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CHAPTER–XII

UNDERFREQUENCY RELAYING AND LOAD SHEDDING

Er.K. Mounagurusamy CE / P&C

- Load shedding is essential in emergencies to keep the system in tact.

- Effect of under frequency operation of system

- Boiler outputs reduce due to reduction of draft fan speed.

- 10% reduction in speed of feed pumps reduces output by 30% and hence

reduction of turbine generator output.

- Cooling effects of generators get reduced and hence affects the thermal limits.

- Stator voltage is proportional to speed of generator and hence MVAR output decreases, desinged output is not feasible.

- 10% reduction in frequency reduces turbine capacity by 0.9%. Low frequency operation may result in vibration and probable resonance of low pressure blades leading to blade fatique.

- Pull out torque of induction motors is inversely propertional to squre of frequency.

- 10% reduction in frequency will increase the operating time of protection relays by 10%

- Instrument errors increase

- Accuracy of energy meters adversely affected

- Transformer core losses increase

- 10% reduction of frequency 10% reduction of KVAR output of capacitors.

- reactive power consumption increases in ballest lamps

- 10% of frequency reduction increases 16% of consumption of reactive power in air conditioners and 63% in T.V.Sets.

POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION DURING DECLINING FREQUENCY:

When there is a sudden loss of generation due to any tripping of large generator, the system frequency immediately drops. If the tripped unit is compartively small, the system is not affected.

If

If the tripped generator or loss of generation power is large, effect is serious. there is sufficient reserve spinning governors take up the problem.

If there is not sufficient spinning power, the frequency will go down depending on how much generation was lost and how much was system demand.

267

CHAPTER–XII

If the frequency declines much, some other generators provided with under frequency protection to protect their machine also trip and the effect is cummulative and the system may go black out.

If some load shedding is done when the frequency declines sufficient to keep the frequency in limits, the system will survive. This kind of load shedding is automatically done by the use of under frequency relays.

Soft ware package are available now-a-days to exactly arrive at the settings of these relays in stages and if properly set and put into effect without manipulations, the system stability will be well within the safety.

If the automatic load shedding is not effected properly, the stability of the system will certainly be under question.

Normally the under frequency tripping scheme control wrests with the local operating people. If trip links are provided in this system, there are possibilities of keeping the trip link open due to the known reasons but the implications of such an action will now be understood clearly, it is hoped.

Ref:

“Philosophy of under frequency relaying” Article by Er. R. Venkataraman, Assistant Engineer, Office of the S.E/T/E.

Published in TNEB Engineers Association bulletin

U/F SYSTEM PROTECTION IN TNEB AS ON APRIL 2001

To get separated from Southern grid during disturbance the following inter-state feeders are tripped with RPF and Under Frequency relay combination.

1)

400KV Sriperumbudur – cuddapah will trip at 100MW (Export to cuddapah) when frequency is at 48 Hz with time delay of 0.5 sec.

2)

400KV Salem – Bangalore will trip at 300MW (Export to Bangalore) When frequency is at 48Hz with time delay of 1.0 sec.

When these 400KV feeders get tripped the TNEB with Kerala system gets separated from Andera Pradesh and Karnataka.

II If frequency is not improving due to Generation – Load mismatch, Load

release through Under frequency relays set at 47.8 Hz/Inst is obtained. Selected 110 KV

feeders would trip on Under Frequency relay to effect a load relief of about 650 MW.

III On further decline of frequency persisting sub – islanding schemes to get

following block – islanding will be effected.

268

CHAPTER–XII

a) ETPS (combined with BBGTPS) Block:

with or without Generation in

BBGTPS are envisaged. The feeder in this block would be tripped at47.6 Hz/ 0.75

sec. When there is no Generation at BBGTPS additional relief of Padi SS & Sembium SS is added. Operator on duty at ETPS act depending on availability of Generation at ETPS to match the load in the block.

Under this block two conditions viz

b) GMR Vasavi Diesel Generation Plant Block:

This block would get separated at 47.6 Hz/0.75 sec. In this block –

islanding also, two conditions ie

M/S GMR plant are envisaged. When Generation drops to 100 MW, additionally at chindaripet would be tripped.

for 180 MW and 100 MW generation level at

c) NCPTS (Combined with TCPL Generation) Block:

At 7.6 Hz/2 sec, the NCTPS (Plus TCPL) will go with base loads

i) When generation at NCTPS is less

than 450 MW with TCPL Generation. This block will have Korattur, Koyambedu, Kadaperi., Tharamani, Mosur loads according to the two conditions

of Generation level.

according to Generation in two stages viz

House load operation of two units at 47.5 Hz/3 sec. Is restored. Also one unit will go on H/L at 52 Hz/1 sec.

d) Neyveli Thermal Power Station Block:

(Generation 1700 MW load 664 MW). This islanding scheme operates at 47.6 Hz/2 sec with Generation @ TS1 & TS2 and selective 110 KV & 230 KV feeders of Cuddalore, Perambalur, Deviakurichi, Villupuram 230 KV, Villupuram 110 KV and Eachengadu Substations for base load. All the 400 KV feeders at TS2 will be connected to under Frequency trip at 47.6 Hz/2 sec. The excessive Generation in this block will be reduced by running selected units on H/L. The scheme will be supervised by Neyveli Authorities.

e) Mettur Thermal Power Station Block:

(Generation 800 MW Load 612 MW) this block too gets islanded at 47.6Hz/ 2 Sec. This block will have Salem, Mettur, Singarapet, Hosur, Thiruvannamalai and Erode loads as base loads.

House load operation is not possible for these units due to design problems.

269

f) TTPS – Hydro Block :

CHAPTER–XII

This block gets islanded at 47.6 Hz/2 Sec. Under three conditions viz., i) 5 machines availability @ TTPS plus Hydro area Generation ii) 4 machines availability @ TTPS plus Hydro area Generation iii) 3 machines availability @ TTPS plus Hydro area Generation. Depending on load Generation study the feeders that are tripped at 47.6 Hz/2 Sec. Separately for the above three conditions are communicated.

Apart from this certain other feeders at 47.6 Hz/3 sec. Are tripped to offset additional load within the islanded zone.

Under Frequency relay on Aliyar Power House to automatically change the machines from condenser mode to Generator mode at 47.6 Hz/0.5 sec. Is installed. House load operation of machines 4 & 5 in TTPS is set at 47 Hz/5 secs.

iv) Since MAPS will go on H/L at 47.78 Hz at 4 sec. Itself separate islanding is not provided for these machines.

Kalpakkam units are connected for H/L. In stage I unit auxiliary loads of 24 MVA will be transferred to Generator at 47.78 Hz/1 Sec. At 47.78 Hz/4 sec the unit will go on H/L.

270

CHAPTER-XIII POWER-LINE CARRIER COMMUNICATION

INTRODUCTION:

Er. M. Arunachalam EE / GRT

The Power Line Carrier Communication terminals are created and commissioned at various substations. The values for the required characteristic input and output quantities for the system are to be followed as per 1) IEC Recommendation 495-1974 and as per Indian Standard IS 9482-1980. The tests on the terminals are to be done as per the method indicated in Indian Standard IS 10706-1983 of latest versions.

Units and levels & Measurement methods:

The units are in Decifal, and terms used in the system are Attunation, composit loss and Return loss. The PLCC systems is functioning in the range of 30 KHE-500 with maximum power lost in line. The receiving equipments has little effect on transmitting end the losses are expressed db-attenuation Power Line: Xdb = 10 log P1/P2

Absolute power level Xdbm = 10 log P/1mw

Relative power level Xdbr = 10 log P/P ref.

Voltage level Xdb = 20 log V1/V2

Current level Xdb = 20 long I1/I2

(When the scalar ratios of currents or voltages are the square roots of the corresponding power ratios.).

1 Mw in 600 ohm

= 0.775V

= 1.291ma.

COMPOSIT LOSS:

The input of stem having impedence Z is fed by a source with internal impedence Z1, the composit loss in Decibel is given by 10 times log 10 Ratio of power PO – meet the source would give upto an impedence Z1, to the power P it sends through the system to its terminating impedence Z2.

Composit loss Insertion loss:

=

10 log10

P0/P dB.

10 log10 P1/P2 dB.

Where P1 is the power available to the system without the insertion of a network. P2 is the power at the output with insertion of network.

271

MISMATCH LOSS:

10 log P0/P dB

CHAPTER–XIII

Number of decimals by which the power in the load in the matched conditions would exceed the power actually flowing in the load.

RETURN LOSS:

10 log 10 Po/Pr dB.

Number of decibels by which the power in the load in the matched condition would exceed the reflected (Return) power with connection to be actual load.

INTER MODULATION:

In a non-linear Network to which two or more sinusoidal signals are applied simultaneously, a series of additional sinusoidal signal will arise, there are all Harmonics and inter modulation produces of the applied signals.

Among the inter modulation produces of two signals = m1 t1 + m2t2, the old order products, the two 3 order products frequencies (2 f1+f2) and (2f2-f1) are harmful, being closes to f1+f2.

Measurement of Impedence.

P 1 dB

being closes to f1+f2. Measurement of Impedence. P 1 dB 1 V V O O 1

1

V

closes to f1+f2. Measurement of Impedence. P 1 dB 1 V V O O 1 X

V

closes to f1+f2. Measurement of Impedence. P 1 dB 1 V V O O 1 X

O

O

1 X 1

P 1 dB

V1/V2 = R+1x1/R

;

V1/V2 = 10 P1-P2/20

1x1

= R. 10

P1-P2/20 – R

Ex:

h =

0d B .

P2 = -43.5 dB

R = 1r

1x1

=

10 43.5/20 = 150r.

Insulation level of Line Trap:

Residential voltage by nominal discharge

0.5mH

31.5

5.4

Front-of-wave Impulse

Sparkover voltage of the arrester

272

Peal : 26 KV Insulation levels of Tuning device and Line Trap.

Typical factory impulse voltage:

90 KV

Impulse Test voltage of L.T.

75 KV

Front of wave impulse spark over voltage of arrester

The

RESISTANCE.

performance

of

Line

Trap

can

be

assessed

62 KV

in

terms

of

its

CHAPTER–XIII

EFFECTIVE

Tappling loss of a line trap is a measure of the loss of power sustained by carrier frequency signal due to the finite blocking ability of the line trap. It is defined in terms of the ratio of the signal voltages across an impedence equal to the characteristic impedence of the line with and without shunt connection of the line trap. It is expressed in decibels (db). Rating of the Tapping Loss::

The value of the tapping loss as determined by the shunt connection of the resistance component only of the line trap impedence. (Tapping loss based on blocking resistance). Tapping Loss::

Due to R+jx

 

=

10 log (1+0.25+N)/N 2 +P 2 db

Where N

=

R/Z &

P

=

1

x

1 /2.

Due to R only

20

log

( 1 + 1 /2N) db

 

Due to 1x1 only 10 log (1+0.25/P 2 ) db

Band width of line trap

That frequency band V f1

Within which the blocking impedance does not fall short of a specified value.

OR

That frequency band V f2 within which the tapping loss does not exceed a specified value.

Rated band width:

Bandwidth expressed in terms of

Rated blocking impedance or rated tapping loss

V f1N

or

V f2N.

273

CHAPTER–XIII

V

f1N

Band width expressed in terms of rated blocking impedence.

