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Wearl%-187(1995)497-507 WEAR A study of the erosion-corrosion behaviour of engineering steels for marine pumping

Wearl%-187(1995)497-507

WEAR

A study of the erosion-corrosion

behaviour of engineering

steels for

marine pumping applications

of engineering steels for marine pumping applications A. Neville *, T. Hodgkiess, J.T. Dallas ’ Department

A. Neville

*, T. Hodgkiess,

J.T. Dallas

Department

ofMechanical Engineering,

University

of Glasgow,

Glasgow

G12 8QQ,

UK

Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK Abstract This paper presents results of a series

Abstract

This paper presents results of a series of electrochernically based tests under liquid and liquid-solid erosion conditions on three generic materials, a C-Mn steel, an austenitic and a duplex stainless steel. Separation of the components of pure erosion, pure corrosion and synergy has been achieved under conditions imposed by an impinging saline flow containing a high burden of suspended solids. Although the pure corrosion component of deterioration on the stainless steels has been shown to be very small, the synergistic processes ensure that corrosion has a significant effect on these martials as well as on the less corrosion resistant C-Mn steel. The results have shown that complex hydrodynamic conditions impose mixed modes of attack since local variations in impingement angle exist.

of attack since local variations in impingement angle exist. Keywords: Erosion; Corrosion; Steel; Marine pumping; Pumps

Keywords:

Erosion; Corrosion;

Steel; Marine

pumping;

Pumps

Keywords: Erosion; Corrosion; Steel; Marine pumping; Pumps 1. Introduction on the relative movement between the erodent

1. Introduction

on the relative movement between the erodent particles and the eroding surface [ 11. As an example, impeller vanes pumping a slurry stream are subjected to directional impinge- ment where the particles in the stream impact the surface at

a common angle. In contrast, the dominating mode of wear

at the pressure side of the impeller vane is sliding wear. However, common to all modes of wear, whether abrasive,

adhesive or erosive, is that they have all been shown [2-51 to be exacerbated by the effects of corrosion.

The conjoint action of wear and corrosion in saline aqueous environments is known to cause premature failure of engi- neering components. The combination of aggressive liquid media and the possibility of high burdens of entrained solid

particles in seawater pumping systems associated with the oil and gas industry are representative of some of the most severe operating conditions faced by today’s materials. Substantial direct and indirect costs are typically associated with failure of components such as pump impellers, shafts,

casings and

ticularly in oil field applications, making maintenance and replacement troublesome. However, prior to complete failure which would require components to be replaced, losses in efficiency accompany material deterioration as tolerances are breached and operating conditions deviate from those in the design case. In addition, even small changes in the geometry of a system, brought about by erosion effects, can induce turbulent flows (vortices, eddies etc.) which will, in turn, cause hydrodynamic instabilities in the system. Economic factors have therefore ensured that the volume of study in this field has increased in recent years. In any system susceptible to material through wear, a vari- ety of modes of erosive wear can, and do, prevail depending

As

the

basis

of

a more

detailed

study into the erosion-

corrosion behaviour of a range of low to high-grade alloys in saline environments, the research reported herein represents

a focused study into the behaviour of three generic materials

under moderately severe conditions of high-velocity liquid impingement and a more severe impinging liquid-solid stream. Under liquid erosion the main aim was to assess, using electrochemical techniques well-established for static corrosion studies and also microscopical examination, the

effect of the impinging flow on the corrosion characteristics. In the much more severe conditions of liquid-solid erosion,

one

components, to the total wear weight loss on

and corrosion

each material. Another aim was to identify and calculate the synergistic components of wear weight loss reported by pre- vious authors to exist in abrasive and erosive environments [ 6-81. For comparison, reference to previous studies in static 3.5% NaCl at the relevant temperature is necessary.

piping. This is partly due to inaccessibility, par-

objective

was

to quantify

the contributions

of erosion

* Corresponding

author.

the contributions of erosion * Corresponding author. OO43-1648/95/$09.50 SSDIOO43-1648(95)07145-8 0 1995 Elsevier

OO43-1648/95/$09.50

SSDIOO43-1648(95)07145-8

0

1995 Elsevier

Science

S.A. All rights

reserved

Present address: Weir Pumps Ltd, Alloa Works, Clackmannanshire,

UK.

498

A. Neville

et ~1./Wear

2. Materials and methods

Materials

included

in the programme

were

chosen

to

be

representative

actively corrodes under normal service conditions (a carbon- manganese steel), a standard austenitic stainless steel which exhibits ‘passivity’ under free-corrosion conditions (UNS S3 1603) and a higher-strength, duplex stainless steel (SAF

one which

of three distinct

categories,

namely

186-187

(1995) 497-507

2205)

in

which

increased

Cr

and

MO levels

enhance

the

resistance

to passive

film breakdown

in many

service

condi-

tions.

given

The chemical

in Table

The two experimental

analyses

of the as-received

consisted

materials

are

1.

conditions

of a high-veloc-

ity

( 100

m

s-l)

impinging

3.5%

NaCl

flow free from

sus-

pended

solids

and a slurry

flow

(25

m

s-

‘)

with

combined

3.5%

NaCl

and

1000 ppm

cast

silica

sand.

The

angle

of

impingement

was 90” in both cases. Modifications

to an exist-

ing liquid-solid

particle

impingement

rig

(Fig.

