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Egyptian Arabic for Beginners!

Thursday, July 21, 2011

*EASY* Egyptian Verb List!


There is no infinitive in Egyptian Arabic, so the verbs will be listed in Present and Past. Look to my other
page to learn how to conjugate in different tenses! * 7 = ( haa) - sounds like an aspirated "h" * 2 = ( hamza) - glottal stop * 3 = '( ain) - a "choked" letter sounding like an "a" you can't represent with the English alphabet ** WILL ADD ARABIC SCRIPT SOON!

(To be) able - idir, yi2dar To accept - abal To admit - 3itaraf, yi3tarif To be afraid of - khayif/a min To agree (with) - ittafa2, yittifi2 (ma'a) To agree (on) - waafi2, yiwaafi2 (3ala)

To allow - sama7, yisma7 To argue - gaadil, yigaadil To arrive - wisil, yiwsil To ask (for something) - talab, yotlob To ask a question - sa2al, yis2al To be - kaan, yikoon To begin - ibtada, yibtidi To bless - barraik, yibarrik To bleed - nazaf, yinzif To book - 7agas, yi7giz To borrow -istalaf, yistilif To break - Kasar, yiksar To breathe - itnaffas, yitnaffis To bribe - rasha, yirshi To bring - gaab, yigeeb to build - bana, yibni To buy - ishtara, yishtiri To camp - 3askar, yi3askar Can (be able to) - idar, yi2dar To cancel - lagha, yilghi To care about - ihtamm, yihtamm bi To care for (look after) - akhad, yakhud baal min To carry - shall, yisheel To celebrate - i7tafal, yi7tifil To change - ghayyar, yighayyar

To make change - fakk, yifokk To chat - 3aakis, yi3aakis To check - tammin, yitammin 3ala To choose - ikhtar, yikhtar To climb - tili3, yitla3 To close - afal, yi2fil To come here - ga, yeegi To come (arrive) - wasal, yowsil To confirm - 2akkid, yi3akkid To cook - tabakh, yotbokh To cost - kallif, yitkallif To count - 3ad, yi3idd To cut up - atta3, yi2atta3 To cut (with scissors) - 2as, yi2os To cycle - rakib, yirkab 3agala To dance - ra2as, yir2us To date someone - maashi ma3 To decide - qarrar, yiqarrar To deny - nafa, yinfi To depart (leave) - mishi, yimshi To destroy - dammar, yidammar To die - maat, yimoot To discover - iktashaf, yiktishif To do - 3amal, yi3mil To drink - shirib, yishrab

To be drunk - sakran/a To dry (clothes) - nishif, yinshaf To earn - kisib, yiksab To eat - akal, yaakol, To eat breakfast - fitir, yiftar To eat lunch - itghadda, yitghadda To eat dinner - it3shsha, yit3ashsha To end - intaha, yintihi To enjoy oneself - inbasat, yinbisit To enter - dakhal, yodkhol To exchange - ghayyar, yighayyar To exhibit - 3arad, yi3rid To feel - 7ass, yi7iss (bi) To fight - itkhaani2, yitkhaani2 ma3a To fill - mala, yimla To find - la2a, yilaa2i To follow - taba3, yitba3 To forget - nisi, yinsa To forgive - saami7, yisaami7 To freeze - gammid, yigammid To have fun - 2inbasat, yinbisit To make fun of (laugh at) - da7ak, yid7ak 3ala

To give - idda, yidda To go - ra7 yiroo7 To guess - 7azzar, yi7azzar To have - 3and To hear - simi3, yisma3 To help - saa3id, yisaa3id To hire - 2aggar, yi2aggar To be hot (temperature) - harran/a To inject - 7a2an, yi72in To joke (with) - hazzar, yihazzar (ma3a) To jump - nat, yinot To kill - mawwit, yimawwit To kiss -baas, yiboos To know - 2irif, yi2raf To learn - 2it3allim, yit3allim To be left (behind) - fidil, yifdal To lie - kidib, yikdib To light - walla2, yiwalla2 To like - 7abb, yi7ibb

