................................................194

SESSION 3
Keynote : HIERARCHICAL MODELING OF HETEROGENEOUS MATERIALS: A PROGRESS REPORT J.T. Oden ........................................................................................................................................................................195 AN INTEGRATED COMPUTATIONAL METHODOLOGY FOR INTERFACIAL MICRO-LEVEL STRESS TRANSFER IN MACROSCOPIC THERMOVISCOELASTIC CREEP OF UNIDIRECTIONAL COMPOSITES P.W. Chung, K.K. Tamma and R.R. Namburu ................................................................................................................195 NON-LINEAR ANALYSIS OF INITIALLY PRESTRESSED FIBER LAMINATES M. Sejnoha and K. Matous .............................................................................................................................................196 SCIENTIFIC ISSUES IN MODELING MATERIALS AT MULTIPLE LENGTH SCALES J.P. Sethna......................................................................................................................................................................196 SIMULATION OF FAILURE PROCESSES IN COMPOSITES K. Shek and J. Fish .........................................................................................................................................................197

SESSION 4
FINITE SIZE SCALING OF EFFECTIVE MODULI AND STOCHASTIC FINITE ELEMENTS FOR RANDOM MEDIA M. Ostoja-Starzewski......................................................................................................................................................198 COMPUTING PROPERTIES OF DISORDERED MEDIA WITH NON-LINEAR RESPONSE R. Blumenfeld .................................................................................................................................................................198

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AN ENHANCED ASYMPTOTIC HOMOGENIZATION METHOD OF ELASTIC COMPOSITE LAMINATES C.M. Chen and N. Kikuchi..............................................................................................................................................199 MACROSCOPIC PROPERTIES AND STATISTICAL MODELS OF RANDOM COMPOSITE AND POROUS MEDIA A.P. Roberts....................................................................................................................................................................199 SIMULATIONS OF DEFORMATION AND FAILURE IN STOCHASTIC FIBROUS NETWORKS A.M. Sastry, C.W. Wang and X. Cheng...........................................................................................................................200 LARGE SCALE SIMULATIONS OF SIMPLE MIXED MODELS FOR FRAGMENTATION G. Hernandez..................................................................................................................................................................201

SESSION 5
Keynote : NON-LINEAR COMPOSITES: THEORETICAL ESTIMATES AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION H. Moulinec and P. Suquet .............................................................................................................................................201 THERMOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF LAMINATED COMPOSITE AND SANDWICH PLATES VIA HIERARCHICAL {1,2}-ORDER THEORY A. Tessler........................................................................................................................................................................202 RAPID SOLUTION OF LARGE PROBLEMS IN MICROMECHANICS Y. Fu, J. Overfelt and G.J. Rodin....................................................................................................................................203 ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE CALCULATION OF CERTAIN CARBON POLYTYPES B. Sahu ...........................................................................................................................................................................203 GLOBAL/LOCAL PROGRESSIVE DAMAGE SIMULATION FOR PLAIN WEAVE COMPOSITES BASED ON MACRO DAMAGE MODES J. Whitcomb and X. Tang................................................................................................................................................204

SESSION 6
SCALE-LINKING COMBINED ATOMISTIC-CONTINUUM MODEL R.C. Picu ........................................................................................................................................................................205 SOLDER JOINTS, GEOMETRY, COMPUTATION AND COLLABORATION H. Eghbalnia and A. Assadi............................................................................................................................................205 CRYSTALS, DEFECTS AND MICROSTRUCTURES: MODELING IN THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS ACROSS SCALES R. Phillips .......................................................................................................................................................................206 IDEALIZED DEFECTS: THIN FILMS AND SOLIDS SURFACES J. Rickman ......................................................................................................................................................................206 DECOMPOSITION-BASED ANALYSIS AND DESIGN FOR HETEROGENEOUS, ARRAYED ELECTRONIC STRUCTURES A.M. Deshpande and G. Subbarayan..............................................................................................................................206 AVERAGED EQUATIONS FOR MULTIPHASE FLOW J. Glimm .........................................................................................................................................................................207

SESSION 7
Keynote : COMPUTATIONAL PROBLEMS IN THE ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS I. Babuska.......................................................................................................................................................................208 THE FUTURE OF COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY, INTEGRATING SIMULATION, EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND KNOWLEDGE M.J. Doyle ......................................................................................................................................................................208 TRASH MADE COMPOSITES: MODELING OF RECYCLED POLYMERIC MATRIX COMPOSITES A.F. vila........................................................................................................................................................................209 MODELING THE FORMATION AND RELIABILITY OF SOLDER BUMPS IN ELECTRONIC PACKAGING C. Bailey, D. Wheeler and H. Lu ....................................................................................................................................210 ON LOCALIZATION AND PROPAGATION OF KINKBAND INSTABILITY IN A LONG IMPERFECT LAMINATED COMPOSITE CYLINDRICAL SHELL UNDER EXTERNAL PRESSURE R.A. Chaudhuri, D. Kim and H.J. Garala.......................................................................................................................211

SESSION 8
EFFECT OF SUBGRAIN STRUCTURES ON TEXTURE DEVELOPMENT IN POLYCRYSTALS R. Radovitzky and M. Ortiz.............................................................................................................................................212 NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF COARSENING AND FLAW PROPAGATION IN 2D ELASTICALLY DEFORMED POROUS MEDIA J.W. Bullard....................................................................................................................................................................212 LARGE SCALE PARALLEL COMPUTATION APPLIED TO POLYCRYSTALLINE AGGREGATES F. Barbe, G. Cailletaud, S. Forest and S. Quilici ...........................................................................................................213
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A PARALLEL LATTICE BOLTZMANN ALGORITHM FOR MULTICOMPONENT FLUID FLOW IN COMPLEX GEOMETRIES J. Hagedorn, D. Goujon, N. Martys and J. Devaney ......................................................................................................214 MOLECULAR MODELING OF POLYIMIDES B.L. Farmer and J.A. Young ...........................................................................................................................................214 COMPUTER SIMULATIONS OF MECHANICAL DEFORMATION OF NANOCRYSTALLINE METALS J. Schiotz, T. Vegge , F.D. Di Tolla and K.W. Jacobsen .................................................................................................215

SESSION 9
Keynote : HOLISTIC APPROACH FOR PROBLEMS WITH LARGE MICROSTRUCTURES J. Fish.............................................................................................................................................................................215 GENERALIZED STACKING FAULT ENERGY SURFACES AND DISLOCATION PROPERTIES OF ALUMINUM N. Kioussis......................................................................................................................................................................216 COPPER AND ZINC RAMIFIED ELECTRODEPOSITION: PHYSICAL EXPERIMENTS AND COMPUTATIONAL MODELING G. Marshall ....................................................................................................................................................................216 NUMERICAL MICROMAGNETIC MODELING OF MAGNETIC DATA STORAGE DEVICES AND SENSORS J. Oti...............................................................................................................................................................................217 THERMODYNAMIC MODELING OF DIOXINS AND FURANS FORMATION IN IRON ORE SINTERING PROCESS T. Pengfu, I. Hurtado, P. Spencer, G. Eriksson and D. Neuschutz..................................................................................217

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Keynote : A "MICRO-MACRO" COMPUTATIONAL STRATEGY FOR ANALYSING HETEROGENEOUS STRUCTURES


D. Dureisseix and P. Ladeveze
(1) - LMT Cachan, CNRS, Universit Paris 6. E-mail : David.Dureisseix@lmt.ens-cachan.fr (2) - LMt-Cachan. Gestionnaire Secteur Structures et Systemes. E-mail : ladeveze@lmt.ens-cachan.fr

ABSTRACT
When analyzing heterogeneous structures, such as reinforced or composite structures, and when a refined solution is required, the computation must involve a fine discretisation of the structure (at the micro level). Since the constituents often exhibit very different mechanical characteristics, the resulting structure is highly heterogeneous and the local solution has high gradient areas, effects with a short length of variation, etc. This situation leads to problems with a large number of degrees of freedom. Computational strategies have been developed in order to keep such a problems solution costs down. The theory of periodic media homogenization is one of them. The macro level solution yields the effective values of the unknowns; the micro level solution must then be re-computed with a specific treatment of the boundary areas as distinct from the interior areas. The approach proposed herein uses a decomposition of the reference micro-scale problem into substructures (for instance, the cells of the structure) and interfaces. Since each of these components possesses its own behaviour and equations, both the displacements and the efforts on the interfaces are the unknowns. The resulting approach could then be qualified as a mixed sub- structuring technique. On the one hand, the solution contains a part with a long length of variation: this corresponds to the effective solution defined on the homogenised structure, i.e. to the macro level. On the other hand, the corrections with a short length of variation are defined on an additive micro level. The unknowns of the approach can then be split onto these two levels. The micro-scale problem is defined on each substructure and interface, while the macro-scale problem is global over the entire structure. Both are to be solved iteratively, once the operators which transfer information between the micro and macro levels have been defined. Using such a mechanical splitting of the unknowns improves the convergence rate of the iterative procedure. This approach does not require any specific treatment for boundary areas and concerns structures that are not required to be periodic media. The homogenisation procedure is automatically performed within the algorithm. Moreover, this approach is well suited to parallel-architecture computers since the underlying algorithm is a 2-level domain decomposition approach. Several numerical examples for composite structures illustrate the possibilities of this method.

MULTI-SCALE ANALYSIS OF DAMAGE IN HETEROGENEOUS MATERIALS WITH ADAPTIVE VORONOI CELL FEM
S. Ghosh
(1) - Dept of Engineering Mechanics. Ohio State University. E-mail : sghosh@ghomech1.eng.ohio-state.edu

ABSTRACT
In this work, a multiple scale computational model is developed to concurrently predict evolution of variables at the structural andmicrostructural scales, as well as to track the incidence and propagation of microstructural damage. The microscopic analysis is conducted with the Voronoi cell finite element model
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(VCFEM) while a conventional displacement based FEM code executes the macroscopic analysis. Adaptive schemes and mesh refinement strategies are developed to create a hierarchy of computational sub-domains with varying resolution. Such hierarchy allow for differentiation between non-critical and critical regions, and help in increasing the efficiency of computations through preferential `zoom in' regions. Coupling between the scales for regions with periodic microstructure is accomplished through asymptotic homogenization, whereas regions of nonuniformity and non-periodicity are modeled by true microstructural analysis with VCFEM. An adaptive Voronoi cell finite element model is also developed for micromechanical analysis. Two error measures, viz. a traction reciprocity error and an error in the kinematic relation, are formulated as indicators of the quality of VCFEM solutions. Based on a-posteriori evaluation of these error measures, element adaptation is executed by displacement function adaptations and enrichment of stress functions. The complete process improves convergence characteristics of the VCFEM solution.

WAVELET TECHNIQUES IN COMPUTATIONAL MECHANICS


P.K. Basu and J. Lin
(1) - Comp. Mech. Research Laboratory Vanderbilt University. E-mail : basupk@vuse.vanderbilt.edu (2) - Comp. Mech. Research Laboratory Vanderbilt University

ABSTRACT
A wavelet based series consists of a scaled linear combination of a set of hierarchical basis functions, which can be used to represent (or approximate) a function. The application of this relatively new representation of functions in signal processing as well as in the processing and compression of images has excited the imagination of engineers, scientists and mathematician alike. Similar to Fourier series expansion but without some of its restrictions, wavelets are used in the series expansion of signals and can be so used in the case of arbitrary functions as well, enabling localization in both space and time. In other words, wavelets can analyze different spatial and temporal parts of a signal or function at different scales. Therefore, functions with rapid oscillations, or, possibly, with discontinuities, in localized regions are amenable to an accurate representation by a linear combination of a modest number of wavelets. Although, so far wavelets find primary application in signal and image processing, its unique properties makes it a worthwhile candidate for the numerical solution of the partial differential equations of the continua having different kinds of irregularities. Wavelets based discrete numerical method for the solution of such equations may offer some unique advantages not available in other established discrete numerical methods, like finite element, boundary element and meshless methods. In all the latter mentioned methods, the presence of irregularities (or discontinuities) requires proper attention in spatial discretization, and, sometimes, requires the use of special basis functions. But it is expected that the use of basis functions based on wavelets will eliminate or reduce such restrictions. The authors have undertaken a series of studies using this technique on problems of the continua and concluded that it is a viable and, in some cases, superior alternative to the currently used discrete numerical techniques. This experience of the authors constitutes the main body of this paper.

A STOCHASTIC GEOMETRY CARTOON IN MICROSTRUCTURE MODELING AND PROPERTY COMPUTATION


C. Ji
(1) - University of North Carolina. Department of Statistics. E-mail : cji@stat.unc.edu

ABSTRACT

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The main idea in pattern analysis, following the pioneering works of Grenander, Geman and Geman, Besag, Ripley, Baddeley, et al., is to model complex systems statistically, which amounts to the following steps in a reconstruction cycle: (1) Data summary: image processing (or other signal processing); (2) Proposal of a model class; (3) Parameter estimation; (4) Monte Carlo simulation from the fitted model; (5) Feature comparisons between the Monte Carlo samples and the original data. We will illustrate this approach via applications involving microstructures in materials science. The proposed model is a hard-core elliptical process consisting of nonoverlapping ellipses with variable locations, orientations, aspect ratios and sizes. We will also describe briefly: - estimation of intensity and range parameters; - simulation from the fitted model via spatial birth-and-death processes; - estimation of k-point probability functions which play an role in the computation of effective properties,such as conductivity, elastic moduli, etc.

EFFECTIVE ELASTOPLASTIC BEHAVIOR OF DUCTILE MATRIX COMPOSITES CONTAINING RANDOMLY LOCATED ALIGNED ELLIPTICAL FIBERS
J.W. Ju and X.D. Zhang
(1) - Dept. of Civil and Env. Engineering. University of California. E-mail : juj@seas.ucla.edu (2) - Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering. University of California

ABSTRACT
Based on the micromechanics and the "non-interacting" three-dimensional effective elastic moduli of fiber - reinforced composites, effective elasto-(visco-)-plastic behavior of two-phase unidirectional elliptical fiber - reinforced ductile matrix composites is studied in detail. The elliptical fibers are assumed to be elastic and unidirectionally aligned while the matrix phase can be either elastic or plastic, depending on the local stress state and effective yield criteria. Furthermore, the ensemble-averaged stress norm is constructed based on the probabilistic distribution of elliptical fibers, stress purturbations in the matrix due to fibers, and the ensemble - area averaging procedure. Together with the plastic flow rule and hardening law postulated in continuum plasticity, the aforementioned stress norm is employed to characterize the overall yield criteria which determine the elastoplastic behavior of such composites under uniaxial or biaxial loading / unloading histories. In addition, the overall elasto - viscoplastic behavior is investigated based on the Duvaut - Lions viscoplasticity. Finally, comparison between our theoretical predictions and the available experimental data is performed to illustrate the capability of the proposed framework.

ON THE NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF GRADIENT VISCOPLASTIC MODELS


F. Oka , C. di Prisco and E.C. Aifantis
(1) - Dept. of Civil Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University (2) - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale, Politecnico di Milano (3) - Laboratory of Mechanics and materials, Polytechnic School. E-mail : giannis@kelifos.physics.auth.gr

ABSTRACT
Two types of gradient viscoplastic models for soil-like behavior are discussed with emphasis on their numerical implementation. The competition of rate and gradient effects is addressed, as well as the issues of shear banding, development of heterogeneity and mesh-size dependence.
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SIMULATION OF NON-EQUILIBRIUM EVOLUTION IN HETEROGENEOUS ENGINEERED MATERIALS: NEW ANALYSIS AND ALGORITHMS
G. Brown, M.A. Novotny and P.A. Rikvold
(1) - Supercomputer Comp. Research Institute. Florida State University. E-mail : browngrg@scri.fsu.edu (2) - Supercomputer Comp. Research Institute. Florida State University (3) - Supercomputer Comp. Research Institute. Florida State University

ABSTRACT
We discuss simulations for models which capture the general features of nonequilibrium phaseordering processes after a sudden change in conditions. Such processes are often used in materials processing to create microstructures that significantly modify materials properties. Advances in highbrilliance synchrotron sources have recently led to coherent scattering experiments that probe materials with near atomic resolution. Numerical simulations of such experiments [1] indicate that correlations in the scattered intensity pattern can be used to directly measure two-time, two-point correlations in unstable phase-ordering two-phase systems, such as binary alloys and mixtures. The results also indicate that no adequate theory for the universal aspects of two-time properties in phase ordering exists. Materials which are metastable order through a process of nucleation and growth [2]. Usually for metastable systems, the microscopic time scales are very much shorter than the characteristic time for nucleation. Making simulations of metastable systems feasible requires the use of algorithmic approaches that bridge large differences in time scales [3] such as the $n$-fold way, projective dynamics, and Monte Carlo with absorbing Markov chains. We have developed a very detailed understanding of nucleation and growth in simple models with non-conserved dynamics. Effort is now being directed at more realistic models of materials.

REFERENCES
[1] Brown, G., Rikvold, P.A., Sutton, M. and Grant M., "Speckle from phase ordering systems", Phys. Rev. E 56, 6601 (1997). [2] Rikvold, P.A., Novotny, M.A., Kolesik, M. and Richards, H.L., "Nucleation Theory of Magnetization Reversal in Nanoscale Ferromagnets", in Dynamical Properties of Unconventional Magnetic Systems, edited by A. T. Skjeltorp and D. Sherrington (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1998), pp. 307-316. [3] Kolesik, M., Novotny, M.A. and Rikvold, P.A., "A projection method for statics and dynamics of lattice spin systems", Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3384 (1998).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work supported by NSF, DOE, and FSU through SCRI and MARTECH.

NON-LOCAL EFFECTIVE PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS WITH RANDOM AND PERIODICAL STRUCTURES
V.A. Buryachenko
(1) - Air Force Research Laboratory. E-mail : buryach@aol.com

ABSTRACT
We consider a linearly elastic composite medium, which consists of a homogeneous matrix containing either a statistically inhomogeneous random set or periodical set of ellipsoidal inclusions, and nonuniform boundary condition takes place. The micromechanics-based approach is based on the generalization of the multiparticle effective field'' method (MEFM), previously proposed for the research of statistically homogeneous random structure composites subjected to homogeneous boundary conditions (see e.g. [1]). The hypothesis of effective field homogeneity near the inclusions is used. Effective
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properties (such as compliance, thermal expansion, stored energy) as well as statistical average of stresses in the components are estimated for the general case of nonhomogeneity of the thermoelastic inclusion properties. Inhomogeneous external loading leads to a "nonlocal" coupling between statistical averages of the stress and strain tensors when the statistical average stress is given by an integral of the field quantity weighted by some tensorial function, i.e. the "nonlocal" effective elastic properties. If the external stress is varying sufficiently slowly in the neighborhood of an arbitrary.point, then the integral operator of nonlocal effective elastic properties is obtained as an differential one [2]. For periodic structure composites the equations obtained reduce the analysis of infinite number of inclusion problems to the analysis of a finite number of inclusions. The entire set of equations is transformed from real space to Fourier transform space and an algebraic solution for the effective average strain field formally obtained in the transformed space; the inverse transformation transforms this algebraic solution into a differential operator of the second order in real space. A common integral representation of the solution is derived by the iteration method. Finally, we employ the proposed explicit relations for numerical estimations of tensors describing the local and nonlocal effective elastic properties of composites containing simple cubic lattices of rigid inclusions and voids. The local and nonlocal parts of average stresses are estimated by both the Fourier transform method and by the iteration method [3].

REFERENCES
[1] Buryachenko V. A., Rammerstorfer F. G., "Thermoelastic stress fluctuations in random structure composites with coated inclusions", lit Eur. J. Mech. A/Solids. 1998, 17, 763-788. [2] Buryachenko V. A., Rammerstorfer F. G., "Micromechanics and nonlocal effects in graded random structure matrix composites", Transformation Problems in Composite and Active Composite and Active Materials. Eds. Y. A. Bahei-El-Din and G. J. Dvorak. Kluwer Academic Publ., Dordrecht, 1998, pp. 197-206. [3] Buryachenko V. A., "Triply periodical particulate matrix composites in varying external stress fields", Lit Int. J. Solids Struct., 1999 (in press).

SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENTS FOR MODELING MATERIALS AT MULTIPLE LENGTH SCALES


C.R. Myers
(1) - Cornell Theory Center. Rhodes Hall, Cornell University

ABSTRACT
There is currently considerable research devoted to the integration of information from multiple length scales to achieve improved descriptions of material structure and evolution. Computational systems designed to implement such multiscale descriptions often require the coupling of a diverse collection of models and algorithms across multiple length and time scales. Furthermore, the difficulty of extracting meaningful information from complex, coupled, dynamical simulations on many scales can be a barrier to progress in the field. In order to provide support for such simulations, we are developing a multifaceted computational problem-solving environment in conjunction with an associated set of scientific and engineering research programs aimed at developing improved models of deformation, fracture and the evolution of defect structures in solids of engineering interest. We describe issues that arise in the development of software environments to support such research, and highlight the design, implementation and application of our system. The software environment we are developing, dubbed Digital Material, aims to provide an infrastructure for multidisciplinary, multiscale modeling by emphasizing a number of key themes. Because diverse classes of models and algorithms are under active development, support for high-performance numerical kernels must be complemented by a broad array of lightweight tools for rapid prototyping and model composition, on-the-fly analysis and visualization, and integration of custom and off-the-shelf components. We achieve this balance to a large degree by embedding compiled numerical kernels and legacy codes within a more flexible and extensible interpreted programming environment, driven by the high-level, object-oriented scripting language Python. Furthermore, because the nature of models and analyses across disciplines can vary widely, it is important to provide a common, objective material representation across scales that is independent of tools that act to probe or modify the material. This separation of functionality is implemented by the development of computational object models describing the geometric structures that are found in materials at all scales (atoms, dislocations, cracks,
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grains, grain boundaries, etc.), and by the use of software design patterns that support model composition within the high-level programming interface.