1(a) ) were

made

to enable

in

situ

electrochemical

testing

and similar

testing

in solids-free

liquid

impingement

was conducted

on

the liquid

of the flow was 50 “C in the sand erosion

erosion

rig shown

in Fig.

1 (b).

The

temperature

rig. This was chosen

for

its relevance

to

oil

field

injection

situations

[5]

where

pumping of aggressive

saline

streams,

containing

suspended

solid

particles,

is common.

In

the

liquid

erosion

set-up,

a

range

of temperatures

up

to 50

“C was

studied

[ 91

but

only

those results

at 50 “C will be reported

here.

The

electrochemical

techniques

used

were

DC

anodic

potentiodynamic

polarisation scans together with potentios-

TO ELECTROCHEMICAL

MONITORING

EQUIPMENT

IN SPECIMENS

FLOWMEIXR

WARMUPLINE

-

-

--)

TESTINGLOOP

A

tatic

tests

(some

of which

were

designed

to apply

cathodic

(a)

protection).

The former

is a technique

which

involves

shift-

ing the electrode

potential

of a working

electrode

(here

the

 

specimen

in situ)

at a predetermined

rate

min-

) ,

 

tlgll-Pressure

Pump

by use of a potentiostat,

to potentials

more

( 15 mV positive

than

the

Water-Jet

nature

free-corrosion

potential

(E,,,)

of the specimen.

This

stimulates

the metal

dissolution

half-reactions on the working

 

+Lowressure

Pump

electrode.

Monitoring

the current

flow, in the electrochemical

 

cell

between

the

corroding

working

electrode

and

an inert

 

(b)

RESERVOIR

 

auxiliary

electrode,

as the potential is increased, provides

 

4

information

on the integrity of the passive film and the resis-

Fig.

1, (a)

Liquid-solid

impingement

rig. (b)

Liquid

jet impingement

rig.

tance to passivity

breakdown

on corrosion resistant materials.

 

This

procedure

also permits

the evaluation

of the

‘corrosion

The

potentiostatic

tests

consisted

of two

types.

The

first

current,

I_’

of actively

corroding

specimens

by the well-

involved shifting the potential from EC,, by a small amount

known

Tafel

extrapolation

technique

[lo]

on potential

vs.

( +50

mV)

with

no impinging

flow. Once a steady current

log current

plots.

The

corrosion

rates

can

be calculated

via

was attained the impingement by a liquid-solid stream was

Faraday’s Law from the I,,, data. In this study all potentials

started and the subsequent progression of the current was

were

measured

against

the

saturated

calomel

electrode

recorded. This technique

was used

to try to assess

the effect

(SCE)

.

on the anodic current as the sand hits the specimen surface.

Table

1

Compositions

of materials

tested

Material

Cr

MO

Ni

Mn

N

S

C

cu

Si

Fe

SAF 2205

21.56

3.5

5.5

1.33

0.17

< 0.01

0.026

0.58

bal.

UNS S31603

16.77

2.4

11.72

1.7

<O.Ol

0.03

0.3

bal.

C-Mn

steel

1.25

0.0 1

0.19

0.01

0.29

bal.

A. Neville

et al. /Wear

186187

(1995) 497-507

499

w^

2

i

-’

-500

-6OO-

1 e+@-++ *+++++-++-+

o

0.”

.

.

.

.

Q,O

o.U8~.--“Qo---’

0

o-

Q----.O’~‘-

o

o

0

.

.

.

.

.

-

.g

+

STATIC

E

B

LIQvn,

EROSION

-700 -

-O-A.-

SAND EROSION

E B LIQvn, EROSION -700 - -O-A.- SAND EROSION -800 : 0 I I 400 800
E B LIQvn, EROSION -700 - -O-A.- SAND EROSION -800 : 0 I I 400 800

-800

:

0

I

I

400

800

1

 

Current

Density

(PA/cm2

1

Fig. 2. Anodic

polarisation

on C-Mn

steel at 50 “C in NaCl solution.

The

second

in the negative

approach

involved

direction

shifting

the

potential

from

the metal holders. The surfaces of the specimens for liquid

E,,,

to a value

of

-

0.8 V (SCE)

and liquid-solid impingement tests were abraded on 600-g&

which represents

a potential

usually

used to cathodically

pro-

abrasive paper prior to testing.

tect

steel

from

corrosion.

The

cathodic

protection

(CP)

potential,

when applied

to the specimens

under

liquid-sand

erosion,

was first applied

during

the ‘warm-up’

period

when

3.

Results

the flow bypasses

the specimens

but they

are submerged

in

the 3.5% NaCl

solution.

 

3.1.

Free-corrosion

conditions and DC potentiodynamic

 
 

Via

a system

of three

tests,

could

be carried

polarisation

 

out in the same

1 h test period

all of which and therefore

under

the same

 

conditions,

to wear, under

unravelling

of the main

liquid-solid

components

could

contributing

These

be achieved.

 

Carbon-manganese

steel,

under

static

conditions

in 3.5%

erosion,

NaCl

actively

corrodes

at

all

temperatures

relevant

to this

experiments

consisted

of:

 

study

and this behaviour

was manifested

(Fig.

