Sie sind auf Seite 1von 4

A.

)
Chlamydia trachomatis persistence: An Update. (2003)
Mpiga, P., & Ravaoarinoro, M.
pp 9-19.
World Health Organization; UNAIDS. (2012).
p 10-11
p.11
Chlamydial persistence refers to C. trachomatis possibly being in an atypical, intracellular and
metabolically less active state that is difficult to resolve not only by the host-defence system, but
also by antibiotherapy.
p.11
Therapy and Therapeutic Failure
Chlamydia trachomatis infections are resolved by treatment with antibiotics that are able to pass
through lipophilic plasma membranes to reach the RBs which are metabolically active and so most
susceptible to treatment.

B.)
Chlamydia trachomatis infections. In Strategies and laboratory methods for
strengthening surveillance of sexually transmitted infections
pp. 6-7
Geneva: WHO Press.
p.6
Chlamydia trachomatis infection is reported as the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacterial
infection worldwide, with an annual estimate of 105.7 million new cases worldwide. Chlamydial
infection is common among sexually active young men and women. If left untreated, it can lead to
complications, including endometritis, salpingitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pelvic pain
and ectopic pregnancy in women, reduced fertility in both men and women, and neonatal infections
such as ophthalmia neonatorum and pneumonia.

p.7
High rates of rectal chlamydial infection have been reported among MSM (men who have sex with
men) in the Philippines (9.2%) <- (parang hindi ko na ata Kilangan isama to?)

C.)
http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats10/adol.htm
1.) Weinstock H, Berman S, Cates W Jr. Sexually transmitted diseases among American
youth: incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000. Perspect Sex Reprod Health.
2004:36(1):6-10.
2.) DiClemente RJ, Salazar LF, Crosby RA. A review of STD/HIV preventive interventions
for adolescents: sustaining effects using an ecological approach. J. Pediatr. Psychol.
2007;32 (8): 888-906.

3.) Sieving RE, Bernat DH, Resnick MD, Oliphant J, Pettingell S, Plowman S, et al. A
clinic-based youth development program to reduce sexual risk behaviors among
adolescent girls: prime time pilot study. Health Promot Pract (online). May 23, 2011.
4.) Upchurch DM, Mason W, Kusunoki Y, Kriechbaum MJ. Social and behavioral
determinants of self-reported STD among adolescents. Perspect Sex Reprod Health.
2004;36(6):276-287.
5.) Satterwhite CL, Tian LH, Braxton J, Weinstock H. Chlamydia prevalence among
women and men entering the National Job Training Program: United States, 2003
2007. Sex Transm Dis. 2010;37(2):63-7.
Estimates suggest that even though young people aged 1524 years represent only
25% of the sexually experienced population, they acquire nearly half of all new STDs

Year Age Group

200
6

200
7

Cases of Chlamydia

Rates*

Total

Male

Femal
e

Unknown
Sex

Total

Male Femal
e

10-14

13,542

1,227

12,279

36

65.7

11.6

15-19

350,62 58,332 291,49


7
3

802

1,644. 533.4 2,805.


3
7

20-24

376,04 92,295 283,01


2
8

729

1,781. 846.0 2,774.


2
4

25-29

160,41 48,977 111,12


1
5

309

774.6

462.7 1,097.
5

30-34

63,501 22,377 40,996

128

322.2

224.2

421.5

35-39

30,794 12,656 18,064

74

145.4

118.8

171.5

40-44

15,251

7,350

7,870

31

67.8

65.6

69.8

45-54

11,293

5,767

5,495

31

26.1

27.1

25.0

55-64

2,398

1,323

1,070

7.6

8.7

6.5

65+

889

420

465

2.4

2.7

2.2

Unknown
Age

4,789

1,444

3,009

336

10-14

13,583

1,242

12,303

38

66.9

11.9

124.1

15-19

378,10 66,806 310,47


7
4

827

1,760. 606.9 2,966.


8
3

20-24

401,17 101,16 299,31


3
0
5

698

1,907. 932.1 2,940.