MODELING OF GLOW DYNAMICS IN HETEROGENEOUS FIBER MEDIA USING A LATTICE BOLTZMANN METHOD
F.R. Phelan Jr., M.A. Spaid and R.C. Peterson
(1) - Polymer Composites. National Institute of Standards and Technology. E-mail : frederick.phelan@nist.gov (2) - Polymer Composites. National Institute of Standards and Technology (3) - Polymer Composites. National Institute of Standards and Technology

ABSTRACT
The complete penetration of resin into the preform fiber tow during composites processing operations such as liquid molding is of critical importance to the performance of the resulting composite. Incomplete wetting, i.e. void formation, results in flaws within the fiber reinforcement which can greatly reduce strength and durability. The aim of this study is to provide a better understanding of the transient mechanisms by which voids form and transport as resin infiltrates heterogeneous fiber preform materials. A numerical technique for modeling unsaturated flow dynamics in such materials based on a lattice Boltzmann (LB) method has been developed. A general LB method has been modified such that it recovers Stokes flow in free space regions surrounding the tows of a preform, and Brinkman flow in regions inside the tows. Numerical results are presented for multi-phase flow over circular porous tows and compared to experimental data for flow in a model porous media. Good agreement between experimental and numerical permeability values are observed. The numerically predicted void formation and displacement dynamics are in qualitative agreement with the experimental data, but differ in some quantitative details. Factors that need to be accounted for to improve the model are discussed.

NESTED P-TYPE FINITE ELEMENTS FOR MATERIALS WITH LOCAL HETEROGENEITIES


K. Darbha and A. Dasgupta
(1) - CALCE Electronic Packaging Research Center. University of Maryland (2) - CALCE Electronic Packaging Research Center. University of Maryland

ABSTRACT
A nested p-type refinement strategy is proposed for improving the accuracy and efficiency of finite element solutions. The technique is demonstrated for materials with local heterogeneities. The Nested Finite Element Methodology (NFEM) is similar in concept to an earlier proposed Rayleigh-Ritz methodology [Ling, 1997] which is based on a nested multi-field displacement assumption. The nested multi-field displacement technique is an enhancement of the p-type refinement in conventional finite element analysis where colonies of nested sub-elements (with the enhanced displacement field) are created over selected sub-regions of a main element to capture local gradients of stress and strain. Using an innovative concept of selective domain localization [Ling, 1997] the critical regions are locally refined to capture sharp gradients in the displacement field. The nested sub-elements, apart from capturing the sharp gradients of the displacement field, can also be used to model material heterogeneities. The material of the sub-elements could range from plastic domains to voids to rigid inclusions. Ling implemented this nesting scheme by superposing domains in a Rayleigh-Ritz context to capture large gradients of displacement fields. One of the limitations of Lings model [Ling, 1997] is an excessive use of constraint equations to satisfy continuity between neighboring discrete domains because of the use of nodeless Rayleigh-Ritz degrees of freedom. This limitation poses a computational burden and there is hence a need to develop a model that can achieve significant improvements in computational time. This paper therefore proposes the
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concept of selective domain localization where the additional degrees of freedom are associated with subelement nodes for the local p-type refinement. Continuity is thus automatically satisfied between neighboring discrete domains during assembly of the stiffness matrix, thus eliminating the need for constraint equations. This scheme reduces the computational time significantly. The example presented is a generalized nested finite element thermomechanical analysis of surface mount solder joints in electronic assemblies. The nested sub-elements are used to: capture the sharp gradients in the displacement field, model voids in the solder interconnects, and demonstrate the change in stiffness of the interconnect with coarsening of Sn and Pb phases in the eutectic solder alloy.

REFERENCES
[1] Ling, S., 1997, A multi-domain Rayleigh-Ritz method for thermomechanical stress analysis of surface mount interconnects in electronic assemblies, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland

Keynote : HIERARCHICAL MODELING OF HETEROGENEOUS MATERIALS: A PROGRESS REPORT


J.T. Oden
(1) - The Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics. E-mail : oden@ticam.utexas.edu

ABSTRACT
Recent results in estimation of modeling error and adaptive modeling of composites will be reviewed. These include new pointwise estimates and techniques for enhancing the quality of homogenized material coefficients. The integration of computerized imaging technologies, with computational modeling is also reviewed. Applications to very large-scale simulations of the expense and failure of composite structures are also discussed.

AN INTEGRATED COMPUTATIONAL METHODOLOGY FOR INTERFACIAL MICRO-LEVEL STRESS TRANSFER IN MACROSCOPIC THERMOVISCOELASTIC CREEP OF UNIDIRECTIONAL COMPOSITES
P.W. Chung, K.K. Tamma and R.R. Namburu
(1) - Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Minnesota. E-mail : pwc2@umn.edu (2) - Department of Mechanical Engineering. 325E Mechanical. Engineering. University of Minnesota. E-mail : ktamma@sp.msi.umn.edu (3) - U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station

ABSTRACT
In conjunction with the finite element method and the mathematical homogenization procedure, a methodology for determining micro-level stress transfer across the matrix/fiber interface in unidirectional composites is developed. The mathematical homogenization of the micro-level viscoelastic stress-strain constitutive model with instantaneous memory involves the asymptotic expansion of the displacement variables in the initial boundary value problem. The resulting homogenized macro-level constitutive equation includes an additional term that is best described as a non-instantaneous memory term. The thermorheologically simple material (TSM) assumption is employed to model the thermal characteristics of viscoelastic materials. The superposition of mechanical and thermal stresses is consistent with the assumption that both stress components behave viscoelastically. The external loads in the problem are constant over time and are applied on the macro-level creep specimen. The subsequent micro-stresses must be computed via a localization procedure, or reversehomogenization. The micro-level stress transfer across the matrix/fiber interface is accounted for by a layer of small elements along the boundary separating the two phases. The material properties of the
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interface elements are a rule-of-mixtures function of only the constituent matrix and fiber properties in the present analysis. This makes the microstructure a three phase composite. The subsequent homogenization of the micro structure results in a non-instantaneous memory kernal which is a function of only the material properties of the constituents, and ultimately of only the matrix and fiber elastic and viscous properties. Illustrative examples of the integration of micro/macro-level stress analyses as well as the micro-level interface stress transfer problems are presented.

NON-LINEAR ANALYSIS OF INITIALLY PRESTRESSED FIBER LAMINATES


M. Sejnoha and K. Matous
(1) - CTU, Fac. Of Civil Eng. Dept. of Structural Mechanics. E-mail : sejnom@power1.fsv.cvut.cz (2) - CTU, Fac. Of Civil Eng. Dept. of Structural Mechanics

ABSTRACT
This paper describes a part of a continuing research on multilayered composite structures with initially prestressed fibers. Here, a simple multilayered plate element combined with a micromechanical analysis of fibrous composite materials is used to investigate an effect of the initial fiber prestress on both the local and the overall response of the laminate. The combinatorial optimization technique known as a simulated amealing is implemented to provide for the optimal values of the mitual fiber prestress. Various constrains are imposed on the optimization process to control the behavior of the composite material in both the elastic and the inelastic regime leading to redistribution of the local phase stresses in favor of matrix to utilize an extremely high tensile stress of the fiber. Results are presented for laminated plates made of the Gr Al material system.

SCIENTIFIC ISSUES IN MODELING MATERIALS AT MULTIPLE LENGTH SCALES


J.P. Sethna
(1) - Laboratory of Atomic and Solid-State Physics. Cornell University. E-mail : sethna@lassp.cornell.edu

ABSTRACT
We discuss scientific issues that arise in the modeling of deformation and fracture of materials, and how they likely will relate to ongoing efforts in theoretical physics of phase transitions and field theories. To understand the forces and energies for continuum defects in terms of an atomistic description, there arise two questions: where is the energy and where are the defects? Where the energy of an atomic bond is (arbitrarily) distributed within the continuum determines total divergence terms in the free energy whose choice changes the surface and defect core energies and whose consistent choice is crucial for interfaces between atomistic and continuum descriptions. These total divergence terms are reminiscent of those seen in the Aharanov-Bohm effect, Berry's phase, and the theta-vacuum. Where the defects are (arbitrarily) placed within the unit cell, analogous to a choice of gauge in field theories, determines their interaction energies at short distances: comparing results computed using different conventions demands an understanding of a kind of gauge invariance. To understand the nucleation of defects, one makes use of statistical mechanics and critical droplet theory (instantons, for field theorists). These `nonperturbative' calculations describe the breakdown of nonlinear elastic theory: dislocation nucleation makes elastic materials turn plastic, crack nucleation makes them fail. To understand the motion of defects one must also address interesting field-theoretic questions. Under increasing external stress, the thermally activated hopping motion of a defect can cross over to ballistic motion: to describe the crossover, we likely will need to study the problem of thermal

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activation of multiple jumps, using transition path theory. The motion of collective defects like voids under external electromigration forces also introduces important challenges. Finally, we discuss the role of scaling theories and universality in the study of materials. At first sight, the bewildering variety of materials morphology would argue against any kind of scaling or universal description: where every material is different, how can one hope for a unified description? On the other hand, there are important regularities (the scaling of dislocation structures with increasing deformation, the scaling of strength withdislocation structure length scales) observed in the community which suggest that in simple materials under uniform conditions that late stages may be described by `universal' scaling theories: we can describe heating or beating. How one goes beyond, to describe crossover morphologies formed when beating is followed by heating, remains an open problem.

SIMULATION OF FAILURE PROCESSES IN COMPOSITES


K. Shek and J. Fish
(1) - Tire Performance Modeling. Goodyear Technical Center. E-mail : kshek@goodyear.com (2) - Rensselaer Polytechnic Institue. E-mail : fishj@rpi.edu

ABSTRACT
This presentation describes a macroscopic approach to the delamination and failure process that is common in laminated composite structures. The building blocks of this approach are as follows: (i) enriching through -the - thickness kinematics of a shell element to compute 3D effects, (ii) incorporating through - the - thickness discontinous shape functions and damage mechanics to simulate delamination growth, (iii) lamina failure, such as matrix cracking and fiber breaking, is modeled using continuum damage mechanics, and (iv) development of damage-delamination indicators to predict the critical regions so that enriched shell elements would be used only necessary. Applications to tire structure will be demonstrated.

FINITE SIZE SCALING OF EFFECTIVE MODULI AND STOCHASTIC FINITE ELEMENTS FOR RANDOM MEDIA
M. Ostoja-Starzewski
(1) - Institute of Paper Science & Technology. E-mail : martin.ostoja@ipst.edu

ABSTRACT
Consideration of boundary value problems in mechanics of materials with disordered microstructures leads to the introduction of an intermediate scale - a mesoscale - which specifies the resolution of a finite element mesh relative to the microscale. The effective elastic mesoscale response is bounded by the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary value problems, resulting in two stiffnesses scaling towards a representative volume element [1, 2]. Examples are given by disordered mosaics, matrixinclusion composites, and cracked sheets [3, 4]. The two Dirichlet- and Neumann-type estimates, separately, provide inputs to two finite element schemes - based on minimum potential and complementary energy principles, respectively for bounding the global response. While in the classical case of a homogeneous material, these bounds are convergent with the finite elements becoming infinitesimal, the presence of a disordered, nonperiodic microstructure prevents such a convergence and leads to a possibility of an optimal mesoscale [5]. The method is demonstrated on an example of torsion of a bar having a percolating two-phase microstructure of over a hundred thousand grains. By passing to an ensemble setting, we arrive at a hierarchy of two random continuum fields which provide input to a stochastic finite element method.

REFERENCES
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[1] M. Ostoja-Starzewski and J. Schulte, "Bounding of effective thermal conductivities of multiscale materials by essential and natural boundary conditions", Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 54, pp. 278-285, 1996. [2] M.Ostoja-Starzewski, "Random field models and scaling laws of heterogeneous media", Arch. Mech., Vol. 50(3), pp. 549-558, 1998. [3] M.Ostoja-Starzewski, "Random field models of heterogeneous materials", Intl. J. Solids Struct., Vol. 35(19), pp. 2429-2455, 1998. [4] M.Ostoja-Starzewski, "Scale effects in materials with random distributions of needles or cracks", to be published in Mech. Mater., 1998. [5] M.Ostoja-Starzewski and X. Wang, "Stochastic finite elements as a bridge between random material microstructure and global response", Comp. Meth. Appl. Mech. Eng., 168(1-4), pp. 35-49, 1999.

COMPUTING PROPERTIES OF DISORDERED MEDIA WITH NON-LINEAR RESPONSE


R. Blumenfeld
(1) - Cavendish Laboratory. E-mail : rbb11@phy.cam.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
A method is presented to compute responses, such as the permittivity, conductivity, and scalar elasticity, in heterogeneous media with a strongly nonlinear constitutive relation. Based on analytical studies, an algorithm is developed, which can be used to solve for the field in the medium through a hierarchical set of linear Poissons equations. These equations can be solved order by order, thus obviating the necessity to self-consistently solve a nonlinear intergral equation. Analytical results are also presented for the solution for the first and second order terms for isotropic materials.

AN ENHANCED ASYMPTOTIC HOMOGENIZATION METHOD OF ELASTIC COMPOSITE LAMINATES


C.M. Chen and N. Kikuchi
(1) - Comp. Mech. Laboratory. University of Michigan (2) - Comp. Mech. Laboratory. University of Michigan. E-mail : kikuchi@engin.umich.edu

ABSTRACT
Tailoring of the material properties, which is inherent in the composite material technology has emerged a wide rang of mathematical models to identify overall behavior or micro-mechanics of the composite material. A rigorous analysis tool is required to deal with mechanics of composite in a consistent manner so that further application and development of composite material technology could be explored. The Homogenization theory is one of the candidates that can presently comply with such requests owing to its remarkable feature, the global-local constitutive modeling. The weighted homogenization method was introduced in 1997 by authors. It modified the homogenization method by applying the weighted material constants on the laminae of a composite laminate in order to reflect the nature of bending and transverse shear when it is applied to form an equivalent homogenized laminate model with a single lamina. The weighting procedure is applied to the material constants through the thickness direction in which the periodic condition for the standard homogenization method is not assumed. This procedure makes appropriate change in the global stiffness of the two-dimensional homogenized single layer laminate in bending, while the unit cell model for the homogenization method is a three-dimensional. But the coupling matrix obtained by the weighted homogenization method will always equal to zeros no matter the laminate plate is symmetry or non-symmetry. In this work, we will provide a new homogenization method for laminate. This method is based on the homogenization method and the condensed third-order plate theory. Since we only use asymptotic expansion in both plane directions, this method can be applied to the model in which the periodic
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condition through the thickness direction is not assumed. Furthermore, the number of unknown variable in this theory is same as the one in first-order plate theory, which is mostly used by commercial FEM software, this method can be easily combine with other FEM software such like ABAQUS. We shall apply this method to laminate and examine its relation to the other existing theories for laminate in order to emphasize the nature of the theory of homogenization method, which are extensively applied to composites using solid elements. It is noted that there are few work on the application of the homogenization method to a laminate consisting of many laminae although it has been applied to study mechanics of a heterogeneous lamina, more precisely, a plate.

MACROSCOPIC PROPERTIES AND STATISTICAL MODELS OF RANDOM COMPOSITE AND POROUS MEDIA
A.P. Roberts
(1) - Center for Microscopy and Microanalysis. University of Queensland. E-mail : apr@phoenix.Princeton.edu

ABSTRACT
We have studied a model of microstructure derived from Gaussian random fields. The model has been used to describe two-phase alloys, porous rocks, aerogles. Microemulsions and polymer blends. In the same way that random dispersions of spheres (e.g. dilute, jammed and overlapping) have served as a model of particulate media, the Gaussian random field model can mimic the microstructure of bicontinuous materials (where both phases are highly interconnected). The model is simple to realize, and the underlying Gaussian structure allows significant analytic results to be derived. The two- and three point correlation functions, small-angle scattering intensity, and chord-distribution function provide examples. We have studied two related applications. A great deal of statistical information can be obtained from two-dimensional images, or small-angle scattering intensities, of a random composite or porous material. Using the random field model it is possible to reconstruct a three-dimensional model which shares this information. This can aid in visualizing the material and studying its properties. The second application is related to structure- property relationships. Large scale computational codes have been developed to measure the conductivity, elastic properties and fluid permeability of digitally based models such as Gaussian random-field s. The three-point correlation functions of the random-field model can also be used to evaluate rigorous bounds on these properties. We have theoretically investigated structureproperty relationships in the aforementioned materials, and obtained good agreement with experiments.

SIMULATIONS OF DEFORMATION AND FAILURE IN STOCHASTIC FIBROUS NETWORKS


A.M. Sastry, C.W. Wang and X. Cheng
(1) - Dept. of Mech. Eng. & App. The University of Michigan. E-mail : amsastry@engin.umich.edu (2) - Dept. of Mech. Eng. & App. Mechanics. University of Michigan. (3) - Dept. of Mech. Eng. & App. The University of Michigan

ABSTRACT
Simulating local deformation and failure in stochastic fibrous materials is of interest in a number of key materials technologies, including papers and filters, electrochemical substrates, and biomaterials. The local initiators of both deformation and damage are of key technological interest as they govern the properties of networks, and allow rational design of networks once variance in global properties is reasonable predicted. Here, we examine three key physical aspects of internal deformation: tension/compression; bending (distinguishing physically realistic statically indeterminite networks from tradionally studied
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triangulated structures); and torsional deformation of fiber elements around bonds (distinguishing physically realistic, elastically bonded materials from rigidly bonded approximations). We also examine internal deformation assumptions about the fiber segments. In failure, we examine two extreme conditions of local failure: full nodal failure, and sequential beam (fiber segment) failure. Results suggest key relationships among fiber staple length, aspect ratio, material density (volume fraction) and modulus, strength and variability in both. We comment upon the use of small deformation theory to understand progression of failure processes in these materials, and also comment on the sometimes competing effects of achieving statistically percolated networks through use of high-aspect ratio fibers, versus mechanically stiff and strong networks though use of lower-aspect ratio fibers. Tradeoffs in construction of networks, selection of material properties and properties an variance in properties are discussed in the context of a particular application: substrates for use in electrochemical cells.

LARGE SCALE SIMULATIONS OF SIMPLE MIXED MODELS FOR FRAGMENTATION


G. Hernandez
(1) - Universidad Andres Bello School of Engineering. E-mail : ghernan@abello.unab.cl

ABSTRACT
We present an iterative stochastic process as a model for two dimensional discrete fragmentation. The model fulfills mass conservation. At each step of the process the ``most stressed'' piece is broken in the direction of the maximum net force, which is a random variable. This kind of mixed deterministic random models present complex features that reproduce some of the experimental results that have been obtained. Specifically, it can be shown by large scale simulations that for some regimes a log-normal and a power law behavior are obtained for the fragment size histogram. For this reason we propose them as basic models that can be substantially refined to describe the fragmentation process of more realistic models.

Keynote : NON-LINEAR COMPOSITES: THEORETICAL ESTIMATES AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION


H. Moulinec and P. Suquet
(1) - Laboratoire de Micanique et d'Acoustique. CNRS (2) - Laboratoire de Micanique et d'Acoustique. CNRS. E-mail : suquet@lma.cnrs-mrs.fr

ABSTRACT
There has been considerable effort devoted towards predicting the effective properties of composite materials directly from the properties of their constituent phases and from their distribution, or microstructure. A considerable body of literature exists when the constitutive behavior of the phases that make up the composite is linear elastic. This lecture will focus on composites with nonlinear constitutive behavior, including plasticity and creep. For example, we will be concerned with the determination of the effective stress-strain relations for metal-matrix composites. Several attempts have been made in the past to apply linear schemes to nonlinear composites through adequate linearizations, notably by an "incremental" extension of the self-consistent method ([1]), by the "secant" method or by the "transformation field analysis" ([2]). More recently variational approaches for nonlinear elastic materials have been developed (see [3] for a review). The accuracy of these predictions is difficult to assess by direct comparison to experimental results, and this has motivated in recent years the development of direct numerical simulations for composites with periodic microstructures (e.g. [4]) mostly for "simple" microstructures (one or two inclusions in a block of matrix). More recently efforts have been directed
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towards modeling composites with "complex" microstructures and/or containing many inclusions. The difficulties arising then are the description of complex geometries (meshing) and the size of the resulting problems. This lecture will present a method based on Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) ([5]) which makes direct use of digital images of the "real" microstructure in the numerical simulation. The proposed method avoids the difficulty due to meshing. It makes use of Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) to solve the unit cell problem even when the constituents are nonlinear. The second difficulty (size of the problem) is partially overcome by an fixed-point method not requiring the formation of a stiffness matrix. The method is based on the exact expression of the Green function for a linear elastic and homogeneous comparison material. The case of elastic nonhomogeneous phases is reduced to an integral equation (Lippman-Schwinger equation) which is solved iteratively. A nice feature of the method is that it involves a multiplication in Fourier space, a multiplication in real space, a FFT and an inverse FFT. The two first operations can be easily parallelized. The last two operations are performed by optimized packages. The number of iterations at convergence varies linearly with the contrast of the phases. Therefore composites with pores or rigid inclusions cannot be handled. However, hor high contrast, an acceleration scheme proposed by G.W. Milton can be used for which the number of iterations varies as the square root of the contrast. The method is extended to nonlinear constituents by a step-by-step integration in time. The comparison with the Finite Element Method shows that, in many instances, the method based on FFT is faster and more flexible ([6]).

REFERENCES
[1] Hill, R., "A self-consistent mechanics of composite materials. J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 13, 1965, 213-222. [2] Dvorak, G. J., "Transformation field analysis of inelasticcomposite materials", Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, 437, 1992, 311-327. [3] Ponte Castaeda, P. and Suquet, P., "Nonlinear composites", Advances in Applied Mechanics vol.34, pp. 171 302. Academic Press, New York. 1998. [4]Christman,T., Needleman, A., and Suresh,S., "An experimental and numerical study of deformation in metal ceramic composites", Acta Metall. Mater., 37, 30293050. [5] Moulinec H., Suquet P., "A numerical method for computing the overall response of nonlinear composites with complex microstructure", Comp. Meth. Appl. Mech. Engng., 157, 1998, pp 69-94. [6] Michel J.C., Moulinec H. and Suquet P., "Effective properties of composite materials with periodic microstructure: a computational approach", Comp. Meth. Appl. Mech. Engng., 1999, in press.

THERMOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF LAMINATED COMPOSITE AND SANDWICH PLATES VIA HIERARCHICAL {1,2}-ORDER THEORY
A. Tessler
(1) - Nasa-Langley Research Center. Computational Structures Branch. E-mail : a.tessler@larc.nasa.gov

ABSTRACT
A recently developed hierarchical {1,2}-order plate theory is extended to include thermoelastic deformation effects in laminated composite and sandwich plates. The theory takes into consideration the effects of transverse shear and transverse normal deformations. Consistent approximations for the displacement components together with approximations representing "average" transverse shear strains and transverse normal stress are introduced. As in the original formulation of the theory, the hierarchical form of the displacement assumptions includes seven kinematic variables, five of which have the same physical significance as those of Reissner's first-order theory. Two additional kinematic variables enable parabolic through the thickness stretching deformations. To model the response due to thermal and mechanical loads, the assumed transverse shear strains include both symmetric (quadratic) and antisymmetric (cubic) modes of deformation through the laminate thickness. Correspondingly, the assumed transverse normal stress is approximated through the thickness in the form of a quartic polynomial. The coefficients of the assumed transverse shear strains and transverse normal stress are derived in closed form from suitable statements of least-squares strain compatibility. The particular appeal of this {1,2}-order theory is that it can be conveniently employed to derive a wide range of efficient bending finite elements including beams, plates and faceted shells. In this connection, appropriate finite element approximation schemes are discussed. To establish the predictive capability of this theory, a closed-form solution is derived for a simply-supported rectangular plate subject to mechanical and thermal
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loads. The results are compared with exact three - dimensional elasticity and finite element solutions for a wide range of laminated and sandwich plates. The present theory is shown to provide superior predictive capabilities as compared to the first-order theory, particularly in predicting highly complex interlaminar stresses due to thermal gradients.

RAPID SOLUTION OF LARGE PROBLEMS IN MICROMECHANICS


Y. Fu, J. Overfelt and G.J. Rodin
(1) - Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics (2) - Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics. (3) - Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics. E-mail : gjr@ticam.utexas.edu

ABSTRACT
Large problems in micromechanics involve many interacting defects like second-phase particles, dislocations, transformation strains, and others. Elastic interactions among defects are such that each defect interacts with all other defects. A similar situation exists in boundary element methods where each nodal variable interacts with all other nodal variables. As a result computation of such interactions involves O(N2) operations. There are several summation methods that, for large N, allow one to compute electrostatics interactions using only O(NlogN) operations and memory. In this talk, we explain how such methods can be adopted for solving boundary integral equations arising in problems that involve many second-phase particles. The proposed method involves pre-conditioned iterative solvers, fast matrix-vector multiplication, and efficient parallel implementation. Example problems involve more than one thousand particles and more than one million unknowns.

ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE CALCULATION OF CERTAIN CARBON POLYTYPES


B. Sahu
(1) - Condensed Matter Theory Group. Department of Physics. University of Pune. E-mail : brs@physics.unipune.ernet.in

ABSTRACT
The Natural properties of diamond are driving force for their use as technologically important as well as scientifically fascinating material. The low pressure technique of sunthesizing diamond has brought tremendous explosion of scientific and technical literature that focus on doping effects, nucleation mechanism etc. However several polytypic form of carbon have been predicted and few of them are acutally observed in the laboratory. These polytypes are analogous to SiC polytypes. We present the numerical study of series of carbon polytypes namely 3C, 2H, 4H, 6H and 8H using state - of - the art first principle method namely tight binding muffin tin orbital method (TB-LMTO). We have ground state computed the cohesive, electronic properties. This method is physically intuitive, uses minimal basis set (9 orbitals per site for s-,p-, d material) and hence is computationally efficient. It treats all elements in the periodic table on equal footing. The c/a ratio increases as one goes from 2H to 8H sturucture. The dispersion of electronic states clearly show that these are wide-gap semiconductors (energy gap = 5 eV) and all have simillar bulk modulus comparable to that of diamond (bulk modulus of diamond is 5.45 Mbar). The bonding in these polytypes is sp3 type.

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GLOBAL/LOCAL PROGRESSIVE DAMAGE SIMULATION FOR PLAIN WEAVE COMPOSITES BASED ON MACRO DAMAGE MODES
J. Whitcomb and X. Tang
(1) - Aerospace Engineering Department, Texas A&M University. E-mail : whit@aero.tamu.edu (2) - Aerospace Engineering Department, Texas A&M University

ABSTRACT
Except for models of very small regions, essentially all stress analyses of composites are global/local in nature. The microstructure is described in terms of some representative building block (often referred to as a unit cell). Effective properties of this unit cell are determined. These effective properties are then used in a larger dimensional analysis. There might even be several layers of homogenization to obtain effective properties. An example is listed below In many cases, analysis is not used from the fiber/matrix level. Instead experiments are used to obtain effective properties at a larger scale for example, at the lamina level. When the material is characterized at a larger scale the computational task is reduced, but one also loses information about why the material has a particular set of properties. That is, the characterization is less fundamental and so is the understanding. The example described above considers stiffness only. When one expands the problem to include the evolution of damage, it becomes obvious that one cannot afford layer after layer of rigorous homogenization analyses that predict initiation of damage and its effect on effective properties. Unfortunately, it is difficult to experimentally characterize the evolution of damage without detailed modeling. There is no strategy that is completely satisfying. The technique proposed herein is a compromise between computational impossible multi-level homogenization and experimental characterization at a strictly macro level. The discussion will focus on the challenge faced when modeling progressive failure of plain weave composites. Also, this paper will concentrate on one part of global/local analysis: efficient characterization of the initiation and evolution of damage in a unit cell. Figure 1 shows the plain weave unit cell. Because of symmetries, only 1/32 of the unit cell needs to be modeled. The primary strategy that will be discussed is related to how damage is often predicted and tracked in a finite element analysis. In particular, the stresses are evaluated and damage predicted at each quadrature point. Figure 2 shows cracks in the matrix pockets and transverse matrix cracks in the fill tow predicted using finite elements. To prevent spurious load redistribution, load increments are generally specified such that failure occurs at only a relatively small number of points. Since there are typically many quadrature points, the analysis can be very time consuming. However, both in experiments and in simulation there are characteristic damage patterns that tend to form. For example, transverse matrix cracks tend to grow from microscopic to macroscopic very quickly. Very large computer resources can be used tracking this evolution but is it needed? A potentially much more efficient technique is to characterize the behavior on a non-local basis. Rather than predicting the response at a point, the stresses at a point or a collection of points would be used to predict the formation of macroscopic damage modes that could extend across element boundaries. Although the analysis might be performed at highresolution, in effect, a reduced basis is used for damage modeling. This paper will compare progressive damage predictions based on this reduced basis technique with conventional point-by-point predictions.

SCALE-LINKING COMBINED ATOMISTIC-CONTINUUM MODEL


R.C. Picu
(1) - RPI,Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering and Mechanics. E-mail : picuc@rpi.edi

ABSTRACT
Atomic scale modeling of defects in materials is aimed at providing the first link across scales in the attempt of founding the macroscopic constitutive behavior on first principles. While at larger scales the representation is in the continuum sense and based on constitutive laws for the material, at the lattice scale the discreteness of the atomic structure has to be accounted for. The two descriptions are further separated
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by the nature of the energy functional which, in the discrete formulation is non-convex allowing for fine structure. Due to these two fundamental differences, the connection between the two representations has remained a challenge despite much attention received lately. This paper presents a new method which permits the simulation of systems that combine continuum and atomistic length scales. In this approach, the continuum limit is considered to be nonlinear elastic with elastic constants in proper relationship with the interatomic potential. The atomic scale is taken as nonlinear and nonlocal as implicit in purely atomistic simulations. The transition region is described in terms of a set of adjustable parameters aimed at minimizing the incompatibility. The required multi-scale capability is provided by the adaptive selection of the parameters and position of the transition zone close to highly energetic lattice defects. The formulation is validated by a number of examples of known solution in the atomistic limit.

SOLDER JOINTS, GEOMETRY, COMPUTATION AND COLLABORATION


H. Eghbalnia and A. Assadi
(2) - Department of Mathematics. University of Wisconsin. E-mail : assadi@math.wisc.edu

ABSTRACT
Interdisciplinary approaches have often proven to be fruitful endeavors in many areas. In this paper we discuss a sample JAVA implementation that brings together Geometry, Numerical Computation and the communication possibilities of Internet and offers the potential of interdisciplinary exploration. Study of minimal surface is a rich area of geometry. Surface Evolver is a software written for the study of Minimal surfaces by applying methods of numerical computation to minimization problems. Surface Evolver has been used to study some solder joint geometries. However, as is often the case, the difficulties of exploring new and experimental software impedes widespread experimentation and the possible discovery of new useful techniques. By a providing a Java-based interface and enabling collaborative access to many users we can extend the reach of successful interdisciplinary approach

CRYSTALS, DEFECTS AND MICROSTRUCTURES: MODELING IN THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS ACROSS SCALES
R. Phillips
(1) - Brown University. E-mail : phillips@engin.brown.edu

ABSTRACT
Certain problems in the mechanics of materials demand insights over a range of scales simultaneously. This talk will outline recent advances that allow for the use of quantum mechanical calculations of material properties as the basis of the analysis of processes in the nano-and micromechanics of materials. Special emphasis will be devoted to two representative applications of these ideas: the coupling of strain and electronic properties in microelectronic materials and the interactions of dislocations with obstacles and the connection of these processes to hardening.

IDEALIZED DEFECTS: THIN FILMS AND SOLIDS SURFACES


J. Rickman
(1) - Lehigh University Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering. E-mail : jmr6@lehigh.edu

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ABSTRACT
We review various idealized defect models to describe electrostatic and elastostatic energetics in a variety of systems. Such models permit one to obtain both a quantitative and an intuitive understanding of competing interactions which determine morphology. This approach will be applied to bulk inclusions, thin films, surface steps and islands, etc. It will be seen that this unified description highlights important aspects of defect-defect interactions.

DECOMPOSITION-BASED ANALYSIS AND DESIGN FOR HETEROGENEOUS, ARRAYED ELECTRONIC STRUCTURES


A.M. Deshpande and G. Subbarayan
(1) - Department of Mechanical Engineering. University of Colorado at Boulder. (2) - Dept. of Mech. Engineering University of Colorado at Boulder. E-mail : ganesh@colorado.edu

ABSTRACT
Electronic assemblies commonly consist of a printed circuit board made up of alternating layers of composite epoxy-glass laminates and copper circuitry on to which components are attached through arrays of solder joints. The construction of components can vary significantly, but an increasingly common choice is an area-array package consisting of a silicon die, an organic or ceramic substrate and epoxy encapsulants. The term area-array (as opposed to peripheral array) refers to the region of the component (also referred to as a package) where connection is made with the circuit board. The thermo-mechanical behavior and the consequent reliability of electronic packages are a major concern for electronic systems manufacturers. Since fast analysis enables quick package design decisions, there is a significant need for computationally efficient methods in analyzing these electronic assemblies. The complexity of analysis is often due to two sources: the nonlinear behavior of solder alloys, and the size of the solder joint array; the trends, as projected in the industry roadmaps, is towards packages with as many as 5000 solder joints! In this paper, we develop a decomposed solution methodology that enables significant computational savings, at reasonable accuracy, in the analysis of these heterogeneous, arrayed electronic structures. The solution methodology consists of two main aspects: 1. A domain decomposition procedure that partitions any nonlinear structure into two substructures, allowing for independent and simultaneous analysis of the substructures. 2. A nonlinear optimization procedure that coordinates the solution of the substructures towards the solution of the original, un-decomposed structure. The partitioning methodology developed here does not require mesh correspondence (during the finite element analysis) between the substructures, and the nonlinear optimization procedure ensures the approximate satisfaction of the principle of virtual work. In the present application, a natural decomposition of the electronic assembly is into component, circuit board and solder joints is first made. Computational efficiency is achieved next by developing a macro model or a module for the repeated, nonlinearly behaving solder joints. This module for solder joints captures the force-displacement response by combining joint shape (predicted using surface tension theory), and nonlinear thermomechanical behavior. Lastly, through the solution of the nonlinear optimization procedure mentioned above, the response of the individual solder joints that will enable the overall structural equilibrium is determined. The developed procedure is demonstrated on a 5x5 hypothetical arrayed package. It is shown that with the use of the decomposed solution methodology, approximately 400% improvement in computational efficiency is achieved at an accuracy loss of 6%.

AVERAGED EQUATIONS FOR MULTIPHASE FLOW


J. Glimm
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(1) - Department Of Applied Mathematics & Statistics University at Stony Brook. E-mail : glimm@ams.sunysb,edu

ABSTRACT
New equations for multiphase flow are proposed, applicable to acceleration driven mixing layers, in work of the author and colleagues presented here. The equations are hyperbolic with real characteristics, and thus stable mathematically. They are derived from ensemble average of the microphysics two fluid equations, and apply to chunk mix (with large scale coherent structures). The equations close with zero free parameters (incompressible case) or one free parameter (compressible case), in terms of arbitrarily specified motion of the boundary of the mixing zone. The motion of the mixing zone boundaries is given by a phenomenological drag and buoyancy law, with adjustable parameters set from two independent experiments or from simulation data. These equations provide an improved fit to experimental data. We present a solution of the equations in closed form, for one dimensional layers, in the incompressible limit.

Keynote : COMPUTATIONAL PROBLEMS IN THE ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS


I. Babuska
(1) - TICAM. E-mail : babuska@ticam.utexas.edu

ABSTRACT
The talk will elaborate on the problems in the analysis of composite material on the fiber scale level. For concretness the unidirectional composite made from the prepregs HTA/6376 produced by CibaGeigy with the volume fraction 62 % will be considered. Theoretical and numerical results will be presented.

THE FUTURE OF COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY, INTEGRATING SIMULATION, EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND KNOWLEDGE
M.J. Doyle
(1) - Materials Informatics and QSAR Product Manager. E-mail : mdoyle@msi.com

ABSTRACT
Forward-looking companies are plotting the future of computational technology for materials and chemicals research. Increasingly, they are focusing on the role of computers and informatics in integrating theoretical and experimental methods and maximizing the use of corporate knowledge. The commercial application of molecular modelling was born in the drug discovery departments of major pharmaceutical companies in the early 1980s. It was late in that decade before these techniques were seriously applied to materials and chemistry problems in other chemicals-based industries. The ensuing ten years witnessed an explosion in computational materials science. The technology has become more effective, better validated, and more affordable as methods such as density functional theory, molecular mechanics and mesoscale modelling advanced. Such companies aim to create efficient mechanisms to turn data into information, to exploit that information in taking decisions, and to store and share the knowledge that flows from those decisions. Computers impact this process at each stage - providing simulation and LIMS systems to create and capture data, databases to store data, statistical software to analyses it for valuable information, and modelling, analysis, and communication tools to enable decision-making and to share knowledge. But the application of chemical and materials informatics has typically been fragmented. Problems begin with the fact that different types of data are often stored independently. For example, quantitative data - such as
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melting or boiling points - is rarely held alongside "softer" data such as user preferences and desires. Information from structural databases is accessed through different systems to experimental data. This separation also applies to the methods applied to process the data - standard statistical packages do not incorporate chemically intelligent statistical techniques such as QSAR. The generic problem is that information management systems have not been tailored to the needs of chemicals R&D, while chemistry software development has focused on structural modelling, property prediction, and simulation. These conditions are set to change. There is a trend in the software world towards the integration of applications software, Group Ware, and productivity tools within standard environments utilizing "off-the-shelf" software components. A number of factors make this particularly relevant to chemistry. The first is the maturing of computational chemistry software. Not only is there a demand for wider deployment of these techniques, but they are increasingly amenable to interaction with other software. Trends in the power, price, and graphics capabilities of desktop computers mean that high quality modelling applications can run in the same environment as standard productivity tools. Research organizations' growing use of the Internet and intranets further encourages the development of standard protocols for managing, exploiting, and sharing chemical information. MSI has been developing a decision support system for formulation research. The project provides an excellent example of both the benefits and difficulties of such a system. Data requirements are varied, ranging from the chemical composition of detergents, foods, paints, lubricants, or drugs to the preferences of product users in different geographical regions. Statistical models must mix prediction of chemical behavior with analysis of business factors, such as cost. The information produced is valuable not only to researchers, but also in development, production, and marketing. MSI has combined its long-standing expertise in chemical R&D and chemistry software development with skills in desktop and NT software engineering to provide a system accessible to all of these scientists.

TRASH MADE COMPOSITES: MODELING OF RECYCLED POLYMERIC MATRIX COMPOSITES


A.F. vila
(1) - Dept. of Mech. Engineering Universidade Fed. de Minas Gerais. E-mail : avila@demec.ufmg.br

ABSTRACT
Polymeric matrix composites (PMC) are used into engineering applications as they present low density and high strength. However, they are not used into large-scale applications due to their high cost. Nevertheless the large variety of thermoplastic matrices allow us to experiment different types of resin combinations creating the melt-blended matrices. The objective of mixing polymers is not only cost reduction but also increase specific properties such as strength. One low cost source of such type of resins is recycled thermoplastics. Post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET), for example, has a cost of five cents/pound while the polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene of low and high density (LDPE and HDPE) have an even lower cost, one and a half cents/pound. Such low cost is due to the large amount of post-consumer plastic waste generated daily on large cities worldwide. A city in an emergent country with a population of 3 million habitants, for example, produces each day around 440 ton of plastic waste. Countries like the U.S. have already begun to search for solutions by funding researches on the recycling area. Our purpose is to develop new technologies into the polymeric waste recycling field so that we can apply these new technologies into the construction of low cost houses in emergent countries privileging a social - environmental approach. To be able to model melt-blended recycled polymeric matrix composites, we developed a two-step homogenization procedure. The two-step homogenization procedure consists on finding the effective properties of the meltblended resultant matrix and then apply the homogenized matrix to unidirectional fibers to be able do build up laminate composites. As we are considering post-consumer materials, the imperfect interface condition must be considered at least in one of the two-steps. In the first step, we applied the concentric spheres model to obtain the melt-blended effective properties a valid assumption when unmiscible polymer are blended. Once this first step was over, the overall composite effective properties are obtained based on variation of the Composite Cylinder Assemblage model (CCA) under weak interface condition proposed by vila.

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The PMC proposed by this paper is in some sense unique. The conventional recycled materials are composed by around 30-50% of post-consumer materials, whereas the remaining volume fraction is virgin material. In our case, the melt-blended matrix is made of two post-consumer materials and only the fibers are virgin. It is postulated that in a PS suspension it was diluted spherical inclusions of polybutadiene (PB). The PB spherical inclusions will reduce the PS brittle behavior improving the meltblended matrix properties. Once the matrix PS/PB is homogenized, the resulting matrix is applied to Eglass fibers. We will assume that the melt -blended matrix components have its origin from the recycling procedure. Therefore, we have to consider a degradation function of the mechanical properties. The PS/PB volume fraction ratio is 3/1, and the fibers volume fraction is 30%. Numerical simulations for such type of composite were performed and effective properties results are compared well against others numerical simulations and experimental data.

MODELING THE FORMATION AND RELIABILITY OF SOLDER BUMPS IN ELECTRONIC PACKAGING


C. Bailey, D. Wheeler and H. Lu
(1) - Centre for Numerical Modelling &Process Analysis. E-mail : c.bailey@greenwich.ac.uk (2) - Centre for Numerical Modelling and Process Analysis. University of Greenwich. (3) - Centre for Numerical Modelling and Process Analysis. University of Greenwich.

ABSTRACT
The connection of microprocessor chips to printed circuit boards (PCB's) is achieved using solder materials, which bond the leads of the chip to the board. In this process a board assembly (Chip - Joints Board) passes through a furnace where the solder (initially in the form of solder paste) melts, reflows, then solidifies, and finally deforms between the chip and board. A number of defects may occur during this process such as cracking of the joint, chip or board. These defects are a serious concern, especially with trends towards increasing component miniaturisation and smaller pitch sizes. Standard solid mechanics based finite element tools are used extensively within the electronic packaging community to calculate stress in solders due to in-service thermal loads for reliability predictions e.g. [1]. Generally, these models assume that the electronic component, joint and board are free from defects, such as stress-induced cracks, which originate during the reflow process. In this process a number of events take place that govern the integrity of the final joint. To develop models that fully characterize these events requires representing the physics governing: Melting of solder paste,Change in solder shape, governed by surface tension, Solidification of the solder including the release of latent heat, Residual stress development due to thermal miss-match between materials. This offers significant challenges for modellers to develop techniques that simulate the above processes. At the macro level (solder plus surrounding materials) predictions for temperature, solidification, and stress are required. This requires integrated solution procedures (Multi-Physics Modelling), as the equations governing these variables are dependent on each other, for example, stress analysis is dependent on temperature changes in solid regions. At the micro level, the nature of the solder microstructure and the magnitude of intermetallics will also affect the reliability of the formed joints. At present, very little has been published on the formation of solder joints where models for solidification and stress are required. In the metals casting industry, computational mechanics software is now appearing where fluid flow, solidification, and stress models are integrated and used to predict defects such as porosity and cracking [2]. Also this approach has been adopted for the modelling of solder joint formation for a through hole component[3]. PHYSICA [4], written in an object oriented manner, is a generic multi-physics modelling framework currently used to predict phenomena in a number of industrial processes [5]. In this paper we use this multi-physics modelling framework to predict the formation of solder joints for flip-chip components. Also we will describe resulting reliability predictions which include microstructural effects such as grain coarsening and intermetallic layers.