2) during

an

0

total weight

losses

(TWL)

measured

after

1 h at the

free-

anodic polarisation scan by a rapidly increasing current as

corrosion

potential;

 

the potential

is swept in the positive

direction

from the starting

0

anodic

polarisation

and

of

Tafel

extrapolation

the total weight

loss

to

give

the

potential

(E,,,)

. This

material

also

exhibited

active-corro-

corrosion

component

( C) ;

sion behaviour when subjected to the impinging waterjet but

0

weight

loss with applied

CP to give the pure erosion

com-

the widely different values of E,,, (Fig. 2) in the three exper-

ponent

(E)

of the total weight

loss.

imental conditions

were indicative

of a substantial

influence

This enabled,

via simple

arithmetic,

the calculation

of the

of the hydrodynamic

condition

on

the

corrosion

process.

synergistic

factor

S in

3.5%

NaCl

containing

1000 ppm sus-

Replotting of the data from Fig. 2, in semi-log form suitable

pended

solids,

impinging

the surface

at 25

m

s-‘.

for Tafel extrapolation, demonstrated that the effect of the

 

Specimens

for

liquid

erosion

were

square

sections

high speed flow impinging

on

the

surface

at

90” was

to

20

mm X 20 mm X 2 mm thick. Electrical

connection,

to ena-

increase the corrosion

rate which

was further

accelerated

by

ble electrochemical

monitoring,

was

via

a wire

soldered

to

the presence

of 1000 ppm suspended

solids

in a lower

veloc-

the

rear.

The

specimen

was

then

set

in

a mould

of

non-

ity impinging flow. The resulting corrosion rates are shown

conducting

epoxy

resin

with

only

a

20 mm

X 20 mm

face

in Table 2.

 

exposed

to the seawater

flow.

In

contrast,

the

stainless

steels

in

many

circumstances

The liquid-solid

particle

impingement

rig accommodated

exhibit good general corrosion resistance due to the presence

pin-type

specimens

6 mm

X 6 mm

X 30 mm long.

A stainless

of a protective passive film on their surface and hence dis-

steel screw

with a wire

soldered

to the end was inserted

in

a

played

quite

different

anodic

polarisation

characteristics

to

tapped

hole on one end of the specimen.

The ends were then

C-Mn steel.

Fig.

3 shows

the resulting

anodic

polarisation

covered

with a shrink

fit rubber

sleeve

to insulate

the pin from

plot for type UNS S31603 stainless

steel in static

3.5% NaCl

fit rubber sleeve to insulate the pin from plot for type UNS S31603 stainless steel in

500

A. Nevilk

et al. /Wear

186187

(1995) 497-507

at 50 “C. As the potential

currents were recorded (due to the passive behaviour) until

a potential

Eb)

current. This current rise indicated that the passive-film had

For

in

low

was scanned

from

EC,,,

very

(generally

+

denoted

as the breakdown

there

was

was readily

potential,

rise

of about

130 mV

at which

a rapid

occurring.

broken down and that corrosion

this and other such tests the potential scan was reversed once

a predetermined current trip value of 500 PA was reached

and, by tracing the Ellrelationship

on the reverse scan, infor-

Eb

mation

on the repassivation

characteristics of the passive film

could be obtained

mainly

by noting

the potential,

E,, at which

the reverse

scan

crossed

the forward

scan

in Fig.

[ 91.

The

passive

behaviour

illustrated

3 was exhibited

by both stainless steel alloys under static conditions and also when subjected to liquid erosion. In static NaCl solution, the passive behaviour during the anodic polarisation scans from

Fig. 3. Anodic

polarisation

0 10&l

1

xl

CurrentDensity @A/cd)

of UNS S31603

in static NaCl solution

at 50 “C.

expected, UNS S31603 having a significantly weight loss than the C-Mn steel.

lower

total

EC,, was maintained

for approximately

400 mV and 475 mV

respectively

by

the

SAF

2205

and

UNS

S31603

stainless

 

steels. The

influence

of the liquid

impingement

 

at

100 m

s-

and 50 “C

was

to

cause

a positive

shift

in

EC,,

(by

80-

100 mV)

and

to

promote

small

reductions

in

the

passive

 

potential ranges during anodic polarisation by about 10 mV

for the duplex stainless

S31603 stainless steel. In other words, the consequence of an

impinging liquid jet on the surface of the stainless steels was

steel

and

by

80 mV

for

the

UNS

very modest.

In contrast,

drastic

changes

in the behaviour

of

these materials

were

brought

about

by the presence

of sand

particles in the impinging NaCl solution. These changes are

clear in Fig.

during

(active) than in static or liquid erosion conditions and, more

crucially, demonstrate,

diately upon shifting the potential from E,.,,, a transition to

active corrosion in these particularly severe, liquid-solid

impingement conditions. The rates of active corrosion of the

stainless

Fig.

and hence

the corrosion rates in mm

with weight

loss measurements from the 1 h, sand-liquid tests, are sum-

laws.

erosion were calculated as

described earlier by transferring

4 to semi-log

4, which

shows

erosion

that the free-corrosion

was considerably

more

recorded

potential

negative

imme-

liquid-solid

via the high currents

steels during

liquid-solid

the relevant

currents,

or mg

h-’

data from

I,,,,

plots to yield corrosion

of these

year-’

from Faraday’s

The results

calculations,

together

marised

in Table

2.