To listen - simi3, yisma3 To live (life) - 3aash, yi3eesh To live (somewhere) - sikin, yoskon To lock - sakk, yisokk To look - bass, yiboss To look after - khad, yaakhod baal min To look for - dawwar, yidawwar (3ala) To lose - dayya3, yidayya3 To love - 7abb, yi7ibb To make - 3amal, yi3mil To marry - 2itgawwiz, yitgawwiz To meet - it2aabil, yit2aabil (ma3a) To miss (someone) - wa7ash, yiw7ash To mix - khalat, yikhlit To need - i7taag, yi7taag To open - fata7, tifta7 To order - talab, yotlob To owe - 3alay To paint (not art) - dahan, yidhin To paint (art) - rasam, yirsim To park - rakan, yirkin

To pass - faat, yifoot To pay - dafa3, yidfa3 To pick up- shaal, yisheel To plant - zara3, yizra3 To play cards - yila3ib kutsheena To play a game - li3ib, yil3ab To point (to) - shaawair, yishaawit (3ala) To prefer - faddal, yifaddal To prepare - gahhiz, yigahhiz To produce - antag, yintig To protect - 7ama, yi7mi To protest - i7tag, ya7tag To pull - sa7ab, yis7ab To push - za2, yizo2 To put - 7att, yi7ott To question - sa3al, yis3al To read - 2ara, yi3ra To realize - 3araf To receive someone - ista2bil, yista2bil To receive something - istalam, yistilim To recongize - 3irif, yi3raf To recommend - 2iqtara7, yaqtari7 To refund - istarid, yistirid To refuse - rafad, yirfod

To regret - nidim, yindam To relax - irta7, yirta7 To remember - iftakar, yiftikir To rent - 2aggar, yi2aggar To repeat - karrar, yikarrar To reserve - 7agaz, yi7giz To rest - istirayya7, yistirayya7 To return - rigi3, yirga3 To ride (a horse) - rikib, yirkab To be right - sa7, yisa7 To rob - sara2, yisra2 To run - giri, yigri To save (time, money, etc) - waffar, yiwaffar To say - aal, yi2ool To score a goal- gaab gol To see - shaaf, yishoof To sell - baa3, yibee3 To send - ba3at, yib3at To separate - fasal, yifsil To sew - khayyat, yikhayyat To share (with) - sharrik, yishaarik To share a dorm - it2aasim ghorfa To shave - 7ala3, yi7la3 To ship - na3al, yin3il To shoot (someone) - takhkh, yitokhkh

To shoot at - darab, yidrab nar To go shopping - tasawwoq, yatsawwaq To shout - za3a2, yiza3a2 To show - warra, yiwarri To shut - 2adal, yi2fil To sign - mada, yimdi To sing - ghanna, yighanni To sit - a23ad, yo23od To sleep - naam, yinaam To smell - shaam, yishimm To smile - ibtasam, yibtisim To smoke - dakhkhan, yidakhkhan To speak - kallim, yikallim To start - bada2, yibda2 To stay (remain) - a2ad, yo23od To stay (somewhere) - nizil, yinzil (fee) To steal - sara2, yisra2 To stop - wi2if, yo2af To suffer - 3aana, yi3aani To survive - 3aash, yi3eesh To swim - saba7, yisba7 To take away - wadda, yiwaddi To take (food, train, etc) - khad, yakhod To take pictures - sawwar, yisawwir To talk - kallim, yikallim