REFERENCES
[1] J Lau, "Thermal Stress and Strain in Micro-Electronic Packaging" Pub. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. (1993)
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[2] C Bailey et al, "Multiphysics Modelling of the Metals Casting Processes", Proc. R. Soc. Lond A, vol 452, 459-486, (1996). [3] C. Bailey , D Wheeler, M Cross, "Multiphysics Simulations for Solder Joints Formation", ASME, EEP Vol 19-2, Advance in Electronic Packaging, 1413-1420, (1997). [4] M Cross, C Bailey, "PHYSICA - A Software Environment for the Modelling of Multiphysics Phenomena", ZAMM, 76, 101-104, (1996). [5] M Cross, "Computational Issues in the Modelling of Materials-Based Manufacturing Processes", Jnl ComputerAided Materials Design", 3, 100-116, (1996)

ON LOCALIZATION AND PROPAGATION OF KINKBAND INSTABILITY IN A LONG IMPERFECT LAMINATED COMPOSITE CYLINDRICAL SHELL UNDER EXTERNAL PRESSURE
R.A. Chaudhuri, D. Kim and H.J. Garala
(1) - Materials Science & Engineering Dept. University of Utah. E-mail : R.Chaudhuri@m.cc.utah.edu (2) - Materials Science & Engineering Dept. University of Utah (3) - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division

ABSTRACT
A fully nonlinear analysis for prediction of shear crippling (kinkband) type propagating instability in long thick laminated composite cylindrical shells is presented. The primary accomplishment of the present investigation is prediction of equilibrium paths, which are often unstable, in the presence of interlaminar shear deformation, and which usually deviate from the classical lamination theory (CLT)based equilibrium paths, representing global or structural level stability. A nonlinear finite element methodology, based on a three-dimensional hypothesis, known as layerwise linear displacement distribution theory (LLDT) and the total Lagrangian formulation, is developed to predict the aforementioned instability behavior of long laminated thick cylindrical shell type structures and evaluate failure modes when radial/hydrostatic compressive loads are applied. The most important computational feature is the successful implementation of an incremental displacement control scheme beyond the limit point to compute the unstable postbuckling path. A long (plane strain) thick laminated composite [90/0/90] imperfect cylinder is investigated with the objective of analytically studying its premature compressive failure behavior. Thickness effect (i.e., interlaminar shear/normal deformation) is clearly responsible for causing the appearance of limit point on the postbuckling equilibrium path, thus lowering the load carrying capability of the long composite cylinder, and localizing the failure pattern, which is associated with spontaneous breaking of the periodicity of classical or modal buckling patterns. In analogy to the phase transition phenomena, Maxwell construction is employed to (a) correct the unphysical negative slope of the computed equilibrium paths encountered in the case of thicker cylinders modelled by the finite elements methods that fail to include micro-structural defects, such as fiber waviness or misalignments, and (b) to compute the propagating pressure responsible for interlaminar shear crippling or kinkband type propagating instability. This type of instability triggered by the combined effect of interlaminar shear/normal deformation and geometric imperfections, such as fiber misalignment, appears to be one of the dominant compressive failure modes for moderately thick and thick cylinders with radiusto-thickness ratio below the corresponding critical value. A three-dimensional theory, such as LLDT, is essential for capturing the interlaminar shear crippling type propagating instability.

EFFECT OF SUBGRAIN STRUCTURES ON TEXTURE DEVELOPMENT IN POLYCRYSTALS


R. Radovitzky and M. Ortiz
(1) - Graduate Aeronautical Laboratories. California Institute of Technology. (2) - Graduate Aeronautical Laboratories. E-mail : ortiz@aero.caltech.edu
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ABSTRACT
A method is presented to compute deformation-driven evolution of sub-grain structures in polycrystalline materials. The polycrystalline behavior is modelled \emph{via} Taylor-averaging of stresses corresponding to arbitrarily oriented crystallites. In calculations, the single crystal plasticity models developed by Cuitino and Ortiz (1992) and Radovitzky and Ortiz (1999) are adopted. The method is amenable to an "embarrassingly" parallel implementation in which each processor solves a copy of the same macroscopic problem with a particular orientation of the crystal. The model is implemented on the massively-parallel ASCI platforms and a scalability analysis is carried out. A limitation which is exhibited by the Taylor-averaging approach to modelling polycrystalline behavior is the overprediction of texture sharpness due to the neglect of the effect of sub-grain processes. In this work, a novel approach to compute sub-grain structures is presented. The consideration of subgrain structures diffuses texture and brings texture in close agreement with experiment. Dynamic Taylor rod-impact tests on pre-textured tantalum cylinders are simulated as a means of demonstrating the versatility of the proposed approach.

NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF COARSENING AND FLAW PROPAGATION IN 2D ELASTICALLY DEFORMED POROUS MEDIA
J.W. Bullard
(1) - Department of Materials Science & Engineering. E-mail : jeff@puffin.mse.uiuc.edu

ABSTRACT
In recent years a number of sophisticated techniques have been used to simulate the motion of interfaces in structurally heterogeneous materials. This presentation will introduce a sharp interface approach for modeling the evolution of porous microstructures. The model uses as initial conditions a digital image along with elementary phase information. Motion of interfaces is automatically tracked, even during topological transformations, by calculating boundary values of the chemical potential and adaptively integrating the reaction-diffusion equations appropriate for the underlying material transport mechanism(s). Application of the model will be given for the structural evolution of elastically deformed porous solids. Additional physics will also be identified which must be incorporated to make the model useful for simulating processes such as sintering of powder compacts and pressure dissolution in rock beds.

LARGE SCALE PARALLEL COMPUTATION APPLIED TO POLYCRYSTALLINE AGGREGATES


F. Barbe, G. Cailletaud, S. Forest and S. Quilici
(1) - Centre des Materiaux de l'Ecole des Mines de Paris (2) - Center des Materiaux de l'Ecole des Mines de Paris. E-mail : cailletaud@mat.ensmp.fr (3) - Centre des Materiaux de l'Ecole des Mines de Paris

ABSTRACT
Threedimensional Finite Element computations are performed on cubes made of several hundreds of grains. The meshes are RVE's involving between 100000 and 500000 Gauss points. The computations are performed on an IBM SP2 computer with a parallel FE code using FETI method. A realistic synthetic microstructure is used. The local behaviour in each grain is represented by a crystallographic model. This approach allows us to compare the material response at different scales. 1. The global average on the whole mesh produces a macroscopic response, which can be compared with a common MECHANICAL TEST (comparison with macroscopic models). 2. The average on all the grains of a same "crystallographic phase" can be compared with the response provided by the
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self-consistent approach. 3. By comparison with the previous one, average stresses and strains in each individual grain can show the effect of the interaction of each grain with the actual microstructure around him (two grains with the same crystallographic orientation will not have the same mechanical response), and have information about SURFACE EFFECT; 4. Each grain being represented by a reasonable number of integration points (around 2000-5000), the calculation characterizes the GRAIN BOUNDARY EFFECT (stress and strain gradient, number of active slip systems); The first quantitative result deals with the local heterogeneity, which is not taken into account by the models involving averaged fields. Variations of 100% can be found on quantities like the axial stress component averaged in one grain (instead of all the grains having the same orientation), due to the action of the real neighbouring. These variations are still bigger if local stress/strain contours are drawn. Inside each grain, dramatic redistributions related to the plastic flow can lead to cumbersome stress states, for instance local axial compression under global tension. Deformation path and stress pathes are both complex at the local level. A detailed study of the surface effect is performed, trying to discriminate between the LOCAL surface effect, due to the local arrangement of the grains, and the MEAN surface effect, on a slice of material parallel to the surface, which is much lower. Collecting data concerning these various transgranular stress/strain states will allow us to revisit damage development in polycrystalline materials.

A PARALLEL LATTICE BOLTZMANN ALGORITHM FOR MULTICOMPONENT FLUID FLOW IN COMPLEX GEOMETRIES
J. Hagedorn, D. Goujon, N. Martys and J. Devaney
(4) - High Performance Systems and Services Division Information Technology Laboratory. E-mail : judith.devaney@nist.gov

ABSTRACT
Fluid flow in porous media plays an important role in environmental and technological processes. For example, oil recovery, spread of hazardous waste in soils, and the durability of building materials. In order to model realistic systems with multicomponent fluids, very large memory models are needed. Large memory is easiest to obtain with parallel processing in a distributed memory models are needed. Large memory is easiest to obtain with parallel processing in a distributed memory environment. The Lattice Boltzmann method, which closely approximates the Navier Stokes equations, is a nearest neighbor algorithm making it ideally suited for parallel processing. We present a space efficient parallel Lattice Boltzmann algorithm suited for use with single and multicomponent fluid flow in complex geometries. Our implementation is with the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and C, making our code portable. We describe results for both ideal systems and actual experiments.

MOLECULAR MODELING OF POLYIMIDES


B.L. Farmer and J.A. Young
(1) - Polymeric Materials Air Force Research Laboratory. E-mail : barry.farmer@afrl.af.mil (2) - Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

ABSTRACT
Molecular modeling has been used to investigate the behavior and properties of NASA polyimides in two general areas. In the first study, modeling was used to calculate the dielectric relaxation strength of amorphous polyimides. Specifically, the polyimide formed from 4,4-oxydiphthalic dianhydride (ODPA) with bis-aminophenoxybenzene (APB) was studied, as was its ?-cyano-substituted analog. Using fully atomistic molecular dynamics, the simulation model was comprised of the polymer in an amorphous cell plated with dummy atoms used to apply the electric field. The concept of timePage 192 USNCCM99

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temperature equivalence was exploited to bring the poling process into the time domain accessible with molecular dynamics simulations. It was found that the response of the polymer to the poling field generally occurred by very localized motions rather than by large conformational transitions. Dielectric relaxation strengths of 7.7 and 17.8 were determined for the unsubstituted polymer and its cyanoderivative, respectively. Both values are in excellent agreement with experimental values. (The unsubstituted polymer was, in fact, synthesized only after the simulation value had been predicted.) It was found that the dipole of both the pendant nitrile group and the backbone anhydride contribute significantly to the dielectric response of the polymers, and that the difference in the responses of the two polymers is directly related to the contribution of the nitrile dipoles. The second area of study has addressed the behavior of individual polyimide chains (and their precursors) in the vicinity of silica and graphite substrates. The effects of the substrate and temperature on the intramolecular conversion of polyamic acid to the corresponding polyimide were investigated. It was found that for the polymer studied (LaRC-IA), imidization can be accomplished without large conformational changes. Further, it was found that adsorption tends to promote the imidization process because the polyamic acid tends to be more extended (as a two-dimensional coil) than is the polymer in isolation, thereby being better able to undergo the local conformational changes which are necessary for imidization to occur. Consistent with experiment, imidization proceeds to higher conversion at higher temperature, as the barriers to the local conformational changes are more easily surmounted.

COMPUTER SIMULATIONS OF MECHANICAL DEFORMATION OF NANOCRYSTALLINE METALS


J. Schiotz, T. Vegge , F.D. Di Tolla and K.W. Jacobsen
(1) - Center for Atomic-scale Materials Physics.Technical University of Denmark. E-mail : schiotz@fysik.dtu.dk (2) - Center for Atomic-scale Materials Physics.Technical University of Denmark. (3) - Center for Atomic-scale Materials Physics.Technical University of Denmark.

ABSTRACT
Nanocrystalline metals, i.e. metals with grain sizes from 5 to 100 nm, display technologically interesting properties such as a dramatically increased hardness, increasing with decreasing grain size. The low grain size makes direct atomic-scale simulations of plastic deformation possible. Simulations of nanocrystalline copper with grain sizes up to 13 nm are presented. Two different deformation modes are active: deformation through the motion of dislocations, and sliding in the grain boundaries. At these grain sizes, the latter dominates [1]. We have investigated how the deformation process (and thus the mechanical properties) vary when temperature, strain rate and porosity are varied [2]. As the most of the deformation occurs in the grain boundaries, the mechanical properties may be modifying the composition and structure of the grain boundaries. We have investigated the effect of adding impurities to the grain boundaries, and of introducing special grin boundaries.

REFERENCES
[1] Schiotz, J.; Di Tolla, F. D. and Jacobsen, K. W., Nature 391, 561 (1998) [2] Schiotz, J.; Vegge, T.; Di Tolla, F. D. and Jacobsen, K. W.; to be published (cond-mat/9902165)

Keynote : HOLISTIC APPROACH FOR PROBLEMS WITH LARGE MICROSTRUCTURES


J. Fish
(1) - Rensselaer Polytechnic Institue. E-mail : fishj@rpi.edu

ABSTRACT
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In this presentation we focus on modeling and simulation techniques for class of problems for which the distinction between the structure and material does not exist. The problems falling into this category are: (i) 3D woven architectures in aircraft engines (Allison Engines AE2100, GE90) and advanced (DOD) airframes (HSCT, JSF), (ii) tires, (iii) micro-electronic devices, and (iv) porous engineering material such as honeycombs and truss-like materials (JANCORP).

GENERALIZED STACKING FAULT ENERGY SURFACES AND DISLOCATION PROPERTIES OF ALUMINUM


N. Kioussis
(1) - Computational Materials Theory Center. California State Univ. E-mail : nkioussi@newton.csun.edu

ABSTRACT
We have employed the semidiscrete variational generalized Peierls-Nabarro model to study the dislocation core properties of aluminum. The generalized stacking fault energy surfaces entering the model are calculated employing ab initio electronic structure calculations and the embedded atom methods (EAM). The various core properties, including the core width, the splitting behavior, the energetics and the Peierls stress for different dislocations have been investigated. The correlation between the core energetics and dislocation character has been explored. Our results reveal a simple relationship between the Peierls stress and the ratio between the core width and atomic spacing. The dependence of the core properties on the two interatomic potentials has been examined. The EAM potential although can give gross trend for various dislocation properties, fails to predict the finer core structures, which in turn can affect the Peierls stress significantly (about one order of magnitude).

COPPER AND ZINC RAMIFIED ELECTRODEPOSITION: PHYSICAL EXPERIMENTS AND COMPUTATIONAL MODELING
G. Marshall
(1) - Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. UBA

ABSTRACT
Electrochemical deposition of ramified deposits in thin-layer cells is a paradigmatic model for studying the growth of patterns. The electrolytic cell consists of two microscope slides sandwiching two parallel copper or zinc electrodes and a metal salt electrolyte. A voltage difference applied between electrodes produce a tree-like deposit by reduction of the metal ions. The pattern observed for the deposit ranges from fractal to dense branch morphology depending on many parameters such as cell geometry, solution concentration or voltage difference; its morphology variation has not yet been fully understood. Here, we review the most relevant experimental aspects of this fascinating complex problem and its theoretical and computational modelling. The experiments consists in measuring concentration variations with schlieren techniques, fluid velocity with particle image velocimetry, migratory fronts with pH indicators, voltage variations with multiple channel data adquisition boards, deposit growth with video recording and image processing software. The computational modelling consists in the numerical solution of the Nernst-Planck equations for ion transport, the Poisson equation for the electrostatic potential and the Navier-Stokes equations for the fluid flow.

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NUMERICAL MICROMAGNETIC MODELING OF MAGNETIC DATA STORAGE DEVICES AND SENSORS


J. Oti
(1) - Western Digital Corp. E-mail : oti@boulder.nist.gov

ABSTRACT
Micromagnetic modeling is concerned with the simulation of magnetization processes occuring in the components of magnetic designs, through the solution of electromagnetic Maxwell's equations in a manner that takes into account the internal material characteristics of the components. The theoretical principles of the subject are firmly established in the works of William Fuller Brown of the late fifties and early sixties [1]. These are founded on well established experimental observations and thus ensure that the magnetization processes are rigorously modeled. To model real devices, the defining equations of the theory are re-cast in numerical form. Accurate models represent very cost-effective design tools as they can yield a wealth of information about a design that may not be accessible by other means, or that would be prohibitively expensive to obtain experimentally. Micromagnetic models are widely applied in the design and analyses of recording media and heads used in magnetic disk-and tape-drive applications. They are used in conjunction with electron-transport models to develop non-volatile magnetic random-access memory devices and magnetorestive sensors. Significant advances in calculation techniques and software (and attendant data -presentation techniques) have emerged over the years. The sophistication of available software has progressed to the point where it is now possible to simulate whole magnetic systems which may contain components that are in relative motion with each other. This talk begins with a brief walk through of Brown's micromagnetic theory and a review of key modeling considerations that are important for real-world applications. This is followed by a computer demonstration of a variety of pre-recorded micromagnetic simulation examples.

REFERENCES
[1] Brown W. F., "Magnetostatic principles in ferromagnetism," North-Holland Publishing Co. (1962).

THERMODYNAMIC MODELING OF DIOXINS AND FURANS FORMATION IN IRON ORE SINTERING PROCESS
T. Pengfu, I. Hurtado, P. Spencer, G. Eriksson and D. Neuschutz
(1) - Lehstuhl fuer Theoretische Huettenkunde und Metallurgie der Kernbrennstoffe. E-mail : pengfu.tan@hut.fi

ABSTRACT
Dioxins are considered highly toxic. They are unintentionally formed in a number of industrial combustion processes such as waste incineration and iron ore sintering. To assist in selection of appropriate process parameters or plant design in order that formation of toxic dioxins can be minimised or avoided, thermodynamic calculations have been carried out to simulate the formation of dioxins in the sintering off - gas by using the programs ChemSage and ChemApp. The calucations are based on available process information with regard to sinter compositions and off-gas analyses at Stahlwerke Bremen. With the exception of the data for dioxins, all thermodynamic values for the substances ere extracted from the databank system THERDAS of LTH of RWTH Aachen, which contains evaluated data from the Scientific Group Thermodata Europe.

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Minisymposium

Adaptive and Parallel Finite Element Methods


Joseph E. Flaherty and Mark Shephard
SESSION 1: LOAD BALANCING
A CHARACTERIZATION OF DISTRIBUTION TECHNIQUES FOR DYNAMIC ADAPTIVE GRID HIERARCHIES S. Bhavsar, M. Shee and M. Parashar ............................................................................................................................220 ZOLTAN: A LIBRARY FOR DYNAMIC LOAD BALANCING K. Devine, B. Hendrickson, M. St. John and E. Boman ..................................................................................................221 DISTRIBUTED MESH STRUCTURES FOR ADAPTIVE COMPUTATIONS J.D. Teresco, J.E. Flaherty and M.S. Shephard ..............................................................................................................221 ISSUES IN PARALLEL ADAPTIVE UNSTRUCTURED COMPUTATIONS R. Biswas ........................................................................................................................................................................222 PARALLEL SOLUTION OF REACTING FLOW PROBLEMS USING UNSTRUCTURED TETRAHEDRAL MESHES M. Berzins, P.M. Selwood and J. Nash ...........................................................................................................................223 A HYBRID MESH MOVEMENT STRATEGY FOR DESIGN OPTIMIZATION H. McMorris and Y. Kallinderis .....................................................................................................................................223

SESSION 2: HP - METHODS
A 3D HP-ADAPTIVE FINITE ELEMENT PACKAGE FORTRAN 90 IMPLEMENTATION (3DHP90) L. Demkowicz, W. Rachowicz, A. Bajer and K. Gerdes ..................................................................................................224 SPECTRAL HP SIMULATIONS OF FLOW PAST FLEXIBLE CABLES AND BEAMS C. Evangelinos and G. E. Karniadakis ...........................................................................................................................225 ADAPTIVE H, P AND HP MULTIGRID METHODS M.L. Bittencourt and A.C. Nogueira Jr...........................................................................................................................226 SUPPORTING PARALLEL ADAPTIVE FEM - DATA STRUCTURES, LOAD BALANCING AND SOLUTION STRATEGIES A. Patra, A. Laszloffy and J. Long ..................................................................................................................................226 PARALLEL HIGHER ORDER FINITE ELEMENT METHODS FOR INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOWS C.H. Whiting and K.E. Jansen ........................................................................................................................................227 NESTED P-TYPE FINITE ELEMENTS FOR MATERIALS WITH LOCAL HETEROGENEITIES K. Darbha and A. Dasgupta ...........................................................................................................................................227

SESSION 3: PARALLEL GRID COMPUTATION


ADAPTIVE, MULTIRESOLUTION VISUALIZATION OF DISTRIBUTED DATA SETS USING PARALLEL OCTREES L. Freitag and R. Loy......................................................................................................................................................228 PARALLEL MULTIPHYSICS SIMULATIONS R.W. Reich, W.P. Wang and T.J.R. Hughes ....................................................................................................................229 AN ADAPTIVE OCTREE-BASED SCHEME FOR HIERARCHIC EXTRACTION COMPRESSION AND REMOTE VISUALIZATION OF DATA G.F. Carey and A. Pehlivanov ........................................................................................................................................229 ALEGRA - GILA CODE COUPLING WITH A PARALLEL GRID TRANSFER TOOL R.R. Drake, M.A. Christon, S.J. Plimpton and B.A. Hendrickson ...................................................................................230 PARALLEL ADAPTIVE FINITE ELEMENTS WITH THE FULL DOMAIN PARTITION W.F. Mitchell..................................................................................................................................................................231 PERFORMANCE OF AN ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT SCHEME FOR SIMULATING THE PROPAGATION OF STRESS WAVES J.R. Weatherby, M.K. Wong and E.A. Boucheron...........................................................................................................231

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A CHARACTERIZATION OF DISTRIBUTION TECHNIQUES FOR DYNAMIC ADAPTIVE GRID HIERARCHIES


S. Bhavsar, M. Shee and M. Parashar
(1) - Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Rutgers University. E-mail : samip@caip.rutgers.edu (2) - Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Rutgers University. E-mail : mshee@caip.rutgers.edu (3) - Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Rutgers University. E-mail : parashar@caip.rutgers.edu

ABSTRACT
This paper presents a performance characterization of dynamic partitioning and load-balancing techniques for distributed adaptive grid hierarchies that underlie parallel adaptive mesh-refinement (AMR) techniques for the solution of partial-differential equations. The primary motivation for the characterization is the development of a policy driven tool for automated configuration and run-time management of distributed adaptive applications on dynamic and heterogeneous networked computing environments. Dynamically adaptive methods for the solution of partial differential equations that employ locally optimal approximations can yield highly advantageous ratios for cost/accuracy when compared to methods based upon static uniform approximations. These techniques seek to improve the accuracy of the solution by dynamically refining the computational grid in regions of high local solution error. Distributed implementations of these adaptive methods offer the potential for the accurate solution of realistic models of important physical systems. These implementations however, lead to interesting challenges in dynamic resource allocation, data-distribution and load balancing, communications and coordination, and resource management. The overall efficiency of the algorithms is limited by the ability to partition the underlying data-structures at run-time so as to expose all inherent parallelism, minimize communication synchronization overheads, and balance load. A critical requirement while partitioning adaptive grid hierarchies is the maintenance of logical locality, both across different levels of the hierarchy under expansion and contraction of the adaptive grid structure, and within partitions of grids at all levels when they are decomposed and mapped across processors. The former enables efficient computational access to the grids while the latter minimizes the total communication and synchronization overheads. Furthermore application adaptivity results in application grids being created, moved and deleted on-the-fly, making it is necessary to efficiently re-partition the hierarchy so that it continues to meet these goals. Moving these applications to dynamic and heterogeneous networked computing environments introduces a new level of complexity. These environments require the selecting and configuring application components based on available resources. However, the complexity and heterogeneity of the environment make selection of a best match between system resources, application algorithms, problem decompositions, mappings and load distributions, communication mechanisms, etc., non-trivial. System dynamics coupled with application adaptivity makes application configuration and run-time management a significant challenge. Clearly there is a need for smart tools that can automate the configuration and management process. This paper first presents an application-centric characterization of distribution mechanism for AMR applications on heterogeneous (and dynamic) cluster computing environment. It then describes the design and implementation of an automated application configuration and management system that dynamically adapts the application distribution and communication mechanisms based on current operating conditions.