V

f2N

Carrier frequency band within which the rated tapping loss does not exceed a specified value.

BLOCKING REQUIREMENTS:

Permissible variation of the blocking impedence and tapping loss quantities should be within the band width of the line trap.

A maximum loss of 2.6 db for both tapping loss and rated tapping loss this

corresponds to Line trap blocking resistance 1-41 times the characterisitc impedence of

the transmission line.

TYPICAL CASE:

Line trap blocking resistance: 570 ohms. Transmission line characterestic impedence of a single conductor phase to earth impedence – 400

TEST ON LINE TRAPS:

Type Tests

1)

Measurement of inductance of the main civil.

2)

Measurement of Temperature Rise

3)

Insulation tests.

4)

Short time current tests

Routine tests

Measurement of blocking impedence

Measurement of tapping loss.

of blocking impedence Measurement of tapping loss. Measurement blocking impedence 2b By means of a bridge

Measurement blocking impedence

2b

of tapping loss. Measurement blocking impedence 2b By means of a bridge method from which Resistance

By means of a bridge method from which Resistance and Resistive and Reactive components may be read off.

Measurement circuit.

Measurement of Tapping Loss(A7)

274

2L I L V G V 0 3 2L
2L
I
L
V
G
V 0
3
2L

At = 20 log (V1/V2) dB

4

CHAPTER–XIII

Z are resistors equal to characteristic impedance of the line.

V 1

= V O/2

V2 = V

Coupling capacitor of coupling Device coupling capacitor and compiling device from a carrier frequency filter for efficient and connection of CF currents to high voltage line. High frequency characteristic of coupling capacitor.

Equivalent series resistance 40 r

Stray capacitance of Low voltage terminal

Stray conductance of low voltage terminal

for CC 200 pf and for CVT 300+0.05 Capacitancevoltage terminal Stray conductance of low voltage terminal pvs for CVT 20 pvs for CC 50

pvs for CVTterminal for CC 200 pf and for CVT 300+0.05 Capacitance 20 pvs for CC 50 High

20 pvs for CC

50

High frequency current – to with stand atleast 1A (

)

value of current equival to a power of 400 w for a terminal resistance 4400 ohm.

ROUTINE TESTS:

1. Capacitance at power frequency

a) in the standard tem. range for testing.

b) at rated power frequency

c) at sufficient low voltage to ensure No internal breakdown.

2. Voltage tests

a) Duration 1 min.

b) Test voltage between high voltage and earth terminals.

c) Low voltage terminal shall be earthed.

3. A.C. test voltage Value corresponding to insulation level.

4. D.C. test voltage Value twice the RMS value of the AC test voltage.

275

CHAPTER–XIII

5. Test between the low voltage and earth terminals. AC voltage of 10 KV RMs.

Duration 1 Minute

6. Capacitance and tangent of the loss angle after the voltage tests.

a) at Rated voltage

b) at Rated frequency.

Measured capacitance shall not differ from the rated value by –

more than

5% + 10%

Tangent of the loss angle.

Limits of permissible variation subject to agreement.

The purpose of measurement is to check uniformity of production.

Typical value less than 0.5 x 10 -3

Coupling Device :

Coupling Device is connected together with coupling capacitor The turning of the coupling capacitor is to component of the coupling capacitor.

Impedence; in order to promote the efficient transmission of carrier frequent

signals.

Turing device:

It matches the impedence between the power line carrier frequency connection.

TRANSFORMER

Galvanic Isolation between primary and secondary terminals of the coupling device to drain to earth of the power frequency current devived by the coupling capacitor.

DRAIN COIL:

If limits the volt ge surges coming from the power line at the terminals of the coupling device.

LIGHTING ARRESTORS:

Direct and efficient earthing of the system when necessary of the primary terminals of the coupling device.

Carrier freq. requirements.

276

composite lost :

not more than 2 dB

CHAPTER–XIII

Return loss

:

preferably not less than 12dB

Nominal line

200-400 ohm

side impedence phase to earth coupling

400-700 ohm phase-phase coupling

Nominal equipment sideimpedence

75 ohm (unbalance) 150 ohm (Balanced)

Destoration and Inter modulation Atleast 80 dB Below peak envelop power

INSULATION REQUIREMENT

Power freq. Level

Impulse level

5 Kvrms 1 min. isolation Transformers

To with stand 1.2/50 impulse voltage 10 KV (peak) (Peak value equal to twice the value of the impulse sparkover value of the main Arrestor.

TESTS ON COUPLING DEVICE (ROUTINE/ACCEPTANCE)

1. Composit loss

2. Return loss

3. Power Freq. voltage test

MEASUREMENT OF COMPOSIT LOSS.

Z2 V N V 0 21 CF Generator.
Z2
V
N
V 0
21
CF
Generator.

Loss = 20 Log 10 V0/2v ÷2 ½ dB.

277

CHAPTER–XIII

MEASUREMENT RETURN LOSS.

 
G
G
     

CF Generator

V 0
V 0
CF Generator V 0
  G       CF Generator V 0
  G       CF Generator V 0
  G       CF Generator V 0
  G       CF Generator V 0

J

C

2
2

2

G       CF Generator V 0 J C 2 2 V Z1 Return loss:
V
V

Z1

Return loss: 20 log (V 1/ V 11 ) dB V 1 is the voltage measured by the Web meter (V) with switch closed.

voltage measured by the Web meter (V) with switch closed. V 1 1 is the voltage

V 11 is the voltage measured by the voltmeter (V) with switch

The line boide and equipment side return loss shall preperably he not less than 12dB.

In certain cases values less than 12 dB may require to be accepted.

DISTORTION AND INTER MODULATION TEST

C f Generator

Selective c f receiver F 21 G 1 G F T 1
Selective c f
receiver
F
21
G
1
G
F
T
1

Apply to the secondary terminals of the coupling device, two generator, set on two different frequencies conveniently located within the available bandwidth of the coupling device, Measure across an impedence equal to the line side impedence connected to the primary side by means of test capacitor, two signals are obtained, whose power is equal to one generator of the nominal peak envelop power. Power frequency test of Isolating transformers.

Power fre. voltage of 5 KVrms for one min.

278

TEST ON DRAIN COIL:

Measurement of Impedence at power frequency.

CHAPTER–XIII

Impedence at power frequency between the primary terminal and the earth terminal as low as possible and in no case in excess of 20 ohm.

The frequency bandwidth, within which the composite loss does not exceed and the return loss does not fall short of the specified values.

For coupling devices ICE REC 495 (1974) mentions for line side and equipment side Impedence. A return loss greater than 12 dB Referred to the normal values, but impractice this figure may be difficult to achieve.

For PLC terminals IEC REC 495 (1974) specified a Return loss greater than 10 dB referred to the nominal value of carrier frequency impedance.

C.F. CONNECTING CABLE:

150 ohm balanced

Electrical characteristic Resistance Max 23.4 ohms

Insulation Resistance Min. 10,000 M. ohm/km

Test voltage 50 H 2 min.

wire-wire

500 VRMS

wire-shiled

4000 V RMS

Mutual capacitor

31 n /km

Earthing at equipment end

Eliminates power freq. current circulation.

May cause high voltage across the wdgs of the coupling transformer which will need to be designed for this duty. Maintenance personnel will need to take precaution against the possibility of potential differences during faults, between cable screen and thelocal earth.

B) Coupling device ad carrier terminal not part of same earthmesh.

Earthing at earth potential differences may be high in the case of a fault and the circulating currents in the screen may be dangerous.

Earthing at equipment end only the common practices to earth only the one side to the screen at the carrier equipment end. By use of Balanced cables some of the above problems can be avoided.

279

APPLICATION OF PLCC SYSTEM

Analogue signals of frequency variation type.

Speech

Signals

Teleprotection

Telecontrol

Teleprinting

and Telefax.

CHAPTER–XIII

As per IEC 495, IS 492, CC, TT Dissortion per 1 H droft in FSK Channel N 0.5 at 200 Bd.

Possible utilisation 4KH

Speech 300-2400 H

Pilot 2400-2700 V

Signals

- 2700 H –

3660 H

V.F. Band

0.3

-

3.7 KH

Speech

0.3 - 2.4 KH

Dial tF6

2.58 KH

 

Signals

2.76

37

IF Freq.

16.45 KH

 

IF Band 12.7

– 16.15 KH

As approved by a national Authority the carrier frequency range

40 KH

500 KH

Basic carrier frequency Band for a single one way channel 2.5 KH, 4 KH

Nominal CF Band.

Band for a particulars one way PLCC channel.

e .g.

2.5, 2, 7.5, 10 kh 4, 8, 12, 16 KH

Nominal Impedence

75

r unbalanced

At CF output

150

r balanced

280

RETURN LOSS

10

dB

R/2

= 1.925

CHAPTER–XIII

Nominal C.F. Power is the permissible Emission power for which the equipment is designed comparable with the requirements for superiors emissions available at CF output acc resistance load equal to nominal load impedance. Mean CF Power averaged over a time sufficiently long compared with the cycle time of the lowest modulating freq. During which average power assures its highest value.

Ratio between PEP and manpower depends all factors in multiple signal. Speech level, with or without compressor. No type and level of signals, may be assumed to be between 8.5 & 10 ds. under normal service condition speech levels (Relatine)

Four wire Transmit Range of 0.60-17 dBr.

-3.5 dBr

Receinee 3.5 to + 8 dBr.

Suggestion –

3.5 dBr.

-14 dbr

+ 4 dbr

Two

Recommendation Transmit 0 dbr Receive -7 dbr.

Balanced Normal Impedence 600 R Return loss Not less 14 db

Group delay distortion:

Suggested limits

300

– 3400 HZ CCITT M - 10 20

300

– 2400 HZ

Group delay distortion of a pair of transmitting and Receiving PLC Terminus for data Transmission where speech channel is used for data transmission.

For 300 –3400 HZ

Starts

500 HZ

-

3ms

600

HZ

-

1.5ms

2800

HZ

For 300 – 2400 HZ

0.5ms

1000 HZ to 2600 HZ - -

3ms

500

HZ

-

3ms

600

HZ

-

1.5ms

1000 to 1900 HZ –0.5ms

 

2100

HZ

-

3.0ms

281

AUTOMATIC GAIN CONTROL :

For a variation of CF input signal speech/signal varies of db.

LINEARITY :

level

of

30

CHAPTER–XIII

db, the U.F receive level

As a function of UF input level over all loss of the speech circuts not differ by more than + 0.3 dbr from overall loss at 0 dbmu.

For any input level between –10 dbm & 0 dbmu

Example 800 HZ

- 3.5

dbm

-

-3.5

dbm

)(

- 5.5

dbm

-

-5.5

dbm

)( ± 0.3db

- 8.5

dBm

-

-8.5

dbm

)(

- 11.5

dBm

-

-11.5

dbm

)( +0.3Db

- 13.5

dBm

-

-13.5

dbm

)(

Limiter action :-

Increase in VF signal level of +15 dBm. Increase in CF output level must be +3

dBm.

Noise generated within the terminal weighted Telephone noise not be exceed 60 dBm op.Noise generated within the terminals has limited significance, as under operational conditions , the corona noise is dominant, in the order of –40 dBm op under operational conditions a more realistic value is –55 dBm op.

