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CLEAR BRINE FLUIDS

CLEAR BRINE FLUIDS


B

Tropics to be Covered:
CBF Properties & Testing Applications CBF Selection criteria Fluid Planning & Maintenance Corrosion Displacement Fluid Loss Control Filtration

BRINE PROPERTIES & TESTING

CLEAR BRINE FLUIDS


B

Description of Clear Brine Fluids (CBF)


CBF generally fall into two categories

Halides Chloride [Cl-] and Bromide [Br-] Formates [COOH-]

Water based fluid Dissolved salt(s) for density No suspended solids Non-formation damaging

DENSITY, ppg
10 15 20 25 0
NH4Cl

9.2

KCl

9.8

NaCl

10

KBr

11

HCOONa

11

11.6

CaCl2

12.3

NaBr

13.3

HCOOK

SINGLE SALT BRINES

14.2

CaBr2

19.2

Ca/ZnBr2

Ca/ZnBr2

21

19.2

HCOOCs

CLEAR BRINE FLUIDS


Ca/ZnBr2 HCOOCs Ca/ZnBr2 CaCl2/CaBr2/ZnBr2 HCOOK/HCOOCs CaCl2/CaBr2 CaBr2 HCOOK HCOONa/HCOOK NaCl/NaBr KCl/NaCl/NaBr NaBr KCl/NaBr CaCl2 NaCl/CaCl2 HCOONa KBr KCl/KBr NaCl KCl KCl/NaCl NH4Cl

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

DENSITY, lb/gal

Halide CBF vs Formate CBF


B

Inorganic vs Organic
Halide CBF inorganic ionic salts Formates Organic salts M+ (H C

O O

) where M+ = Na+, K+ and Cs+

History of Formate CBF


Introduced in the 90s as an alternative fluid to halide brines Touted advantages

more environmentally friendly More compatible with polymers Greater clay stabilization More compatible with scaling anions

Offer advantages due to all formates are mono-valent salts, sodium, potassium & cesium

Brine Parameters
B B

Density Crystallization
TCT & PCT

B B B B B B

pH Viscosity Turbidity pH Filterability Chemical Composition


Primary components Contaminants

Density = mass/volume
B

Temperature
Increase in temperature causes volume expansion thereby decreasing density value Thermal expansion factors vary according to fluids and density

Pressure
Increase in pressure causes fluid compression thereby increasing density value Less impact on density as compared to temperature affects

Density
B B

Temperature correction for surface fluids Pressure & Temperature Correction for downhole
Increases in pressure, increases density Well bore conditions, pressure and temperature corrections are made simultaneously dc = du + CT - Cp dc: corrected density, ppg du: uncorrected density, ppg CT: average temperature correction, ppg CP: average pressure correction, ppg

Use TETRAs TP-Pro to do simultaneous temperature and pressure corrections for wellbore conditions

Version 2.2
OPERATOR: WELL NAME: LOCATION: DATE:

PEMEX Vigilante Mexico 14-Mar-08

SURFACE TEMPERATURE: BHT: TVD: BHP: OVERBALANCE: REQUIRED EFFECTIVE DENSITY: SELECTED SURFACE DENSITY: TCT: FLUID COMPOSITION ( 1- Salt; 2-Salt; 3-Salt): ACTUAL OVERBALANCE: EFFECTIVE DENSITY AT 5751': VERTICAL DEPTH FEET 0 221 442 664 885 1106 1327 1548 1770 1991 2212 2433 2654 2876 3097 3318 3539 3760 3981 4203 4424 4645 4866 5087 5309 5530 5751 ACTUAL DENSITY PPG 13.35 13.34 13.32 13.31 13.29 13.28 13.27 13.25 13.24 13.22 13.21 13.20 13.18 13.17 13.15 13.14 13.12 13.11 13.10 13.08 13.07 13.05 13.04 13.03 13.01 13.00 12.98

70 213.8 5751 3855 0 12.89 13.35 60 2 83 13.17

DEG F DEG F FT PSI PSI PPG PPG DEG F PSI PPG TEMP DEGREE FAHRENHEIT 70 76 81 87 92 98 103 109 114 120 125 131 136 142 147 153 158 164 170 175 181 186 192 197 203 208 214 TVD

Input Well Data

EFFECTIVE DENSITY PPG PSI 13.35 0 13.34 153 13.34 307 13.33 460 13.32 613 13.31 766 13.31 918 13.30 1071 13.29 1223 13.29 1375 13.28 1527 13.27 1679 13.27 1831 13.26 1983 13.25 2134 13.24 2285 13.24 2436 13.23 2587 13.22 2738 13.22 2888 13.21 3039 13.20 3189 13.20 3339 13.19 3489 13.18 3639 13.17 3788 13.17 3938

Calculated corrected density @ down hole conditions

NOTE: Results are based on best available information and assume equilibrium and static well conditions.