ZOLTAN: A LIBRARY FOR DYNAMIC LOAD BALANCING


K. Devine, B. Hendrickson, M. St. John and E. Boman
(1) - Sandia National Laboratories. E-mail : kddevin@cs.sandia.gov (2) - Sandia National Laboratories (3) - Sandia National Laboratories

ABSTRACT
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In recent years, several high-quality software tools for static partitioning (e.g., Chaco [1], ParMetis [2], Jostle [3]) have been developed. These tools have enabled the use and comparison of a wide variety of different partitioning algorithms. General purpose tools for dynamic load balancing, however, have not been readily available. This fact is due to a number of differences between static and dynamic load balancing. Static partitioners are often run as a preprocessor to an application. Thus, they can easily use file-based interfaces and data structures different from those of the application. They may be implemented in serial and may use large amounts of memory and computing time. Dynamic loadbalancing tools, however, must run along with the application. They must be implemented in parallel, and be fast and memory efficient to maintain the scalability of the application. They also need function-call interfaces and methods to extract data from the application's data structures. To be truly general-purpose tools, dynamic load balancers must maintain separation between the data structures of the load-balancing algorithms and the applications using them. We will discuss the design and implementation of the Zoltan dynamic load- balancing library. Zoltan provides an object-oriented function interface between applications and load-balancing algorithms. Data needed by a load- balancing algorithm are obtained from the application through several simple call-back functions. In this way, an application's data structures are separated from those of a load-balancing algorithm. Several different load- balancing algorithms are available in the library, and since a common data structure is not required, new algorithms are easily added to the library. We will demonstrate the use of the library and assess its performance and overhead costs for finite element applications.

REFERENCES
[1] B. Hendrickson and R. Leland, "The Chaco User's Guide, Version 2.0.", Tech. Rep. SAND94-2692, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, 1994. [2] G. Karypis and V. Kumar, "ParMetis: Parallel graph partitioning and sparse Matrix Ordering Library.", Tech. Rep. 97-060, Dept. of Comp. Sci., Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 1997. [3] C. Walshaw, M. Cross, and M. Everett, "A Parallelisable Algorithm for Optimising Unstructured Mesh Partitions.", Tech. Rep. 95/IM/03, Univ. of Greenwich, London, 1995.

DISTRIBUTED MESH STRUCTURES FOR ADAPTIVE COMPUTATIONS


J.D. Teresco, J.E. Flaherty and M.S. Shephard
(1) - (SCOREC) Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. E-mail : terescoj@cs.rpi.edu (2) - Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Department of Computer Science. E-mail : flaherje@cs.rpi.edu (3) - Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst. Scientific Comp. Research Center. E-mail : shephard@scorec.rpi.edu

ABSTRACT
An extensive set of software tools have been developed to support solutions of partial differential equations using parallel adaptive finite element methods. We present the design and implementation of the parallel mesh structures within this adaptive framework. These tools have been used successfully to solve problems in several fields. Examples will be primarily from computational fluid dynamics. Timedependent, three-dimensional problems are solved on hundreds of processors with meshes of several million elements. Meshes generated within this framework have exceeded 125 million elements on today's largest parallel computers. A recent enhancement to the system is a hierarchical partition model used to distribute finite element meshes and associated data on a parallel computer. The hierarchical model represents heterogeneous processor and network speeds, and may be used to represent processes in any parallel computing environment, including an SMP, a distributed-memory computer, a network of workstations, or some combination of these. Using this model to segment the computation into chunks which can fit into cache memory provides a potential efficiency gain from an increased cache hit rate, even in a single processor environment. Using partitions to organize a large computation could greatly improve the efficiency of out-of- core computations. The information about different processor speeds, memory sizes, and the corresponding interconnection network can be useful in a dynamic load balancing algorithm which seeks to achieve a good balance with minimal interprocessor communication penalties when a slow interconnection network is involved.

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ISSUES IN PARALLEL ADAPTIVE UNSTRUCTURED COMPUTATIONS


R. Biswas
(1) - NASA Ames Research Center. E-mail : rbiswas@nas.nasa.gov

ABSTRACT
Dynamic mesh adaptation on unstructured grids is a powerful tool for computing unsteady problems that require local grid modifications to efficiently resolve solution features of interest. The talk will discuss critical issues related to scalability, dynamic load balancing, data locality, and latency tolerance; aspects of parallel computations on adaptive unstructured grids that are particularly challenging. For example, a scalable parallel implementation of adaptive unstructured methods is difficult, primarily due to the load imbalance created by the dynamically-changing nonuniform grid. We will give a brief overview of PLUM, a global dynamic load balancer for such irregular meshes. We will also compare two different data decomposition strategies and report on their relative performance. Finally, we will describe a novel linearization algorithm that is used to improve single-processor cache performance. These selfavoiding walks, in some ways similar in nature to space-filling curves for structured grids, can be easily extended for hierarchically refined grids. They should also be very useful in the runtime partitioning and load balancing of adaptive unstructured meshes.

PARALLEL SOLUTION OF REACTING FLOW PROBLEMS USING UNSTRUCTURED TETRAHEDRAL MESHES


M. Berzins, P.M. Selwood and J. Nash
(1) - Computational PDEs Unit. School of Computer Studies. University of Leeds. E-mail : martin@scs.leeds.ac.uk (2) - Computational PDEs Unit. School of Computer Studies. University of Leeds (3) - Computational PDEs Unit. School of Computer Studies. University of Leeds

ABSTRACT
The application of parallel computers to models of atmospheric air pollution makes it possible to generate solutions in a fraction of the normal time. In this paper an example code [1] based upon adaptive tetrahedral meshes and an explicit stiff chemistry time integration algorithm is described. This code is applied to an example problem i consisting of a single plume arising from a power station with a simplified chemistry scheme involving seven species and a passive tracer, [3]. It is shown in [3] that the use of adaptive meshes in two dimensions can effectively increase resolution (and thence solution quality) while retaining acceptable solution times. In three dimensions adaptive mesh techniques can pick out the plume, but in order to obtain solutions with good spatial and temporal resolution serial computing times are prohibitive. The use of parallel adaptive meshes however gives a much faster solution time. The parallel version of the code is written in a combination of ANSI C and the message passing standard MPI. The design of the code and its scalability for non-reacting flow problems are discussed in [2]. The code is both robust and portable. A key issue is that of load-balancing the constantly evolving spatial mesh. Existing parallel load-balancing tools such as Jostle and Metis are used and an assessment made of their effectiveness for adaptive transient calculations. A key issue in the development of efficient scalable codes for such applications is the ease of writing portable programs. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of how high-level abstractions can be used with shared abstract data types to achieve this. The use of shared abstract data types is shown not to reduce effieciency but to dramatically reduce the amount of code required.

REFERENCES
[1] C.R. Johnson, M. Berzins , L. Zhukov, and R. Coffey, "SCIRun: Application to Atmospheric Dispersion Problems Using Unstructured Meshes", Numerical Methods for Fluid Dynamics VI (ed. M.J.Baines), ICFD, Wolfson Building, Parks Road, Oxford, pp. 111-122. ISBN 0 9524929 11, 1998. [2] P.M. Selwood and M. Berzins , "Parallel Unstructured Tetrahedral Mesh Adaptation: Algorithms, Implementation and Scalability", Submitted to Concurrency 1998.
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[3] A. Tomlin, M. Berzins J.M. Ware, J. Smith and M. Pilling, "On the use of adaptive gridding methods for modelling chemical transport from multi-scale sources", Atmospheric Env. Vol. 31 (18) 2945-2959.

A HYBRID MESH MOVEMENT STRATEGY FOR DESIGN OPTIMIZATION


H. McMorris and Y. Kallinderis
(1) - Aerospace Engineering Department. University of Texas. E-mail : harlan@klio.ae.utexas.edu (2) - Dept. of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mech. University of Texas. E-mail : kallind@mail.utexas.edu

ABSTRACT
As computer power has increased, the demand to simulate viscous fluid flow around more fullfeatured geometries has grown. Various grid generation strategies have been proposed to create appropriately clustered meshes for these complex configurations including multi-block structured and mixed element hybrid meshes. Recently, hybrid meshes have been shown to be a valuable tool for simulating complex turbomachinery flows [1]. To be useful in an industrial engineering setting, the chosen mesh generation technique must be able to easily support changing geometries with a minimal amount of work, either computer or human. This would facilitate more automated design optimization approaches where the mesh is automatically generated based on proposed changes to the geometry. Presently, hybrid mesh generation can take a substantial amount of time for complex cases. Ideally, the better strategy would be to attempt to reuse the existing hybrid mesh and only modify it slightly to accommodate the small changes to the geometry. This reuse approach also has the benefit of not changing the connectivity of the mesh. This will allow for the subsequent design's simulation to be started with the current solution without the need for interpolation that could smooth out the solution. This paper describes an mesh movement approach for hybrid grids. This technique is targeted to the needs of design optimization. The method begins with a hybrid mesh for the original geometry and a CAD description of the new configuration. First, all the points on the surface of the moving pieces of the geometry are moved to the appropriate positions on the new geometric description. During this stage of the process, appropriate controls are placed on the point movement to ensure the topology of the mesh remains valid. Once the boundary points have been moved, the interior of the geometry is moved according to the boundary movement and the distance away from the moving boundary. Since a hybrid mesh can consist of prisms, pyramids, and tetrahedra, special consideration for the validity of each element type must be taken into account during movement to ensure a usable final mesh. Meshes created using this reuse strategy require a fraction of the amount of time required for mesh regeneration. This technique is applied to both an extruded airfoil configuration and also to a turbomachinery blade whose twist has been modified. The final paper will also have this method will also be applied to various turbomachinery configurations.

REFERENCES
[1] A. Khawaja , Y. Kallinderis , S. Irmisch, J. Lloyd, D. Walker and E. Benz, "Adaptive Hybrid Grid Generation for Turbomachinery and Aerospace Applications", AIAA Paper 99-0916, Reno, NV, January 1999.

A 3D HP-ADAPTIVE FINITE ELEMENT PACKAGE FORTRAN 90 IMPLEMENTATION (3DHP90)


L. Demkowicz, W. Rachowicz, A. Bajer and K. Gerdes
(1) - The Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics. E-mail : leszek@ticam.utexas.edu (2) - The Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics. (3) - The Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics.

ABSTRACT
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We present a new package supporting 3D Finite Element hp-approximations for the solution of various boundary-value problems. The discretization is defined on an initial unstructured hexahedral grid, and allows for both h- and p-refinements of the mesh. Compared with the previous implementations, the following essential changes have been introduced: - Data structure has been reduced to just two arrays. These arrays consist of user-defined objects called 'elements' and 'nodes'. Each of the objects has several attributes. There are two important advantages of this modification, made possible by FORTRAN 90 - The actual code is more readible (all names are self-explanatory), - A parallel, distributed memory implementation, based on a domain decomposition, requires "decomposing" just the two arrays. - Memory for data structure arrays, solvers and graphics is allocated dynamically. - All logical operations have been separated into two stages: operations on nodes and operations on degrees of freedom for a node. In particular, elements contain all higher order nodes (mid-edge and mid-side and middle nodes), even for lower orders of approximation. Only the memory for the corresponding degrees of freedom is allocated dynamically as needed. This simplifies the logic and makes in particular easier to customize the code for electromagnetics, (H(curl) -conforming discretizations). The information about contraints is reconstructed locally, on element level, based on data structure arrays for the element and his 'father' (possibly 'grand'- or 'greatgrandfather' for double or triple constrained nodes). This represents a significant departure from earlier implementations. The algorithmical and implementation issues are illustrated with numerous computational examples.

SPECTRAL HP SIMULATIONS OF FLOW PAST FLEXIBLE CABLES AND BEAMS


C. Evangelinos and G. E. Karniadakis
(1) - Center for Fluid Mechanics. Div. of Appl. Math. Brown University (2) - Center for Fluid Mechanics. Div. of Appl. Math. Brown University

ABSTRACT
Vortex induced vibrations (VIV) of marine cables, usually termed strumming, increases fatigue due to the large hydrodynamic forces. VIV is a critical factor in the design of underwater cable systems, drilling risers, and offshore platforms. It is therefore important to understand and be able to predict from first principles the hydrodynamic forces and motion of cables and beams caused by flow induced vibrations. While there is a substantial data base for cable dynamics derived from field experiments (see [1] and references therein) there are very few laboratory experiments to study cable flows under controlled conditions. Simulations from first principles have only recently become possible [2]. In this paper we present a numerical study of flows past flexible cables and beams at lock-in and non-lock-in states. In particular, we are concentrating on the aspects of transition to turbulence in the wake and its effects on the motion of the structure. Transition to turbulence in the wake of a fixed cylinder occurs at Reynolds number between 250 and 400, as has been established by experimental results and our previous simulation studies. However, the transition process changes fundamentally if the cylinder is flexible and vibrates freely. In this numerical study, we consider flow past flexible beams and cables undergoing free oscillations subject to near lockin excitation. We investigate different vibrating conditions, corresponding to varying the bending stiffness (beams), tension (cables) and the mass ratio parameter, in order to determine the new transition mechanisms. In general, cables tend to promote wake transition whereas beams tend to delay transition compared to the fixed cylinder behavior. The simulations are based on a spectral element method reformulated in body-fitted coordinates for this problem. The flow equations are the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations while the equation that describes the motion of the cable for free vibrations is the wave equation with a forcing term due to the fluid forces on the cable. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a parallel spectral element/Fourier method. Spectral elements are used to discretize the x-y planes, while a Fourier expansion is used in the z-direction, i.e. along the cable. Each Fourier mode is assigned to a separate processor allowing efficient parallel computation. Typically, more than one million degrees of freedom are employed with 128 nodes along the cable axis.
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REFERENCES
[1] J.K. Vandiver, "Dimensionless parameters important to the prediction of vortex-induced vibrations of long, flexible cylinders in ocean currents", MIT Sea Grant Report, MITSG 91-93, 1991. [2] D.J. Newman and G.E. Karniadakis , "Simulations and models of flow over a flexible cable: Standing wave patterns", Proc. ASME/JSME Fluids Eng. Conf., August 1995, Hilton Head, SC.

ADAPTIVE H, P AND HP MULTIGRID METHODS


M.L. Bittencourt and A.C. Nogueira Jr.
(1) - Dept. de Projeto Mecanico Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. E-mail : mlb@fem.unicamp.br (2) - Dept. de Projeto Mecanico. Fac. de Eng. Mecanica. Univ. Estadual de Campinas

ABSTRACT
Multigrid methods have an optimal solution cost for linear elliptic problems. For this purpose, a sequence of meshes with different refinement levels is used to reduce the approximation error in the iterative solution of the system of equations on the finest mesh. In practical problems with complex geometries, mesh generation is a difficult and time consuming task. In such cases, it is advisable to use algebraic or adaptive multigrid procedures for the optimal solution of the problem. The algebraic methods use the finest mesh system matrix to generate the correction levels. The adaptive multigrid methods generate a sequence of meshes using error estimator and mesh refinement procedures. In the latter case, it is possible to solve a problem with a prescribed admissible error and the optimal multigrid cost. In this work, multigrid adaptive procedures using h, p, and hp strategies are discussed. For the p finite element version, the approximation spaces are nested and correspond to the nested meshes commonly used in multigrid methods. For h and hp variants, the approximations are non-nested and quadtree and octree data structures are used to map mesh information between two levels. Two and three dimensional examples are presented showing the suitability of the proposed multigrid solution methods.

SUPPORTING PARALLEL ADAPTIVE FEM - DATA STRUCTURES, LOAD BALANCING AND SOLUTION STRATEGIES
A. Patra, A. Laszloffy and J. Long
(1) - Dept. Mech. Engg., SUNY at Buffalo. E-mail : abani@eng.buffalo.edu (3) - Dept. Mech. Engg., SUNY Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260. E-mail : {abani, lend, jl24}@eng.buffalo.edu

ABSTRACT
The greatest difficulty in using these adaptive methods on parallel computers is the design of efficient schemes for data storage, access and distribution. Benefits derived from such methods may be completely lost without good schemes for these. Further, most application developers lack both the resources and the skills to develop such complex codes. We describe here the development of a comprehensive infrastructure, AFEAPI, that addresses these concerns. AFEAPI will provide a simple base for users to develop their own parallel adaptive hp finite element codes. It will be responsible for the dynamic data structure, mesh partitioning and redistribution and optionally solution of the large irregularly sparse systems of linear equations generated in these schemes. It can also be easily customized for different applications. User customization will comprise of providing appropriate routines for generating element stiffness matrices, material data and error computation routines. The principal ideas underlying AFEAPI are the use of a simple data addressing scheme using keys based on geometric location of element/node centroids on a "space filling curve" and integration with mesh partitioning and dynamic load balancing schemes that use the same ordering. Simple hashing schemes and balanced trees are used to store and access the distributed unstructured data efficiently. Advantages and disadvantages of the
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schemes will be discussed. Example customizations for two and three dimensional applications and performance data will be presented.

PARALLEL HIGHER ORDER FINITE ELEMENT METHODS FOR INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOWS


C.H. Whiting and K.E. Jansen
(1) - Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. E-mail : cwhiting@scorec.rpi.edu (2) - Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. E-mail : kjansen@scorec.rpi.edu

ABSTRACT
A stabilized finite element formulation for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using parallel computers is presented. The parallel implementation relies on message passing using the MPI library. Although the higher order basis is constructed from a rich mesh data structure, much of the information can be pre-computed and reduced to maintain efficient large scale simulations. The rich mesh data structure facilitates the application of boundary and initial conditions as well as processing of the parallel data structures. Once preprocessed, only the classical finite element data structures, generalized for higher order calculations (through p=3), are read by the analysis code. Examples will be presented to show the accuracy and efficiency of the parallel implementation. These examples will include the lid driven cavity and flow over a backward facing step as well as the application to more complex turbulent flows. A discussion of post - processing results of higher order simulations will also be included.

NESTED P-TYPE FINITE ELEMENTS FOR MATERIALS WITH LOCAL HETEROGENEITIES


K. Darbha and A. Dasgupta
(1) - CALCE Electronic Packaging Research Center. University of Maryland (2) - CALCE Electronic Packaging Research Center. University of Maryland

ABSTRACT
A nested p-type refinement strategy is proposed for improving the accuracy and efficiency of finite element solutions. The technique is demonstrated for materials with local heterogeneities. The Nested Finite Element Methodology (NFEM) is similar in concept to an earlier proposed Rayleigh-Ritz methodology [Ling, 1997] which is based on a nested multi-field displacement assumption. The nested multi-field displacement technique is an enhancement of the p-type refinement in conventional finite element analysis where colonies of nested sub-elements (with the enhanced displacement field) are created over selected sub-regions of a main element to capture local gradients of stress and strain. Using an innovative concept of selective domain localization [Ling, 1997] the critical regions are locally refined to capture sharp gradients in the displacement field. The nested sub-elements, apart from capturing the sharp gradients of the displacement field, can also be used to model material heterogeneities. The material of the sub-elements could range from plastic domains to voids to rigid inclusions. Ling implemented this nesting scheme by superposing domains in a Rayleigh-Ritz context to capture large gradients of displacement fields. One of the limitations of Lings model [Ling, 1997] is an excessive use of constraint equations to satisfy continuity between neighboring discrete domains because of the use of nodeless Rayleigh-Ritz degrees of freedom. This limitation poses a computational burden and there is hence a need to develop a model that can achieve significant improvements in computational time. This paper therefore proposes the concept of selective domain localization where the additional degrees of freedom are associated with subelement nodes for the local p-type refinement. Continuity is thus automatically satisfied between neighboring discrete domains during assembly of the tiffness matrix, thus eliminating the need for constraint equations. This scheme reduces the computational time significantly. The example presented is
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a generalized nested finite element thermomechanical analysis of surface mount solder joints in electronic assemblies. The nested sub-elements are used to: capture the sharp gradients in the displacement field, model voids in the solder interconnects, and demonstrate the change in stiffness of the interconnect with coarsening of Sn and Pb phases in the eutectic solder alloy.

REFERENCES
Ling, S., 1997, "A multi-domain Rayleigh-Ritz method for thermomechanical stress analysis of surface mount interconnects in electronic assemblies", Ph.D. dissertation, U. of Maryland.

ADAPTIVE, MULTIRESOLUTION VISUALIZATION OF DISTRIBUTED DATA SETS USING PARALLEL OCTREES


L. Freitag and R. Loy
(1) - Math. and Comp. Science Division. Argonne National Laboratory. E-mail : freitag@mcs.anl.gov (2) - Argonne National Laboratory. E-mail : rloy@mcs.anl.gov

ABSTRACT
Interactive visualization of scientific data sets generated on MPP architectures is a difficult task due to their immense size; adaptive multiresolution techniques are neccessary to reduce data sets while still providing adequate resolution in areas of interest and full resolution on demand. Because these data sets are often too large to fit into the memory of a serial visualization engine, we use a parallel octree data structure closely coupled to the application to increase the speed of interactive visualization of both structured and unstructured data sets. To create the octree from different mesh types, we require a small number of user-provided query routines to initialize the data and return field values associated with mesh entities. Data reduction is accomplished by forming an approximation of the data by averaging or agglomeration at varying depths of the octree. Statistical values such as minimum, maximum, and deviation are stored at octree nodes to provide indication of error associated with reduced data sets. The octree may be easily adapted to reflect dynamic data from an adaptive computation, or to reflect changing level of detail required by the visualization. Additional detail is obtained by refining the octree whereas reduced detail is obtained by pruning or truncated traversal. The resulting octree nodes can be displayed using standard desktop tools or with custom tools for high end graphics environments. To effectively manage a large distributed data set, the octree must also be distributed across the processors of the MPP. Efficient traversal of the parallel octree data structure is enabled by inter-octant links which may be either local or off-processor. Off-processor parent links are represented by a local root structure containing spatial information to enable local point searches without communication. Face-neighbor links to equalsize neighbors support spatial searches with minimal traversal and communication. We illustrate the use of the adaptive, parallel, octree data structures for interactive visualization of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability solved with both unstructured and structured meshes. In each case, adaptive refinement is used to capture small-scale features at the density interface and the application meshes can range in size from several hundred thousand elements up to a million or more elements. Application solution images of reduced data sets are shown for both IRIS explorer and the CAVE virtual reality theater. Timing results are presented for octree creation, data transfer from the parallel environment to the serial graphics engine, and interactive requests for adaptive resolution representations.