Weight

the most resistant

loss

measurements

clearly

established

SAF

2205

as

of erosion-corrosion under liquid-solid erosion with, as

alloy to deterioration

by the joint

process

3.2.

Visual and microscopical

examination

The visual appearance of specimens after exposure to the

various environments correlated well with the findings from the electrochemical monitoring described in the previous sec- tion. Thus, corrosion products were readily visible on the surface of the C-Mn steel specimens after exposure under

free-corrosion

stances.

after 16 h at EC,, under

rosion products clearly reflect the pattern of the liquid flow on the specimen surface. The arrows indicate the region where thick corrosion products were found and the direction- ality pattern caused by the flow. The central area (darker in the photograph) where the jet directly impinged the surface remained virtually free from corrosion products. In contrast, exposure of the two stainless steels under sim- ilar free-corrosion conditions in static NaCl and also during liquid erosion caused no visible deterioration on the specimen surfaces-indicating that the passive film remained intact in these conditions. Since the anodic polarisation scan imposes conditions on specimens that eventually promote passive-film breakdown (at Eb, Fig. 3)) it was of interest to compare the mechanisms of passive-film breakdown in static NaCl and under liquid impingement during an anodic scan. Examination of the anodically polarised specimens did in fact reveal some dif- ferences. Thus in static solution, both stainless steel materials

conditions in all three environmental circum-

5 shows

the

surface

of a C-Mn

steel

sample

liquid

erosion

and the copious

cor-

Fig.

a C-Mn steel sample liquid erosion and the copious cor- Fig. Table 2 Corrosion currents, general

Table

2

Corrosion

currents,

general

corrosion

rates and weight

losses

Material

Corrosion

current

&,,

(PA)

Corrosion

rate

( mg b-

)

Corrosion

rate

(mm

year-

)

Measured total weight loss

 

(calculated

from I,,,)

(calculated

from I,,)

 

after 1 h test (mg)

SAF 2205

750

(liquid-sand

erosion)

0.8

2.21

21.6

UNS S31603

590

(liquid-sand

erosion)

0.6

1.74

27.4

C-Mn

steel

3050

(liquid-sand

erosion)

3.3

9

46.7

 

3 15 (liquid

erosion)

“C)

0.9

30 (static-50

0.35

A. Neville

et al. /Wear

IS-187

(1995) 497-507

501

A. Neville et al. /Wear IS-187 (1995) 497-507 5 0 1 (a) Current density @l&n2) e
A. Neville et al. /Wear IS-187 (1995) 497-507 5 0 1 (a) Current density @l&n2) e
A. Neville et al. /Wear IS-187 (1995) 497-507 5 0 1 (a) Current density @l&n2) e
A. Neville et al. /Wear IS-187 (1995) 497-507 5 0 1 (a) Current density @l&n2) e
A. Neville et al. /Wear IS-187 (1995) 497-507 5 0 1 (a) Current density @l&n2) e
A. Neville et al. /Wear IS-187 (1995) 497-507 5 0 1 (a) Current density @l&n2) e
A. Neville et al. /Wear IS-187 (1995) 497-507 5 0 1 (a) Current density @l&n2) e
A. Neville et al. /Wear IS-187 (1995) 497-507 5 0 1 (a) Current density @l&n2) e
A. Neville et al. /Wear IS-187 (1995) 497-507 5 0 1 (a) Current density @l&n2) e

(a)

Current density @l&n2)

e

STATIC

2

-250

PO

--

w-

LIQUID EROSION

-

%.---

SANDEROSION

 

-750

!

1

I

 

0

400

800

1

30

(b)

Fig.

4.

(a)

Anodic

polarisation

on SAF 2205 in NaCI solution

Current density (pA/cmP)

at 50 “C. (b)

Anodic

polarisation

on UNS S31603

in NaCI

at 50

‘T.

after anodic polarisation were found to have undergone local- ised loss of passivity. Pitting was a major feature of attack on the stainless steel specimens after anodic polarisation in liquid erosion conditions but the pit morphology was quite different from that in static conditions with the presence of pits which had developed into the form of ‘comets’ dictated by the hydrodynamic forces at the mouth of the pit. Moreover, in contrast to static conditions, the specimens after anodic polar- isation showed evidence of general surface attack by the presence of a coloured film of much enhanced thickness com- pared with the transparent passive film known to exist on stainless steels exposed to many aerated aqueous environ- ments. The comets are clearly shown in Fig. 6.

When

the erosive

jet

contained

sand particles, the good

resistance of the stainless steels to damage under liquid ero-

sion (see two paragraphs

feature, found under both natural, free-corrosion conditions and during anodic polarisation, was of course signalled by the previously described electrochemical and weight-loss measurements. In fact, after the standard 1 h tests in liquid- solid conditions, the surface of the stainless steel specimens appeared to be free from corrosion products after bombard- ment by the powerful slurry stream and only on examination under the light microscope could small fragments of corro- sion products be seen, which were easily removed for weigh- ing purposes. Fig. 7 shows, macroscopically, the plan view

above) was completely lost. This

were easily removed for weigh- ing purposes. Fig. 7 shows, macroscopically, the plan view above) was

502

A. Neville

et al. /Wear

Fig. 5. Attack on C-Mn steel after anodic polarisation under liquid erosion at 50 “C. Corrosion products shown in lighter band out fromcentre. Direction of the flow across the specimen surface is shown by arrows.