Density Vs. TVD 13.6 ppg CaCl2/CaBr2


13,80

13,60

13,40

DENSITY, ppg

13,20

13,00

EFFECTIVE ACTUAL

12,80

12,60

12,40

DEPTH, ft

Crystallization Temperature
Definition: Temperature at which a constituent of the brine fluid will come out of solution Terminology
Surface crystallization

FCTA - First crystal to appear TCT - True crystallization temperature LCTD - Last crystal to dissolve PCT Pressurized crystallization temperature Notation reference pressure tested and PCT value ie 4/35 has been tested at 4000 psi with a PCT of 35 deg. F

Pressurized crystallization

Schematic of crystallization curve

LCTD

TCT

FCTA

Time

PCT
B B

Crystallization temperature shift due to pressure effects Depending upon the salt composition, pressure will either have no effect or elevated the expected crystallization temperature PCT are measured with a high pressure apparatus, monitoring temperature, volume & pressure changes. PCT is a phenomenon to be consider for offshore completions at water depths greater than 1500 ft PCT fluids are rated for the minimum encountered temperature and the corresponding maximum pressure
Sea bed temperature BOP testing pressure

TETRAs PCT Tester

Viscosity
B

Definition: Property of a fluid that resists the force tending to cause the fluid to flow. Viscosity, = [Shear stress, ] in units of centipoise, cp
[Shear rate, ]

Rheological Models
Newtonian Model Bingham Plastic Model Power-Law Model

Application
Calculation of pressure drop under flow Calculation of equivalent circulating density

Viscosity
B B B

All CBF brines are nearly Newtonian in fluid behavior Apparent viscosities are sensitive to salt composition Within a salt system, as the salt concentration increases, the viscosity will increase coorresponding Measurements are typically made with Fann 35 type viscometer at either 600 rpm or 300 rpm. Payzone fluids are either Bingham or Power law fluids

Clarity - API 13J, 2nd Ed


B

B B

Definition: Relative expression referring to the turbidity of a brine due to the presence of suspended insoluble or nonmiscible particulate matter. Monitored to determine formation damage potential QA/QC on filtration performance

Clarity Measurements
B

Turbidimeter
Nephelometer type Data - NTUs Value is influenced by particle size, size distribution and refractive index May be correlated to suspended solid concentration by calibration curve

Gravimetric Method
Measures total suspended solids 1.2 m filter disks Dry retained solids and filter disk at 105oC for 1 hour Data is reported as mg of dried solids per volume of test fluid

Particle Counters
Measures particle size & concentration Does not require sample preparation Data is reported as particle size distribution

pH
B

Fluid specification
Neutral to slightly alkaline CBFs

Sodium chloride & sodium bromide Potassium chloride & potassium bromide Calcium chloride & Calcium bromide Sodium, Potassium & Cesium formate fluids Artificially buffered to 10 with carbonate solution Zinc CBF Ammonium chloride

Highly alkaline CBFs


Acidic CBFs

Monitoring of acid/base contamination

Filterability
B

Objective
Evaluate the ability of filtration to bring used fluid back to specification Determine possible polymer or other contamination

Test Method
Filter CBF through a 0.45 micron absolute filter paper using an inline filter holder and syringe Passing: Greater than 50 ml of filtrate thru one filter paper Failure: List actual filtrate volume thru one filter paper

TETRAs QA/QC
B

Brine Analysis Program


Part of TETRAs CBF management program QA blending at the plant facility QC of return fluids from rig Measures salt composition Physical properties

Density Crystallization Turbidity Filterability

Contaminates

APPLICATIONS

Applications
B

Completion/Workover Fluid
Gravel pack fluid Stimulation fluid Frac fluid

B B

Packer Fluid PayZone Drilling Fluids

Completion and Workover Fluid

Completion & Workover Fluids


B

Desired Properties
Density - well control Non-formation damaging

Solids Free Compatible with formation water Compatible with clays/shale

Non-Corrosive

Completion & Workover Fluid


B

Density

8.5 ppg to 21.0 ppg Maximum equivalent pressure gradient of 1.1 psi/ft Density increase with spike fluid or anhydrous salts Density decrease with low density fluid or water

Completion & Workover Fluid


B

Solids Free Fluid


Low pumping pressures No solids to obstruct wellbore operations Avoid density stratification

Completion & Workover Fluid


B

Formation Damage - Overview


Permeability - fluid flow Porosity - pore volume Production

Completion & Workover Fluid


B

Formation Damage - Particle Invasion


No suspended solids in brine fluids Brine filtration is extremely important

Diatomaceous earth filtration Cartridge filtration

Completion & Workover Fluid


B

Formation Damage thru clay hydration and dispersion


Damage mechanism

Hydrated clays/shale decrease porosity Dispersed clays/shale may potentially reduce permeability High salinity fluids inhibit clay swelling and migration

