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Exotic Mammal Parasites
Exotic Mammal Parasites

Exotic Mammal Parasites

Exotic Mammal Parasites
Protozoa
Protozoa

Protozoa

Protozoa
Rabbit Coccidiosis In all days Rabbits are commonly infected with coccidia Hepatic = Eimeria stiedae

Rabbit Coccidiosis

In all days
In all
days

Rabbits are commonly infected with coccidia Hepatic = Eimeria stiedae

Intestinal= Many species: most pathogenic are E. intestinalis and E. flavescens

cases, the life cycles are direct. Unsporulated

oocysts are released in the bile (E. stiedae) or

intestinal contents and exit in the feces.

Sporulation to the infective stage occurs in less than 3

under optimal conditions.

Rabbit Coccidiosis Mild= asymptomatic . Severe= hepatic ( E. stiedae ) or intestinal disease. In

Rabbit Coccidiosis

Rabbit Coccidiosis Mild= asymptomatic . Severe= hepatic ( E. stiedae ) or intestinal disease. In all,

Mild= asymptomatic . Severe= hepatic ( E. stiedae ) or intestinal disease. In all, these may include severe diarrhea or constipation, dehydration, anorexia, weight loss, a “pot-belly”, intussusception, and death.

severe diarrhea or constipation, dehydration, anorexia, weight loss, a “pot-belly”, intussusception, and death.
Rabbit Coccidiosis dark, E. stiedae - hepatomegaly with dilated bile ducts appearing as yellowish granulomatous

Rabbit Coccidiosis

dark,
dark,

E. stiedae - hepatomegaly with dilated bile ducts appearing as yellowish granulomatous lesions throughout the liver. The gallbladder may also be enlarged and contain exudate.

Intestinal coccidiosis- cecum and colon contain

watery, foul-smelling fluid, with epithelial necrosis,

mucosal ulceration, congestion, edema, hemorrhages, villous atrophy, and leukocytic exudate.

Rabbit Coccidiosis E. stiedae - examine bile for oocysts All species- Histologic or coprologic .

Rabbit Coccidiosis

Rabbit Coccidiosis E. stiedae - examine bile for oocysts All species- Histologic or coprologic . Oocysts

E. stiedae- examine bile for oocysts

Rabbit Coccidiosis E. stiedae - examine bile for oocysts All species- Histologic or coprologic . Oocysts

All species- Histologic or coprologic . Oocysts are difficult to distinguish among Eimeria species.

Rabbit Coccidiosis Control is centered around adequate cage sanitation to reduce the likelihood of overwhelming

Rabbit Coccidiosis

Rabbit Coccidiosis Control is centered around adequate cage sanitation to reduce the likelihood of overwhelming

Control is centered around adequate cage sanitation to reduce the likelihood of overwhelming infection. Several antiprotozoal agents are effective at interrupting the life cycles and restoring normal growth, and can be used during outbreaks.

Amoebiasis The and most pathogenic species of intestinal amoebae of primates is Entamoeba histolytica .

Amoebiasis

The and
The
and

most pathogenic species of intestinal

amoebae of primates is Entamoeba histolytica . Old World >New World. Transmission is via ingestion of cysts.

Trophozoites inhabit the cecum and colon,

ingest RBCs. Cysts form in the large

intestine and contain up to 4 nuclei when

mature.

Amoebiasis Usually asymptomatic . However, signs are more severe in young and/or New World monkeys,

Amoebiasis

Amoebiasis Usually asymptomatic . However, signs are more severe in young and/or New World monkeys, and

Usually asymptomatic. However, signs are more severe in young and/or New World monkeys, and in all monkeys may include lethargy, weakness, dehydration, weight loss, anorexia, vomiting, and diarrhea, which may be hemorrhagic or catarrhal.

Amoebiasis Lesions are often flask-shaped , and represent ulcerative colitis. Some trophozoites may disseminate and

Amoebiasis

Amoebiasis Lesions are often flask-shaped , and represent ulcerative colitis. Some trophozoites may disseminate and

Lesions are often flask-shaped, and represent ulcerative colitis. Some trophozoites may disseminate and establish abscesses in the liver, lungs, or CNS. These are often fatal.

Some trophozoites may disseminate and establish abscesses in the liver, lungs, or CNS . These are
Amoebiasis iron Trophozoites in wet smears of colonic material. In fixed preparations, amoebae stain bright

Amoebiasis

iron
iron

Trophozoites in wet smears of colonic material. In fixed preparations, amoebae stain

bright red with PAS; while trichrome, Giemsa, or

hematoxylin stains may be used to

demonstrate nuclear morphology. Therefore, diagnosis is by examination of colonic contents or feces (stained or wet mount) for trophozoites or cysts; or histologically for lesions.