Fig. 6. Pitting in the form of ‘comets’ after anodic polarisation under liquid erosion at 50 “C on SAF 2205.

186-187

(1995) 497-507

continued to confer protection and only after application of the accelerated test method (DC anodic polarisation) was corrosion deterioration evident.

Analysis

of the deterioration

on the specimens

in plan and

in cross-section was found to yield information on

tionship between the particle impact angle and the form of material detachment. Hence, variations in the wear profile for each material existed at different points on the test pin, dependent on the flow parameters and direction at each point. Aspects of the flow relating to the type and form of damage are covered in Section 4.

the rela-

3.3.

Potentiostatic

tests

on application of cathodic protection dur-

As anticipated, ing the liquid-sand

erosion

test, a reduction

in the TWL

was

recorded

for each material

which,

when

combined

with

the

data from

the electrochemical

measurements,

 

was shown

to

be

greater

than

that

due

solely

to corrosion.

A synergistic

effect

was therefore

identified

material

and quantified.

This concept,

shown

to be strongly

dependent,

is best

illustrated

for each material

in diagrammatic

form

as

in

Fig.

8 for

(a)

C-Mn

steel,

(b)

UNS

S31603

and

(c)

SAF 2205.

From

the

anodic

polarisation

data,

it was demonstrated

that under

the

conditions

of sand

impingement

in

a 3.5%

NaCl

stream

at

50 “C, the corrosion

rate of SAF

2205

was greater

than

that

on the standard

also

2).

Table

UNS

S31603

austenitic

Although

seemingly

stainless

surprising

steel

when

(see

the

increased

alloying

of the crucial

elements

Cr, MO and

N

is

considered,

this result

was in fact implied

from other work

[91 performed

atures

where

under

static conditions

that UNS

it was shown

23%

at a range

of temper-

S31603

behaved

mar-

it was shown 23% at a range of temper- S31603 behaved mar- Fig. 7. Plan view
it was shown 23% at a range of temper- S31603 behaved mar- Fig. 7. Plan view
it was shown 23% at a range of temper- S31603 behaved mar- Fig. 7. Plan view
it was shown 23% at a range of temper- S31603 behaved mar- Fig. 7. Plan view
it was shown 23% at a range of temper- S31603 behaved mar- Fig. 7. Plan view

Fig. 7. Plan view of SAF 2205 after liquid-solid

NaCl. Lighter circular region in centre of specimen represents depressed surface of wear scar.

erosion

at

50 “C in

3.5%

3.6%

? ?Eraslo”

?? Corrosion

? ?synergy

of the wear

scar produced

on SAF

2205,

which

was compa-

rable to that on the UNS

S3 1603 stainless

steel after the same

test. Clear mechanical

removal

of the material

is evident

in

Fig. 7. This

is in contrast

to the

situation

after

up

to

16 h

under

liquid

erosion

at

the

free-corrosion

potential

in

the

absence

of solid particles

where

the undamaged

passive film

Fig. 8. Breakdown of total weight loss under liquid-solid on (a) C-Mn steel, (b) UNS S31603 and (c) SAF2205.

erosion

at 50

“C

A. Neville

et al. /Wear

186-187

(1995) 497-507

503

5

Fig.

50 “C.

9. Cathodic

.,,/

protection

currents

under

-

SAF2205

-

UNS

S3160!

-

c-hhsteel

liquid-solid

erosion

in NaCl

at

reduction in visible attack was observed on application of CP to C-Mn steel as shown in Fig. 10 in contrast to the stainless steel specimens on which, no clear visual difference could be detected with or without CP.

In a system of potentiostatic experiments, analogous to

those under applied CP, the potential of specimens of each material was held at +50 mV from EC,, and the resulting current recorded. Fig. 11 (a) shows the effect of the sand, sufficiently erosive to mechanically remove the protective film from the stainless steel specimen and render it active. Hence the large increases in current signified the depassiva- tion process. A smaller increase was recorded on the C-Mn

steel, not initially possessing

the total

recorded current was greater. Similarly, a fall in current once the liquid-solid impingement was stopped was recorded for

a protective

film

but

each material

shown

for UNS

S3 1603 in Fig.

11 (b)

.

Another

important

observation,

found

during

anodic

potentiodynamic polarisation and under the anodic poten- tiostatic tests, was the fluctuation in the current when sand was present in the liquid stream. These fluctuations were studied by means of high frequency measurement of the cur- rent via an oscilloscope and were found to be much greater

rent via an oscilloscope and were found to be much greater Fig. tection 10. C-Mn at
rent via an oscilloscope and were found to be much greater Fig. tection 10. C-Mn at
rent via an oscilloscope and were found to be much greater Fig. tection 10. C-Mn at
rent via an oscilloscope and were found to be much greater Fig. tection 10. C-Mn at
rent via an oscilloscope and were found to be much greater Fig. tection 10. C-Mn at

Fig.

tection

10. C-Mn

at

-

steel

0.8 V (top)

under

liquid-solid

and under

erosion

free-corrosion

with applied

conditions

cathodic

(bottom).

pro-

and

microscopical

tion

contribution

2205 was greater than on UNS S41603, as also was the syn- ergistic component, S. Hence corrosion, directly or indirectly,

ginally

better

at 50 ‘C-based observations.

and

8 (c)

on electrochemical

important

data

As

) that,

was the observa-

the percentage

(C)

, on SAF

(Figs.