Water sensitive clays

HYDRATED CLAYS INSITU CLAYS

DISPERSED HYDRATED CLAYS

Completion & Workover Fluid


B

Formation Damage - Water Compatibility


Insitu precipitation reduces permeability & porosity

Seawater
s s

Sulfates Bacteria Cation scaling/precipitation


Sodium Calcium, Barium, Strontium Heavy metals - iron

Formation water compatibility


s

Anion scaling/precipitation
Bicarbonate/carbonate Sulfates Sulfides

Halides & Formates are extremely soluble

Completion & Workover Fluid


B

Formation Damage - Wetability


Most virgin reservoirs are water wet Non-water based fluids will alter wetability Clear brine fluids are water based

Packer Fluid

Packer Fluid
B

B B B

Maintain complete or partial hydrostatic pressure requirement of the well Long term application Closed system Desired Properties

No solids, non-damaging, inhibitive, no physical obstruction Temperature stability Low corrosion Remain pumpable Compatibility with elastomers

Packer Fluid
B

Advantages

Wide range of densities Non-formation damaging Solids free Fluid stability Low corrosion rate

Packer Fluid
B

Solids Free Fluid


Unlike muds, no solids to settle over time No solids to hinder or prevent removal of packers Fluid can be used as non-damaging workover or kill fluid

PACKER FLUID
1200

1000

HEIGHT OF SETTLED SOLIDS, cm

800

600

400

15,000 FT (4572 M) 9 5/8 IN CASING 5,000 FT (1,524 M) 7 5/8 IN CASING 2 7/8 IN TUBING

200

0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS, mg/l

Packer Fluid
B

Fluid Stability

Thermally stable - >400oF for halides, <350 deg. F for formates Compatible with packer elements
s s

Nitriles are incompatible with zinc fluids Vitons are incompatible with formate fluids

Fluid remains pumpable Can be re-use as kill fluid

CBF SELECTION CRITERIA

Fluid Selection
Well Design & Hydraulics
Completion Fluid's Density & Crystallization point

Correct Density [Temperature & Pressure]

PCT Check [Pressure & Crystallization point]

Final Working Fluid Specification

Corrosion Resistant Alloy Compatibility Fluid Evaluation Formation Damage Fluid Economics Environmental & Safety

Well Design & Hydraulic


B

Provide hydrostatic pressure BHP = grads , psi/ft x TVD, ft Density, ppg = grad, psi/ft x 0.052 Desired CBF density may be based upon the overburden pressure, underburden pressure or ECD
Overburden pressure = BHP + Overbalance pressure Underburden pressure = BHP Underbalance pressure ECD takes into consideration of pressure drops under dynamic conditions Pressure consideration due to weak liner top, cement etc. Open hole consider pore & fracture presure

Final density must be calculated to compensate for temperature and pressure using TP-Pro
Onshore calculation Offshore calculation allows for temperature modeling to seabed temperature and from seabed temperature to bottom hole temperature

Crystallization Point
B

Definition: Temperature at which a constituent of the brine fluid will come out of solution Selected according to the lowest temperature to be encounter
Ambient temperature Sea bed temperature

The specified TCT of the CBF should approximately 5 deg. F lower than the minimum working temperature

PCT
B

Factors to consider for PCT fluids


Consider PCT effects when well is in 1500 ft of water or greater Sea bed temperature Hydrostatic pressure at sea bed Any overburden pressure at sea bed depth such as BOP testing Maximum calculated pressure is hydrostatic pressure (corrected) plus overburden pressure

As with TCT, PCT ratings should have a safety factor


The PCT temperature rating should be 5 deg. F lower than the minimum temperature at the given maximum pressure Example a well with a sea bed temperature of 35 deg. F and maximum pressure at sea bed depth of 10,000 psi should have a fluid with rating of 10/30

Final Fluid Specification


B

Once density and TCT/PCT are determined, types of possible salt systems can be defined
CLEAR BRINE FLUIDS
Ca/ZnBr2 HCOOCs Ca/ZnBr2 CaCl2/CaBr2/ZnBr2 HCOOK/HCOOCs CaCl2/CaBr2 CaBr2 HCOOK HCOONa/HCOOK NaCl/NaBr KCl/NaCl/NaBr NaBr KCl/NaBr CaCl2 NaCl/CaCl2 HCOONa KBr KCl/KBr NaCl KCl KCl/NaCl NH4Cl

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.60

1.80

2.00

2.20

2.40

2.60

SPECIFIC GRAVITY

CBF Fluid Type


B

Metallurgy of well
If corrosion resistant alloys are used (CRA)

Run Matchwell for fluid & additive compatibility Avoid environmentally assisted cracking (EAC)
s s s

Form of localized corrosion Manifests as a crack that may go through the pipe Can occur at fairly short periods days

FLUID EVALUATION
ROCK MATRIX PAYZONE FLUIDS FORMATION WATER

STIMULATION FLUIDS COMPLETION FLUID GRAVEL PACK FLUIDS

IN SITU GASES

PRODUCED CRUDE

FRAC FLUIDS

DRILLING MUD

Mechanisms of Formation Damage


B B B B B B

Change of Wettability Particle Invasion Clay Hydration Formation Water Compatibility Crude Compatibility Other Fluids