Amoebiasis
Amoebiasis

Amoebiasis

Amoebiasis
Amoebiasis
Amoebiasis

Amoebiasis

Amoebiasis
Amoebiasis and Control is based on strict sanitation , including elimination of mechanical vectors such

Amoebiasis

and
and

Control is based on strict sanitation, including elimination of mechanical vectors such as flies

cockroaches

Cysts are very difficult to kill in the environment

Amoebiasis plus Metronidazole (50 mg/kg PO bid for 10 days) diiodohydroxyquin (30 mg/kg PO sid

Amoebiasis

plus
plus

Metronidazole (50 mg/kg PO bid for 10 days)

diiodohydroxyquin (30 mg/kg PO sid for

10 days)

NOTE : E. histolytica causes amoebic dysentery in humans . This can kill you if it goes to a vital organ and abscesses

Helminths
Helminths

Helminths

Helminths
Trichostrongylosis Exotic hoofstock are commonly parasitized by trichostrongyles like those found in domestic

Trichostrongylosis

Trichostrongylosis Exotic hoofstock are commonly parasitized by trichostrongyles like those found in domestic

Exotic hoofstock are commonly parasitized by trichostrongyles like those found in domestic livestock. Transmission is facilitated by overstocking.

Genera most commonly involved include Haemonchus , Ostertagia, +/- Nematodirus. While mild infections are asymptomatic, heavy infections can result in weight loss, diarrhea, poor body condition, increased susceptibility to other pathogens, and occasionally, death.

Trichostrongylosis – 1) – 2) – 3) – – Control challenges : getting the curator

Trichostrongylosis

– 1) – 2) – 3) – –
1)
2)
3)

Control challenges:

getting the curator to correct the high stocking density,

either by removing animals or supplementing feed

getting anthelmintic into the hoofstock avoiding anthelmintic resistance

Proper assessment comes by doing monthly fecal egg counts. A few years of this will reveal the natural cycle of trichostrongyle transmission. Strategic treatment plans can then be designed for the particular situation

Trichostrongylosis Anthelmintic is best delivered in mineral blocks , supplemental feed additives , or pour-

Trichostrongylosis

Trichostrongylosis Anthelmintic is best delivered in mineral blocks , supplemental feed additives , or pour- ons

Anthelmintic is best delivered in mineral blocks, supplemental feed additives, or pour- ons. Unfortunately, the first two tend to promote development of resistance, since it is impossible to accurately dose animals. Handling these animals is extremely difficult and is dangerous for both handler and animal.

Lungworm Opossums ( Didelphis virginiana ) are commonly infected with internal parasites, including Didelphostrongylus

Lungworm

Lungworm Opossums ( Didelphis virginiana ) are commonly infected with internal parasites, including Didelphostrongylus

Opossums (Didelphis virginiana) are commonly infected with internal parasites, including Didelphostrongylus hayesi, the opossum lungworm Infection requires ingestion of an infective L3 in a mollusk intermediate host (terrestrial snail). So is not transmitted in captivity when snails are excluded.

“Speedbump” the wild and crazy ‘possum Speedbump chillin in his crib
“Speedbump” the
wild and crazy
‘possum
Speedbump chillin
in his crib
“Speedbump” the wild and crazy ‘possum Speedbump chillin in his crib
Lungworm Heavy infections result in signs of severe respiratory distress , including tachypnea, exercise intolerance,

Lungworm

Lungworm Heavy infections result in signs of severe respiratory distress , including tachypnea, exercise intolerance,

Heavy infections result in signs of severe respiratory distress, including tachypnea, exercise intolerance, harsh lung sounds, weight loss, and death

Male worm
Male worm

Granulomatous bronchopneumonia, with worms identifiable on cut section and in histologic section

Lungworm First stage larva Baermann fecal examination for L1 A bunch of L1’s

Lungworm

First stage larva
First stage larva

Baermann fecal examination for L1

Lungworm First stage larva Baermann fecal examination for L1 A bunch of L1’s

A bunch of L1’s

Lungworm also Fenbendazole (50 mg/kg PO sid for 14 days) eliminated infections in 73% of

Lungworm

also
also

Fenbendazole (50 mg/kg PO sid for 14 days) eliminated infections in 73% of animals treated. An improvement in efficacy might be realized if treatment were extended to 21 or 28 days. Alternatively, a higher dose (100 mg/kg) may

be more effective though more dangerous.