CROSS TALK:

Due to signal channels, either individually or collectively the system shall not give rise to a weighted disturbance power in the speech circuit of more than –60 dBm op.

Signalling input and output , the pulse distortion should exceed 5ms.

VOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS:

Power supply :

DC;

500V DC 1 mohm

AC

(both terminal connected together and earth ) 1000V 1.2 /5 pulse for terminal not isolated from earth. 2000V ms power frequency 1 min both terminals connected together and earth .

CF input and output terminals ; terminals isolated from earth, 2000V ms power frequency 1 min. Both terminals connected together and earth Terminals not isolated from earth

3000N 1.2 /50 pulse

282

V.F Signalling and Alarm Free from earth. 500V DC 1 min.

VFT channels its frequency and Tolerences :-

CHAPTER–XIII

Channel

Number

CCITT Recommendation

R35

R37

R38 A

Nominal Modulation Rate

50

100

200 Bd.

Capacity of Homogenous VFT channels in a standard Carrier system with 4 KHZ spacing ;

24

12

6

Lowest mean frequency

420

480

600 HZ

Higher mean frequency

3180

3120

3000 HZ

Permissible deviation from the Frequency at sending end

±2

±3

±4 HZ

Difference between two characteristic Frequency in the same channel

60

120

240 HZ

Maximum in PLC system :-

±3

±4

±6

Noise in PLC system :- Mainly caused by the power system operation

Two main type of Noise : Substained white – moisse – like voltages (Random noise). Irregular discharges across insulators and conductors. (Carona and brush discharge)

Impulse type noise:-

Shortsparks and bursts of high amplitude caused by,

1. Operation of Isolators.

2. Operation of breakers.

3. Short circuits.

4. Flash over

5. Atmospheric discharges.

Interference caused in PLC system due to HVDC system.

Other PLC system :

Sources external to power systems Maritime Aeronautical system Broad casting service. System operating in MF and IF bands.

Reuse of me PLC frequencies:

283

CHAPTER–XIII

Reuse at a geographically spaced distance which ensures a level difference of preferably 60db between the useful signal and disturbing signal.

dB,

dBm,

dBu

10

log p1/p2

dB

20

log v1/v2

dB

 

Abritute Levels

 

1mw

= 0 dBm

U

= 0.7751

= 0 dBu

77.5V

38.7V

27.4V

40 dBm

10W

600 ohm

+ 40 dBu

+40 dBm

10W

150 ohm

+ 34.0

+40 dBm

10W

75 ohm

+ 31.0 dBu

Standard Limits for transmission quality of Data transmission. One of the most important factor affecting the data transmission quality is the distortion in time of the significant instances (known as telegraph distortion).

The degree of signal distortion must be kept within certain limits, the ultimate objective being that the degree of distortion on received signals should be complaiable with the merging of the receiving equipment.

The distortion limits,

600

Bands

leased circuits

-

20

-

30%

1200

Bands

leased circuits

-

25

-

35%

Degree of tolerable distortion (%)

Modulation rate

50 Bd

100 Bd

200 Bd

Channel spacing

120 HZ

240 HZ

480 HZ

Inherent inochronum distortion with normal reception level

5 %

5 %

5%

Incase of slow level variation of +8.7 dB to 17.4 dB with respect to normal reception level

7%

7%

7%

Inpresence of interfrence by a single wave freq. equal to either of two characteristics frequencies with a end of 20 dB below the signal level of the test channel.

12

12

10

With introduction of a frequency of the signals.

5

5

5

284

CHAPTER–XIII

Distortion in a data channel causes Loss / Frequency distortion group delay distortion

Variation with time in over all loss Random circuit Noise Phase filter Single tone interference Frequency error Harmonic Distortion Text distortion due to white Noise

VFT FM 240

100 Bd

Channel level

–17.5 dBm

For a Noise level of

–24 dB.

For 50 Bd distortion

is 12.5%

100 Bd distortion

is 20%

Text distortion due to frequency distortion.

48 HZ – 13.5% -8 HZ – 13.5%

Distortion in series connected VFT channel for 120 – 50 Bd. For 4 Nos. of Series connected VFT channel, For the normal level distortion will be 7% If the level is above normal, the distortion varies minimum for 4 Nos 8% Where as for a reception level below normal about 17.4 dB. 4 Nos. of Series connected VFT channels, distortion becomes 12% Distortion in FSK channel due to frequency change of 1 HZ

For

120

50

Bd

2.08 %

240

100

Bd

1.04 %

480

200

Bd

0.52 %

600

600

Bd

0.31 %

Limits for maintenance of Telephone type circuits for Data transmission Telegraph distortion limits.

 

Leased

Switched

300

Bd

20 – 25

20 – 25 %

600

Bd

20 – 30

25 – 30 %

1200

Bd

25 – 35

30 – 35 %

Bit error rate (max)

Leased

Switched

300

Bd

5 – 10 -5

10

-4

600

Bd

5 - 10 -5

10

-3

1200

Bd

5 –10 -5

10 -3

285

CHAPTER–XIII

PERIOD OF MEASUREMENT IS 15 MIN

Block Error Rate:

Example:

Period of measurement

=

15 min

No. of Bits transmitted

=

1080000

Length of sequence

=

511 Bits.

No. sequences transmitted

=

2113.

Maximum Permissible line loss:

Total loss planning Value as per IEC 5 dB. Dielectric loss in capacitance, loss in coupling devices, loss in CF cable, loss in carrier sets operating in parallel. (0.5 – 1.0 dB (IEC)). PEP = 1010 =40 dBm

Coupling

loss at

Max. Permissible

Min.Permissible

S/N

Noise

One line

end

line loss

line loss

Ratio

level

 

Min.

of 2 HZ

132

KV

5 dB

43 dB

- 8 dBm

25

- 33dBm

220

KV

5 dB

33 dB

- 2 dB

25

- 23dBm

400

KV

5 dB

23 dB

+ 12 dB

25

- 13dB

Power alocation in a multi purpose PLCC system is determined by the following properties of the sub channels. Noise band width. Required signal to Noise Ratio. Method of modulation. Assumption.

Sum of voltages of individual sub channels at carrier frequency is equal to the voltages corresponding to the PEP. of the transmitter. The speech limits rise is 0 dB. For is used for all signal channels. operating range for all sub channels should be the same.

S/N ratio for speech

25 dB

for signalling channel

15 dB.

Noise power in a sub channel is proportional to its Noise Band Width.

Allocation of power in various sub channels of PLC terminals for speech plus signals without teleprotection.

Criteria: Power proportional to Noise band width in AM channels, (Speech and Pilot) power in FM signalling channel 6 dB lower than in equal Band width AM

286

CHAPTER–XIII

channels.

Sub channel

Noise Band

Power

Voltage

Level relative

Width HZ

Ratio

Ratio

to speech

Speech

2100

2.5

10

0 dBn

Pilot dial

80

1

2

- 14 dBn

For 120 (50Bd)

80

¼

1

- 20 dBn

For 240 (100Bd)

160

2/4

1.5

- 17 dBn

For 480 (200Bd)

320

4/4

2

- 14 dBn

Calculation of Required Level In Speech Channel.

Level in speech

+

=

dBm (max) – 20 Log

-

Sum of all sub channel, equ. Channel mn - Equ. channel No. for speech

- - -

- -

- -

- - -

- - -

- - -

- - -

-

- - -

- -- - - -

-

dBu (max) = Voltage level corresponding to PEP of transmitted.

PLc terminal level:

10 WATT PEP

40

dBm PEP

34

dBm / 150 n

Example of calculation Sub channel Speech Pilot

Example of calculation Sub channel Speech Pilot
Example of calculation Sub channel Speech Pilot

Eq. channel No.

10

2

-------

12

-------

Speech level

=

34 – 20 log 12/10

=

32 – 4 dB/150 n

Level Pilot

=

-14 dBr to speech

=

18.4 dB/150 n

NOTE:

Channel No.

Channel specimen

001

– 024

120

151

– 165

170

301

– 308

360

287

Type of medulator Amplifier Frequency

Power Allocation:

CHAPTER–XIII

Pr

= PPEP – 20 log (nsi ÷Bsi/Br + ÷BZS/Br + ÷Brc/Br + ÷A.Bs/Br)

Pr

= Signal level of Reference Channel dBm.

PPEP

= Peak envelope power – dBm.

B

= Noise Band width CHz.

Fs

= Tel. Sig. Channel.

Rl

= Reduced carrier.

A

= 10 without compander. 1 with compander.

R

= Reference channel.

Example:

PEP Operation mod Suppressed carrier

=

:

+ 40 dBm Speech only 300 – 2400 Hz.

Pr

=

40 –20 log (÷80/80

+ ÷10 x 2100/80

=

15 dBm

with reduced carrier

Pr

=

40 – 20 log (÷80/80 + ÷200/80 + ÷10 x 2100/80)

=

14.52 dBm.

Example:

PEP

=

40 dBm

Operation mode

:

Speech + Data 300 to 2400 Hz 1-Sub channel 200 Bd 2-Sub channel 100 Bd earth

Suppressed Carrier.

Pr

=

40 – 20 log (÷80/80 + ÷320/80 + 2 ÷160/80 + ÷10 x 2100/80)

=

13.14 dBm

Reduced carrier

Pr

=

40 –20 log (÷80/80 + ÷320/80 + 2 ÷160/80 + ÷200/80 + ÷10 x 2100/80)

=

12.54 dBm

Line Alternation:

Several modes of carrier signal propagation take place simultaneously on a multi conductor line.

Main Characteristics of Natural Modes:

Each mode has its own specified propagation loss, Velocity and characteristic impedance. The modes are independent of each other. The phase voltage at any location is the sector sum of the phase mode voltages at that location, similarly the phase current is the vector sum of the mode currents.

288

NUMBER OF MODES:

CHAPTER–XIII

tower.

3

7

modes in the case of single circuit line with 2 earth wires grounded at each

modes in the case of double circuit line with one insulated earth wire.

Coupling arrangements should be chosen that the above transmitting power of lower loss mode. For practical coupling arrangements, such as phase to earth, phase to phase or inter circuit coupling, the transmitting power is generally injected in the form of a mode mixture, part of it much high loss (ground) ground mode, this resulting in a certain model conversion loss.

Line Alternation line + = L 11 + 2 ac + aadd

aadd

:

Additional loss caused by discontinuities e.g., Coupling

L1

:

circuit, transposition etc alternation constent of lower loss mode

÷f = 0.07 ---------- + 10.7 dB / pam

n

÷dC

f

=

Frequency in KHZ

de

=

Diameter of phase conductor (nm)

n

=

Number of phase conductor in bundle.

Approx. + 10 % Upto 300 KHZ : + 20 % Upto 500 KHZ

Line Voltages above 150 KV Earth resiotivity around 100 – 300 rm. Additional alternation due fault distance.

289

CHAPTER-XIV HV AC TEST

By R&D

SOME DETAILS ON DIELECTRIC TESTS:-

The dielectrics break down due to several factors like increased voltage application, temperature, the age of dielectric materials, presence of moisture and other contaminants.

When an arc is struck through an insulation, say of generator, it punches a pinhole through the material. The result of the pinhole may not be felt immediately and an arc may continue without causing damage for some time. Internal damages which take place in voids in the dielectric erode electrical insulating materials causing serious damage. At sometime minor faults can cause a short circuit causing considerable damage and may be leading to major shut downs.