FORMATION WATER
B

Anions
Sulfates Carbonates

pH
Destabilization of Clays Precipitation

Cations
Barium Heavy metals Sodium

Formation Water Compatibility


1600 1400
11.5 ppg NaCl/NaBr 12.5 ppg NaBr 11.0 ppg CaCl2

Turbidity, ntu

1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0


Formation Water: SG = 1.109 Na = 53551 ppm Fe = 3 ppm Ba = ND Ca = 7060 ppm Mg = 571 ppm Cl = 93174 ppm CO3-2 = 926 ppm SO4-2 = 3375 ppm pH = 10.8

12.0 ppg CaCl2/CaBr2

25/75 50/50 75/25 Completion Brine/Formation Water Ratio

Formation Water Compatibility


16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

Solids, vol. %

12.5 ppg CaCl2/CaBr2 12.5 ppg CaBr2 14.0 ppg CaBr2

Formation Water: SG = 1.14 NaCl = 18.6 wt.%

25/75 50/50 75/25 Completion Brine/Formation Water

CBF Selection
B

Environmental
Governmental regulations

Zinc CBF zero discharge Reportable quantities GOM


s s

Zinc Bromide 1000 lbs Ammonium chloride 5000 lbs

Toxicity values

Disposal considerations

Toxicity Salinity Halides Zinc CBF

Safety & Personnel handling

CBF Selection Fluid Economics


B B B B

Each salt has different COG Fluids are blended as mixed salts to lower cost Generally chlorides are less expensive than bromides Should be last criteria

Fluid Planning & Maintenance

Fluid Planning
B

Working fluid
Volume Maintenance program

Spike fluid
Density Volume

Working Fluid
(2 to 3 times circulating volume)
B

Calculating working fluid volume requirements


Circulating volume

Volume of wellbore with drill pipe in place Minimum of one hole volume Fluid hold in the equipment Filtration rate of equipment versus fluid circulation rate Fluid volume held in the system

Holding tanks

Filtration equipment

Surface piping

Re-supply turnaround time Contingency needs and pill requirements


Fluid loss thru displacement interface, downhole & surface Make up of fluid loss pills

Working Fluid Maintenance


B

B B

Fluids can lose density from water or other low density fluid ingression Density increase required to maintain well control or wellbore Use of spike fluid or material for working fluid density maintenance
Fluid with a significantly higher density than the working fluid Dry salts

Density Loss due to Fluid Ingression


B

All clear brine fluids are hygroscopic absorb water from atmosphere at points of exposure
Rigs utilizing clear brine fluids require closed tanks to minimize this problem

Surface fluid handling system are not completely water tight and water run off can contaminate brine fluid. Contamination of brine fluid from water lines
Standard operating procedure is to lock off all water lines prior to bringing CBF onto rig.

Contamination of brine fluid from ingression of reservoir fluids


Oil Formation water

Well Control
B

Higher density of fluid required due to higher than expected reservoir pressure Kick in well need a higher density of fluid to kill well

Spike Fluid/Material Factors


B B

Determine during well pre-planning Based upon most likely density range increase of working fluid for well control Weigh up option must keep TCT or PCT at or below wells specification Consider rig limitations
Tank capacity

The lesser the density differential, the greater volume consumption of spike fluid impacting volume of spike fluid

Mixing capabilities (dry materials)


B

Time
Time require to maintain the working fluid Turnaround time for bringing new fluid onsite

Economics

Spike Fluid/Material
B

Consideration in calculating volume of Spike Fluid


Density of spike fluid

Salt system TCT/PCT requirements Typically based on maintaining 0.2 0.4 ppg density loss in working fluid Density increase due to un-anticipated increase in reservoir pressure Same consideration as in liquid spike Dry material availability
s s s s s s

Volume of working fluid to maintain


Quantity of spike dry materials


Sodium chloride Sodium bromide Calcium chloride Calcium bromide Sodium formate Potassium formate

CORROSION

Definition of Corrosion

Destruction or deterioration of a material by reaction with its environment.


Metals Non-metallic materials such as plastics, ceramics

B B

These reactions may be chemical and/or physical. Corroded metal reverts back to most stable form - oxides

Corrosion Problems

B B B B

Metal Loss Formation of Solids which contribute to formation damage Contamination of Clear Brine Fluid Possible Catastrophic Failure of Tubing and Equipment

Types of Corrosion
B

Uniform Corrosion
Metal loss distributed over entire exposed surface area Most common form Caused by chemical reactions Long term corrosion effects can be accurately predicted

Localized Corrosion
Crevice Pitting Stress Intergranular Can lead to premature failure of tubing or equipment

Environmental Assisted Cracking


Form of Stress corrsion Requires an applied stress and electrochemical reaction Primary considerations are on CRA