PARALLEL MULTIPHYSICS SIMULATIONS


R.W. Reich, W.P. Wang and T.J.R. Hughes
(1) - Centric Engineering Systems Inc. (2) - Centric Engineering Systems Inc. (3) - Stanford University Div. of Mechanics and Computation. E-mail : hughes@am-sun2.stanford.edu

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ABSTRACT
The state of acceptance of numerical simulation techniques in industry has progressed to the point where they are now being used as predictive tools in the design phase of the product development cycle. One benfit of this trend is that the need to fabricate and test physical prototypes has been greatly reduced. This allows the product development cycle to be shortened and the cost of product development to be reduced, often quite significantly. An extra added benfit is that the resulting products are typically of higher quality. In order for numerical simulations to be feasible in a desgin setting it is necessary that they can be completed in relatively short periods of time, typically on the order of several minutes to a few hours, depending on the application. While continued and steady increases in processor speed have made it possible to perform larger and more complex numerical simulations on uni- processor hardware, the turn-around times required in the typical design enviornment dictate the use of parallel processing. Software capable of executing in a parallel processing environment can be developed using explicit message passing libraries (e.g., MPI), high-level parallel languages (e.g., HPF), or shared memory directives. The use of explicit message passing libraries is the most widely accepted approach, with MPI being the de facto standard, since it affords the greatest degree of portability in being available on both shared and distributed memory hardware. The Spectrum (TM) Solver is a commercial program based on the finite element method for multiphysics numerical simulations that was designed to run on both uniand multiprocessor hardware with essentially the same source code. The support of multiphysics simulations to a large degree also facilitated the implementation of parallel processing. The Spectrum Solver uses the MPI message passing library and an N+1 architecture, with a global choreographer and N subdomain drivers. It has been successfully ported to a number of multi-processor platforms. The Spectrum Solver has been used in the automotive industry to perform interior comfort simulations and in the aerospace industry to perform aeroelastic simulations. It has also been used in a research environment to perform blood flow simulations. Example of simulations in each of these areas will be provided.

AN ADAPTIVE OCTREE-BASED SCHEME FOR HIERARCHIC EXTRACTION COMPRESSION AND REMOTE VISUALIZATION OF DATA
G.F. Carey and A. Pehlivanov
(1) - CFD Laboratory, TICAM / ASE / EM. Univ. of Texas. E-mail : carey@cfdlab.ae.utexas.edu (2) - CFD Laboratory, TICAM / ASE / EM. Univ. of Texas

ABSTRACT
As computational power and data acquisition systems continue to expand there is a growing need to manipulate and compress large data sets. Of particular interest in the present work are data sets that arise in large scale computer simulations on parallel distributed processor systems. However, the ideas apply more generally to other classes of data sets such as those associated with satellite imaging. The approach we develop and apply is based on established strategies commonly used in adaptive mesh refinement and coarsening for efficient solution of boundary-value problems. In essence, we use adaptive refinement/coarsening based on specified feature indicators to construct a minimal data set. Space-filling curves are used to order the cells of the reduced set and the strategy is applied to extract data from unified and distributed data sets. This approach has been further extended and applied to remote visualization of the resulting compressed data set. In this manner, a remote user can specify a desired tolerance level in a specific feature, such as the temperature gradient in a flow, and retrieve the adaptively reduced data set for rapid visualization at the remote site. The feature indicator can also be used to interrogate large data sets, discarding those that are not relevant and to identify subsets for more detailed inspection. The scheme has been implemented in C++ and applied in a pilot test to results from a 3-D finite element viscous flow and heat transfer calculation on a parallel computer.

ALEGRA - GILA CODE COUPLING WITH A PARALLEL GRID TRANSFER TOOL


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R.R. Drake, M.A. Christon, S.J. Plimpton and B.A. Hendrickson


(1) - Computational Physics Research & Development. E-mail : rrdrake@sandia.gov (2) - Sandia National Laboratories. E-mail : machris@sandia.gov (4) - Sandia National Laboratories

ABSTRACT
The simulation of physical processes in which the length and/or time scales vary dramatically can require the use of multiple solution algorithms each designed to treat a specific physical regime. An example of this type of application is the rapid release of a pressurized chemical agent and the subsequent dispersal which can span flow regimes ranging from nearly sonic compressible flow to incompressible. Since individual codes are typically developed to simulate physics in a specific target regime, a simulation may either transition out of the target regime or it may require simultaneous solution of other physics which the code cannot treat. In either case, code- coupling allows each simulation code to be used for its strength and permits the solution of complex physical problems. In this presentation, we begin by describing a scalable parallel mesh transfer algorithm that provided the foundation for a parallel code-coupling toolkit used to couple the massively-parallel codes ALEGRA and GILA. ALEGRA is an unstructured grid, ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) code designed to simulate high-rate, large deformation problems, while GILA is an Eulerian, unstructured grid, low-speed projection-based flow solver. The grid transfer toolkit is based on the work of Plimpton, et al. [1], and uses parallel recursive coordinate bisection (RCB) to generate a rendezvous decomposition that is used in the identification of elements and nodes for the subsequent grid-transfer. Extensions to account for arbitrary unstructured meshes and to perform tri-linear node-based interpolation have been implemented. Scalability studies have shown that the communication cost for the RCB operation dominates the time to perform an initial grid transfer. However, even for transfers between grids on the order of a million cells, the wall clock time required for the complete grid transfer is on the order of only one second. Subsequent reuse of the RCB decomposition for additional grid transfers results in much faster grid transfer times that are nearly constant with increasing number of processors for scaled problems where the problem size is held fixed on a per- processor basis. The application of the code-coupling toolkit is demonstrated using ALEGRA and GILA for a prototype release-dispersal problem in which the transition from a high-rate release problem to a low-Mach dispersal is evident. Results of the release-dispersal problem demonstrate the effectiveness of the massively- parallel code-coupling strategy for problems with disparate length and time scales. In addition, the parallel rendezvous approach may be easily extended to treat fluid-structure problems where code communication is restricted to an interface.

REFERENCES
[1]S. Plimpton, B. Hendrickson and J. Stewart, "A parallel rendezvous algorithm for interpolation between multiple grids", Proc. IEEE/ACM SC98, Orlando, Florida, Nov. 7 - 13, 1998.

PARALLEL ADAPTIVE FINITE ELEMENTS WITH THE FULL DOMAIN PARTITION


W.F. Mitchell
(1) - Math. and Comp. Sciences Div. Natl. Inst. of Standards and Tech. E-mail : william.mitchell@nist.gov

ABSTRACT
Adaptive multilevel methods, which combine adaptive mesh refinement with multigrid solution techniques, have been shown to be very efficient methods for the numerical solution of partial differential equations on sequential computers. The use of these methods on parallel computers is currently a research topic. In particular, effective use of these techniques in a high-latency/ low-bandwidth environment, like a network of workstations, is especially challenging. In this talk we will present a parallel adaptive multilevel method for elliptic partial differential equations that obtains high parallel efficiency in this environment. Recent developments in parallelizing the method via overlapping subdomains on each refinement level will be featured. The approach produces a full domain partition, in which the usual subdomain on each processor is extended to cover the full domain. This facilitates parallel algorithms for
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adaptive refinement, grid partitioning and multigrid solution that require only a few communication steps each.

PERFORMANCE OF AN ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT SCHEME FOR SIMULATING THE PROPAGATION OF STRESS WAVES
J.R. Weatherby, M.K. Wong and E.A. Boucheron
(1) - Sandia National Laboratories. E-mail : jrweath@sandia.gov (2) - Sandia National Laboratories (3) - Sandia National Laboratories

ABSTRACT
A scheme for adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) has been implemented in a multi-physics finite element package known as ALEGRA. The adaptive scheme has been applied to high strain-rate transient dynamic simulations on unstructured finite element meshes consisting of quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. The AMR method can be executed in both serial and parallel modes; and, for parallel runs, the refinement history is not affected by how the problem domain is distributed between processors. The AMR method has the following characteristics. First, the equations of motion are advanced using a central difference time integration scheme. The mesh is assessed at the end of each time step by examining the discontinuity in tractions across element interfaces. Elements are refined when their traction discontinuities exceed a preset refinement threshold. Elements are joined into a parent element when their traction discontinuities fall below a preset coarsening threshold. The refinement and coarsening processes are isotropic; i.e., a single hexahedral element can be refined by dividing it into eight child elements which can then be rejoined during coarsening. After the mesh has been modified, the finite element solution is advanced forward to the next time step. In this presentation, the performance of the AMR method will be examined by comparing analytical and numerical solutions for several wave problems involving shocks and structured waves. Possible modifications to the present scheme will also be discussed.

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Stabilized Finite Element Methods


Leopoldo Franca and Thomas J.R. Hughes
SESSION 1
Keynote : ERROR ANALYSIS OF RESIDUAL-FREE BUBBLE STABILIZATION OF ADVECTION DIFFUSION PROBLEMS F. Brezzi .........................................................................................................................................................................235 RECENT ADVANCES ON TWO LEVEL FINITE ELEMENT METHODS L.P. Franca and A. Nesliturk..........................................................................................................................................235 STABILIZATION METHODS OF BUBBLE TYPE FOR THE Q1/Q1-ELEMENT APPLIED TO THE INCOMPRESSIBLE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS L. Tobiska and P. Knobloch............................................................................................................................................236 A STABILIZED FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR 3D COMPUTATION OF FLUID-PARTICLE INTERACTIONS WITH PERIODIC DOMAINS T. Tezduyar and A. Johnson............................................................................................................................................236 A HIERARCHICAL BASIS FOR STABILIZED FINITE ELEMENT METHODS IN FLUID DYNAMICS K.E. Jansen and C.H. Whiting ........................................................................................................................................237

SESSION 2
AVOIDING ARTIFICIAL KINEMATIC MODES IN EAS-ELEMENTS AT LARGE STRAINS VIA A DEFORMATION DEPENDENT STABILIZATION TECHNIQUE W.A. Wall, M. Bischoff and E. Ramm .............................................................................................................................237 TAKE CARE OF THE GRADIENTS AND THE FUNCTIONS WILL TAKE CARE OF THEMSELVES P.E. Barbone and I. Harari ............................................................................................................................................238 STABILIZED FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOWS WITH CORIOLIS FORCES AND PERMEABILITY EFFECTS R. Codina........................................................................................................................................................................239 LARGE EDDY SIMULATION AND THE VARIATIONAL MULTISCALE METHOD T.J.R. Hughes .................................................................................................................................................................240 STABILIZED FINITE ELEMENT METHODS FOR INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW: A COMPREHENSIVE OVERVIEW T. De Mulder ..................................................................................................................................................................240 AN EDGE BASED FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR COMPRESSIBLE FLOWS A. Soulaimani and A. Rebaine ........................................................................................................................................241

SESSION 3
STABILIZATION BY MULTILEVEL TECHNIQUES AND WAVELETS S. Bertoluzza...................................................................................................................................................................242 STABILIZATION OF THE ADVECTIVE-DIFFUSIVE EQUATIONS: UPWIND .VS ABSORBING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS. APPLICATION TO FREE SURFACE PROBLEMS IN NAVAL HYDRODYNAMICS S. Idelsohn and M. Storti ................................................................................................................................................242 STABILIZED PLATE BENDING ELEMENTS R. Stenberg and M. Lyly .................................................................................................................................................243 A STABILIZED FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION FOR FLOW OF INCOMPRESSIBLE VISCOUS FLUID THROUGH POROUS MEDIA A. Masud ........................................................................................................................................................................244 STABILIZED FEM AND TURBULENCE SECOND-MOMENT CLOSURES A.C. Brasil Jr..................................................................................................................................................................244

SESSION 4
A STABILIZED FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOWS USING A INCREMENT CALCULUS FORMULATION E. Onate, J. Garcia and S. Idelsohn................................................................................................................................245 ON AN IMPROVED UNUSUAL STABILIZED FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR THE ADVECTIVE-REACTIVEDIFFUSIVE EQUATION L.P. Franca and F. Valentin ...........................................................................................................................................246

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A HYBRID CONTROL VOLUME METHOD STABILIZED BY BUBBLE-FUNCTIONS APPLIED TO FLUID FLOW IN CASTING PROCESSES J. Neises and G. Laschet.................................................................................................................................................246 APPLICATIONS OF STABILIZED GALERKIN METHOD IN FLOW PROBLEMS Y. Taki, N. Shimosato, A. Numasato and K. Seguchi ......................................................................................................247 MODELING AN INCOMPRESSIBLE BEHAVIOR OF ELASTIC SOLIDS VIA A MIXED LEAST SQUARES METHOD M. Tchonkova and S. Sture .............................................................................................................................................248

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Keynote : ERROR ANALYSIS OF RESIDUAL-FREE BUBBLE STABILIZATION OF ADVECTION DIFFUSION PROBLEMS


F. Brezzi
(1) - E-mail :brezzi@ian.pv.cnr.it

ABSTRACT
We consider finite element schemes for linear scalar advection-diffusion problems. We assume that we start with a standard Galerkin formulation based on continuous functions which are piecewise polynomials of degree k = 1, and we stabilise it by means of residual free bubbles. We prove a priori error estimates similar to the ones previously obtained for the Galerkin Least Squares approach, although with a quite different technique, making a substantial use of the residual free bubble equation. We point out that, as it is well known, for k=1 the RFB method corresponds to using Galerkin Least Squares with a specific value of the stabilising parameter tau. This however is "not" true for values of k > 1.

RECENT ADVANCES ON TWO LEVEL FINITE ELEMENT METHODS


L.P. Franca and A. Nesliturk
(1) - University of Colorado at Denver. Center for Comp. Math. E-mail : lfranca@math.cudenver.edu

ABSTRACT
First, we revisit the Galerkin finite element method using piecewise polynomials enriched with special functions that we denoteby residual-free bubble functions. The residual - free -bubbles represent the unresolvable part of the solution, whereas the piecewise polynomials are the resolvable part for the given mesh. In this talk we review our recent efforts of stabilization via a two - level finite element method consisting ofa mesh for discretization and a submesh. The Galerkin method with piecewise polynomials augmented with residual-free bubblefunctionsis used in the mesh and the submesh is employed for approximating thecomputations of residual-free bubble basis functions. The submesh is defined in the interior of each element, where a nonstandard numerical method is used to approximate the residual - free bubble functions. Once these are determined, the effect of the residual - free bubbles on the piecewise polynomial part of the solution can be calculated to find the solution of the Galerkin method in the original mesh. This method does not suffer from drawbacks of having to solve analytically partial differential equations in the element interior, and therefore itis suitable for any irregular mesh, used in practice in finite element computations. Furthermore, it provides a systematic framework to generatediscretizations. We will present preliminary computations of this meth for approximating the advective - diffusive model and the incompressible Navier - Stokes equations in two dimensions.

STABILIZATION METHODS OF BUBBLE TYPE FOR THE Q1/Q1-ELEMENT APPLIED TO THE INCOMPRESSIBLE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS
L. Tobiska and P. Knobloch
(1) - E-mail :Lutz.Tobiska@Mathematik.Uni-Magdeburg.DE

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ABSTRACT
In this paper, a general technique is developed to enlarge the velocity spaceof the unstable Q1/Q1-element by adding appropriate spaces such that for the extended pair the Babuska-Brezzi condition is satisfied. Examples of stable elements which can be derived in such a way imply the stability ofthe well-known Q2/Q1-element and the 4Q1/Q1-element. However, our new elements are much more cheaper. In particular, we shall see that more than halfof the additional degrees of freedom when switching from the Q1 to the Q2 and 4Q1, respectively, element are not necessary to stabilize the Q1/Q1-element. Moreover, by using the technique of reduced discretizations and eliminating the additional degrees of freedom we show the relationship between enlarging the velocity space and stabilized methods. This relationship has been already established for triangular elements in a number of papers [1], [2], [3], but was not known for quadrilateral elements.As a result we derive new stabilized methods for the Stokes and Navier - Stokes equations. Finally, we show how the Brezzi-Pitkaranta stabilization [4]and the SUPG method for the incompressible Navier - Stokes equations [5], [6] can be recovered as special cases of the general approach. In contrast to earlier papers we do not restrict ourselves to linearized versions of theNavier -Stokes equations but deal with the full nonlinear case.

REFERENCES
[1] Baiocchi, C., Brezzi, F., Franca, L. P., "Virtual bubbles and Galerkin - least - squares type methods (Ga.L.S.)", Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 105 (1993), 125-141 [2] Brezzi, F., Bristeau, M. O., Franca, L. P., Mallet, M., Roge, G., "A relationship between stabilized finite element methods and the Galerkin method with bubble functions", Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 96 (1992), 117 129 [3] Russo, A., "Bubble stabilization of finite element methodsfor the linearized incompressible Navier - Stokes equations",Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 132 (1996), 335 - 343 [4] Brezzi, F., Pitkaranta, J., "On the stabilization offinite element approximations of the Stokes equations", In: W. Hackbusch (ed.): Efficient Solutions of Elliptic Systems, Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics v. 10, ViewegVerlag, Braunschweig, 1984, 11 - 19 [5] Franca, L. P., Frey, S. L., "Stabilized finite element methods. II: The incompressible Navier - Stokes equations", Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 99 (1992), 209 - 233 [6] Tobiska, L., Verfurth, R., "Analysis of a streamline diffusion finite element method for the Stokes and Navier Stokes equations", SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 33 (1996), 107 -127

A STABILIZED FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR 3D COMPUTATION OF FLUID-PARTICLE INTERACTIONS WITH PERIODIC DOMAINS
T. Tezduyar and A. Johnson
(1) - Army HPC Research Center. Rice University. E-mail : tezduyar@rice.edu

ABSTRACT
We present a stabilized finite element formulation for 3D computation of fluid-particle interactions over periodic spatial domains. The purpose in this class of computations is to develop better understanding of the constitutive behavior of fluid particle mixtures. This approach is for fluid - particle mixtures for which it is better to develop such constitutive models rather than attempting to simulate the complete system of fluidparticle mixture where the number of particles exceed reasonable limits. The method is based on a space - time formulation, and takes into account the mesh generation, mesh update, and parallel implementation issues.

A HIERARCHICAL BASIS FOR STABILIZED FINITE ELEMENT METHODS IN FLUID DYNAMICS


K.E. Jansen and C.H. Whiting

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(1) - Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. E-mail : kjansen@scorec.rpi.edu (2) - Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. E-mail : cwhiting@scorec.rpi.edu

ABSTRACT
A stabilized finite element formulation for fluid dynamics using mesh - entity based hierarchical basis functions is presented. Stabilized finite element methods have been shown to perform well on a variety of flows including turbulence applications. The numerical formulation is presented in the context of the p - version finite element method for the 3 dimensional, compressible and incompressible Navier Stokes equations. Laminar channel flow studies are presented that verify the theoretical convergence results. More complex simulations including large-eddy simulations of turbulence will also be presented. In these cases, new filtering operators which exploit the hierarchic nature of the basis will be described and contrasted with traditional LES filters. The higher order simulations are compared to traditional linear basis finite element methods.

AVOIDING ARTIFICIAL KINEMATIC MODES IN EAS-ELEMENTS AT LARGE STRAINS VIA A DEFORMATION DEPENDENT STABILIZATION TECHNIQUE
W.A. Wall, M. Bischoff and E. Ramm
(1) - Institute of Structural Mechanics University of Stuttgart. E-mail : wwall@statik.uni-stuttgart.de (2) - Institute of Structural Mechanics, University of Stuttgart. E-mail : bischoff@statik.uni-stuttgart.de (3) - Institute of Structural Mechanics, University of Stuttgart. E-mail : eramm@statik.uni-stuttgart.de

ABSTRACT
The enhanced assumed strain (EAS) method is one of the most popular concepts to avoid both shear locking and volumetric locking in structural finite elements. However, in large strain calculations an obstacle impedes a general application of EAS - elements, because here artificial `hourglass' modes occur. The present investigation relies on the comprehension, that the reason for the instability effect is an improper representation of the kinematic equations which does not diminish with mesh refinement. This can be explained graphically by using the analogy between the EAS method and the method of incompatible modes. More precisely, it turns out that for the hourglass patterns, the interelement continuity conditions for the "incompatible" displacements are severely violated, and this violation does not disappear as the number of elements tends to infinity. The point of instability can even be determined analytically by a simple mechanical model, without making use of eigenvalue analyses. Inspired by recent investigations in the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), where stabilization techniques are successfully used to enhance stability while preserving consistency and accuracy, the authors developed a similar concept for solid elements. The basic idea is to introduce a mechanically motivated, displacement dependent stabilization term that is designed to fulfill two basic requirements: first, it should remove the artificial kinematic modes and second it should not re-introduce artificial stiffness, i.e. locking. It is derived through straightforward variational calculus and preserves symmetry of the element stiffness matrix. One of the main merits of the method is that no uncertain "large numbers" are involved, but all components of the stabilization term are derived directly from the actual displacements and stresses. A feasible design for such a stabilization term can be found with the help of physical insight into the instability problem together with eigenvalue analyses of the element stiffness matrices. Thus, different modes of instability can be tackled selectively by corresponding stabilization terms. The numerical results confirm that only the problematic modes are influenced by the stabilization procedure. The presented stabilization technique is applied for fully stabilizing the popular Q1E4-element, i.e. an EAS element with 4 enhanced strain parameters. The resulting element, termed SQ1E4, is able to represent in-plane bending deformations without shear and volumetric locking effects and does not suffer from artificial kinematic modes. Furthermore, the additional numerical effort for the stabilization is of minor influence on the overall computation time.