The following are some tests used for assessing insulation properties:

a) IR value measurement with meggers, P-I value tests (10 min to 1 min value)

b) Hipot tests (D.C and A.C):

RECOMMENDED TEXT VALUES ARE:

I. GENERATORS: (1 MIN. TESTS)

a) A.C tests for new winding or coil Subsequent test Old machines Where 0.6 is the derating factor.

-

-

-

2E + 1 80% of first test. 0.6 (2E + 1)

b) D.C. tests A.C to D.C Conversion factor of 1.4 may be used. i.e 11 KV A.C = 11 x 1.4 KV D.C.

c) Example I:

11 KV Old m/c: A.C Hipot value = {(2x11)+1}x0.6 = 13.8KV

d) Example:

11 KV old Gen. D.C hipot test

Value = {(2x11)+1}x0.6x1.4 =19 KV

e) Cables. (1 min)

290

A.C TESTS.

CHAPTER-XIV

New Cables – 2.5 x Uo Where Uo is the phase to neutral KV rating of cable.

If the Cable is 11/6.35 KV

test value = 2.5 x 6.35

If the cable is 11/11 KV (normally used in generators)

test value = 2.5 x 11 = 27.5 KV

D.C TEST:-

A.C to D.C conversion factor of 1.4 may be used. An abstract of CIGRE report 28.8.1988 given below will be interesting to go through.

The necessity for such a A.C voltage test level is since the m/c phase to Neutral voltage may reach (1.2 x 11 KV) When a m/c is separated from grid due to some valid reason the m/c voltage may reach 1.2 times the ratio voltage. If an earth fault occur in one phase of cable the voltage in other phase of the Gen. may go to 11 KV to neutral in high impedance earthed generators. The gen should withstand this value.

291

292

*CHAPTER–XIV

293

*CHAPTER–XIV

294

*CHAPTER–XIV

CHAPTER–XIV

C) Tan delta and Capacitance tests on generators

For a good insulation the Capacitance is almost constant at all voltages, but for insulation containing voids, the capacitance value increases with increase in voltage due to discharge in void. Tan delta test is a sensitive test for delection of moisture content, voids, crack and deterioration etc. Any steep value in the tan delta indicates some abnormal condition. Absolute values are not useful generally. Comparison with previous test results help.

There is a correction between increase in loss tangent (tan delta) and capacitance with voltage and the energy dissipated in discharging voids.

D) The other tests available are partial discharge test and 0.1 HZ test.

SCOPE:

This covers the high voltage AC test conducted on equipments at site to measure the leakage current.

APPLICATION:

This test is done on the stacks of 110 KV & 230 lightning Arresters, at rated voltage.

PERIODICITY:

The test is done at the time of commissioning, thereafter yearly.

TEST PROCEDURE:

TEST CIRCUIT:

L Specimen V Under test A N Varia Voltmeter HV Testing Transformer 295
L
Specimen
V
Under test
A
N
Varia
Voltmeter
HV Testing
Transformer
295

Test equipments

HV Testing Transformer 220V/60 KV, 600 VA

Ammeter 0-10 mA with resolution of 0.1 mA

Voltmeter 0-250 V AC

Variac 230 V/0-260, 5A.

CHAPTER–XIV

The Lightning Arrester to be tested is completely isolated both from supply end

and from ground.

The connections are given as shown in the circuit diagram. The voltage is applied gradually on the LA under test using the variac, keeping an eye on the ammeter & voltmeter readings. The leakage current readings are noted at say 30%, 60% & 100% of the MCOV rating of the Arrestor. Care should be taken not to exceed the MCOV. The Voltage should be reduced as soon as MCOV is reached. Normally the test is done on each stack separately.

Precautions:

The IR value of the LA is to be tested before conducting the HV AC test.

While testing individual stacks of a LA, it should be ensured that the stack is not kept on the ground while testing.

The test voltage should not exceed the MCOV values for any stack. The HV leads from the HV testing Transformer should not be very close to conducting surfaces and adequate clearance shall be maintained.

Significance of the Test:

A surge arrestor normally acts as an insulator to normal system conditions, hence this insulation property is, as in any insulation system, subject to certain deterioration.

Hence a power frequency leakage current test at the rated voltage of the Arrestor is a practical field test to determine the condition of arrestors in service.

Results and Analysis:

The leakage current values have to be interpreted on a comparative basis, emphasis is on variation from earlier recorded values than on absolute values. However a limit value of 3 mA is taken as a criteria. Also, the leakage current value at rated voltage should not exceed the minimum level recommended by the supplier. The readings are to be used more as trend analysis for detecting deterioration/degradation in the Arrester components.

296

Reference:

TNEB Code of Technical Institution/1990.

CHAPTER–XIV

HV DC Test:

Scope:

This covers the high voltage DC test conducted on equipment at site to check the voltage withstand capability and the leakage current.

Application:

The test is done on equipments, in which HV AC test cannot be effectively done due to high capacitance and consequent power requirement of the testing apparatus.

Typical applications include test on Generator Stator Coils, H.T. motors, Cables, Busbars etc.

Periodicity:

Normally the test is done after overhaul, recommissioning as per field

requirements.

Test Procedure:

Test Circuit:

HV

Diode

L

N

requirements. Test Procedure: Test Circuit: HV Diode L N To Specimen A R C Variac HV
To Specimen
To
Specimen
requirements. Test Procedure: Test Circuit: HV Diode L N To Specimen A R C Variac HV
A
A

R

C

Variac

HV Testing

Transformer

Ammeter

297

Test equipments:

CHAPTER–XIV

HV Testing Transformer

-

220 V/60 KV, 600 VA

Diodes

-

HV Rectifier Diodes

Ammeter

-

1 mA – 10 mA Range

Variac

-

1 phase, 5A

If the test specimen is a HT motor, the 3 phases of the stator winding terminals

may be shorted together and the High Voltage lead should be connected to it. If test can

be done on separate phases, the same may also be done. The HVDC is to be applied

gradually, preventing any overshoot of the ammeter. The leakage current may be

measured at the rated voltage after about one minute.

In the case of cables, while conducting the test on one phase, the other two phases

in a 3 core cable should be earthed.

Precaution:

The HV DC test must be done only after conducting the IR value test (with a 5

KV megger) and only if the IR value is found satisfactory.

As the capacitance of the specimen, would be normally high especially in the case

of cables, proper care should be taken to sufficiently discharge the specimen after the test.

Results and Analysis:

The normal leakage current values would be in the range of 0.05mA - 0.5mA.

Dissolved Gas Analysis test:

Scope:

This covers DGA test of Transformer oil samples using Gas chromatography

technique to detect and quantify dissolved gases in the oil.

Application:

The test is applied in case of HV Transformers mainly to detect incipient faults that may develop inside the Transformers and generally to diagnose the condition of the Transformers in service and to suggest future action.

298

Description:

CHAPTER–XIV

The Transformer in service is subject to electrical & thermal stresses resulting in liberation of gases from the hydrocarbon mineral oil used in the Transformers. Cellulose (paper insulation) also is involved in the formation of gases, which are dissolved in the oil. Gases may be formed, due to natural aging and also as a result of faults. Basically, the mechanism of gas formation in oil includes oxidation, vapourisation, insulation decomposition, oil breakdown etc. An assessment of these gases, that are dissolved in the oil, would help in diagnosing the internal condition of the Transformer. Operation with a fault may seriously damage the equipment and it is useful to detect the fault at a very early stage of development.

In the case of fault, its type & severity may be inferred from the composition of the gases and the rate of gas formation. In the case of incipient faults, the gases formed are partly dissolved in the oil, hence periodic analysis of oil samples for the amount and composition of dissolved gases forms a means of detecting faults.

DGA involves the following steps:

(a)

Sampling of oil

(b)

Extraction of gases from the oil

(c)

Analysis of the extracted gases using gas chromatograph.

(d)

Calculation of concentration of gases in PPM.

(e)

Interpretation of results.

Periodicity:

The DGA is done on all power/auto transformer of 110KV class & above on

yearly basis and on special occasions warranted by service conditions. In the case of new

Transformers the test is recommended one month after commissioning and thereafter

yearly. A DGA test one month before expiry of the guarantee period of the Transformer

is also recommended.

TEST PROCEDURE:

Equipment used:

(a) The Gas extraction plant consisting of magnetic stirrer, vacuum pump, mercury

reservior, degassing system.

(b)

Gas Chromotograph.

(c)

Output unit namely Integrator and PC

The Gas – Chromatographic system consists of a carrier gas stream supplied by a gas cylinder, a sample inlet /injection port, a chromatographic column, detectors, and an output recorder.

299

CHAPTER–XIV

The carrier Gas Nitrogen obtained from cylinder is passed through flow regulator to the column. The carrier gas passes through the sample inlet system where it picks up the sample to be analysed. The carrier gas sweeps the sample being injected into its stream and enters into the column where the separation takes place.

Absorption columns are used for the separation of gaseous mixtures. Molecular sieves Poropak Q type absorbents are used to separate CO, CO2, H2 gases. Silica gel type absorbents are used to separate hydrocarbon gases.

Detectors (Flame Ionisation and Thermal conductivity detectors) are used in detecting the Gases and works on the principle of thermal conductivity (TCD) of the gases and the electrical conductivity of gases which have been partially ionised The FID is used for hydrocarbons and the TCD for atmospheric gases like CO, CO2, & Hydrogen.

The Gas extraction plant is first evacuated with the help of the rotary vacuum pump. When sufficient vacuum is achieved, oil is let into the degassing vessel and stirred till complete degassing is achieved. Using the mercury column, the evolved gases are compressed to the known volume.

The Gases are drawn by means of airtight syringes and injected into the Gas Chromatograph, after the Gas Chromatograph is properly set up with carrier Gas etc. The detection and quantification of gases take place in the Chromatograph. The Chromatograph is calibrated by means of a standard gas mixture containing a suitable known amount of each of the gas components to be analysed to establish the calibration curve and retention time. An Integrator connected to the output of the Chromatograph gives the proportional area in units for different gases. The method of calibration involves measuring the area of each peak and retention time, identifying the gases corresponding to each peak by comparison with the chromatogram obtained by calibration & obtaining the gas values in PPM. The PPM values of the gases are calculated by comparing with standard gas values and the quantity of dissolved gases in PPM is than calculated for each gas.

Precaution:

The samples must be collected, labeled, stored, Transported and tested with proper sampling, storing and testing procedures to obtain accurate results.

Analysis & Interpretation:

There are several methods for interpreting the results of the DGA test. Firstly a check is made by comparing the concentration levels with levels that are permissible in a healthy Transformer depending upon the service age of the Transformer. These permissible concentration levels for gases are tabulated, for reference.

Then, in case of higher gas levels, than the permissible levels, or in cases where gas levels show abnormal increasing trend from previous recorded values, the Roger’s method of diagnosis or the 3 ratio method prescribed in IS 10593 may be used for interpretation.

Reference:

IS 1866, IS 9434, IS 10593, CPRI Publications.