8 (b)

in addition,

of corrosion

to the total weight

loss

attributed

and

increased

SAF

to 19.3%

2205

to almost

and 24.4%

of the TWL

On the C-Mn

respectively.

40%.

on UNS

S31603

steel,

this

figure

(a

)

0

6ooo

10

20

Time

(s)

30

Cathodic

protection

currents

are known

to be indicative

of

the extent

of corrosion

susceptibility

of the material.

Thus

high

currents

required

to maintain

the CP potential,

infer a

high corrosion

rate would

prevail

on that material

under

free-

corrosion

conditions.

Hence,

as the

progression

of the

CP

currents

under liquid-solid

erosion

shown

in Fig.

9 indicates,

a dramatic

increase

in

current

occurred

as

the

sand

in

the

slurry

stream

impacted

the surface.

The magnitude

of the CP

currents

reflected

the trend

of the anodic

polarisation

results

(Table

2).

For

instance,

the C-Mn

steel

required

a signifi-

cantly

higher

current

input

to maintain

the CP potential, sig-

nifying

the

least

resistance

to

corrosion.

A

significant

0

IO

Time (s)

on UNS S31603

20

30

(b)

Fig. 11. (a) Current progression

impacts the surface. Potential + 50 mV from E,_

on stopping the slurry flow on UNS S31603. Potential + 50 mV from E,,,.

as sand in the liquid stream (b) Decrease in current

stopping the slurry flow on UNS S31603. Potential + 50 mV from E,,,. as sand in

504

A. Neville et al. /Wear

186-187

(1995) 497-507

0

02

I

resistance and indeed much attention has been paid to the relationship between resistance to erosive deterioration and the hardness of the material [ 11,121. The average measured Vickers harnesses of the SAF 2205, UNS S31603 and C-Mn steel were 260 Hv, 204 Hv and 187 Hv respectively. In this work, the resistance to total weight loss and also that due to

400 the purely erosive element has shown a trend that increasing hardness yields a lower weight loss, confirming that there is possibly a benefit to be gained by increased hardness. How- ever, such weight loss: hardness correlations were not appar-

100 ent when weight loss due to corrosion was considered (Table

Current (PAI

2).

 

Time

(s)

Fig.

12. Current

fluctuations

on C-Mn

steel

(top

trace)

and

SAF

2205

stainless

steel

(lower

trace)

under

liquid-solid

erosion

conditions

in 3.5%

NaCl at 50 “C. Potential

50 mV more positive

than E,,,.

 

on the stainless

steels than on the C-Mn

steel, although

again

the

base

current

on

C-Mn

steel

was

significantly

greater.

Fig.

12 shows,

for SAF

2205,

the current

fluctuating

by

as

much

as

150 pA

on a base current

of 3OOXKl

FA compared

with much

smaller

cyclic

variations

recorded

for the C-Mn

steel

of 25-30

p.A while

the

current,

at the same

potential

increase

of

+50

mV

from

E,,,,

was

much

greater

at

1000 ~.LA.

 

4.

Discussion

4.1.

General

comments

on erosion-corrosion

behaviour

This work was undertaken to provide a detailed apprecia- tion of the erosion+orrosion behaviour of a range of ferrous materials and has demonstrated large differences in the extent and mechanisms of deterioration of the three classes of alloys investigated. Thus the substantial differences in the resistance of the stainless steels as opposed to the C-Mn steel in solids- free erosion corrosion conditions has been clearly demon- strated. Whilst in liquid-solid impingement conditions, all three materials suffer severe attack, the study has illustrated some significant variations of both practical and fundamental interest between the three classes of alloy. The combination of electrochemical, weight loss and visual/microscopical investigations has quantified the three basic features of dete- rioration, pure corrosion, pure erosion and synergism, in ero- sion-corrosion conditions. In particular, it has been shown

that the contributions of these processes to the overall material

loss varies substantially

Significant differences have been shown between the two types of stainless steel. The contribution of corrosion-related

processes to the overall deterioration was greater for the higher Cr, MO and N duplex stainless steel than for the UNS S31603 austenitic steel but the total weight loss was lower for the duplex alloy. This points to important influences of metallurgical structure and/or hardness on erosion-corrosion

between the different classes of alloy.

4.2.

Corrosion

aspects

The recorded changes in the free-corrosion potential, E,,,

under the solids-free liquid jet from that in static conditions can be explained through analysis of the system of anodic and cathodic reactions which dictate the E,,, value. In the liquid erosion condition at 50 “C, it has been demonstrated

[ 91 that although

initiation

of localised corrosion on stainless

steels occurs more readily than in static seawater, the initial slope of the passive region is not drastically decreased. The anodic reaction of metal dissolution is therefore not the con- trolling factor for the observed changes in the free-corrosion potential. Hence, to explain the recorded ennoblement of E,,,

on each material tested, attention must turn to the progression of the cathodic reaction normally assumed in aerated condi- tions to be that of oxygen reduction. As discussed elsewhere,