Effective corrosion control requires a multiple approach method


B B B B B B B

Brine composition Aeration Contaminates Corrosion inhibitors Oxygen scavenger Biocides Corrosion resistant alloy

Uniform Corrosion Data


s

CaCl2/CaBr2/ZnBr2 Brine
Test conditions: 177oC, N-80 steel, 7 days

Inhibited Systems
1.86 sg brine: 121oC, N-80 steel, 5 days 2.04 sg brine: 149oC, N-80 steel, 7 days

160

45

CORROSION RATE, mpy

Composition A Composition B Composition C

CORROSION RATE, mpy

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Control Tetrahib Plus

1.76

1.86

1.96

2.06

2.16

2.26

1.86

2.04

DENSITY, sg

DENSITY, sg

MatchWell
B

Empirical Corrosion Database developed by TETRA on CBFs and additives to predict EAC on various metallurgies MatchWell is a fluid selector program that recommends an optimum fluid system to avoid EAC for the given well metallurgy & parameters

DISPLACEMENT

Displacement And Cleanup Definition

Substitute one fluid for another in the wellbore while removing all residue of the original fluid.

Displacement And Cleanup Goals


B

Maintain well control Avoid Health Safety & Environmental concerns Maintain wellbore integrity Provide a solids free environment for completion Minimize operational costs
Minimize operational time Minimize fluid losses due to contamination

Displacement And Cleanup


Design Considerations
B

Original fluid type and density Displacing fluid type and density Wellbore geometry Wellbore integrity Equipment limitations

Displacement And Cleanup


Methods
B

Direct Displacement
All three operations are performed by one or more chemical spacers in one circulation

Indirect displacement
An intermediary fluid (usually seawater) is introduced to aid in the performance of the removal of the original fluid and residue.

Displacement And Cleanup


Method Advantages/Disadvantages
B

Direct Displacement
Advantages
Minimizes pumping time Provides better down hole pressure control Protects integrity of original fluid Minimizes volume of waste fluid generated

Disadvantages
Spacers are typically more expensive May generate high downhole pressures Places higher importance on pump capabilities Fluid compatibilities may be more critical Mud mobility is crucial

Displacement And Cleanup


Method Advantages/Disadvantages
B

Indirect Displacement
Advantages
Spacer cost minimized Insures clean hole, before introducing completion fluid Allows greater tolerance of mechanical difficulties Mud mobility requirements are less crucial

Disadvantages
Downhole hydrostatic pressures are reduced Creates larger amounts of waste fluid Requires more pumping time May need to discharge first step cleaning fluid (seawater)

Displacement And Cleanup Method Selection


B

Indirect Displacement
Preferred method, unless prohibited by circumstances

Direct displacement
Utilized when circumstance prohibit an indirect displacement

Indirect Displacement
Pump Schedule
Stage Seawater Caustic Soda Seawater Surfactant Seawater Caustic soda Seawater Volume Minimum One hole volume 50 barrels 50 barrels 50 barrels 50 barrels 50 barrels One hole volume Short Trip Casing Scrapers and Brushes Rig up to reverse circulate Seawater High Vis. Sweep Filtered Completion Fluid One hole volume 50 barrels Until returns are clean Maximum Maximum Maximum Rate Maximum Maximum Maximum Maximum Maximum Maximum Maximum

Displacement Systems
B

TDSP System
Balanced displacement Minimum size, multiple pills Low pump rates Generally used in direct displacement Large single pill Balanced displacement High pump rates Utilized in direct and indirect displacement

TETRACLEAN System

Direct Displacement
Spacer Design - TDSP System
B

Base Fluid TDSP I TDSP II TDSP III

Direct Displacement
TDSP Spacer Design
B

Base Fluid
Base fluid of the mud system being displaced, with no additives.

Included when compatibility is a concern Acts as a turbulent sweep, helping to clean mud cake from casing interior Protects integrity of fluid being displaced Commonly used in SBM and OBM displacement

Volume designed to provide adequate separation of original fluid and TDSP I

Direct displacement
TDSP Spacer design
B

TDSP I
Fresh water viscosified with polymers and weighted with barite.

Density designed to be 0.2 0.5 ppg higher than density of fluid being removed Rheology designed to be high enough to suspend barite and provide plug or laminar flow

Volume designed to provide adequate separation of original fluid and TDSP II Recommended minimum of 1,000 ft of coverage in largest annular space Recommended contact time of 5 minutes

Direct Displacement
TDSP Spacer Design
B

TDSP II
8.6 ppg sodium chloride with a surfactant specifically chosen to most effectively remove residue of the original fluid Volume designed to provide adequate coverage and contact time with all surfaces of the wellbore and incorporate anticipated residue

Recommended minimum of 2,000 feet of coverage in largest annular space Recommended minimum contact time is 10 minute

Should be pumped in highly turbulent flow Displacement Chemical products


TETRA OMD TETRA O-Sol TETRA O-Sol Plus

Direct Displacement
TDSP Spacer Design
B

TDSP III
Viscosified intermediate density fluid, usually 11.6 ppg

HEC polymer HEC/XC polymer XC polymer

Rheology designed to provide maximum suspension and lifting capabilities Volume designed to provide adequate separation between TDSP II and the completion fluid Recommended minimum coverage of 1,000 feet in largest annular space Recommended minimum contact time is 5 minute.