300

CHAPTER–XIV

LIMITING VALUES

IS 1866 – 1983

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

TEST

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

EQU. VOLTAGE

METHOD

LIMIT

ELECTRIC STRENGTH, KV

Min

145 KV < 145 72.5 KV < 72.5 KV

IS : 6792

50

40

 

30

WATER CONTENT PPM,

 

145 KV < 145 KV

 

IS : 335

25

Max

 

35

SPECIFIC RESISTANCE @ 90, 10 E 12 Ohm-Cm

Min

ALL V

IS : 6103

0.1

TAN DELTA

145 KV < 145 KV

 

IS : 6262

0.2

@ 90,

Max

 

1.0

ACIDITY

ALL V

IS : 1448

0.5

Mg KOH/g,

Max

I F T, N/m,

Min

ALL V

IS : 6104

0.015

FLASH POINT Deg C, Min

Min

ALL V

IS : 1448

125 or

 

Max. decrease of

15

SEDIMENT AND/OR PRECIPITABLE SLUDGE

 

ALL V

IS 1866

NIL

PERMISSIBLE GAS CONCENTRATIONS

 
 

GAS

<4 YEARS

4-10 YEARS

>10 YEARS

1

HYDROGEN

100/150

200/300

200/300

2

METHANE

50/70

100/150

200/300

3

ACETYLENE

20/30

30/50

200/150

4

ETHYLENE

100/150

150/200

200/400

5

ETHANE

30/50

100/150

800/1000

6

CARBON MONOXIDE

200/300

400/500

600/700

7

CARBON DI OXIDE

3000/3500

4000/5000

9000/12000

301

CHAPTER–XIV

Furan Analysis Test:

Introduction:

Paper is the major solid insulant in Transformers. While there are a number of tests to monitor the condition of the oil in the Transformer, till recently there was no practical technique available for condition assessment of the solid insulation in the Transformers.

A new testing method has emerged in which condition of solid insulation is assessed by analysing the degradation of products of cellulose paper called furanic compounds using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) or any other suitable equipment.

Application:

The test is specially applicable to Transformers that have put in more than 10 years of service life and also in cases where the involvement of cellulose is suspected in faults that have been detected irrespective of service age of Transformers.

Furan compounds:

Furanic compounds commonly referred to as furans, are products of degradation of cellulosic materials and are dissolved in the oil. The furanic compounds that are detected. quantified and analysed are

2

– Furfural dehyde

5

– Hydroxy methyl – 2 furfural

2

– Acetyl furan

5

– Methyl – 2 – furfural

2

– Furfural alcohol

of these 2 – furfural dehyde is found to be the most commonly monitored furan compound.

Periodicity:

The periodicity for this has not been established but it is suggested that a reference test value for all Transformer in the 10 th year of service and yearly testing from the 15 th year onwards may be adopted presently.

Test Procedure:

Equipments:

Equipments such as High Performance Liquid Chromatograph, visible range spectrometer are used in Furan Analysis. However the HPLC is the standard equipment used.

Method:

(a) Furanic compounds in the oil samples are extracted from a known volume

of test specimen.

(b) A portion of the extract is introduced into an HPLC system equipped with

a suitable analytical column & UV detector.

(c) Furanic Compounds in the test specimen are identified and quantified by

comparison to standards of known concentration.

302

Result and Analysis:

CHAPTER–XIV

The furan compounds are analysed on a trend basis. The concentration levels are compared with previous values and the assessment of solid insulation as healthy, initial stage of degradation, failure levels etc are made and appropriate action taken.

Reference

IEC 1198/1993 ASTM D 5837-95 CPRI Publications.

Transformer oil tests:

(a) Electric Strength (BDV)

Scope:

This covers test on oil samples of Transformers, which are inservice and use uninhibited insulation oils and complying with the requirements of IS 335 when filled new.

Definition:

The voltage at which the oil breaks down when subjected to an ac electric field with a continuously increasing voltage contained in a specified apparatus. The voltage is expressed in KV.

Application:

The test is applicable to Transformers of any rating and switch gears.

Periodicity:

The test is done on an annual basis along with all other oil characteristic tests and more frequently if condition of the oil/equipment warrants. However the BDV of oil samples from Transformer of all voltage class & from OLTC shall be tested on a quarterly periodicity, separately with locally available test kits.

Test procedure:

The test is done with a test cell, made by glass or plastic, which shall be transparent and non-absorbent, with an effective volume of 300 to 500 ml and preferably a closed one. The electrodes are mounted on a horizontal axis and shall be 2.5 mm apart.

The test procedure is begun by adjusting the sphere gap of the electrodes accurately by the use of 2.5 mm gauge (supplied with the kit).

303

CHAPTER–XIV

Initially some of the oil from the sampling container is poured out to clean the tip of the sample container. The test cell shall be cleaned by rinsing with the test oil twice before filling the test oil for the test. The oil, then, should be poured gradually, avoiding formation of air bubbles.

The oil is filled to a height of 40 mm from the axis of electrodes. The test cell with oil is then placed in the testing unit. A period of 5 minutes is allowed for the oil to settle. Then voltage is applied at the rate of rise of 2 KV/second. The voltage is thus increased to a value where the oil breaks down and the corresponding voltage is noted. The test is carried out six times on the same oil sample filling with intervals of 2 minutes. The Arithmetic mean value of the six readings is taken as the BDV of the oil sample.

Precaution:

The sample must not be exposed to atmosphere and should be as near to the actual oil in the Transformer as possible, in all aspects

The sample container may be shaken upside down to get a homogenous sample

for test.

The container electrodes etc may be rinsed thoroughly with test sample, prior to the commencement of the test.

Results and Analysis:

The test values are interpreted as per IS 335 for new oil and as per IS 1866 for oil in service.

For oil in service the limit values are as follows:

Equipment voltage

Limit (Minimum)

145 KV and above

50 KV

Between 72.5 KV and 145 KV

40 KV

Less than 72.5 KVA

30 KV

Reference:

IS 335, IS 1866, IS 6792

(b) Flash Point:

Scope:

This covers test on oil samples of Transformers, which are inservice and use uninhibited insulating oils and complying with the requirements of IS 335 when filled new.

304

CHAPTER–XIV

Definition:

It is the temperature at which the oil gives off so much vapour that this vapour, when mixed with air, forms an ignitable mixture and gives a momentary flash on application of a small pilot flame under the prescribed conditions.

Application:

The test is applicable to Transformer of all ratings.

Periodicity:

The test is done on an annual basis along with all other oil characteristic tests and more frequently if condition of the oil/equipment warrants.

Test procedure:

The test equipments used are pensky-martin closed cup apparatus, thermometers and variac.

The cup is cleaned well by rinsing twice with the test oil. Oil is filled upto the marking provided and is placed in the test apparatus. The oil is heated and from about 100’C onwards, a small pilot flame is used to ignite the mixture and the temperature at which this mixture gets ignited is noted and recorded as the Flash-Point.

Results and Analysis:

Minimum limit is 125’C or maximum decrease of 15’C for all voltage class.

Reference:

IS 335. IS 1866, IS 1448

(c) Neutralisation Value (Acidity)

Scope:

This covers test on oil samples of Transformers, which are inservice and use uninhibited insulating oils and complying with the requirements of IS 335 when filled new.

Definition:

It is the measure of free organic and inorganic acids present in the oil. It is expressed in terms of the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the total free acids in one gram of the oil

Application:

The test is applicable to Transformers of all rating.

305

Periodicity:

CHAPTER–XIV

The test is done on an annual basis along with all other oil characteristic tests and more frequently if condition of the oil/equipment warrants.

Test Procedure:

The materials used for the test are indicator bottle containing universal indicator with PH value of 4 & 11, clean, dry glass test tubes and a color chart calibrated with neutralisation number values.

The test procedure is, 1.1 ml. of sampling oil to be tested is accurately pipetted into a clean dry test tube. To this 1 ml of Isoprophyl, alcohol. 1.0 ml of 0.0085 N Sodium Carbonate solution are added. Then, to this five drops of the universal indicator are added and gently shaked.

0.0085 N of Sodium Carbonate solution is prepared by dissolving 0.085 N of Sodium Carbonate in 10ml of distilled water to get 0.0085 N of sodium carbonate solution.

The resulting mixture develops a color depending on the PH value of the mixture. This color is compared with the standard chart, which gives the approximate neutralisation value ranging from 0 to 1.0.

Results and Analysis:

Maximum limit for all voltage clause is 0.5.

Reference:

IS 335, IS 1866,

(d) Specific Resistance (Resistivity)

Scope:

This covers test on oil samples of Transformers, which are in service and use uninhibited insulating oils and complying with the requirements of IS 335 when filled new.

Definition:

It is the ratio of the dc potential gradient in volts per centimeter paralleling the current flow within the specimens to the current density in amperes per square centimeters at a given instant of time and under prescribed conditions. This is numerically equal to the resistance between opposite faces of a centimeter cube of the liquid. It is expressed in Ohm-centimeter.

306

Application:

CHAPTER–XIV

The test is applicable to Transformers of all ratings.

Periodicity:

The test is done on an annual basis along with all other oil characteristic tests and more frequently if condition of the oil/equipment warrants.

Test procedure

The equipments needed for the test are million megohm meter, oil cell, oil cell heater.

The oil is heated upto 90’C and 500 V d.c. applied, and after one minute the megohm indicated is noted and the Resistivity value is calculated with appropriate multiplication factors and cell constant.

Results & Analysis

Minimum limit is 0.1x10^12 Ohm-cm at 90’C for all voltages.

Reference:

IS 335, IS 1866, IS 6103.

(e) Dielectric Dissipation Factor (Tan delta)

Scope:

This covers test on oil samples of Transformers, which are in service and use uninhibited insulating oils and complying with the requirements of IS 335 when filled new.

Definition:

It is the Tangent of the angle (delta) by which the phase difference between applied voltage and resulting current deviates from 1/2 radian when the dielectric of the capacitor consists exclusively of the insulating oil.

Application:

The test is applicable to Transformers of all ratings.

Periodicity:

The test is done on an annual basis along with all other oil characteristic tests and more frequently if condition of the oil/equipment warrants.

307

Test procedure:

CHAPTER–XIV

The equipments required are Dielectric constant test kit, oil cell, oil cell heater.

The oil cell is thoroughly rinsed with the sample oil to be tested and about 35 ml of oil is taken in the cell and heated to 90'C. Then 500V AC is applied to the terminals of the oil cell. The Tan delta bridge is balanced by adjusting the potentiometers to get null deflection. The Tan delta value obtained is recorded.

Results & Analysis:

The maximum limit for Tan delta at 90'C is 0.2 for voltages of 145 Kv & above and 1.0 for voltages below 145 KV.

Reference:

IS 335, IS 1866, IS 6262.

(f) Interfacial Tension:

Scope:

This covers test on oil samples of Transformers, which are in service and use uninhibited insulating oils and complying with the requirements of IS 335 when filled new.

Definition:

It is the force necessary to detach a planar ring of platinum wire from the surface of the liquid of higher surface tension that is upward from the water-oil surface. It is expressed in dynes/cm. or N/m.

Application:

The test is applicable to Transformers of all ratings.

Periodicity:

The test is done on an annual basis along with all other oil characteristic tests and more frequently if condition of the oil/equipment warrants.

Test procedure:

The apparatus required are tensiometer, fine platinum ring, glass beakers.

