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University of Foreign Languages, Yangon

Department of Myanmar
An Introductory Course in Myanmar
Writing & Reading
Aung Win Naing
(Lecturer)
Foreword
The University of Foreign Languages, Yangon, is the only institution in Myanmar, which
offers cow-ses to overseas students to enable them to have a better understanding of
Myanmar and Myanmar language. With the increasing number of foreign studmts coming
to this country to study Myanmar language and culture, the need for effective, appropriate
and challenging teaching materials has become imperative. In response to this urgent need
and with the active support and continual encouragement of U Myo Nyunt, Deputy
Minister, Ministry of Education, and the excellent guidance of Dr. U Soe Win, Rector,
University of Foreign Languages, Yangon, the Department of Myanmar Language, UFL,
Yangon 'has been successful in bringing out An Introductory C o ~ r s e in Myanmar Writing
and Reading written by U Aung Win Naing, Lecturer, Department of Myanmar. It is
realised that Myanmar writing is difficult for foreign students to master. Therefore,
effective approaches, methods and techniques have been applied to help the foreign
leamers master Myanmar writing within a short period of time. As An Introductory Course
in Myanmar Writing and Reading was prepared to meet the tugent need of foreign
students, there may be some deficiencies seen from the academic point of view. However,
it is our sincere hope that the instructors will remedy the perceived weaknesses in the
classroom.
We welcome any CnUclSlIl, advice, conunents, and suggestions !i.-om students and
academics, which would contribute to the improvement of the present text.
Finally, we would like to express our sincere tlumks to all those who have helped us in one
way or another in the preparation of this book. We are also grateful to many friends who
encouraged us to write this book and hence u-ansfonn a dream into reality.
16 October 2000 Professor Tin Shwe
Contents
Foreword
1. The Myanmar alphabet
2. The consonant letters and their sound values
3. The consonant letters and their names
4. Vowel symbols and their sound values
5. Vowel symbols and their names
6. Vowell i /
7.
8.
9.
10.
II.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
Special vowel symbols
Vowel / ei/
Special vowel symbols
Vowel I el
Vowel/.vl and Neutral Vowell:::!
Vowel 101
Special vowel symbols
Vowel/oul
Vowel lui
Special vowel symbols
Diacritics for clusters of consonants
How to write Myanmar clusters of Consonants with 7. simple vowels
Another vowel symbols for I i I . I ei / and I e I
Nasalized vowel I in /
Nasalized vowel/an /
Nasalized vowel/un /
Nasalized vowel / ein /
Nasalized vowel / oun /
Nasalized vowel / ain I
Nasalized vowel I aun /
Vowels followed by glottal stop
How to write Myanmar Consonants with glottal stop / i '/
Page
1 - 3
4-5
5
6-7
8 -10
12
13 -17
17 -18
19 -23
24 - 30
31 - 35
3S - 36
37 - 40
41 - 45
45 -46
47 - 51
51 - 68
69 -72
73 -76
77 -79
80 - 83
83 - 8S
86- 89
90- 92
93 -96
97
98 - lao
Contents
29. How to write Myanmar Consonants with glottal stop / e' / 100 - 102
30. How to write Myanmar Consonants with glottal stop / a' / 102 - 105
31. How to write Myanmar Consonants with glottal stop / u' / 105 - 107
32. How to write Myanmar Consonants with glottal stop / e ~ / 107 - 109
33. How to write Myanmar Consonants with glottal stop / ou' I 109 - 111
34. How to write Myanmar Consonants with glottal stop I ai' I 111-113
35. How to write Myanmar Consonants with glottal stop / au' / 114-115
36. Miniature symbol of devowelized nga.tha' [8] 116.- 117
37. Subscripted letters pa'hsin. 118 - 121
38. Small and big form 122
39. Myanmar numerals 123 -124
40. Irregularities 125
1
Myanmar Writing
1. The Myanmar alphabet
The Myanmar alphabet is called mj{!1IUI e'klrgja and its source was the
Brahmi script which flourished in India from about 500 B.C. to over 300
A.D.
The Myanmar earliest Myanmar writing is Rajakumar stone inscription
inscribed in about 475 B.E. [A.D. 1113] in Bagan.
2. The consonant letters and their sound values
There are 33 consonant letters in Myanmar alphabet today. In the
English writing system we are accustomed to representing a word with a
sequence of symbols written from left to right. In Myanmar writing
system, however, the symbols for the initial consonant of a syllable acts as
a nucelus around which the other symbols are written as diacritics. Thus,
in learning the writing system, the consonants must be studied first.
The following 25 grouped consonant letters are arranged horizontally
by point of articulation, vertically by voiceless, aspirated and voiced, with
the nasals in the last column.
INITIAL CONSONANTS IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER
Voiceless Aspirated Yoked Voiced Nasal
Velar
00 k Q kh 0 g to g C ng
Alveolar
Q)
s ~ hs e z
GlJ
z
~ *
nj
Alveolar
~
t
. ~ .
ht
q
d t> d ao n
Alveolar
en t 00 ht 3 d 9 d
,
n
BihlbUd
0 p U hp ~ b 00 b Q m
* ~ is a palatal nasal consonant and 2... is its small form. It is only
used for Pali loan words.
2
There are 8 consonant symbols which are non-group besides the 25 in the
table mentioned above.
Mis-
cellimeou
s
U)
'1
[j]
[r]
(\) I ~
0
:l)
[th ]
[dh]
00
~
00 j
'1
j/r CO I 0 w :::0 th I dh
0'.)
h
~
I
4ij
z
-
voiced palatal
-
voiced palatal
-
The pronunciation [ r ] like English r in row, rich,
rut is not Myanmar. It is used only for loan-words.
-
voiced alveolar
-
voiced bilabial
-
voiceless dental
- voiced dental
-
voiceless glottal
-
Although it is pronounced vowel sound like English
a in cart, hart, J2M!, it is traditionally accepted con-
sonant letter.
3
HOW TO WRITE MYANMAR CONSONANTS
(Y)
Q
n
tlJ
c
G) OX) (t
GiJ
~
~ ~
')
t)
cu:>
--I ..
(1)
ex:>
3
Q
~ ~
0
(9
t? 00
Q
ex>
'1
C\)
0
X>
(J')
~
3d
4
3. The consonant letters and their names
COnsOlUUlt Letters Names Note
(J) ka. gji:
great lea,
0 kha. gwei: curved hka,
0 ga.nge small ga,
0:>
gao gji: great ga,
c oga.
e
sa.loun: roood sa,
GO hsa.lein twisted hsa,