TETRACLEAN SYSTEM
B

Single multi-function fluid


SOBM OBM WBM

B B B

Minimal use of space/tanks/pits System can be pre-blended or made on-site Versatile


Unbalanced displacement Balanced displacement

B B

High Rate displacement Environmental Compliance

TETRACLEAN SYSTEM Components


B

Blend of Polymers
Spacer Suspend/carrier of solids

TETRACLEAN 105 & TETRACLEAN 106


Surfactants & Cleaning agents Remove any remaining solids on casing Disperse solids Water wet metal surfaces

Base Fluid
Water/seawater Brines

TETRACLEAN SYSTEM
B

SOBM/OBM
Preceded by a base oil pill Formulation of surfactant/cleaning agents according to mud type brine

WBM
Clean up and displacement with TETRACLEAN pill

Unbalance Displacement
Preceded by Hi-vis push pill & seawater Clean up with TETRACLEAN pill

High Flow Rate


Circulating sub in wells utilizing liners Kill/Choke lines to boost rates in riser

Displacement And Cleanup Products


B

Caustic Soda sodium hydroxide


Cleans by saponification of oils to soap

TETRA OMD
Surfactant and dispersant for water based and diesel based muds

TETRA O-Sol
Blend of surfactants designed for diesel and synthetic based oil muds

TETRASol
Blend of surfactants and solvents to remove hydrocarbons, oil based muds, pipe dope, asphaltenes and resins

TETRAClean 103
Flocculate mud, pipe dope, oil, polymers and other solids.

TETRAClean 105
Surfactant component of TETRAClean system

TETRAClean 106
Cleaning booster for TETRAClean 105 used in non-calcium displacement pills

Direct Displacement
Pump Schedule
Stage Stage Volume Cumulative Volume Rate Returning Fluid

TDSP I TDSP II TDSP III Completion Fluid Completion Fluid Completion Fluid Completion Fluid Completion Fluid Completion Fluid

25 50 25 185 250 25 50 25 435

25 75 100 285 535 560 610 635 1070 Short Trip Casing Scrapers

2.5 2.5 2.5 4.25 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5

Mud Mud Mud Mud Mud TDSP I TDSP II TDSP III Completion Fluid

Completion Fluid

Until Clean

Max. Rate

Completion Fluid

DeepDesign Displacement Modeling Software

DeepDesign
B B

Database management of input data Hydraulic calculation on the exact configuration of the well
Subsea completion Pipe joints Eccentricity Tool configuration

Fluids
Density and rheology corrected as a function of temperature & pressure Track fluid properties as a function of circulating or static mode.

Displacement Summary
Variables Flow rate (bpm) 8.00 3.57 0.0 218.4 Pump P (psi) 7689 0 40.9 120.0 Pump HP (HP) 1507. 0. 40.9 120.0 P @ TD (psi) 17873 15631 48.5 61.2 ECD @ TD (ppg) 17.85 15.61 48.5 61.2 ECD @ TOL (ppg) 18.57 8.62 181.2 205.2

Maxi. value Mini. value Maxi. @ time (min) Mini. @ time (min)

DeepDesign Output
PRESSURE @TD
9400 9200 9000

PRESSURE @TD, PSI

8800 8600 8400 8200 8000 7800 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500

CUMULATIVE VOLUME, BBL

DeepDesign Output
PUMP PRESSURE
3000

2500

PUMP PRESSURE, PSI

2000

1500

1000

500

0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180

ELAPSED TIME, MIN.

DOWNHOLE FLUID LOSS CONTROL

Fluid Loss Control


B

Pre-plan FLC options


First option FLC pill Contingency option pill Reduction of fluid density

Fluid loss rates


Seepage less than 10 bbl/hr Moderate fluid loss High fluid loss Lost circulation rate of lost fluid is greater than pump fluid rate

Selection Criteria
FLUID LOSS PILLS
Reservoir Data

Fluid Loss Pill Requirements

Operational Requirements

Final Working FLC Specification

Solids Free Pills Polymer Pill Polymer Crosslinked Pill

Solids Laden Pills Sized Salt Pill Sized Carbonate Pill PayZone MagmaFiber

Environmental & Safety Discharge Clean Up

Base Brine System Monovalent halide CBF Divalent Halide CBF Formate CBF

Fluid Loss Pill Selection Criteria


B

Reservoir data
Permeability of reservoir

Determines the applicability of polymer pills Sizing of bridge solids Determines the depth of pill invasion Dictate size of pill & clean up Determines the applicability of polymer pills Determines the additive package Determines the pill component Compatibility with base brine & clean up chemicals Compatibility with base brine & Clean up chemicals ECD consideration ECD consideration