Before starting the test, all glass beakers are cleaned with isoprophyl alcohol and acetone. The platinum ring is also cleaned with isoprophyl alcohol & acetone. The tensiometer is placed in a horizontal plane.

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About 20-25 ml. of distilled water is taken in the sample container and is placed on the adjustable platform of the tensiometer. The platinum ring is suspended from the tensiometer. The adjusting platform is raised till the platinum ring is immersed in the water to a depth not exceeding 6 mm and at the centre of the glass beaker.

Now gradually, the platform is lowered, increasing the torque of the ring system by maintaining the tension arm in the zero position. As the film of water adhering to the ring approaches the breaking point, slow adjustment is made to ensure that the moving system is in the zero position when rupture occurs. The surface tension of the water is noted. The value is normally 71 to 72 dynes/cm.

Now the tensiometer scale is brought to zero and the adjustable platform is raised until the ring is immersed to a depth of about 5 mm in the distilled water. The sample oil to be tested is poured slowly along the walls of the beaker over the distilled water. The platform is slowly lowered, increasing the tension of the ring system. The IFT is the scale reading at which the ring breaks free from the interface.

Results & Analysis:

The minimum limit for all voltage is 15 dynes/cm.

Reference:

IS 335, IS 1866, IS 6104

(q) Water Content:

Scope:

This covers test on oil samples of Transformers, which are in service and use uninhibited insulating oils and complying with the requirements of IS 335 when filled new.

Description:

This test is for the determination of water content usually in the range of 0-75 ppm in the oil.

The Karl-fisher method is used. The method is based on the reaction of water with Iodine and Sulphur-di-oxide in Pyridine/methonol solution.

Application:

The test is applicable to Transformers of all ratings.

Periodicity:

The test is done on an annual basis along with all other oil characteristic tests and more frequently if condition of the oil/equipment warrants.

309

Test Procedure:

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The materials required for the test are methanol with less than 0.02% water content, Karl-fisher Reagent, Titration vessel.

The titration vessel is made moisture free.

The Karl fisher Reagent and the methanol are taken in the two sides of the burette to levels. A certain quantity of methanol is allowed in the test vessel. The pointer will show end point as water. The electro magnetic stirrer should rotate at a speed of 150-300 rpm. Karl Fisher Reagent is allowed into the vessel to neutralise the water. When all the water is separted, the pointer will show Karl Fisher Reagent-O'. A known quantity of water say 20 l is introduced with a syringe. The pointer will once again show water indication. Steadily and gradually the Karl Fischer Reagent is added continuously so as to bring the pointer to Karl Fisher 'O' position. The initial and final readings are noted. The difference is the volume of Karl fisher required to neutralise 20 l of water. The same procedure is repeated with sample oil and the water content present in the oil is calculated using the formula (20 X K.F. required to neutralise the Oil X 10 3 ) / ( 25 X 0.88 X K.F. required to neutralise water).

Results & Analysis:

The minimum limit for Transformers of voltage class 145 KV & above is 25 PPM and for voltages below 145 KV is 35 ppm.

Reference:

IS 335, IS 1866, IS 2362

(h) Sludge Test:

Scope:

This covers test on oil samples of Transformers, which are in service and use uninhibited insulating oils and complying with the requirements of IS 335 when filled new.

Description:

This test is conducted to determine the presence of sediments and perceptible sludge in the oil.

Application:

The test is applicable to Transformers of all ratings.

Periodicity:

The sludge test is carried out when the IFT value of oil is very low say below 13 Dynes / cm.

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Test procedure:

CHAPTER–XIV

11 ml of the test sample oil is pipetted in a clean conical flask. 100 ml. of Hexane or N-heptane is added to this oil. The mixture is shaken well and is kept in a dark place for 24 hours. At the end of 24 hour, it is checked for any precipitation in the oil. If any precipitation is observed, the sample oil contains sludge.

Results & Analysis:

For all voltage class sludge should be NIL.

Reference:

IS 335, IS 1866.

Note:

All Indian standards referred versions are the latest versions revised/amended from time to time.

Test procedure for measurement of Tan delta and Capacitance of equipments.

1. Scope: This covers the method of measuring the dielectric loss properties of the

insulation system of equipments by measuring the Tan delta and Capacitance values.

2. Definition: Tan delta is the tangent of the dielectric loss angle of an insulation

system. It is also referred to as dissipation factor or dielectric loss factor.

3. Significance of Tan delta value in insulation systems:

In an insulation system, the dielectric loss is given by V 2 WC tan delta watts. If

the dielectric power loss is more, the dielectric strength of the insulation would be

reduced. The Tan delta is affected by moisture, voids and ionization in the Insulation.

Hence it is indicative of the quality of insulation.

4. Principle of Tan delta and Capacitance measurement for HV equipments.

4.1 The High Voltage electrical equipments have conductors HV and LV separated by

an insulating medium. It can also be a conductor or winding with an HT terminal and the

LV terminal connected to ground. These systems can be represented as two and three

terminal capacitors. An example of a two terminal capacitor is the bushing of an equipment. The central conductor is one terminal and the mounting flange (ground) is the other terminal. An example for a three terminal capacitor is a bushing with a Tan delta

test tap. In this case the central conductor is one terminal, the test tap is the second

terminal and the mounting flange is the third terminal. Likewise most of the HV equipments can be visualised as capacitors with simple and complex insulation systems and these can be measured with a test set that can measure both grounded and

ungrounded specimens.

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4.2 The Vector Relationship: I I C S Q Ir V
4.2 The Vector Relationship:
I
I C
S
Q
Ir
V

In the ideal case, the capacitance current leads the voltage by 90'. But in practice, in all insulation systems, there exists a loss current Ir which is small in magnitude but in phase with the voltage, as shown above. The total current I, therefore leads the voltage by an angle which is less than 90. The angle by which it is less than 90is known as the loss angle delta and in all practical cases, the magnitude of Ic and I are same as Ir is very small and the power factor and dissipation factor tend to be the same.

In the above diagram Dissipation factor = tan delta; As the important characteristic of a capacitor is its dissipation factor, it is measured and monitored as a diagnostic test of insulation systems.

5. Application:

The test is conducted on the following:

(1)

Power and Auto Transformer Bushings

(2)

Power and Auto Transformer Windings

(3)

Generator stator coils

(4)

Current and Potential Transformers.

(5)

CVTs

(6)

Any other HV equipment where insulating condition is to be tested.

6. Periodicity:

The test is done at the time of commissioning and thereafter yearly and on actual requirement depending on the conditions of the equipment.

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Test procedure:

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There are two basic versions of testing (i.e.) Grounded specimen test and ungrounded specimen test. The circuit diagram are shown below:

versions of testing (i.e.) Grounded specimen test and ungrounded specimen test. The circuit diagram are shown

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CHAPTER–XIV

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The circuit connections are given as shown above depending on whether the specimen is grounded or floating. The Input voltage is raised gradually through a variac till the desired HV Voltage is reached for the specimen. The bridge circuit consists of a differential transformer, R-C network, known standard capacitor (Cn) and the unknown specimen (Cx) under test. The same HV voltage is applied to both the known and specimen capacitors. The currents through the two capacitors pass through the differential Transformer, which is balanced by means of adjustment of the bridge capacitors, which are provided with multiplication selectors. Once the bridge is balanced for the capacitance value the capacitance selected is read directly from the multipliers. The tan delta is then adjusted to get the balanced horizontal position in the Oscilloscope. The value of Tan delta is also directly read from the bridge Tan delta selector with appropriate decimals.

Precautions:

(1)

done and found satisfactory.

It is always preferable to conduct the Tan delta test after the IR value test has been

(2)

The test voltage should not exceed the rated voltage of the equipment, under test.

(3)

Adequate safety precautions are to be taken when the test is on, Inadvertent entry

to testing area must be prevented by proper measures.

(4)

weather condition.

Bushings etc. should be well cleaned and the test must be carried out in dry

(5)

Make sure the input voltage variac is in the 'O' position before the start of the test.

(6)

Interference from neighbouring live lines should be minimum. Modern kits with

interference suppression circuits are preferred while testing in yards etc.

(7) For Generator windings and higher capacitance specimen's the variac and the testing Transformer should be of higher rating to carry the increased charging current.

Test value Interpretation:

In the case of Bushings the ISS prescribes a maximum value of 0.007 for oil impregnanted condensor bushings and 0.020 for noncondenser bushings. These are values for new bushings and for bushings, windings and other equipments that are inservice trend monitoring is the best suggested course for proper analysis of the test results.

Reference:

1. MWBTan delta and Capacitance kit operating manual.

2. IS2099-1973.

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MAINTENANCE OF PROTECTION RELAYS

Er.K. Mounagurusamy CE / P&C

9.1

SITE VISITS:

During the site visits, the following inspection works may be done in the protection and control rooms and arrangements may be made to coordinate with other

departments for necessary works:

1.

The room should be tidy and clean

2.

Sufficient lighting should be there

3.

There should not be any leakage of water

4.

Sun rays should not fall directly on panels.

5.

The panels should be vermin proof.

6.

The inside of the panels should be free from cobwebs, dust, hanging loose wires etc.

7.

The room temperature should be with in limits.

8.

The outside of the panels should be clean.

9.

All the relay covers should be tightened and clean.

10.

Fault recorders should be in working condition.

11.

All the relay catalogues and drawings should be well maintained and be available in easily traceable location. A list of these items may be readily available.

12.

General condition of the batteries should be checked and reported to the concerned if any improvement is required.

9.2.

MAINTENANCE TESTING OF RELAYS:

All the protective relays have to be tested ONCE in a year and calibrated.

The procedures for testing should be well studied and understood. Latest digital relays have self test facilities and these relays need testing once in 5 years only as per the manufacturers. Otherwise periodic testing is extremely important, as almost all the protective equipments are passive for most of the time. They are called upon to act only when abnormal conditions occur.

9.3.

GENERAL PRECAUTIONS ON TESTING AND HANDLING OF RELAYS:

- Examine relay coils like current coil, voltage coil, flag coil, D.C. auxiliary coil, timer coil etc. for continuity.

- Check for burns on contacts, sticking up of moving parts, meeting surface and fixed contacts.

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Experience shows that moving parts normally stick to the mechanical back stop. In armature attracted relays, there is remanence magnetic sticking up also. The starters in L3WYS distance relays have this problem. Contacts sticking up with backstop have been experienced frequently in EE relays. These should be cleaned each time without fail with trichloroethylene (good to clean oil and grease), CTC (good to remove carbon), or white petrol (good to clean disc jewel bearings).

9.4 HANDLING OF ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT:

a) A person’s normal movements can easily generate electrostatic potentials of several thousand volts. Discharge of these voltages into semiconductor devices particularly chips when handling electronic circuits can cause serious damage, which often may not be immediately apparent but the reliability of the circuit will have been reduced.

b) Do not remove the modules unnecessarily. However, if it becomes necessary to withdraw a module, the following precautions should be taken to preserve the high reliability and long life for which the equipment has been designed and manufactured

- ensure that you are at the same electrostatic potential as the equipment by touching the case.

- Handle the module by its front plate, frame or edges of the PCB. Avoid touching the electronic components, PCB track or connectors.

- Do not pass the module to any person without first ensuring that you are both at the same electrostatic potential. Shaking hands achieves equipotential.