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TAKE CARE OF THE GRADIENTS AND THE FUNCTIONS WILL TAKE CARE OF THEMSELVES
P.E. Barbone and I. Harari
(1) - Dept. of Aerospace & Mech. Engineering Boston University. E-mail : Barbone@bu.edu (2) - E-mail :harari@eng.tau.ac.il

ABSTRACT
For the Laplace operator, best approximation in the energy norm guarantees good performance of finite element computation at any mesh refinement. However, this is not the case in general. For example, singular diffusion problems governed by the modified Helmholtz equation retain best approximation in the related energy norm. Nevertheless, spurious oscillations may arise in the vicinity of boundary layers, due to diminishing capability to control derivatives with decreasing relative value of the coefficients of the Laplacian. Furthermore, best approximation is not always well-posed. The Helmholtz operator, describing time-harmonic waves, is such a case since it may lose ellipticity with increasing wave number (the bilinear form no longer induces a norm). This is related to the pollution effect, in which finite element solutions of the Helmholtz equation differ significantly from the best approximation [1], due to spurious dispersion in the computation. Many approaches to alleviating these difficulties have been proposed, usually based on modifications of the classical Galerkin method. Among these methods are: Galerkin/least-squares [2], residual-free bubbles [3], variational multiscale [4], and partition of unity [5]. We approach this issue in an alternative, straightforward manner. The goal is best approximation in the H1 semi-norm for any operator, regardless of the related energy norm. The projection of the exact solution, in terms of the inner product that induces the H1 semi-norm, is related to the constrained minimization of the error, subject to the equations of the original boundary-value problem as constraints. Formulating the projection problem is simple, but solving it is problematic since the exact solution is not known. A related Petrov-Galerkin formulation retains H1 best approximation, yet may be solved directly. Simple guidelines for obtaining the desired Petrov-Galerkin weighting functions from the standard Galerkin functions are presented. The optimal weighting functions have global support. Considering local weighting functions, for computational efficiency, leads to a Petrov - Galerkin formulation that approximates H1 optimality. An indication of the distance of the computed solution from the H1 projection arises naturally in the derivation. This measure is related to the lack of symmetry of the formulation (and for the Laplacian, of course, it vanishes). Neglecting this term is a relaxation of the assumption made in the variational multiscale approach [4]. Numerical examples of the application of this approach to the Helmholtz equation are presented.

REFERENCES
[1] I. Babuska , F. Ihlenburg, E.T. Paik, and S.A. Sauter, "A generalized finite element method for solving the Helmholtz equation in two dimensions with minimal pollution", Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 128(34), 325-359 (1995). [2] T.J.R. Hughes, L.P. Franca , and G.M. Hulbert , "A new finite element formulation for computational fluid dynamics. VIII. The Galerkin / least-squares method for advective-diffusive equations", Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 73(2), 173-189 (1989). [3] L.P. Franca and A. Russo , "Unlocking with residual-free bubbles", Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 142(34), 361-364 (1997). [4] T.J.R. Hughes, "Multiscale phenomena: Green's functions, the Dirichlet - to - Neumann formulation, subgrid scale models, bubbles and the origins of stabilized methods", Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 127(1-4), 387401 (1995). [5] I. Babuska and J.M. Melenk, "The partition of unity method", Internat. J. Numer. Methods Engrg. 40(4), 727-758 (1997).

STABILIZED FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOWS WITH CORIOLIS FORCES AND PERMEABILITY EFFECTS
R. Codina
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(1) - E-mail :codina@ce.Berkeley.EDU

ABSTRACT
The objective of this work is to describe a finite element formulation for the numerical solution of the stationary incompressible Navier - Stokes equations including Coriolis forces and the permeability of the medium. The momentum equation includes in this case a zero-order term for the velocity. The standard Galerkin formulation fails when it is applied to solve the problem considered in this work. Firstly, it is well known that the velocity and pressure finite element spaces must satify the inf-sup condition. Even in this case, oscillations may appear when convection is dominant or when Coriolis forces dominate the viscous ones. When the permeability of the medium is taken into account, localized oscillations may also appear near the boundaries if the permeability coefficient is very small. The stabilized method is based on the algebraic version of the sub - gridscale approach. This technique is first described for general systems of convection-diffusion-reaction equations and then it is applied to thelinearized flow equations as a particular case of this type of problems. The important point is the design of the matrix of stabilization parameters that the method has. This design is based on the identification of the stability problems of the Galerkin method and a scaling of variables argument to determine which coefficients must be included in the stabilization matrix. This, together with the convergence analysis of the linearized problem, leads to a simple expression for the stabilization parameters in the general situation considered in the paper. The numerical analysis of the linearized problem also shows that the method has optimal convergence properties.

LARGE EDDY SIMULATION AND THE VARIATIONAL MULTISCALE METHOD


T.J.R. Hughes
(1) - Stanford University Div. of Mechanics and Computation. E-mail : hughes@am-sun2.stanford.edu

ABSTRACT
In many problems of practical interest, such as turbulence, it is not feasible to resolve all fine scale features numerically. Additionally, coarse scale behavior is often adequate for engineering purposes. Nevertheless, in order to accurately compute coarse scales, the effect of missing fine scales must be accounted for. In practice this amounts to employing Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and subgrid-scale models. The basic idea seems to have been originated by Smagorinsky in which an eddy viscosity is appended to the Navier-Stokes equations. The resulting system is asserted to govern the dynamics of the large eddys (i.e., coarse scales). The classical Smagorinsky model is known to possess a number of deficiencies. Recent progress in addressing these deficiencies has been made by self-adaptive optimization of the Smagorinsky model - the so-called "dynamic model" developed at the Center for Turbulence Research at Stanford. As an alternative for developing an improved LES model, the variational multiscale procedure is proposed. We merge a classical Smagorinsky model with a variational formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations in which the coarse and fine scales are modeled with different spaces. This setting seems to obviate many of the deficiencies of the Smagorinsky model ab initio and thereby possesses potential for improved numerical simulations. The derivation of the model is described and a summary of the models salient properties is presented.

STABILIZED FINITE ELEMENT METHODS FOR INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW: A COMPREHENSIVE OVERVIEW


T. De Mulder
(1) - E-mail :haecon@haecon.be
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ABSTRACT
This paper intends to present a comprehensive overview of the stabilized finite element methods which have been proposed in literature during the past two decades, and which are known under various but often confusing names (SUPG, PSPG, SD, GLS, GGLS,...). By means of appropriate notation and terminology, the relation between different methods is clarified. Scalar transport, Stokes and NavierStokes equations are treated consecutively. The symmetric advective-diffusive system interpretation of the latter equations allows to explain the appearance of a bulk viscosity term. The stabilization which those methods introduce into the classical Galerkin approach can be looked upon from three complementary points of view. Historically, the methods are said to be PetrovGalerkin weighted residual methods, i.e. the Galerkin weight functions are modified. From the implementation point of view, it is worth emphasizing the addition to the Galerkin discretization of a stabilization term which contains equation residuals. Finally, it is fruitful from the analysis point of view to interpret the stabilization methods as a Galerkin approach applied to a modified but equivalent PDE. The latter interpretation allows e.g. to explain why boundary integral modifications [1] have to be introduced into the stabilized methods when low equal-order velocity-pressure interpolation is employed. Similarly, the role of the bulk viscosity term can be clarified [2]. In a final part of the paper, the analogies between the foregoing stabilization methods and variant methods based on combinations of certain timestepping strategies and Galerkin space discretization [3] are discussed. In particular, the appearance and role of a bulk viscosity term as well as the necessity of boundary integral modifications are outlined.

REFERENCES
[1] J. J. Droux and T. J. R. Hughes, "A boundary integral modification of the Galerkin least -squares formulation for the Stokes problem", Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg., Vol. 113, pp. 173-182, 1994. [2] T. De Mulder , "The role of bulk viscosity in stabilised finite element formulations for incompressible flow : a review", Comput. Methods in Appl. Mech. Engrg., Vol. 163, pp. 1 - 0, 1998. [3] O. Zienkiewicz and J. Wu, "Incompressibility without tears - How to avoid restrictions of mixed formulation", Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., Vol. 32, pp. 1189-1203, 1991.

AN EDGE BASED FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR COMPRESSIBLE FLOWS


A. Soulaimani and A. Rebaine
(1) - Ecole de technologie suprieure, Montreal. E-mail : azedine@mec.etsmtl.ca (2) - Ecole de technologie suprieure, Montreal

ABSTRACT
A finite element formulation for solving multidimensional compressible flows is presented. This method has been inspired by our experience with the SUPG, the Finite Volume and the discontinuousGalerkin methods. Our objective is to obtain a stable and accurate finite element formulation for multidimensional hyperboloic-parabolic systems with particular emphasis on compressible flows. In the proposed formulation, the upwiding effects are introduced by considering the flow characteristics along the normal vectors to the element interfaces. Preliminary numerical results in 2D and 3D are encouraging. It is expected that further numerical experiments and a theoretical analysis will lead to more insight into this promising formulation. Many stabilization approaches have been proposed in the literature during the last two decades, each introducing in a different way an additional dissipation to the original centered scheme. For example, a popular class of finite element methods for compressible flows is based upon the Lax-Wendroff/Taylor-Galerkin scheme proposed by Dona. However, these methods experience spurious oscillations for multidimensional hyperbolic systems, so that an artificial viscosity is introduced. Another class of methods is based on the SUPG formulation introduced by Hughes-Brooks and has been applied first by Hughes-Tezduyar to compressible flows. These (original) schemes suffer also from spurious oscillations in high gradient zones. Later works by Hughes and his coworkers improved the SUPG stability through the use of a new set of variables, called entropy variables, and a shock capturing operator. These works led naturally to the introduction of the Galerkin-Least-Squares formulation to fluid flows. In the same spirit, Soulaimani-Fortin developed a Petrov-Galerkin formulation which used the conservative variables and simplified the design of the shock capturing operator and of the well known stabilization
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matrix. This formulation has been also extended to other types of independent variables. In the present work, a new stabilization formulation called EBS is introduced which lies between the SUPG method and the Finite-Volume formulation. This formulation inherits the good properties of both of the above methods: higher order accuracy and stability in solving all range speeds compressible flows.

STABILIZATION BY MULTILEVEL TECHNIQUES AND WAVELETS


S. Bertoluzza
(1) - E-mail :aivlis@ian.pv.cnr.it

ABSTRACT
We propose a stabilization strategy in which the stabilizing terms are based on inner products of Sobolev spaces of negative and/or fractional order. These are explicitly computable via multiscale decompositions such as hierarchical finite elements or wavelets (while in some sense classical SUPG or Galerkin/least -squares methods mimic their effect through discrete element-by-element weighted L2inner products. The resulting stabilized bilinear form is in general continuous and coercive with respect to the same (natural) norm. This allows to apply multilevel preconditioning techniques to the resulting stabilized linear system. Such a stabilization technique is therefore particularly well suited to be used in the framework of hierarchical discretization, where it is important not to loose the spectral features of the continuous operators considered. Applications to different types of non coercive or weakly coercive problems (Stokes, Non conforming domain Decomposition, Advection-Diffusion) will be discussed.

STABILIZATION OF THE ADVECTIVE-DIFFUSIVE EQUATIONS: UPWIND .VS ABSORBING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS. APPLICATION TO FREE SURFACE PROBLEMS IN NAVAL HYDRODYNAMICS
S. Idelsohn and M. Storti
(1) - International Centre for Comp. Meth. in Eng. (CIMEC). E-mail : rnsergio@arcride.edu.ar (2) - Intl. Centre for Computational Methods in Engineering (CIMEC)

ABSTRACT
Many numerical techniques have been devised in order to stabilize advective -diffusive systems in the limit where advection dominates. Most of them are based on the addition of some kind of numerical diffusion (also called stabilization term), even if this can be re-interpreted as a change in the weighting functions. The lack of stability of the advection-diffusion equation can also be interpreted as a reflection at the outgoing boundary and we can show that, for a certain class of 1D problems (including the well known case of Dirichlet boundary conditions at both ends) stabilization can be achieved by the enforcement of the desired "reflecting" boundary condition through an equivalent "absorbing" one. The relative success achieved with this numerical device lead us to extend it to a more challenging problem related to naval hydrodynamics. When a body moves near the free surface of a fluid, a pattern of trailing gravity waves is formed. The energy spent in building this pattern comes from the work done by the body against the wave resistance. Numerical modeling of this problem is a matter of high interest for ship design and marine engineering. It can be shown that the addition of a third order derivative of the potential to the free surface boundary conditions, adds a dissipative mechanism and captures the correct sense of propagation for the wave pattern. The amount of stabilization term added is related to the length of the mesh downstream of the body. If the stabilization is too low, the trailing waves arrive to the downstream boundary, are reflected in the upstream direction and pollute the solution. If it is too high, the trailing waves are damped and incorrect values of the drag are obtained. Extending the mesh in the downstream direction allows the use
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of a lower viscosity parameter, since the waves are damped in a larger distance, but increases the computational cost. Numerical experiences show that this third order streamline viscosity term is too dissipative and the meshes should be extended downstream too much. Dawson [1] proposed a method, where the fifth order derivative is used instead, with a very particular finite difference discretization. Most today codes are still using some kind of variant of the Dawson scheme. However, this very particular viscosity term is hard to extend to general boundary fitted meshes, not mentioning to unstructured computational methods like finite elements. Another possibility that is investigated in this work is to use an absorbing boundary condition in the downstream boundary [2]. With such a numerical device there is no need to add a numerical viscosity term, since the trailing waves are not reflected upstream, and a usual centered scheme can be used for the free surface boundary term. As a bonus, with such a centered scheme the trailing waves do not dampen and the drag can be computed in terms of the momentum flow through a plane arbitrarily located downstream of the body.

REFERENCES
[1]. C.W. Dawson, "A Practical Computer Method for Solving Ship-Wave Problems", in Proceedings 2nd International Conference on Numerical Ships Hydrodynamics, pp. 30-38, Berkeley, 1977. [2] M. Storti , J. D'Ela and S. Idelsohn , "Algebraic Discrete Non-Local (DNL) Absorbing Boundary Condition for the Ship Wave Resistance Problem", Journal of Computational Physics, 146, pp. 570-602, 1998.

STABILIZED PLATE BENDING ELEMENTS


R. Stenberg and M. Lyly
(1) - E-mail :stenberg@mat1.uibk.ac.at

ABSTRACT
We present two stabilized finite element formulations for the Reissner - Mindlin plate bending model. Ourfirst formulation is both a generalization of a method by Pitk aranta and a simplification of a formulation presented by Hughes and Franca. The formulation is stable and consistent independent of the basis functions used. Theright balance of the interpolation errors implies, however, that the polynomial degree used for the deflection should be one order higher than that used for the rotation. Our other formulation allows the use of equal order interpolation for the deflection and the rotation. This is achieved by combining our first stabilized formulation with the MITC covariant interpolation operator used in traditional plate elements. This formulation also includes optimally convergent linear and bilinear elements. Compared to earlier methods the present formulations have the advantage thatstandard finite element spaces can be used. In the traditional methods the spacesusually have to be augmented with bubble degrees of freedom, or at leastvery carefully chosen, in order that the Babuska - Brezzi - type stability conditions would be valid. Another advantage of the stabilized formulations is that they give a better conditioned stiffness matrix. This will improve the performance of many iterative solution techniques. In our talk we will present our formulations together with numerical results.

A STABILIZED FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION FOR FLOW OF INCOMPRESSIBLE VISCOUS FLUID THROUGH POROUS MEDIA
A. Masud
(1) - E-mail :amasud@uic.edu

ABSTRACT

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This paper presents a stabilized finite element formulation of the equations that govern the flow of hydrocarbons in a permeable medium. The importance of having a higher order accurate method for the evaluation of the velocity field that can result in higher order accuracy in the prediction of the location and strength of propagating concentration front is highlightened. Accordingly, a mixed pressure-velocity formulation is proposed. The issue of pressure oscillation due to arbitrary combinations of pressurevelocity interpolation functions is addressed. The formulation is stabilized via the Galerkin/least-squares stabilization technique that shows improved performance over the classical Galerkin/variational method. Furthermore, the proposed formulation possesses better stability properties for a wide spectrum of convenient pressure-velocity interpolation functions. Specifically, the combinations of C0 interpolations which are unstable according to the Babuska Brezzi inf-sup condition (e.g., equal order interpolations) are shown to be stable and convergent within the present framework. Based on the stabilized formulation a family of 2-D elements comprising 3 and 6 node triangles and 4 and 9 node quadrilaterals has been developed. Some preliminary results are presented to show the perfomance of the method.

STABILIZED FEM AND TURBULENCE SECOND-MOMENT CLOSURES


A.C. Brasil Jr.
(1) - E-mail :brasil@enm.unb.br

ABSTRACT
Turbulent flows, formulated from a statistical point of view, are governed by the set of averaged conservation equations for mass and momentum. Those differential partial equations, for incompressible flows, involve a link between velocity, pressure and Reynolds Stress fields. For second-moment closures, the turbulent Reynolds stress is modeled by a set of additional equations for each component of the Reynolds stress tensor. Algebraic or differential models can express those equations. For both models, the numerical stability of the discretization of velocity, pressure and stress components have to be taken into account in the framework of the finite element method. The stabilization problem related to the discretization of the Reynolds stresses equations was first pointed by Huang & Leschziner [1] for the finite volume method. Stable solutions have been obtained using a staggered discretization for the stress components in finite volume grids. More recently the use of non - staggered grids had been reported, and some new strategies have been presented [2]. For the FEM, the problem of stabilization of fluid mechanics problems described by a u - p -tau formulation is the same for non - Newtonian fluids [3], elasticity [4] or turbulence. For the turbulence, some mathematical characteristics of the Reynolds stress tensor, deduced from statistical correlations, can be used for a proper choice of stability parameters. In this paper a stabilized FEM for mixed u - p- tau formulation of turbulent flows is analyzed. A GLS method is proposed and tested in different cases (Free jet and backward facing step). Same order of interpolation is used for all fields. The numerical results are compared with experimental data, using both the algebraic and differential models. Agreement between numerical and experimental results was verified and no instabilities were observed for both test cases. A discussion concerning the choice of the stability parameter is presented.

REFERENCES
[1] P. G. Huang and M. A. Leschziner, "Stabilization of Recirculating - Flow computations performed with secondmoment closures and third-order discretization", 5th Turbulent Shear Flow Symposium, 20.7-20.12, Cornell USA, 1985. [2] S. G. Sajjadi and M. N. Waywell, "A stable algorithm for Reynolds stress turbulence modelling with applications to rectilinear and circular tidal flows", Int. J. for Num. Meth. In Fluids, 26, 251-280, 1998. [3] M.A.Silva Ramos, S.Frey and J.H.Carneiro de Araujo, "Stable Finite Element Approximations for Thermal Viscoelastic Flows", Mechanics Research Communications, 24, 203-208, 1998. [4] L. P. Franca and T. J. R. Hughes, "Two Classe of Mixed finite elements methods", Comp. Meth. in App. Mechanics and Engineering, 69, 89-129, 1988.

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A STABILIZED FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOWS USING A INCREMENT CALCULUS FORMULATION
E. Onate, J. Garcia and S. Idelsohn
(1) - International Centre for Numerical Methods in Engineering (CIMNE). E-mail : onate@cimne.upc.es (3) - International Centre for Comp. Meth. in Eng. (CIMEC). E-mail : rnsergio@arcride.edu.ar

ABSTRACT
Finite element solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the classical Galerkin method may suffer from numerical instabilities from two main sources. The first is due to the advectivediffusive character of the equations which induces oscillations for high values of the velocity. The second source has to do with the mixed character of the equations which limits the choice of finite element interpolations for the velocity and pressure fields. This paper presents a new point view for deriving stabilized numerical methods for incompressible flow problems. The starting point are the stabilized form of the governing differential equations derived via a "finite increment" calculus procedure. This technique presented in [1 -4] is based on writting the balance equations over a domain of finite size and retaining higher order terms. These terms incorporate the ingredients for the necessary stabilization of any numerical solution "already at a differential equations level". Applications of the standard Galerkin formulation to the consistently modified differential equations leads to a stabilized system of discretized equations which overcomes " the two problems" above mentioned (i.e. the advective type instability and that due to lack of compatibility between the velocity and pressure fields). In addition, the modified differential equations can be used to derive a numerical scheme for iteratively computing the stabilization parameters in a sort of model adaptivity procedure [3]. The paper is structured as follows. First the derivation of the stabilized modified differential equations for incompressible Navier-Stokes flows is presented. Details of the stabilized finite element formulation are then given. The case of simpler Stokes flows is considered next. It is described how the stabilized formulation obtained in this case can be used for solving the analogous incompressible elasticity problem. The stabilized transient case is also detailed. An enhanced fractional step procedure based on the new stabilized transient equations is presented. In the last part of the paper an adaptive procedure for computing the stabilization parameters is proposed. Examples of application to a range of inviscid and viscous fluid flow problems are presented. The possibility of using the new stabilized equations as the basis for analysis of turbulent flows is finally discussed.

REFERENCES
[1] E. Oate, "Derivation of stabilized equations for advective - diffusive transport and fluid flow problems", Comput. Meth. Appl. Mech. Engng., Vol. 151, 1-2, pp. 233-267, (1998). [2] E. Oate, J. Garca and S. Idelsohn , "Computation of the stabilization parameter for the finite element solution of advective-diffusive problems", Int. J. Num. Meth. Fluids, Vol. 25, pp. 1385 - 1407, (1997). [3] Oate, J. Garca and S. Idelsohn , "An Alpha - adaptive approach for stabilized finite element solution of advective-diffusive problems with sharp gradients", New Adv. In Adaptive Comp. Met. in Mech., P. Ladeveze and J.T. Oden (Eds.), Elsevier, (1998). [4] E. Oate and M. Manzn, "A general procedure for deriving stabilized space-time finite element methods for advective-diffusive problems", Publication CIMNE, No. 133, July (1998).