4
4

25-29

174,19 54,560 119,35


6
4

282

827.2

506.3 1,160.
9

30-34

69,164 24,477 44,552

135

354.1

247.1

462.8

35-39

33,529 13,747 19,707

75

158.3

129.0

187.3

40-44

16,554

7,941

8,580

33

75.3

72.4

77.9

45-54

13,091

6,835

6,226

30

29.8

31.7

27.9

55-64

2,831

1,521

1,304

8.7

9.6

7.7

122.0

Unknown
Sex

200
8

200
9

201
0

65+

809

413

392

2.1

2.6

1.8

Unknown
Age

3,920

1,168

2,510

242

10-14

14,297

1,441

12,816

40

71.3

14.0

130.9

15-19

419,02 76,741 340,97


6
5

1,310

1,947. 695.9 3,251.


7
4

20-24

437,16 113,94 322,05


3
8
4

1,161

2,075. 1,050. 3,153.


9
7
2

25-29

188,03 60,629 126,90


3
1

503

881.4

554.1 1,221.
0

30-34

74,737 26,740 47,757

240

381.4

268.5

495.5

35-39

36,537 14,908 21,510

119

174.0

141.1

206.3

40-44

17,991

8,525

9,398

68

83.7

79.3

87.3

45-54

14,271

7,386

6,832

53

32.2

33.8

30.3

55-64

3,064

1,634

1,424

9.1

10.1

8.2

65+

887

427

453

2.3

2.6

2.0

Unknown
Age

3,168

939

2,003

226

10-14

13,899

1,405

12,447

47

69.6

13.7

127.6

15-19

429,17 80,725 347,59


3
7

851

1,992. 730.5 3,314.


6
7

20-24

454,76 120,97 332,94


0
5
6

839

2,111. 1,090. 3,187.


3
5
3

25-29

190,48 62,437 127,70


1
8

336

878.7

561.7 1,209.
1

30-34

77,606 28,344 49,103

159

390.2

280.4

502.0

35-39

36,286 14,859 21,354

73

176.7

143.5

209.7

40-44

18,263

8,750

9,467

46

87.0

83.3

90.3

45-54

15,033

7,818

7,183

32

33.7

35.6

31.8

55-64

3,365

1,787

1,573

9.7

10.6

8.7

65+

946

472

471

2.4

2.8

2.1

Unknown
Age

3,159

839

2,039

281

10-14

14,531

1,590

12,860

81

72.8

15.6

131.9

15-19

441,34 85,570 354,25


2
2

1,520

2,049. 774.3 3,378.


1
2

20-24

488,99 131,68 355,99


6
6
4

1,316

2,270. 1,187. 3,407.


2
0
9

25-29

197,52 66,470 130,56


5
1

494

911.2

598.0 1,236.
1

30-34

83,408 31,230 51,925

253

419.4

309.0

530.9

35-39

38,384 15,861 22,421

102

186.9

153.2

220.1

40-44

19,614

9,594

9,931

89

93.4

91.3

94.7

45-54

16,106

8,635

7,423

48

36.1

39.3

32.8

55-64

3,523

1,834

1,674

15

10.1

10.9

9.3

65+

954

464

481

2.4

2.8

2.1

Unknown
Age

2,358

636

1,503

219

D.
Fantasia, H. C., Fontenot, H., Sutherland, M., & Harris, A. (2011).
Sexually Transmitted Infections in Women: An Overview.
CNE Journal
p48-50.
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to be a major public health concern and a
significant source of morbidity. The numbers are staggering. It is estimated that there are
approximately 19 million new STI cases each year. Of these, al- most half occur in young people
between the ages of 15 and 24 (Weinstock, Berman, & Cates, 2004).
Chlamydia can be transmitted during vaginal, anal or oral sex. Symptoms are usually mild or
absent, so women are often unaware of their infection. Chlamydia is often referred to as a silent
disease because the majority of infected individuals have no symptoms.