- Place the module on an antistatic surface or on a conducting surface which is at the same potential as yourself.

- Store or transport the module in a conductive bag.

- If you are making measurements on the internal electronic circuitry of an equipment in service, it is preferable that you are earthed to the case with a conductive wrist strap.

- Wrist straps should have a resistance to ground between 500 K – 10 m Ohms.

- If a wrist strap is not available, you should maintain regular contact with the case to prevent the build up of static.

- Instruments used should be earthed to the case whenever possible.

- Re-soldering may affect the capacitance of the circuitry.

9.5 Take precautions to avail line clear on the equipment to be tested. Place green flags in the panel under test.

9.6 Ensure that P.T voltages are not available to the relay under test. P.Ts in generators should be kept isolated : otherwise back feeding of high-voltage to the Gen. is possible.

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9.7. Mark down the existing physical position of potentiometer, time dial pointers etc. with a pencil. This will help restore in case of inadvertent changes during handling.

9.8. Actuation of certain relays like Generator differential or split phase relay may release CO 2 in generators. Hence, proper isolations of CO 2 circuits should be ensured.

9.9. Actuation of certain relays could operate LBB schemes. Precautions should be taken, while testing LBB and BB relays, extra care should be taken to isolate the TRIPPING Circuits. In some cases, BB relays and other relays may be in same core of C.T. Unless care is taken, the ENTIRE SUB STATION may go BLACK OUT.

9.10. There may be necessity to change some settings during testing. Original settings should be restored by making entries in site register.

9.11. Some wiring may need removal for testing. They should be entered in register and before closing the job the wiring should be restored promptly. Any removal of TB. links should be treated similarly. If ferrules are not available in the removed leads, temporary ferruling should necessarily be done before removing.

9.12. The fuses removed should be entered in the site register to enable putting back without fail.

9.13. Cartridge type fuses should not be checked with higher range in multimeters or for continuity buzzer. It should give zero ohms in an accurate low range multimeter since failed fuses also give continuity in high ranges.

9.14. Current can be injected to the relay without removing them C.T leads. Removal is not a must but this should be judiciously done. Refer to 9.9 above.

9.15. Earth fault selection relays in some distance relays need shorting during testing to avoid overloading.

9.16. Temporary wedges placed should be removed back.

9.17. The relay coils and the auxiliary switching relays are not continuous rated. Hence they should not be engaged continuously.

9.18. Some operations like test closing of breakers could lead to L.T. supply changeovers unwantedly and even they may back charge the machine. Precautions have to be taken.

9.19. Once L.C. is availed, any operation is the responsibility of the engineer who has availed the L.C. but it shall be done with information to operator concerned.

9.20. The maintenance engineers should also witness the relay tests to the extent possible since they are the owners of the relays.

9.21. While test tripping the breakers through the relays, the manually picked up relays should not be released until the breaker has tripped since the relay contacts are not designed to break the trip coil current. When the breaker trips, the trip coil current will be broken by the breaker auxiliary contact.

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9.22. After normalising, the availability of D.C. voltage, P.T. voltage at the relay inputs should be confirmed. The load current passing through the C.T. should be confirmed by measuring the voltage burden between the current coil terminals, noting down the load current also in the register.

9.23. Do not try to do any modification to the wiring or change in settings without analysing fully and without having consultation with superiors unless other wise situation warrants, in which case ratification should be later obtained.

9.24. Do not assume that the scheme drawings are always correct. Some modifications could have been done and not marked. Always have a suspecting eye.

9.25. Any modification done should be communicated to all concerned who should incorporate them in the drawings in their offices without fail.

9.26. History of settings and trouble shooting should be entered in permanent registers.

9.27. Faulty operations or LED indications should be checked.

9.28. Wherever master relays are available, all the connected relays should be test operated to ensure the picking up of master relay. Test tripping of breaker can be checked through master relay.

9.29. All alarm/ annunciator points should be checked without fail.

9.30. P.T. voltage availability, D.C. aux. supply availability across all the relays terminals should be confirmed.

9.31. Voltage burden at the relay current terminals after normalising the equipment should be measured and recorded in the test report also noting down the load current at the time of burden measurement.

9.32. It is preferable to note down in the glass cover of the relays the date of last test done.

9.33. LOAD ON C.Ts

The peak load on the lines, feeders and substation transformers may be reviewed for any possible overloading of C.Ts beyond the limits once in 3 months and entered in a separate permanent register called “Peak Load on C.Ts”. The C.Ts can be overloaded by 20% continuously.

9.34. RECORDS:

An official test circuit diary for each type of relay shall be maintained in hand, containing the test procedure, precautions to be taken, isolation to be done, model test result, settings adopted etc. Relay catalogues should invariably be on hand.

All the testing works and results should be first recorded at site in a permanent register/ note books with printed page numbers to avoid tampering of details later. The test results shall be authenticated by the engineer present. Names of the testers should be entered. The test results may then be entered in the specified form and sent to higher officers. Standardised specimen test report form is enclosed in Annexure.2 B/A means before adjustment and A/A means after adjustment. Changes may be done in the form if necessary to suit local conditions. Any abnormality noticed during the testing may be recorded under the column “Remarks” in the test report.

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The test schedule with tests done date and tests due date shall be displayed conspicuously in the office room in a Fixograph or in a board so as to review them frequently.

The details of the tests done may also be recorded in a permanent register with pagevar allocation for each relay. A few pages together may be allocated for each relay or set of relays in the case of 3O/L. One register may be put up for each substation or for more substations combined.

A specimen of one page of the register for a relay is given below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Feeder/Line/Transformer Relay details

Settings Range available Settings adopted C.T.Ratio available C.T.Ratio adopted V.T.Ratio adopted Date of Commissioning

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

S/S :

(Make, Type, Model, Sl.No., rating, D.C.aux. voltage etc.)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sl.

Date of

Date of

Remarks

Signature

Signature

No.

Last

Next

of

of

test

test

Protection Reviewing

done.

Due.

Engineer.

Officer.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1) Deails of settings changed with reference letters no.

2) Details of any defects.

3) Details of modification

4) Details of “Obsoletion” Communicated by the suppliers.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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T E S T

R E P O R T

CHAPTER–XV

1. Name of S/S.

:

2. Name of Feeder/Line

:

3. (a) Relay

:

(Ex. Distance Relay Main 1/Main 2)

(b)

Make

:

(ABB)

(c)

Type

:

(Ex. RAZOA)

(d)

Sl.No.

:

4. Nature of Test

:

Special/Routine (State reason if it is special)

5. Date of last testing

:

6. Date of this testing

:

7. Page No.of Test record (site) Book

:

(Including Volume No.)

8. Testing instruments used

:

(Ex: TURH KIT, WICO megger, 5A ammeter, 150 V Volmeter)

9. Test Results:

(a) Relay (Ex: For O/C relay)

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Test

Time

Time Obtained

Remarks

Current

Exp.

R

O

Y

O

B

O

B A

A A

B A

A A

B A

A A

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

P.U.

2 Amp.

2.1

2.1

2.1

--

2.0

--

4

A

1 Sec.

1.4

1.0

1.1

--

1.0

--

Time dia

 

adjusted

8

A

0.7 Sec.

0.9

0.71

0.75

--

0.65

--

in R

 

phase

20 A

0.3 Sec.

0.5

0.31

0.31

--

0.28

--

relay.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

(b)

Checking of Flag or LED (indications of relays) and the annunciator points.

(c)

Meggering

C.T.Sec. to Earth

(d)

C.T.Burden (VOLTAGE MEASURING IN THE C.T.SECONDARY CIRCUTT AT REIAY TERMINALS)

R-N = V : Y-N = V : B-N =V

Load Current:

(e)

P.T.Voltage

R-Y = R-N =

Y-B = Y-N =

B-R = B-N =

(f)

Trip Circuit testing (test tripping the breakers through relay)

(g)

Remarks:

1)

(Sd) TESTER

Checking of all fuses

ASST.ENGINEER

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CHAPTER-XVI

GAS INSULATED SUB-STATIONS

Er.K. Mounagurusamy CE / P&C

The informations given be low are abstracted from several ASEA GIS equipment booklets.

Gas insulated Sub-station of certain types takes up only about 10% of the area of conventional Sub-stations.

Figure-1 shows below the comparison, for a volt level upto 170 KV.

Figure-1
Figure-1

HISTORY: Use of SF-6 gas for breakers was started in mid sixties.

GIS programmes were launched in seventies. In early 1977, first GIS was commissioned by ASEA in Sweden upto 420 KV. Now GIS of several thousand KV are available.

At lower levels of voltage three phase systems are used. At UHV levels single phase systems are used.

ADVANTAGES:

1)

The area required is very much less

2)

Quicker and simpler erection

3)

Easier maintenance

4)

Insensitive to influences of surroundings

GAS PRESSURE:

The higher the gas pressure (density), the higher will be the insulation strength of the gas and smaller the dimensions of the enclosure. Normal pressure is 7 bars.

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In some designs, the equipment can withstand the rated voltage also when the gas pressure decreases to atmopheric pressure provided no switching is done.

COMPONENTS:

- Conductors

- Insulators

- Enclosures

- Gas

- Spacers

SPACERS: - forms a solid insulation, in parallel with gas, between the conductor in the centre and the surrounding earthed enclosure. The earthed enclosure is in the form of metallic tube. In the centre of this there is the conductor which is supported and held in place by insulating cones called spacers. The space between conductor and enclosure is filled with SF 6 gas at overpressure. See Figure 2 to 5.

323

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FIGURE - 2 FIGURE - 3 FIGURE - 4
FIGURE - 2
FIGURE - 3
FIGURE - 4

324

CHAPTER–XVI FIGURE - 5 FIGURE - 6
CHAPTER–XVI
FIGURE - 5
FIGURE - 6

325

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CHAPTER–XVI 326

326

CHAPTER–XVI FIGURE - 6 FIGURE - 8
CHAPTER–XVI
FIGURE - 6
FIGURE - 8

327

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The spacers have to withstand mechanical forces from gravity, apparatus function, pressure differences between gas sections, earthquakes and short circuit currents. Disc type spares are also used.

CONDUCTORS:

Consists of aluminum tubes with joining contacts at the ends. Current is transmitted via the spring loaded contact member to the copper parts and against which the contact member rests. These are later welded to the aluminium parts.

JOINTS:

There are angled joints and T-Joints

EXPANSION JOINTS:

Expansion joints are provided partly to compensate for the tolerance during manufacture and partly to allow for thermal expansion.

OTHER COMPONENTS: Like disconnectors, CTs, VTs etc. are shown in figure below:

FIGURE-9

Disconnector straight

1. Fixed contact

2. Moving contact

Operating devise

3.
3.

328

1.

FIGURE-10

Angled and T disconnectors

Disconnectors can be operated by Motor devices.

CHAPTER–XVI

T-disconector Fig - 10 `
T-disconector
Fig - 10
`

329

CHAPTER–XVI

- Shows continuous position indication

- Possibility of using the earthing switches as a test probe for measuring contact resistance and polarity of instrument transformers

- Can be located in the same housing as disconnectors but also elsewhere.

- Can be operated either manually or Motor operated

- There are two types such as fast operating and slow operating

FIGURE – 12 VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS

and slow operating FIGURE – 12 VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS - Voltage transformers can be set up where

- Voltage transformers can be set up where it is required i.e. on bus bars and outgoing circuits.