Porosity

Bottom hole temperature


Formation water

Lithology of reservoir

Pore pressure

Fracture pressure

Fluid Loss Pill Selection Criteria


B

Fluid loss pill properties


Desired final density

May opt to decrease density to lower hydrostatic column

Base brine fluid


B

Operational Requirements
Time interval for performance of FLC pill Well design

Aperture restriction in tools Pumping limitation Rig equipment limitation Acids Enzymes Oxidizers flowback

Mode of Clean up if required


Fluid Loss Control


B

Types of Pills
Solids free

Polymer pill TETRA Flex, Cross-linked polymer pill Sized Salt Sized Carbonate PayZone MagmaFiber

Solids laden pill


Final FLC Specification


B B B

Density Length of time for FLC performance @ temperature Clean up option

Types of FLC
Solids-Free Pills
B

Polymer FLC
Density range: 8.5 19.2 ppg Mechanism:

Bulk viscosity with HEC polymer Banking & Gel Strength with XC polymer Low residual Least formation damaging Degrades naturally over time with sufficient temperature Limited to reservoirs with permeability less than 1 darcy Temperature limitation
s s

Advantage

Disadvantages

HEC approximately 200 deg. F XC 220 240 deg. F

Greater invasion into formation

Types of FLC
Solids-Free Pills
B

TETRA Flex pill


Pre-crosslinked polymer gel in CBF Solids-free FLC Density range: 8.5 ppg to 14.0 ppg Mechanism

Crosslinked gel function as a bridging material Low residual, less formation damaging than solids laden FLC Easily degraded by acid Can be extended to higher density fluid with a viscosified carrier brine Limited to reservoir formation of less than 2.5 darcy Temperature limitation of 240 deg. F

Advantages

Disadvantages

Types of FLC
Solids-Laden Pills
B

Characteristics of Solids-laden pills


Contains bridging solids Contains a polymer with solids suspension property May contain starch component for additional filtrate control All degradable under appropriate conditions and treatment

Types of FLC
Solids-Laden Pills
B

Sized Salt pills


Bridge solids suspended in polymer Ideal density range: 10.5 to 13.0 ppg Mechanism:

Forms an impermeable filter cake with NaCl Very effective in controlling fluid loss Capable of spanning a wide range of reservoir permeability Bridge solids are water soluble Size salt may dissolve prematurely May be damaging to formation Temperature limitation is function of polymers used Optimal applications is limited to sodium halide CBF Usage in non-sodium CBF can lead to unpredictable bridge solids sizing & dissolution

Advantages

Disadvantages

Types of FLC
Solids Laden Pill
B

Sized Carbonate Pill


Bridge solids suspended in polymer Density range: 8.7 ppg to 19.2 ppg Mechanism:

Forms an impermeable filter cake Very effective in controlling fluid loss Capable of spanning a wide range of reservoir permeability Bridge solids are highly acid soluble Wider range of density pill available than sized salt pills Acidization is required for removal of bridge solids May be damaging to formation Temperature limitation is a function of polymers used in pill

Advantages

Disadvantages

Types of FLC
Solids Laden Pills
B

Fiber Bridging Solid


PayZone MagmaFiber fiber-like bridge solids in viscosified base brine Density range: 8.6 ppg to 19.2 ppg Mechanism: Forms an impermeable matted filter cake Advantages:

Very effective in controlling fluid loss Effective in controlling losses in fracture face and vugular formations due to the fiber like bridge solids PayZone MagmaFiber are acid soluble Wide range of density available, similar to sized carbonate pills Acidization is required to remove bridge solids Residuals of FLC may contribute to formation damage Temperature limitation is a function of polymers used in pill

Disadvantages:

FLC Components
B B B

Polymers Thermal extenders for polymers Bridge solids

Polymer Products
B B B B B B B B B B

TETRA Vis HEC polymer TETRA Vis L low concentration liquid HEC product TETRA Vis L Plus High concentration liquid HEC product BioPol - Biopolymer BioPol-L (liquid) Biopolymer BioPol HT High temperature biopolymer PseudoPol (liquid) Synthetic polymer PseudoPol D Synthetic polymer PseudoPol HT High temperature synthetic polymer Payzone HPS Starch for filtrate control

Thermal Extender
B B

Formate CBFs TETRA Buff-10


pH stabilizer

PayZone 750
Anti-oxidant Prevents oxidation of polymer

Bridge Solids
B

Sized Sodium Chloride, 25 to 50 ppb


TETRA SS-Fine, particle size ranging from 1.0 800 m and D50 of 48 m TETRA SS-Medium, particle size ranging from 100 1500 m and D50 of 500 m TETRA SS-Coarse, particle size ranging from 1000 10,000 m