To telephone - itkallim, yitkallim To tell - aal, yi2ool To thank - shakar, yoshkor To think about - fakkar, yifakkar fee To think (believe) - iftakar, yiftikir To touch - lamas, yilmas To translate - targim, yitargim To travel - saafir, yisaafir To trust - siqa To try (out) - garrab, yigarrab To try (attempt) - 7aawil, yi7aawil To understand - fihim, yifham To visit - zar, yizoor To vote - intakhab, yintikhib To walk - misi, yimshi To want - 3aayiz, 3ayza To wash - ghasal, yighsil To watch - itfarrag, yitfarrag To wear - libis, yilbis To weigh - wazan, yiwzin To win - kisib, yiksab To wish - itmanna, yitmaana To work - ishtaghal, yishtagal To write - katab, yiktib

Thursday, July 21, 2011

*EASY* Verb Conjugations! - Part 1


Arabic has 2 real tenses (imperfect - present or future) and the (perfect - past).

Imperfect
Just add the prefixes and suffixes to form the imperfect of the root verb! This root verb is consisted of three or more consonants. For instance, ktb for katab. Some have more than three consonants, but the three or (trilateral) is the most common. In essence, you are simply taking out the vowels of the word. Another note, when working with three letter stem verbs, the first two letters stay together, like: I write - aktib. This form is very useful to know, because many other conjugations are added to this conjugation!
* 7 = ( haa) - sounds like an aspirated "h" * 2 = ( hamza) - glottal stop * 3 = '( ain) - a "choked" letter sounding like an "a" you can't represent with the English alphabet

Prefixes & Suffixes I a-

you (m) you (f) he she we you (pl) they

ti ti - ... -ee yi ti ni ti - ... - o


yi - ... - o

Masalan (for example)...


I write - aktib you (m) write - tiktib you (f) write - tiktibee he writes - yiktib she writes - tiktib we write - niktib you (pl) write - tiktibo they write - yiktibo

Imperfect - Present
All you do here-- add "bi-" to the beginning of the basic conjugated verb.

Masalan (for example)...


I write - baktib You (m) write - bitiktib You (f) write - bitiktibee He writes - biyiktib She writes - bitiktib We write - biniktib You (pl) write - bitiktibo They write - biyiktibo

Imperfect - Future
This is simply formed by adding the prefix "Ha-" at the beginning of the imperfect form of the verb. *Now remember the aspirated "H" is denoted with a 7, when writing Arabic in English.

Masalan (for example)...


I will write - 7aktib You (m) will write - 7atiktib You (f) will write - 7atiktibee He will write - 7ayiktib She will write - 7atiktib We will write - 7aniktib You (pl) will write - 7atiktibo

They will write - 7ayiktibo

Perfect - Past
Verbs that have been completed, done with, finished. In this tense, we only add suffixes, and the "he" or third person singular has no suffix. I you (m) you (f) he she we you (pl) they Suffix -t -t - tee - it - na - to -o

Masalan (for example)...


I wrote/ have written - katabt You (m) wrote/ have written - katabt You (f) wrote/ have written - katabtee He wrote/ has written - katab She wrote/ has written - katabit We wrote/ have written - katabna You (pl) wrote/ have written - katabto They wrote/ have written - katabo
Credits to Lonely Planet Phrasebooks: Egyptian Arabic.

*Easy* Verb conjugations Part 2- To Be

To Be
In Arabic, there is no present tense of the verb "to be." when describing someone, you simply have to say, she smart, he happy, etc. HOWEVER, to be DOES exist in the past and future! :)
* 7 = ( haa) - sounds like an aspirated "h" * 2 = ( hamza) - glottal stop * 3 = '( ain) - a "choked" letter sounding like an "a" you can't represent with the English alphabet

To be (kaan) - Past
I was - ana kuint you (m) were - enta kuint you (f) were - enti kuint

he was - howa kaan she was - hiyya kannit we were - i7na konna you (pl) were - into konto they were - homma kannu

To be (kaan) - Future
A note on the future tense, it is formed by adding "7a-" to the Imperfect form (go to Verb Conjugations Part 1). So basically, you take "kaan" conjugate it in the imperfect, then add "7a-" Also remember the 7 is an aspirated H sound when writing Arabic in English. I will be - 7akoon you (m) will be - 7atkoon you (f) will be - 7atkoonee he will be - 7aykoon she will be - 7atkoon we will be - 7ankoon you (pl) will be - 7atkoono they will be - 7aykoono

There is/ There were?