330

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Figure – 13 CURRENT TRANSFORMER
Figure – 13
CURRENT TRANSFORMER

331

CHAPTER–XVI

CHAPTER–XVI 332

332

CHAPTER–XVI

FIGURE – 16: SF-6 AIR BUSHING
FIGURE – 16: SF-6 AIR BUSHING

The bushing can be adopted to any existing oil filled or PEX cable

- Also used for High potential testing of GIS bus bars etc.

EXTENSION:

The GIS can be extended usually by lengthening the bus bars and adding more breaker groups provided necessary space is provided in the building. Erection sequence must be checked in detail. Another question to investigate is the procedure of testing after installation of the new parts.

SAFETY:

The probability of anybody being injured in a GIS will 0.000025 per year or once per 1300 years. GIS is said to be 40 times safer than conventional sub-stations

TESTING OF GIS:

1) Testing of Gas:

Non return valves are provided to fix the gas density switches. After removing the switch assembly, external gas hoses can be connected and gas filling, draining, testing can be done.

2) Breaker testings:

Since the poles are inside the gas tank, approach to do the timing tests, primary injection through CTs were difficult. For one end, the earth switch end which is insulated before the earth connection can be used. For the other end the earth switch cannot be used since all the three phases are looped inside the SF-6 chamber and only the neutral is brought out. Hence, the cable ends which was at a distance of 100 meters from S.S. were used for the above tests. The layout of cable system is shown in Figure-17. This was also used for hipot testing the cables. D.C. hipot testing of GIS has to be avoided.

333

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CHAPTER–XVI

334

335

CHAPTER–XVI

CHAPTER-XVII

REVIEW AND ANALYSIS OF TRIPPINGS

Er.K. Mounagurusamy CE / P&C

ALL THE TRIPPINGS SHOULD BE REVIEWED.

Analysis

protection engineer.

of the operation of protective relays or the scheme is very important for a

The following types of operations need analysis:-

- Maloperation i.e False tripping in the absence of primary fault.

- Incorrect operation or unwanted operation during a primary fault.

- Failure to operate.

The protection engineer may carry out the analysis in the above lines and do the needful for improvements. The action taken may be reported to the head office for scrutiny. There are always possibilities for human error in the protection works and hence a scrutiny by another agency is an Absolute Necessity.

transformers at

Substations should be reported by T.M. to the concerned head office in the form given below:

All the trippings of transmission and sub-transmission level lines and

Transmission line fults:

A line fault is a condition where electric current follows an abnormal path due to failure or the removal of insulation which normally confines it to the conductor.

Insulation is usually either air or high resisting material which may also be used as a mechanical support. Air insulation can be accidentally short circuited by birds, rodents, snakes, monkeys tree limbs, unintentional grounding by maintenance crew etc., or broken down by over voltage due to lighting or weakened by ionisation due to fire. Organic insulation can deteriorate due to heat or ageing or can b broken down by over voltage due to lighting, switching surges or faults at other locations.

Porcelain insulators can be bridged by moisture with dirt salt or industrial pollution or can develop a crack due to mechanical forces. In such cases the initial lowering of resistance causes a small current to bee diverted which hastens the deterioration or ionisation causing this current further to increase in a progressive manner until a flash over occurs.

336

CHAPTER-XVII

Overhead transmission lines are most vulnerable for lighting strokes. More than 50% of electrical faults of overhead lines are known to be caused by lightning. As per Van C. Warrington, all faults occur within 40 degrees before voltage maximum at lines over 100KV. The shield wires intercept most direct strokes and allow them to be conducted harmlessly to ground. Some time, they could reach the conductors below the shield wire. In such cases, the lightning surge will bee distributed in all directions of the lines connected, depending upon the point of incidence. For example, a lighting strike penetrating the shielding system and terminating on a phase conductor would generate traveling waves of the same magnitude and polarity propagating in opposite directions.

Some times, these waves may attenuate and die without any problems. Most of the times, they keep on propagating on the line. Of all the line insulators are in healthy condition, the surges reach the terminal substations and be bypassed to the ground through lighting arresters. In this case, protection needs to operate and line will remain healthy since surge current is by passed within micro seconds.

If any of the lines insulators re weak, it can undergo flash over due to the surge. “The possibility of even the direct stroke causing a flash over near voltage zero is minimised by the fact that the lighting stroke lasts only one or two microseconds and, if the line voltage were near zero at the moment, there would be nothing to sustain the flow of power after the stroke. Although the stroke current may be upto 100,000A there is less then a coulomb in a stroke, so there would be no cloud of ionised air maintaining a low resistance path until the voltage built up” (Van C. Warrington : vol 2). Once a flash over occurs, there will be system frequency follow current depending upon the fault level and the arc will not extinguish till the system voltage is interrupted by the protection. This means that both end relays of a tied line should operate and isolate the line. A single end tripping will not suffice. Many a times, the flash over does not damage the insulator and the line can be recharged. This is called a “passing faults”. Short circulating the line insulator by snakes, birds etc., as discussed before, will also come under this category.

But, if the insulator gets damaged by the flashover, it will not withstand the power system voltage if reenergized and the protection will again operate. This is a kind “permanent fault”. There are different types of permanent faults which are not discussed here.

The flashover may occur in more than one towers due the lighting surge wave. If one such flashover leads to a permanent damage in the second zone of a distance relays and another flashover causes a temporary flashover in its first zone coverage, both end relays will trip on first zone and may cause confusion when analysing by the protection engineer.

Single end trappings should be treated in a special manner. From the discussions so far made, at will be clear that there can not be single end trippings at all! But, they do occur. A tall tree ay swing and touch a conductor in the second zone but may withdraw before the second zone time of the relay. In this case, only the other end will trip on first zone. A jumper may get open and fall on the tower arm in one side and the tripping will be single en only. A conductor may snap and tall to ground in only one side of the lines and the result will be single end tripping. Hence, the protection engineer shall not take granted any single end tripping which is very rare. If the cause is not established clearly, the protection system should be checked thoroughly in the case of single end trippings.

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Lighting need not even come in direct contact with power lines to cause problems, since induced charges can be introduced into the system from nearby lighting strokes to ground. Although the cloud and earth charges are neutralised through the established cloud – to – ground path, a charge will be trapped on the line. The magnitude of this trapped charge depends on the initial cloud to earth gradient and proximity of the stroke to the line. Voltage induced on the line from the remote stroke will propagate along the line causing similar problems as that of direct stroke.

When a lightning directly strike a tower or the earth conductor the tower has to carry huge transient currents. If the tower footing resistance is considerable, then the potential of the tower would rise steeply with respect to the line and consequently the insulator string would flash over. This is known a “BACKFLASHOVER”. It is clear that too many trippings on temporary faults may also indicate more tower footing resistance, needing improvements.

338

TM

From

Asst.Exe.Engineer/Shift

110 KV/line tripping

message

1. Name of Sub-Station

:

2. Name of line

:

3. Time & Date of tripping

:

4. Relay indications

)

at both End.

)

5. Is the line radial or

)

Tied at both ends

)

6. Load on the line prior

)

to tripping MW, MVAR,

)

AMPS.

)

7. Bus voltages recorded

)

before tripping – at

)

the time of tripping -

)

after tripping.

)

8. Special observations

)

like grunt in generators, flickering of lamps

)

oscillations in panel

)

meters.

)

9. Any other simultaneous

)

trippings of 132 KV

)

lines or distribution

)

lines.

)

10. Climate

:

11. Time and date of

)

normalisation

)

12. Remarks

:

339

To

CHAPTER–XVII

The Superintending Engineer

Copy to the Exe. Engineer/O

Copy to the EE/GRT (MRT)

Copy to the AEE/GRT (MRT)

Asst. Exe. Engineer / Shift.

CHAPTER–XVII

1)

Every grid and upstream radial feeders tripping shall be reviewed monthly.

2)

Even correct trippings of grid feeders and upstream radial feeders should also be

3)

reviewed and classified as “IN ORDER” and reported to higher office. A correct tripping in the view of one engineer (may be inexperienced) may be a wrong one. There are instances that single end tripping of grid feeders have been classified as IN ORDER in some cases without analysis. Correct single end trippings of grid lines are also possible but extremely remote – a line getting open and conductor making ground fault in only one side. Review of transformers and generators shall be reviewed then and there. Our old

4)

practice is that the review should be made within 24 hours. It is felt that this is even now very essential. Maloperation of any equipment i.e. radial lines, tie lines, Transformers, Generators shall be analysed within 24 Hours. Correct operations shall be classified as due to

- Weather

- Lightning

- External incidents

- Failure of line or equipments

- Overload

- System disturbance

- Cause not known.

5.

Incorrect relay operations shall be classified as due to

- Design limitations

- Inadequate or Incorrect settings

- Construction defect

- Maintenance defect

- Failure of relay component

- Caused by pilot channel

- Personnel errors

- Incorrect application of relays

- Unexplained.

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CHAPTER–XVII

6. Relay tripping registers shall be maintained by protection wing as well as substations

O&M wing.

7. Protection engineers should be knowing how to calculate the fault level at any point

in the system. Fault level of local substations should be calculated by them and

exhibited in the premises conspicuously.

8. Some of the interesting review and analysis are discussed below:

I. WRONG CONNECTION OF GENERATOR – ROTOR EARTH FAULT RELAYS AT ALIYAR POWER HOUSE AND SHOLAYAR POWER HOUSE.I.

The Generator rotor earth fault relays were with wrong connections at Aliyar

Power House and Sholayar Power House.2 since their commissioning. The relays were

not operating during normal conditions though there was an earth fault existing in the

rotor and were operating “Correctly” for a short moment during shutdown sequences.

The circumstances which warranted the tracing of the fault and action taken to rectify the

defect are narrated in the following lines:-

On 23.12.79, 27.7.80 and 1.9.80 the rotor earth fault relay of the 60 M.W. Hydro

generator at Aliyar Power House acted for a short-while during normal shutdown

sequences soon after the shutdown impulse was given.

Every time the relay was tested and found to be normal. The details of the I.R.

value of the rotor circuits meggered on 23.12.79 are not available and the I.R. value of

the rotor circuits meggered subsequent to the operation of the relay on 27.7.80 and 1.9.80

were low and was of the order of 0.2 to 0.3 M. Ohms.

No serious thought was given for the relay operation on 23.12.79 considering it as

freakish. Only after a recurrence on 27.7.80 the matter was studied in detail.

The relay was acting just for a moment during the shutdown sequence and it was

not acting during normal running of the machine or during shutdown time and this

required a deep study of the subject.

While going through the original schematic drawing of the Generator on 30.9.80

it was observed that the rotor earth fault relay was given wrong connection.

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CHAPTER–XVII

The scheme as per the given drawing is shown below :

The scheme as per the given drawing is shown below : In this connection scheme, the

In this connection scheme, the rectifiers in the bridges of the relay will permit flow of current when the circuit is closed by earthing the point ‘A’. This current would be due to the D.C. source voltage available at the terminals 9 & 10 of the relay. It could be seen that the D.C. voltage on t he rotor is in “subtractive series” connections with the D.C. source voltage of the relay. Hence, if the earthing point is slowly moved from point

A towards point B, the resultant voltage across the relay co