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PHYSICS 1

- Kinematics
- Motion
- Distance and Displacement
- Speed
- Velocity
- Acceleration: Changing Velocity
- Kinematic Equations: Quantitative description of motion
KINEMATICS:
Description of Motion
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Kinematics
the study that deals with the description of
motion. Kinematics uses the following basic
concepts of motion: distance, displacement, speed,
velocity and acceleration.

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Mechanics
- is the sub branch of classical Physics that is
concerned with the forces acting bodies, whether
at rest or in motion.
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Mechanics is divided into:
Statics which focuses on the way in which
forces combine with each other so as to
produce equilibrium;

Kinematics which focuses on the motion of a
body without regard to the cause of that
motion; and

Dynamics which focuses on the way in which
force produces motion.
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MOTION
Motion
Motion is defined as the movement of an
object.

Motion is exhibited by a change in position.

Motion may be described by specifying how far
something has traveled in changing position and
time.
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Ways of Describing Motion
Rectilinear Motion is the motion of an object
traveling in a straight path.

Curvilinear Motion is that of an object
traveling in a curved path.

Angular Motion is that of an object traveling
at certain angles.


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Motion is Relative
Everything moves. Even things that appear to be
at rest move. For us to adequately describe
motion, we must be able to check where the
body is located within a given frame of
reference.

A reference frame is a physical entity such as the
earths surface, the deck of a ship or a moving
vehicle, to which the position and motion of an
object is relative.
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DISTANCE
AND
DISPLACEMENT
Distance and Displacement
Distance is the total path length traversed by
an object moving from one location to another.
It is a scalar quantity which has only magnitude.

Displacement is the separation of an object
and a reference point. It is a vector quantity
which has both magnitude and direction.
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SPEED
Speed
Speed is the rate at which distance is covered
at a given time. The measure of how fast
something is moving.

speed = distance
time

Instantaneous Speed is the speed at any
instant.

Average Speed is the distance traveled
divided by the total time elapsed in traveling
that distance.
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Average Speed: equation



Average Speed( s ) = distance traveled (d)
time elapsed (t)

Where t = Final Time (tf)- Initial Time (ti)
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When an object gains speed at a constant rate,
the average speed can be calculated on the basis
of two speeds (si and sf) recorded. Thus, the
average speed is:

Average Speed ( s ) = si + sf
2
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VELOCITY
Velocity
Velocity is the vector quantity that represents
the rate of change of displacement.

Velocity = displacement
time


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Average Velocity: equation


Average Velocity( v ) = x change in distance
t change in time

Where x =
Final Position (xf) Initial Position(xi)
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Sample Problem
A car starts from rest and attains a speed of 50
m/s in 15 seconds. How far has the car traveled
in 15 seconds?

Given: si = o
sf = 50 m/s
t = 15 s

Find: d
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Solution:
+
| |
=
|
\ .
+
| |
=
|
\ .
=
=
2
0 50 /
(15 )
2
(25 / )(15 )
375
Si Sf
d t
m s
d s
d m s s
d m
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ACCELERATION:
Changing Velocity
Acceleration
Acceleration is the change in velocity divided by
time required for that change.


Acceleration ( a ) = change in velocity (m/s)
elapsed time (s)
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= v = vf vi
t t


Where vf is the final velocity and vi is the initial
velocity.

The unit for acceleration is m/s
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Sample Problem
Michael is driving his sports car at 30 m/s
when he sees a dog on the road ahead. He
slams on the brakes and comes to a stop in 3.0
seconds. What was the acceleration of Michaels
car?

Given: vi = 30 m/s
vf = 0

Find:
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Solution:
vf vi
= t

= 0 30 m/s
3.0s

= -10 m/s
The car slows down at the rate of 10 m/s every second. This
negative acceleration which is known as deceleration.

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KINEMATIC
EQUATIONS:
Quantitative Description
of Motion
The description of motion in one
dimension with constant acceleration requires
only three basic equations that will allow you
to develop simple relationships among
kinematic quantities displacement, velocity,
acceleration and time.
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KINEMATIC EQUATIONS:
Quantitative Description of Motion
Using the following equations, you can
derive some kinematic equations.
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Equation 3
Equation 2
Equation 1
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2
sf si
s
+
=
d
s
t
=
vf vi
a
t

=
From Equation 1,
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Equation 4
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d
v
t
=
d v t =
2
sf si
d
t
+
=
Substituting Equation 2 in,
you will have

d v t =
You can derive
Deriving vf = vi + at from Equation 3 and substituting it in
Equation 4, you will have




Combining like terms, yields


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( )
2
vi at vi
d t
+ +
| |
= +
|
\ .
2
2
vi at
d t
+
| |
= +
|
\ .

Distributing t and simplifying gives





Equation 5
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2
2
2
vit at
d
| |
+
=
|
\ .
2
2
at
d vit = +
Another equation could be derived if you
substitute Equation 2 and Equation 3 in d = v t .
Thus,

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2
vf vi vf vi
d
a
+ +
| || |
=
| |
\ .\ .
2 2
2a
d
vf vi
=

Equation 6
Simplifying
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