Yes, it exists! There is - fee There isn't/ aren't - mafeesh There were - kaan fee There wasn't/ weren't -makaansh fee

*Easy* Verb conjugations Part 3 - To Have & Possessive


In order to understand the verb to have, we must first learn the possessive suffixes. These are endings you attach to a noun in Arabic that shows possession. You own it, it is yours! Lets learn what these suffixes are! * 7 = ( haa) - sounds like an aspirated "h" * 2 = ( hamza) - glottal stop * 3 = '( ain) - a "choked" letter sounding like an "a" you can't represent with the English alphabet

*Masculine nouns take the suffix, feminine nouns (that end in -a), take off the -a, add -it, then add the suffix. my - ee your (m) - ak your (f) - ik his/ its - o her/ its - ha our - na your - ko their - hom

Masalan (for example)...


Masculine nouns: book - kitab my book - kitab-ee house - bayt their house - bayt-hom Feminine nouns: ticket - tazkara your ticket - tazkarit- ik bag - shanta our bag - shantit-na

To Have
Why does the verb "to have" need to know the possessives? Because these suffixes, like with the nouns, get added to the end of the verb "3and" - to have. It makes sense because if you have something... it's yours isn't it? :) To make the present, just add the possessive suffixes to "3and."

To have - Present
I have - 3andee you (m) have -3andak you (f) have - 3andik he has - 3ando she has - 3andaha we have - 3andina you (pl) have - 3andoko they have - 3andohom

To have - Past
just add "kaan" (to be) to "3and" in the present! I had - kaan 3andee you (m) had - kaan 3andak you (f) had - kaan 3andik he had - kaan 3ando she had - kaan 3andaha we had - kaan 3andina you (pl) had - kaan 3andoko they had - kaan 3andohom

To have - Future
To "have" something in the future, just add the future form of "to be" (7aykoon) to 3and in the present. I will have - 7aykoon 3andee you (m) will have - 7aykoon 3andak you (f) will have - 7aykoon 3andik he will have - 7aykoon 3ando she will have - 7aykoon 3andaha we will have - 7aykoon 3andina you (pl) will have - 7aykoon 3andoko they will have - 7aykoon 3andohom

*EASY* Egyptian Verbs- Negatives!


* 7 = ( haa) - sounds like an aspirated "h" * 2 = ( hamza) - glottal stop * 3 = '( ain) - a "choked" letter sounding like an "a" you can't represent with the English alphabet Two types of negatives in Egyptian Arabic: 1. Negatives for verbs in general: ma- ... -sh - gets added to the beginning and ending of a verb to make it negative.

Masalan (for example)...


He went- howa ra7 He didn't go - howa mara7sh
2. Negatives for future verbs, nouns, adjectives: mesh gets added to the beginning of a verb/noun/adjective to make it negative.

Masalan (for exmaple)...


I will not write - mesh 7aktib This is not good - da mesh kuwayyis
I'm not an engineer (m). - ana mesh mohandis

*EASY* Egyptian Arabic Possession, Prepositions & Pronouns


* 7 = ( haa) - sounds like an aspirated "h" * 2 = ( hamza) - glottal stop * 3 = '( ain) - a "choked" letter sounding like an "a" you can't represent with the English alphabet

Prepositions:
These words are just like that in English. against - 3ala from - min like - zay on - 3ala for - 3ashaan with - ma3

Pronouns:
Two types of Pronouns: Subject and Object pronouns

Subject Pronouns:
I - ana you (m) - enta you (f) - enti he - howa she - hiyya we - i7na you - into they - homma

Object Pronouns:
have what is called Direct Object Pronouns and Indirect Object pronouns. Both act like suffixes and are added to the end of the verb.
Direct Object Pronouns are:

me - ee you (m) - ak you (f) - ik him/ it - o her/ it - ha us - na you (pl) - ko them - hom

Masalan (for example)...