[ 93 the enhanced turbulence and fluid mixing caused by the

high-velocity flow increases the supply of the cathodic reac- tant (dissolved oxygen) to the electrode surface. Hence the ennoblement of E,,, is controlled by the significantly depo- larised cathodic reaction in which the normal concentration polarisation effects are lessened and the reaction appears to be under solely activation control. In the presence of sand however, the anodic metal disso- lution reaction has been shown to be severely depolarised on

each material but especially on the stainless steels and there- fore contributes to the more active E,,, recorded. Hence on the stainless steels, the cathodic reaction appears to control E,,, under liquid erosion. Conversely under liquid-solid ero- sion, the anodic reaction assumes a dominant role. On C-Mn steel, the control of E,,, appears to be less easily defined since under each condition, the material is active and the

anodic

important role. The situation on the stainless steels in this study, once sand was added to the liquid stream, moved horn one where mechanical effects were insufficient to destroy the passivity of the stainless steels to one where the hard silica sand par- ticles were capable of immediately removing areas of the passive film on a repeated basis, revealing unprotected metal on which degradation by corrosion could easily proceed. From the moment the sand in the system reached the surface, the effect was to dramatically increase the anodic current and

an

reaction

in addition

to the cathodic

reaction

plays

ORIGINAL

SURFACE

CROSS

SECTION

A. Neville

STAGNATION

OF WEAR SCAR

et al. /Wear

POINT

Fig. 13. Schematic cross sectional representation

actual cross section on C-Mn liquid-solid erosion conditions

of the wear scar (top)

hour

and

under

steel

after

a one

at 50

“C.

test

(bottom)

in 3.5% NaCl

general corrosion prevailed over the entire surface. Never-

theless, the higher corrosion rates of C-Mn steel under sand erosion compared with the stainless steels confirmed that a

level of alloying tion even under

are mechanisms of reducing somewhat the severity of cor- rosion attack on stainless steels effective even when the pro- tective oxide film is mechanically removed. However,

comparison of the behaviour of UNS S3 1603 and SAF 2205 stainless steels in this work provides indications that the well

established [ 13,141 benefits of Cr, MO and N

localised corrosion resistance in static and low velocity con- ditions may not pertain under more severe environmental conditions of elevated temperature [ 93 and especially erosion

confers, to a great extent, increased protec- severe conditions. This indicates that there

in enhancing

Fig. 14. Directionality of deterioration visible on the surface of UNS S3 1603

after a 1 h test under liquid-sand

erosion

in 3.5% NaCl

at 50 “C.

186-187

(1995) 497-507

505

impingement. Perhaps this is not surprising since under liq- uid-solid erosion the repeated bombardment of the surface prevents the establishment of the passive film so that the corrosion resistance will depend on the behaviour of the mate- rial in the active state and will not be dictated by the structure and composition of a passive film. Notwithstanding the overall active behaviour discussed above of the stainless steels under liquid-solid erosion, the oscilloscope monitoring, Fig. 12, yielded relatively large cur- rent fluctuations. These might be indicative of a process of rapid sequences of repassivation of the passive film in phase with repetitive impact by individual sand particles, repassi- vation being aided by an abundance of oxygen at the speci- men surface due to the highly turbulent hydrodynamic conditions. This notion is given some support by the much smaller current fluctuations in the corresponding tests with C-Mn steel in which case the tiny fluctuations (on a much

higher current value) might have been due

minor influences of corrosion products formed and removed

under impact.

to extremely

Table

2 shows

that in the severe

conditions

of high

sus-

pended solids, high temperature and velocity, the corrosion rate of the SAF 2205 stainless steel is greater than that of UNS S3 1603; moreover Figs. 8 (a) and 8 (b) demonstrate a higher percentage contribution from corrosion and synergy to the total material loss for SAF 2205 than for UNS S3 1603. Despite these trends, the TWL recorded on SAF 2205 was

significantly lower than on UNS S3 1603, indicating that the largest factor in material degradation was the erosion element, to which SAF 2205 showed superior resistance. The contrast- ing situation on C-Mn steel was that almost 40% of the lWL was dependent on the corrosion element, so although the

TWL was much greater than on the stainless steels,

centage deterioration due purely to erosion was much smaller. Here the controlling mechanisms moved from erosion-dom- inated to a more corrosion-dominated regime.

the per-

4.3.

Erosion aspects

The work

involved

examination

of both

the mechanisms

by which detachment of eroded material occurs and the result- ing morphology of the remaining surface. After testing, examination of specimens cut in cross-section revealed a wear scar of the form of Fig. 13. The pattern clearly shows the hydrodynamic features of the flow in the stagnation point where the erosion damage is least and in the severely eroded perimeter area where high shear forces in the flow moving radially outwards induce a greater thickness loss. Also in plan (Fig. 7)) the wear scar clearly revealed the symmetrical form, showing the central section with lowest metal thickness loss corresponding to where the impinging jet flow separated. At higher magnification the appearance of the eroded area showed clear directionality of metal deterioration, Fig. 14, defining the flow pattern. In the central area where the jet nominally hits the specimen at 90” incidence, the appearance of the metal loss area is in the form of small indentations, in

