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# All rights reserved. 2003 A.

Jaafar
Chapter 3: The Bernoulli
Equation
Newtons Second Law
F=ma along a streamline
F=ma normal to a streamline
Physical interpretations
Static, Stagnation, Dynamic and Total Pressure
Examples of use of the Bernoulli Equation
The energy line and the hydraulic grade line
Restrictions of use of the Bernoulli Equation
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Newtons 2
nd
Law
The net force acting on the fluid
particle must equal its mass times its
acceleration
For inviscid fluid, we are assuming
that the fluid motion is governed by
pressure and gravity forces only
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Newtons 2
nd
Law (cont.)
Streamlines lines that are tangent to the
velocity vectors throughout the flow field
Along the streamline,
Normal to the streamline,
Note : For steady, inviscid, incompressible flow, the pressure
variation across streamline is merely hydrostatic (because
of gravity alone), even though the fluid is in motion
s
V
V a
s
c
c
=
R
V
a
n
2
=
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F=ma along a streamline
The equation of motion along the
streamline direction is
A change in fluid particle speed is
accomplished by the appropriate
combination of pressure and particle
weight along the streamline
s
V
V
s
p
c
c
=
c
c
u sin
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F=ma along a streamline
(cont.)
Rearranging and integrating the
equation for inviscid, incompressible
flow gives
= + + z V p
2
2
1
Constant along a streamline
Applicable to steady flows only
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Example 1
Some animals have learned to take advantage of the Bernoulli effect.
For example, a typical prairie dog burrow contains two entrances
a flat front door and a mounded back door. When the wind blows
with velocity V
o
across the front door, the average velocity across
the back door is greater than V
o
because of the mound. Assume
the air velocity across the back door is 1.07V
o
. For a wind velocity
of 6 m/s, what pressure difference, p
1
-p
2
, is generated to provide a
fresh air flow within the burrow.
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F=ma normal to a
streamline
For steady, inviscid, incompressible
flow
= + +
}
z dn
R
V
p
2
Constant across the streamline
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F=ma normal to a
streamline (cont.)
When the fluid travels along a curved
path, a net force directed towards the
center of curvature is required, due
to either gravity or pressure or both.
When the streamlines are straight,
the centrifugal effect is negligible
and the pressure variation across the
streamline is due to gravity alone
even though the fluid is in motion.
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Physical Interpretation
An equivalent form of the Bernoulli
Equation
= = + + H z
g
V p
2
2

## Constant along a streamline

Elevation head
-related to potential energy of the
particle
Velocity head
-vertical distance needed for the fluid to fall freely
(neglecting friction) if it is to reach V from rest
Pressure head
-height of the column of fluid that is needed to produce the pressure p
Total head
Pressure head + Elevation head = Piezometric head
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Static, stagnation, Dynamic
and Total Pressure
= = + +
T
p z V p
2
2
1
Constant along a streamline
Dynamic pressure
Hydrostatic pressure
Total pressure
Static pressure
Actual thermodynamic pressure
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Static, stagnation, Dynamic
and Total Pressure (cont.)
For 2 points at the same height with
V
2
=0
2
1 1 2
2
1
V p p + =
Figure 1 : Measurement of
static and stagnation
pressures
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Static, stagnation, Dynamic
and Total Pressure (cont.)
Then, p
2
is called the stagnation
pressure
The pressure at stagnation point, p
2
,
is greater than the static pressure, p
1
There is a stagnation point on any
stationary body that is placed into a
flowing fluid
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Example 2
Air is drawn into a small open circuit wind tunnel as shown.
Atmospheric pressure is 98.7 kPa (abs) and the temperature is
27C. If viscous effects are negligible, determine the pressure at
the stagnation point on the nose of the airplane. Also determine
the manometer reading, h, for the manometer attached to the
static pressure tap within the test section of the wind tunnel if the
air velocity within the test section is 60 m/s.
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Pitot Static Tube
Fluid speed can be calculated if we
know the values of the static and
stagnation pressures in a fluid.
Figure 2 : The Pitot static tube
( )

4 3
1 4
2
2
1
3
2 p p V
p p p
V p p
=
= =
+ =
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Examples of use of the
Bernoulli Equation
Free Jets
Assumptions
z
1
=h, z
2
=0
Reservoir is large, V
1
=0
Reservoir is open to atmosphere, p
1
=0 gage
Fluid leaves as a free jet, p
2
=0
Once outside nozzle, the stream continues as a
free jet, p
5
=0
Figure 3 : Vertical flow from a tank
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Examples of use of the
Bernoulli Equation
Free Jets (cont.)
Figure 4 : Vertical flow from a tank
gh
h
2 2 v
2
= =