I saw them - ana shuftohom I like it - ba7ibbo


Indirect Object Pronouns are: to me - nee/ -lee to you (m) - lak to you (f) - lik to him - lo to her - laha to us - lina to you (pl) - loko to them - lohom

Masalan (for example)...


she talks to me hiyya bitkallimnee we write to you - i7na biniktiblik

**When a direct and indirect object pronoun appear in the same sentence, the structure is: verb + direct object + indirect object (both of which are still being added to the end of the verb)

Masalan (for example)...


Write it for me - iktib-haalee Send them to us - iba3at-homlina
***These direct object pronouns can also be added to prepositions!

Masalan (for example)...


from me - min-nee like you (pl) - zay-ku for them - 3ashaan-hom This letter is from her- il maktoob da minha

Possession - part 2

Belonging to, or bitaa3 is translated into (my, yours, our, etc). It is used only for people! It must agree with number and gender of the noun!

For Masculine Nouns: my/ mine - bitaa3ee your/ yours (m) - bitaa3ak your/ yours (f) - bitaa3ik his - bitaa3o her - bitaa3ha our/ours - bitaa3na your/ yours (pl) - bitaa3ko their/ theirs - bitaa3hom For Feminine Nouns: my/ mine - bitaa3tee your/ yours (m) - bitaa3tak your/ yours (f) - bitaa3tik his - bitaa3to her - bitaa3itha our/ours - bitaa3itna your/ yours (pl) - bitaa3itko their/ theirs - bitaa3it-hom

Masalan (for example)...


her book (m); the book is hers - il kitab bitaa3ha their bag (f); the bag is theirs (f) - ish shanta bitaa3it-hom

*EASY* Egyptian Conjunctions, Demonstratives, Comparitives & Superlatives


* 7 = ( haa) - sounds like an aspirated "h" * 2 = ( hamza) - glottal stop * 3 = '( ain) - a "choked" letter sounding like an "a" you can't represent with the English alphabet

Conjunctions!
same as in English... and - wa but - bas

or - ow if - laow until - lighaayat since/ than - min because - 3ashaan

Demonstratives!
These must agree with number and gender of the noun that they are referring to. They go at the end of the noun. Refers to animals, things, and plurals This (one); that (one) (m) - da This (one); that (one) (f) - dee Refers to people these/ those - dol

Masalan (for example)...


This house - il bayt da Those animals - il 7ayawanaat dee

Comparitives & Superlatives


Comparatives are when you are comparing two things. Superlatives are when you are comparing one thing to a lot of things. Comparatives: "bigger/ more than," superlatives: "biggest/ most extrordinary" etc. In Arabic, both are used by the same word, it just depends how you use it. Comparatives and superlatives are formed by taking your adjective of choice, taking out all the vowels (forming the root) and adding an "a" to the beginning of the root, and another "a" in front of the last consonant.
big - kibeer --> (root) kbr --> akbar (bigger/biggest) cheap - rakhees --> (root) rkhs --> arkhas (cheap/ cheapest) many - kiteer --> (root) ktr --> aktar (more/ most) When using it as a comparative between two nouns substitute "min" for "than".

Masalan (for example)...


bigger than - akbar min The girl is bigger than the boy - el bint akbar min el walad

*EASY* Egyptian Articles, Nouns & Plurals!