Rabbit Metacestodiasis An incidental finding during a rabbit necropsy, is the presence of metacestode (larval)

Rabbit Metacestodiasis

Rabbit Metacestodiasis An incidental finding during a rabbit necropsy, is the presence of metacestode (larval) stages

An incidental finding during a rabbit necropsy, is the presence of metacestode (larval) stages of tapeworms. Taenia pisiformis (cysticercus) T. serialis (coenurus) Both are transmitted by ingestion of tapeworm eggs shed by infected dogs

Rabbit Metacestodiasis metascestodes develop to the size of a pea The in the peritoneal cavity

Rabbit Metacestodiasis

metascestodes develop to the size of a pea

The
The

in the peritoneal cavity attached to the viscera (T. pisiformis) or to a diameter of several inches in the subcutaneous tissues and intramuscular connective tissues (T. serialis).

Heavy infections can compromise the health of the rabbit, but this is uncommon

Rabbit Metacestodiasis Coenurus Diagnose by finding metacestode stages at necropsy.

Rabbit Metacestodiasis

Coenurus
Coenurus

Diagnose by finding metacestode stages at necropsy.

Rabbit Metacestodiasis Coenurus Diagnose by finding metacestode stages at necropsy.
Rabbit Metacestodiasis There is no treatment as antemortem diagnosis is not done. It is possible

Rabbit Metacestodiasis

Rabbit Metacestodiasis There is no treatment as antemortem diagnosis is not done. It is possible that

There is no treatment as antemortem diagnosis is not done. It is possible that high doses of praziquantel or albendazole would be curative

Prevent rabbits from grazing on grass frequented by dogs, and don’t feed rabbit carcasses to dogs

Arthropods
Arthropods

Arthropods

Arthropods
Sarcoptic Mange 100 and Sarcoptes scabiei : burrowing mite found on > species of mammals,

Sarcoptic Mange

100 and
100
and

Sarcoptes scabiei: burrowing mite found on >

species of mammals, commonly wild canids exotic hoofstock (threat to endangered

species) Each host species has its own strain Transmission may be direct or indirect

Highly contagious

Sarcoptic Mange Mites live in tunnels bored in the stratum corneum Eggs hatch and develop

Sarcoptic Mange

Sarcoptic Mange Mites live in tunnels bored in the stratum corneum Eggs hatch and develop through

Mites live in tunnels bored in the stratum corneum

Eggs hatch and develop through larval and nymphal stages to adults in about 2 weeks

Sarcoptic Mange Intense pruritus , listlessness, localized (head, shoulders, backline) or generalized erythematous

Sarcoptic Mange

Sarcoptic Mange Intense pruritus , listlessness, localized (head, shoulders, backline) or generalized erythematous

Intense pruritus, listlessness, localized (head, shoulders, backline) or generalized erythematous eruptions, papule formation, seborrhoea, and alopecia. Morbidity and mortality may be high.

generalized erythematous eruptions, papule formation, seborrhoea, and alopecia . Morbidity and mortality may be high.
Sarcoptic Mange and In chronic cases, skin becomes hyperkeratotic lichenified . Pathologic changes are due

Sarcoptic Mange

and
and

In chronic cases, skin becomes hyperkeratotic

lichenified. Pathologic changes are due to

both immediate (type I) and delayed (type IV) hypersensitivity reactions.

lichenified . Pathologic changes are due to both immediate ( type I ) and delayed (
Sarcoptic Mange Deep skin scrapings (unreliable). To improve recovery, gently heat scraped material so mites

Sarcoptic Mange

Sarcoptic Mange Deep skin scrapings (unreliable). To improve recovery, gently heat scraped material so mites become

Deep skin scrapings (unreliable). To improve recovery, gently heat scraped material so mites become active. OR: scrapings can be put in KOH to digest extraneous material.

gently heat scraped material so mites become active. OR: scrapings can be put in KOH to
gently heat scraped material so mites become active. OR: scrapings can be put in KOH to
Sarcoptic Mange Eradication is difficult because of environmental contamination and infestation of many reservoir

Sarcoptic Mange

Sarcoptic Mange Eradication is difficult because of environmental contamination and infestation of many reservoir

Eradication is difficult because of environmental contamination and infestation of many reservoir species

Treatment is with acaricides or avermectins Treat all animals simultaneously

NOTE: ZOONOTIC

Other Ectoparasites Exotic livestock and other mammals are susceptible to infestation with many of the

Other Ectoparasites

Other Ectoparasites Exotic livestock and other mammals are susceptible to infestation with many of the common

Exotic livestock and other mammals are susceptible to infestation with many of the common flies, ticks, and lice of domestic mammals

to infestation with many of the common flies, ticks, and lice of domestic mammals Treatments are

Treatments are as for domestics