ON AN IMPROVED UNUSUAL STABILIZED FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR THE ADVECTIVE-REACTIVE-DIFFUSIVE EQUATION
L.P. Franca and F. Valentin
(1) - University of Colorado at Denver. Center for Comp. Math. E-mail : lfranca@math.cudenver.edu (2) - E-mail :valentin@sar.inria.fr
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ABSTRACT
An improved unusual finite element method is studied herein for a second-order linear scalar differential equation including a zero order term. The method consists in subtracting from the standard Galerkin method a mesh dependent term suggested by static condensation of the bubbles. Based on this idea, a new stabilized parameter is constructed, which improves accuracy of the solution. Several numerical tests attest the efficiency of the present method and an error analysis is perfomed.

A HYBRID CONTROL VOLUME METHOD STABILIZED BY BUBBLEFUNCTIONS APPLIED TO FLUID FLOW IN CASTING PROCESSES
J. Neises and G. Laschet
(1) - E-mail :j.neises@access.rwth-aachen.de (2) - ACCESS e.V. E-mail : g.laschet@access.rwth-aachen.de

ABSTRACT
Computer simulations of casting processes are an invaluable aid to the foundry industries. Simulations help to advance solidification theory and casting techniques. Still much work remains to be done before accurate, predictive, and affordable three-dimensional simulations will be commonplace. Such simulations will enable the foundry industries to analyze and to optimize the casting process and to improve the final quality of their product. In this paper a control volume (CV) method based on finite element (FE) approximations and its application to fluid flow in casting processes are presented. The method is based on an equal - order approximation of the velocity and pressure fields, and is stabilized by the application of bubble - functions to velocity and their condensation from the weak form of the linearized Navier - Stokes equation. Mold - filling and convection influence the solidification during the whole casting process. Thus, their simulation is of primary importance. Moreover, the simulation of mold - filling merely relies on an accurate solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. To achieve the desired accuracy, a continuous pressure approximation is used in our discretization. Due to the inf-sup condition, the velocity approximation needs to be better than first order. A well known technique is to enrich the velocity field by bubble-functions [1]. These functions define additional degrees of freedom (DOF). They can be eliminated by static condensation, leading to a linear system depending only on the nodal velocity DOF. Bubble-functions combined with static condensation are classical in the FE framework. In this paper, a hybrid CV formulation [2] based on finite element approximations is used and extended by the introduction of bubble-functions. Starting from the linearized Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow, the bubble-functions DOF are condensated from the weak form. Thus, stabilizing terms have been derived and implemented. They lead to a new stabilization technique for unstructured 3-D meshes. The developed method is validated by academic tests. Finally, numerical results of mold filling applied to centrifugal casting of automotive valves are presented.

REFERENCES
[1] F. Brezzi , M.O. Bristeau, L. P. Franca, M. Mallet, G. Rog, "A relationship between stabilized finite element methods and the Galerkin method with Bubble-Functions", Comp. Meth. Appl. Mech. Engrg. 92 (1992), 117129 [2] J. Neises , I. Steinbach, "Finite Element Integration for the Control Volume Method", Comm. Num. Meth. Eng. 12 (1996), 543-555

APPLICATIONS OF STABILIZED GALERKIN METHOD IN FLOW PROBLEMS


Y. Taki, N. Shimosato, A. Numasato and K. Seguchi
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(1) - Department of Vehicle System Engineering. Meijo University. E-mail : taki@meijo-u.ac.jp (2) - Department of Vehicle System Engineering. Meijo University. E-mail : shimo@cmlab.meijo-u.ac.jp (3) - Department of Vehicle System Engineering. Meijo University. E-mail : numa@cmlab.meijo-u.ac.jp

ABSTRACT
Since the Galerkin/least-squares method concerned with the entropy variables, known as stabilized method, has been introduced by T. Hughes, the envelope of the capability to solve flow problems in industry is extended. It possess a good accuracy and stability properties and provides a unified framework for incompressible and compressible flows. The aim of this study is to apply the stabilized Finite Element Method to the detonation problem and FSI problem inducing self-excited oscillation. The studies of Detonation is interested in connection with a ram accelerator and it's unique physics. It is known that the trajectories of heat spots, "shock triple point", shows the fish-scale patterns imprinted on smoked foil. The detonation is a shock wave which has emanated from exothermic chemical reaction occurring behind propagating shock front. As one of FSI problems, we consider a flow problem in the collapsible tube. A self-excited oscillation takes place in a flow through a soft and elastic tube of thin wall such as a venular vessel or a natural rubber tube. This phenomenon is the so-called "vascular waterfall" phenomenon in the medical and physiological fields. Both above problems are formulated in the framework of the symmetric advective diffusive systems with Galerkin/least-squares stabilized method.

MODELING AN INCOMPRESSIBLE BEHAVIOR OF ELASTIC SOLIDS VIA A MIXED LEAST SQUARES METHOD
M. Tchonkova and S. Sture
(1) Dept. of Civil, Env. and Arch. Eng. Univ. of Colorado at Boulder. E-mail : parashke@rintintin.colorado.edu (2) - Dept. of Civil, Env. and Arch. Eng. Univ. of Colorado at Boulder. E-mail : sture@bechtel.colorado.edu

ABSTRACT
The presentation includes a general formulation of a new mixed least squares numerical technique, based on the idea of representing the higher order partial differential equations as a first order system, weighting the residuals and formation of least squares functionals. The least squares numerical technique has been especially designed for application of multilevel iterative methods. The formulation of the method for Laplace equation and linear elasticity problem will be specified. The application of the new numerical technique to the solution of problems in linear elasticity will be discussed. The formulation involves separate approximation for displacements and stresses, allows for discontinuous or continuous approximation of displacements, results in a positive definite coefficient matrix and does not require compatibility between approximation spaces for displacements and stresses. The approximate solution of the linear elasticity problem is obtained by minimization of a least squares functional based on the constitutive equations and equations of equilibrium. The method allows selective continuous or discontinuous approximation of displacements over different parts of the problem domain. The mixed least squares method is implemented in an original `C' computer program. Its performance is tested on classical examples from theory of elasticity with well-known exact analytical solutions. Results from implementation of a constant displacement - bilinear stress element and bilinear displacement-bilinear stress element are presented. Several computational examples involving an incompressible elastic material (Poisson ratio exactly equal to 0.5, plane strain case), and a combination of compressible and incompressible materials suggest that the rates of convergence for both: displacements and stresses seem to be independent of Poisson ratio. A condition for the existence and uniqueness of the solution of the discrete problem is established. The uniqueness of the solution is verified analytically and numerically for two low order piece-wise polynomial finite element spaces. The initial computational and analytical results illustrate that the least squares mixed formulation exhibits capabilities which are difficult or impossible to achieve with standard finite element methods, and makes this original development an attractive field for future applications.or discontinuous approximation of displacements over different parts of the problem domain. The mixed least squares method is implemented in an original `C' computer program. Its performance is tested on classical examples from theory of elasticity with well-known exact
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analytical solutions. Results from implementation of a constant displacement - bilinear stress element and bilinear displacement-bilinear stress element are presented. Several computational examples involving an incompressible elastic material (Poisson ratio exactly equal to 0.5, plane strain case), and a combination of compressible and incompressible materials suggest that the rates of convergence for both: displacements and stresses seem to be independent of Poisson ratio. A condition for the existence and uniqueness of the solution of the discrete problem is established. The uniqueness of the solution is verified analytically and numerically for two low order piece-wise polynomial finite element spaces. The initial computational and analytical results illustrate that the least squares mixed formulation exhibits capabilities which are difficult or impossible to achieve with standard finite element methods, and makes this original development an attractive field for future applications.

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Minisymposium

Computational Mechanics Applied to Semiconductor and Microelectronic Technology


Krishna Garikipati, N. Aluru and R.W Dutton
SESSION 1
ACCURACY IMPROVEMENTS FOR SIMULATING THERMAL OXIDATION A. Pomp, S. Zelenka, N. Strecker and W. Fichtner..........................................................................................................252 COUPLED DIFFUSION, REACTION AND MECHANICS MODELS APPLIED TO THE PROCESSING OF ISOLATION STRUCTURES IN IC TECHNOLOGY V.S. Rao and K. Garikipati .............................................................................................................................................253 SIMULATION OF LITHOGRAPHIC PROCESSES IN PHOTORESISTS S. Govindjee ...................................................................................................................................................................254 AN EULERIAN FORMULATION FOR MOVING INTERFACES USING LEVEL SET METHOD WITH APPLICATION TO ELECTRO-MIGRATION PROBLEM H.K. Zhao, Z. Li and H. Gao ..........................................................................................................................................254 EXTRINSIC STRESS EFFECTS ON DOPANT DIFFUSION IN SILICON M. Laudon, W. Windl and M. Masquelier.......................................................................................................................255

SESSION 2
DIFFUSE INTERFACE SIMULATIONS OF ELECTROMIGRATION AND STRESS INDUCED VOID EVOLUTION IN INTERCONNECT LINES D.N. Bhate, A. Kumar and A. Bower ..............................................................................................................................255 MATHEMATICAL AND COMPUTATIONAL MODELS FOR THE COUPLED THERMODYNAMIC AND MECHANICAL EQUILIBRIUM OF POLYCRYSTALLINE SOLIDS K. Garikipati, L. Bassman and M. Deal..........................................................................................................................256 INTEGRATION OF TCAD TOOLS INTO CAD TOOLS FOR MEMS N.M. Wilson, P.M. Pinsky and R.W. Dutton ...................................................................................................................257 A HYBRID FINITE-ELEMENT/BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD FOR TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODELING OF COUPLED ELECTRO-MECHANICAL DEVICES D.S. Long, M.A. Shannon and N.R. Aluru.......................................................................................................................258

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ACCURACY IMPROVEMENTS FOR SIMULATING THERMAL OXIDATION


A. Pomp, S. Zelenka, N. Strecker and W. Fichtner
(1) - Integrated Systems Laboratory. ETH-Zentrum. E-mail : pomp@iis.ee.ethz.ch (2) - Integrated Systems Laboratory. ETH-Zentrum. E-mail : zelenka@iis.ee.ethz.ch (3) - Technopark, Technoparkstr. E-mail : strecker@ise.ch

ABSTRACT
As well-known, the simulation of thermal silicon oxidation requires a lot of computational resources, especially, if it is carried over from the two-dimensional to the three-dimensional case. Using more accurate models and numerical methods contributes to save computational resources and to obtain reliable simulation results. For thermal oxidation we use a model which conta ins, to the best of our knowledge, all essential features, namely: - Maxwell's model of viscoelasticity for oxide flow with stress dependent viscosity; - reaction rate at the oxidation front depends on normal stress component and on crystal orientation; - stress dependent diffusivity; - the new produced oxide has initial tangential stresses; - surface traction for oxide; - all materials, e. g., substrate, polysilicon or masks can be treated optional as elastic or viscoelastic; - the spatial discretization of all equations (diffusion, viscoelastic, elastic) is performed by a unified scheme based on the box method on Delaunay grids. For this model we want to present some possibilities to improve the numerical accuracy and to accelerate the simulation. - The numerical error produced by time discretization can be reduced by one order if trapezoidal rule is used instead of implicit Euler scheme. But special effort is necessary here to include both limiting cases, namely pure elastic behavior for low temperatures and purely viscous behavior for high temperatures. - Due to the stress dependent viscosity we have in each case a nonlinear model (except in the purely elastic case). But then it is advisable, with only few additional numerical effort, to include the geometrical nonlinearities generated by large deformations. Clearly, within each time step the deformations are small but these errors sum up and neglecting them may produce a large final numerical error. - The boundaries of the computational domain are changing with time and sometimes even the topology changes (breakthrough effects of the oxide). We demonstrate how these difficulties can be reduced by usage of material coordinates instead of spatial ones. Then the complete device can be treated within each time step on a fixed geometrical domain where only the image of the oxidation front still is moving. Geometry update is performed by postprocessing after each time step using a "moving grid algorithm". Due to the material coordinates, this "decoupling" produces no additional discretization errors. Numerical examples will demonstrate how the described model assumptions and discretization schemes work in practice.

COUPLED DIFFUSION, REACTION AND MECHANICS MODELS APPLIED TO THE PROCESSING OF ISOLATION STRUCTURES IN IC TECHNOLOGY
V.S. Rao and K. Garikipati
(1) - Center for Integrated Systems. Stanford University. E-mail : rao@cambridge.scr.slb.com (2) - Schlumberger Cambridge Research Limited. E-mail : krishna@gloworm.stanford.edu

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ABSTRACT
Isolation structures are employed in IC technology to provide insulation between current-carrying Silicon regions. The processing sequence involves steps such as etching away of material, deposition of new material, diffusion of Oxygen, oxidation, moving interfaces between Silicon and Silicon dioxide, and the mechanics associated with large volume changes. Additionally, these steps are carried out at temperatures in the range of 900-1000 deg. C. The profiles assumed by various materials, their interfaces, the stress generated during the process and residual stress at the end, all affect the electrical characteristics of the device. Additionally, nucleation of dislocations in Silicon results in catastrophic degeneration of electrical performance. The physical, mathematical and numerical models required for the analysis and prediction of the device structure resulting from the isolation process sequence are outlined. The mathematical models are rigorously based on continuum mechanics. The diffusion-reaction problem is treated on the basis of mass balance laws. A Rankine-Hugoniot relation is arrived for the velocity of the moving Silicon/Silicon dioxide interface. A levelset formulation has been employed to treat the moving interface. This results in a nonlinear advection equation that can be defined over the entire problem domain. At points away from the interface, the velocity of levelset contours is obtained via a closest point projection. The interface is allowed to pass through elements and separates the domain into Silicon and Silicon dioxide regions. The newly formed Silicon dioxide instantaneously expands to a stress-free volume that is 2.2 times that of Silicon. Finite strain kinematics are invoked to model the accompanying mechanics. This expansion is constrained by surrounding material. The stress that arises thereby is modelled at the constitutive level within a neo-Hookean stored energy function. A standardsolid viscoelastic model has been adopted for the oxide and other dielectrics. Silicon dioxide, when annealed at temperatures greater than 650 C, demonstrates a complex, time dependent density relaxation which is parametrized by temperature. The associated stress-free expansion has been phenomenologically treated via an internal variable formulation. Advanced finite element methods have been developed for the numerical solution of the mathematical models mentioned above. The Oxygen concentration develops a discontinuity across the Silicon/Silicon dioxide interface. The governing differential equation for diffusion therefore must admit discontinuities. Numerically, these are treated in the setting of "enhanced gradient" finite element methods to allow discontinuous fields within an element. The nonlinear advection equation requires numerical stabilization, which is provided by taking recourse to the Galerkin Least Squares formulation. The Silicon dioxide region in an element containing the interface has a stress-free volume that is 2.2 times that of Silicon in the remaining part of the element. This highly inhomogeneous expansion is treated in the context of enhanced strain finite element methods. The finite element implementation allows the numerical solution of the entire process sequence involved in Shallow Trench Isolation, which is the isolation technology for current and next generation IC structures.

SIMULATION OF LITHOGRAPHIC PROCESSES IN PHOTORESISTS


S. Govindjee
(1) - University of California at Berkeley Department of Civil Engineering. E-mail : sanjay@ce.berkeley.edu

ABSTRACT
The simulation of lithographic processes in resists involves a set of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations that govern momentum balance, mass balance, and chemical species balance. The process can generate high stresses and large deformations which eventually impacts the electronic design goals of the processes. Such processes are inherently very complex and highly dependent on specific material systems. In order to do process design in a rapid fashion, robust efficient simulation tools are needed. In this presentation, several methods for solving the the governing relations in a finite element setting are presented and compared for material properties appropriate for fabrication of semiconductor devices. In particular, we examine the utility of applying for this class of problems operator split methods, direct monolithic schemes, and rank one and higher order secant correction methods.

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AN EULERIAN FORMULATION FOR MOVING INTERFACES USING LEVEL SET METHOD WITH APPLICATION TO ELECTRO-MIGRATION PROBLEM
H.K. Zhao, Z. Li and H. Gao
(1) - Department of Mathematics, Stanford University. E-mail : zhao@math.stanford.edu (2) - Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University (3) - Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University. E-mail : gao@am-sun2.stanford.edu

ABSTRACT
In many physical problems, mass transport along interfaces such as surface diffusion and grain boundary diffusion becomes increasingly important as the characteristic length scale is reduced. The dynamics of these processes is of great interest to material scientists and biologists. The problem considered here involves interaction of voids under electro-migration in a conducting metal line where the driving forces for diffusion are the gradient of curvature and electric potential along the void boundary. The normal velocity of the void surface is given by the partial differential equation (PDE) Un = Delta(s) ( C1 phi + C2 kappa), where Delta(s) is surface Laplacian, phi is the potential function associated with an applied electric field and kappa is the mean curvature along the boundary; The coefficients C1, C2 are related to physical constants. The mathematical model involves moving boundaries governed by a fourth order nonlinear partial differential equation which contains a nonlocal term corresponding to the electrical field and a nonlinear term corresponding to the curvature. A void bounded by a closed surface conserves its volume during surface diffusion. Delta(s) phi drifts the void along with the electric current; Delta(s) kappa tries to minimize the surface area. The main numerical challenges for the present problem include (a) constructing an efficient and accurate Poisson solver in arbitrary domain, (b) tracking topological changes (breaking, merging) along a moving interface, (c) evaluating surface Laplacian operator along the interface. We propose a general framework for capturing moving interfaces on a fixed Cartesian grid without having to re-mesh as interfaces move. For this purpose, we introduce the modified immersed-interface-method to solve the Poisson equation for the electric potential in an arbitrary domain. This procedure is efficient (FFT is used) and is second order accurate. We show that the system can be preconditioned so that the convergence is almost independent of the mesh size. We use the local level set method to update the interface which can capture topological changes and singularities easily. We derive a general formula for surface Laplacian operator in Cartesian coordinates along the interface represented implicitly by a level set function.

EXTRINSIC STRESS EFFECTS ON DOPANT DIFFUSION IN SILICON


M. Laudon, W. Windl and M. Masquelier
(1) - Motorola, Computational Technology Lab. Los Alamos National Laboratory. E-mail : R43785@email.sps.mot.com (2) - Motorola, Computational Technology Lab. Los Alamos National Laboratory (3) - Motorola, Computational Technology Lab. Los Alamos National Laboratory

ABSTRACT
The coupling effect of dislocation formation and dopant diffusion with extrinsically generated stress fields is typically assumed trivial in semiconductor device design. These TCAD assumptions for dopant diffusion in silicon have traditionally been valid due to relatively low stress values in the gate material (poly-silicon on silicon) and because the resulting fluctuations in the dopant profile due to stress were relatively small compared to the gate length. As gate lengths reduce in size and as more exotic materials and designs are used in the gate, stress mediated diffusion becomes a more prevalent component in determining the final dopant profile and subsequent device performance. The currently accepted relation between stress and diffusion can be summarized as follows: tensile stress enhances interstitial diffusion and retards vacancy diffusion, while compressive stress retards interstitial diffusion and enhances vacancy diffusion [1,2]. In previous work, this relation has typically assumed a hydrostatic state of stress in the substrate. However, since stress is a tensor, the resulting
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diffusivity representation should rather be developed as a tensor, leading to the necessity of a local directionally dependent diffusion solution [3]. This work addresses stress mediated diffusion by linking ab initio results with continuum elasticity and diffusion solvers. Ab initio pseudopotential calculations in conjunction with the nudged elastic band method are used to determine formation and migration energies as a function of stress. High temperature finite element stress solutions are performed in order to simulate the rapid thermal anneal (RTA) process used for dopant diffusion and activation. The temperature dependent stress field is subsequently linked to a diffusion simulator using the energy vs. pressure relations determined with the first principle calculations. The resulting computational capability can be used to predict and correct for stress effects caused by gate geometry, SOI, trench isolation and integrated device processes.

REFERENCES
[1] H. Park, et al., J. Appl. Phys. 78, 3664 (1995). [2] S. Chaudhry and M. Law, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1138 (1997). [3] Y. Zhao and M. Aziz, Appl Phys. Lett., 74, 31 (1999).

DIFFUSE INTERFACE SIMULATIONS OF ELECTROMIGRATION AND STRESS INDUCED VOID EVOLUTION IN INTERCONNECT LINES
D.N. Bhate, A. Kumar and A. Bower
(1) - Division of engineering. Brown University. E-mail : Deepali_Bhate@brown.edu (2) - Division of Engineering. Brown University. E-mail : akumar@isaac.engin.brown.edu (3) - Division of engineering. Brown University

ABSTRACT
Continuing advances in microelectronic technology have led to a substantial reduction in the size of the interconnect lines used to connect neighboring components in integrated circuits. The microscopic dimensions of typical interconnect lines, and the high residual stresses and electric current densities experienced by them, make these lines susceptible to failure by the nucleation and growth of voids. Existing techniques for simulating this phenomenon rely primarily on sharp interface models, based on an explicit tracking of void surfaces and their motion. We present a novel diffuse interface model for simulating electromigration and stress voiding in interconnect lines. This avoids the surface tracking required by the sharp interface models, by the introduction of a smooth order parameter field that describes void structure. The order parameter field takes on uniform values in the solid material and the void, and varies rapidly from one value to the other over a narrow transition layer associated with the void surface. Void evolution is then described by a field equation for the order parameter field. This is derived by assuming that voids evolve by coupled bulk and surface diffusion, under the combined influence of elastic stresses and the electron wind force. Consistence of the model with existing sharp interface theories is shown using a matched asymptotic analysis. A dynamic finite element scheme is used to solve the diffuse interface model, coupled with standard finite element solutions to the accompanying mechanical and electrical problems. Finally, the model developed is applied to simulate the evolution and migration of transgranular voids in two-dimensional interconnect lines.

MATHEMATICAL AND COMPUTATIONAL MODELS FOR THE COUPLED THERMODYNAMIC AND MECHANICAL EQUILIBRIUM OF POLYCRYSTALLINE SOLIDS
K. Garikipati, L. Bassman and M. Deal
(1) - Schlumberger Cambridge Research Limited. E-mail : krishna@gloworm.stanford.edu
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(2) - Center for Integrated Systems. Stanford University. E-mail : bassman@gloworm.stanford.edu (3) - Center for Integrat