( ) H h g + = 2 v
5
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Example 3
For the system in the figure, h= 36 ft and the diameter of the side
opening is 2 in. Find the
(a) Jet velocity in units of ft/s
(b) Volume flow rate in units of gallon per min. (gpm)
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Example 4
A smooth plastic, 10-m long garden hose with an inside diameter of
15 mm is used to drain a wading pool as shown. If viscous effects
are neglected, what is the flowrate from the pool?
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Example 5
Water is siphoned from the tank
as shown. The water
barometer indicates a
reading of 30.2 ft. Determine
the maximum value of h
allowed without cavitation
occurring. Note that the
pressure of the vapor in the
closed end of the barometer
equals the vapor pressure.
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Example 6
Water flows from a large tank as shown. Atmospheric pressure is
14.5 psia and the vapor pressure is 2.88 psia. If viscous effects are
neglected, at what height, h, will cavitation begin?
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Examples of use of the
Bernoulli Equation
Free Jets (cont.)
If exit of tank is
not smooth, well
contoured nozzle,
the diameter of the
jet will be less than
the diameter of the
hole vena
contracta effect
Contraction coef.,
C
c
=A
j
/A
h
hole
jet
Figure 3 : Typical flow patterns and
contraction coef. for various round exit
configurations
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Examples of use of the
Bernoulli Equation
Confined Flows
In many cases, fluid is confined and its
pressure cannot be prescribed a priori
need to use the concept of conservation
of mass
Figure 5 : Steady flow into and out of a tank
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Examples of use of the
Bernoulli Equation
Confined Flows (cont.)
In such case, mass is conserved, i.e. inflow
rate must equal to the outflow rate
In general, following Bernoulli, an increase in
velocity (could be due to reduction of flow
area) is accompanied by a decrease in
pressure
For flows of liquids, this may result in
cavitation, a potentially dangerous situation
that results when liquid pressure is reduced to
vapor pressure and the liquid boils.
ible) incompress (if or
2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1
V A V A V A V A = =
AV m AV Q = =

,
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Examples of use of the
Bernoulli Equation
Flowrate measurement
Assumptions steady, inviscid and
incompressible
Figure 6 : Typical devices for measuring
flowrate in pipes
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Examples of use of the
Bernoulli Equation
Flowrate measurement (cont.)
Between points (1) and (2)
( ) | |
2
1 2
2 1
2
2 2 1 1
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
) ( 2
hence
and
A A
p p
A Q
V A V A Q
V p V p

=
= =
+ = +

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Examples of use of the
Bernoulli Equation
Flowrate measurement (cont.)
The actual measured flowrate, Q
actual
will
be smaller than this theoretical results
because of the assumptions made in
deriving the Bernoulli Equation
Other flowmeters based on Bernoulli
equation are used to measure flowrates
in open channels such as flumes and
irrigation ditches.
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The Energy Line and the
Hydraulic Grade Line
Energy line is a line that represents
the total head available to the fluid
Under the assumptions of the
Bernoulli equation, the energy line is
horizontal
If the fluid velocity changes along the
streamline, the hydraulic grade line
will not be horizontal
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The Energy Line and the
Hydraulic Grade Line
(cont.)
Figure 7 : Representation of the
energy line and the hydraulic
grade line
Measures the sum of
the pressure head and
the elevation head.
The sum is called
piezometric head
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The Energy Line and the
Hydraulic Grade Line
(cont.)
Figure 8 : Representation of the energy line and the hydraulic grade line for flow from a
tank
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The Energy Line and the
Hydraulic Grade Line
(cont.)
The distance from the pipe to HGL in
Fig. 7 indicates the pressure within
the pipe.
If the pipe lies below HGL the pressure
within the pipe is positive
If the pipe lies above HGL the pressure
is negative
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Example 7
Draw the energy line and the hydraulic grade line for the flow of
Example 6.
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Restrictions of use of the
Bernoulli Equation
Assumptions involved in deriving the
Bernoulli equation
Fluid is incompressible ok with liquids
Flow is steady
Inviscid flow
In the absence of viscous effects, the total energy of
the system remains constant
There are no mechanical devices in the system
between the two points along the streamline to
which the equation is applied