Articles!
Arabic just has "the" the definite article. It does not have the indefinite articles, such as "a, an" (but are expressed in as a plural form below-- i.e. collective plurals). Arabic, though, has what is called moon and sun nouns. The article is affected based on which noun it proceeds. * 7 = ( haa) - sounds like an aspirated "h" * 2 = ( hamza) - glottal stop * 3 = '( ain) - a "choked" letter sounding like an "a" you can't represent with the English alphabet For MOON NOUNS: "The" translates into "el" in arabic. book - kitaab the book - el kitaab
girl - bint the girl - el bint

For SUN NOUNS:


If the noun starts with the letters d, n, r, s, sh, t, or z then the "l" from "el" is dropped and the first consonant of the noun takes its place.

Masalan (for example)...


sun - shams the sun - ish shams back - dahr the back - id dahr dog - kalb the dog - ik kalb

Nouns!
In Arabic: nouns are either feminine or masculine. Feminine nouns mostly end with an "a" or "ya" Masculine nouns end with any letter Masculine nouns: book - kitaab morning - saba7

Feminine nouns: table - tarabeeza year - sana ** However, there ARE exceptions!! Some masculine nouns can end in a "a" and somefeminine nouns end is random letters! (mostly from parts of the body or countries). Exceptions for feminine nouns: Egypt - masr hand - eed sun - shams mother - omm sister - okht Exceptions for masculine nouns: air - hawa

Plurals!
Three types of plurals: 1. standard 2. dual 3. collective 1. The standard takes some memorizing. Regular masculine nouns have the ending "een." This is added directly after the noun. For regular feminine nouns, you take off the ending of "a" and add the ending "-aat" engineer (m) - mohandis engineer (f) - mohandisa --> engineers (m) - mohandiseen --> engineers (f) - mohandisaat

** Irregular plurals need to be memorized. house - bayt school - madrassa day - yom --> houses - boyoot --> schools - madaaris --> days - ayaam

2. The dual is used when you are talking about two of something. If it ends with an "a," then you take off the "a" and add "-tayn." For every other ending, just add "-ayn" to the end of the word. library - maktaba book - kitaab --> two libraries - maktabtayn --> two books - kitaabayn

3. The collective plural is used when talking about a group or class of items (such as fruits or vegetables). You use this when talking about a specific number or amount of something. It is also what can be translated into the indefinite article as "a" or "an". For form a collective plural, you just add "-a"to the end eggplants - bitingaan apples - tofaa7 trees - shagar --> an eggplant - bitingana --> an apple - tofaa7a --> a tree - shagara

*EASY* Egyptian Adjectives!

Adjectives!
Adjectives are placed after the noun and act very much like nouns themselves. They must (just like nouns) agree with number and gender. The adjective can have a definite article in front of it. Whether it has one or not changes the meaning of the sentence: * 7 = ( haa) - sounds like an aspirated "h" * 2 = ( hamza) - glottal stop * 3 = '( ain) - a "choked" letter sounding like an "a" you can't represent with the English alphabet the big dog - ek kalb ek kabeer (m) the dog is big - ek kalb kabeer (m) **Remember there is no "is/ to be" in arabic!! It is simply omitted! To make an adjective feminine, just add "-a" to the end. the popular girl - el bint el ma7booba (f) the girl is popular - el bint ma7booba (f)

Plurals of Adjectives!
They act the same way as nouns for the most part. There are 3 generalizations:

1. Plural adjectives with nouns that refer to people: add "-een" to the singular form of the adjective. masalan: the happy teacher - el modarris el mabsoot --> the happy teachers - el modarriseen el mabsooteen the angry tourist - el sayi7 el za3laan --> the angry tourists - el sowwa7 el za3laneen 2. Irregular form of the plural adjective is replacing the long vowel in the middle of the word with a long "a" sound. masalan: the big girl - el bint ek kabeera --> the big girls - el banat ik kubar 3. All plurals that refer to objects use the feminine singular form of the adjective. Disregard gender and number. masalan: the big house - el bayt ek kabeer --> the big houses - el boyoot ek kibeera the small bus - el otobees is soghayyar --> the small buses - el otobeesaat es soghayyara