506

A. Neville

et al. /Wear

186-187

(1995) 497-507

506 A. Neville et al. /Wear 186-187 (1995) 497-507 c&y,*, VI &;“‘- *-‘- Fig. 15. Fragments
506 A. Neville et al. /Wear 186-187 (1995) 497-507 c&y,*, VI &;“‘- *-‘- Fig. 15. Fragments
506 A. Neville et al. /Wear 186-187 (1995) 497-507 c&y,*, VI &;“‘- *-‘- Fig. 15. Fragments
506 A. Neville et al. /Wear 186-187 (1995) 497-507 c&y,*, VI &;“‘- *-‘- Fig. 15. Fragments

c&y,*,

VI

&;“‘-

*-‘-

Fig. 15. Fragments of metal detaching from the surface of an eroded sample of UNS S31603 after liquid-solid erosion in 3.5% NaCl at 50 “C.

contrast with the directional ploughing of the material and

long, deep troughs found at the

would nominally be in the radial direction.

and

of the

SAF 2205, UNS S31603 and C-Mn steel respectively. Hence the repeated bombardment produced a significant work-hard- ening effect on all materials perhaps contributing to an

increase in the susceptibility of the surface to cracking. At

2.58 Hv were recorded in an

the flow

outer

areas

where

Maximum

microhardness

values

outer

of 348 Hv,

region

of

< 50

354 Hv

km

the lowest points in the wear scar, cracks dicular to the surface were detected. The

propagate parallel to the surface and then finally intersected the surface causing segments of metal to detach as in Fig. 15

to

initiating perpen-

cracks

seemed

on UNS S3 1603. Similar effects have been observed on mate- rials not included in this study.

The overall

form

of the cross-section

was independent

Fig.

16.

(a)

Smooth

area

inside

wear

scar

on C-Mn

steel after

a

1 h

test

 

under liquid-solid erosion

in 3.5% NaCl

at 50

“C. (b)

Rough

area out from

of

stagnation

point on C-Mn

steel after

a 1 h test

under

liquid-solid

erosion

in

material but on a smaller scale, clear distinctions were made between the profile of the deteriorated C-Mn steel and the

stainless steels. The surface

rougher profile than the stainless steels. On each material, the

profile roughness increased away from the stagnation point and ploughing deterioration became evident (Fig. 16). In

the central area suffering the least thickness loss, the profile

in the

more severely eroded area surrounding the stagnation point. In the radial areas immediately out from the centre of the jet impact region the displaced material formed lips and troughs,

also reported to occur in liquid erosion after an initial incu- bation period [ 111, which could be easily removed by sub- sequent impacts. Possibly the increased rotation and angular momentum of the particles, due to increased particle-particle interactions after initially bombarding the surface, enhanced the extent of deterioration.

an

impinging jet at 90”, mixed modes of material deterioration can exist due to the complex array of incident angles imposed by the hydrodynamic conditions. The effect of impingement angle on material degradation on ductile materials under solid particle erosion is well known and documented [ l] and it is suggested that in this work the liquid-solid slurry jet imping- ing at 90” imposes, on a more localised scale, variations in the type and extent of degradation due to different incident angles. Hence in this one system, analogies can be drawn to

3.5% NaCl at 50 “C.

the observations under solid particle erosion and the complex flow parameters imply that the extent and form of deteriora- tion is strongly dependent on the local incidence angle. In cases involving an impinging liquid flow containing solid particles, it is therefore necessary to consider these variations in conjunction with overall material deterioration.

5. Conclusions

This study, of the erosion+orrosion characteristics of three generic materials in conditions relevant to pumping environ- ments, has demonstrated the complexity of erosion+zorrosion

in terms of material, environmental and hydrodynamic influ- ences. Thus, in solids-free liquid erosion conditions, the pas-

sive

protection against mechanical removal of material as illus- trated by their much superior resistance to degradation than the C-Mn steel. However, in especially severe erosive streams containing solid particles the passive film is ineffec- tive, stainless steels actively corrode and extensive deterio- ration occurs. In such circumstances, synergism has been identified and quantified for each material and this has facil- itated a comparative assessment of the role of erosion, cor- rosion and synergism on the behaviour of the different

film

on stainless

steels

has a crucial

role

in conferring

of the C-Mn steel showed a much

of the surface did not consist of the troughs evident

Consequently,

these

observations

indicate

that,

under

showed a much of the surface did not consist of the troughs evident Consequently, these observations

A. Neville et al. /Wear

materials. The potential benefits of this approach, in terms of understanding the fundamental mechanisms and predicting the practical performance, has been illustrated by the identi-

fication of significant differences in the behaviour of the two types of stainless steel. A greater role of corrosion related processes on a duplex stainless steel has been shown to be

outweighed by a lower susceptibility

nent of the overall damage process. Finally, examination of the material loss processes implied a dependence of the local impact angle on the form of damage observed and the imping- ing jet at 90” imposed a complex system of hydrodynamic conditions defined by regions of varying intensity of erosive wear.

to the erosive compo-

Acknowledgements

by

means of an EPSRC research studentship awarded through the Marine Technology Directorate to A.N. Thanks are also

due to Professor B.F. Scott, Head of the Department of

for

provision of laboratory facilities

Mechanical Engineering at the University of Glasgow

The

work

described

in this

paper

was

made

possible

and to Weir

Pumps

Ltd for

the use of one of the erosion rigs. Assistance was also received from Mr Stewart Halbert at the Weir Pumps Research Depart-

ment, Alloa. Financial assistance awarded

Institution of Mechanical Engineering is acknowledged.

to A.N.

from

the

186187

(1995) 497-507

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