Sized Calcium Carbonate, 25 to 50 ppb


PayZone Carb-Prime, particle size ranging from 2.0 150 m and D50 of 12 m PayZone Carb-Ultra, particle size ranging from 1.5 20 m and D50 of 4 m TETRACarb Fine, particle size ranging from 10 500 m and D50 of 55 m TETRACarb Medium, particle size ranging from 85 1200 m and D50 of 370 m TETRACarb Coarse, particle size ranging from 1000 3500 m and D50 of 1800 m TETRACarb Flake, flat sheet like shaped solid

PayZone 530 & 532, 8 to 30 ppb


PayZone 530 Regular grade PayZone 532 Fine grade

Well Planning FLC


B

Size of FLC pill


Typically 1.5 to 2.0 times the wellbore section that requires sealing off Solids-Free Pills will require a larger volume than typical due to volume losses from invasion into formation Sized Salt pills will require a larger volume than typical to limit losses of sized bridge solids

Develop guidelines for application of FLC and contingency FLC pill


Rate of fluid losses to the application of FLC pills

FILTRATION

Filtration Applications
B

Filtration of CBFs
Removal of suspended solids in brines Removal of fisheye in viscosified pills

Oil Removal
CBF Produced water

Filtration
Clear Brine Fluids
B

Best available technology for protecting the productivity of reservoir


Meet hydraulic requirements of well Meet working environments of well Least formation damaging fluid to the formation

In order to maintain the integrity of CBF, fluid filtration is essential Fluid filtration is part of CBFs daily maintenance

QA/QC Filtration Performance Methods


B

Turbidity Generally used by most operators


Nephelometric method light deflected at 90 deg. Indirect measurement of solids in fluid Standards utilized by operators can range from 10 NTU to higher

Gravimetric measurements used by operators requiring tighter solids control


Absolute weight of solids retained by pre-determined size filter Standards utilized by operators can range from 10 mg/l to higher

Particle Counts Most stringent method utilized by operators with highly sensitive formation
Typically utilize laser particle counters Monitor particle size and concentration Standards utilized by operators can range from specified maximum particle size, minimum particle count reduction and maximum particle concentrations

All the above methods has been implemented successfully by TETRA

Formation Damage Completion Fluid Contamination


B

Problems Created by Solids in Completion Brine


Skin Damage by particle invasion to reservoir

Pore throat blocking thereby reducing permeability Reduction of overall porosity Contributes to overall loss of net production Plugging of perforations Plugging of slots in liner Plugging of gravel pack Obstruction downhole that may lead to inoperable tools Settlement of solids on packer that could lead problems in removal of packer in workovers. Brine cannot be used as packer fluid Brine cannot be used in another well

Operational problems

Loss in value of completion brine


Formation Damage Particle invasion


1

Permeability Change (k/Ki)

0.8

2.5 md
0.6

7.3 md 39.1 md

0.4

0.2

0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200

Cummulative Throughput, PV Completion brine contaminated with 100 mg/l hydrated API bentonite through well core samples

Graph illustrates the magnitude in reduction of permeability due to loss of completion brine contaminated with 100 mg/l of solids. The core sample with an initial permeability of 39 md lost more than 80% of its original permeability after a flow of 26 pore volume into the core. The pore volume is fairly low since it is the equivalent measured pore space in the core sample.

PACKER FLUID
1200

HEIGHT OF SETTLED SOLIDS, cm

1000

800

600

400

15,000 FT (4572 M) 9 5/8 IN CASING 5,000 FT (1,524 M) 7 5/8 IN CASING 2 7/8 IN TUBING

200

0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200

TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS, mg/l


This graph illustrates the amount of settled solids that will occur when packer fluids are not filtered. The height of settled solids is a function of the level of solid contamination in the brine. Settled solids on a packer can prevent its removal at a future date without a milling operation.

DE Brine Filtration Standard of the Industry


B

TETRA - DE Plate & Frame Filtration


Sizes: 600 ft2, 1100 ft2, 1300 ft2 and 1500 ft2 Capacity to filter brines with densities ranging from 8.5 ppg to 19.2 ppg Filter media diatomaceous earth Cake filtration Flow rates: 5 to 20 bpm, dependent upon size of filtration unit & brine density Cartridge Pod units Placed immediately downstream of SafeDEflo DE unit Primary function is a guard unit to prevent solids bypass in the DE unit Dual pod with 64 cartridge capacity

TETRA C2 Pleated Cellulose Filtration Cartridges TETRA PP2 Polypropylene Filtration Cartridges Resin Bonded Filtration Cartridges

Cartridge Filtration
B

Utilized as guard filtration in DE filtration


Insures fluid clarity in the event of tears in the filter cloth DE filter aid grade should be match with cartridge rating such that solids are removed by DE

Utilized to filter viscosified pill


Solids-free fluid loss pill

XC polymer HEC polymer Fisheyes are partially or un-hydrated polymer Fisheyes are a source of formation damage

Remove fisheyes

Oily water reclamation


Special cartridges made of material to absorb oil Design to meet Oil & Grease discharge regulations