za. gwe: divided za,
1ft
za. mjio Z'We: bridle za,
2.
nja. lei: small nja,
~
oja. gji:
great nja,
"
tao t!!,Un: gjei'
bier-hook ta,
.. Si
hta. wun be:
duckhta,
~
da. jin gaul crooked-breasted da,
0 da. jei hmou'
water-dipper da,
CI') oa. gji: great na,
0'.) tao wun: bu abdominous ta,
00 hta. hsin du: elephant-fetter hta,
3 da. dwei:
confused da,

da. au' chai'
bottom-indented da,
,
na.nge
small na,
0 pa. zau' steep or deep pa,
@ bps. ou' htou'
cappedhpa,
0 ba. I!!,chai' top-indented ba,
::Y.) ba.goun: hump-backed ba,
s rna.
5
ConsolUUlt Letters Names
No"
U) ja. pe' Ie' supineja.
'1
ja. gau' crookedja.
co
la.
0 wa.
:
tha.
0')
ha.
S
la. gji: great la.
~ a.
4. Vowel symbols and their sound values
Low-falling Tone Level Tone High-falling Tone
0
[ i. ]
e
[ i ]
e
[ i: ]
- -
-:
Q-
[ ei.]
Q-
[ ei]
Q-I
[ ei:]

...
/
~
[e. ]
('
[ e]
...
[ e: ]
-
-00 -00
-

- /
-'.)
[a. ]
-'.)
[a]
-'.):
[a: ]

-
/
-1
[a. ]
-1
[a]
-1:
[a: ]

[ 0.]
('
[0] [0: ]
Q-'.) Q-'j Q-'.)

Q-1
[ 0.]
~ - T
[ 0 ]
Q-1
[ 0: ]

0
[ou.]
0
[ou]
0
lou:]
- -
_e
L L L
e
-..-
[ u.]
-
[u]
i:
[u: ]
II.
Note - Without consonant letters, a hyphen indicates the position of an
initial consonant.
6
s. Vowel symbols and their names
Vowel Symbols SoIllUl VIIhu!s Names
0
[i] loun: GJi: tin
-
[ i ] loun: gji: tin hsan kha'
-
-.
tone mark wi' sa. pau' / shei. gao pau'
for high-/alling tone
[ i: ] loun: gji: tin hsan kha'
-.
wi' sa. pau'
Q-
[ei] th!!wei htou:
-
tone mark au'ka. mji'

for low-/alling tone
8-
[ ei. ] ~ w e i htou: au' ka. mji'

.8-1
[ei: ] ~ w e i htou: wi' sa. pau'
...
[el nau' pji'
-
('
tone mark !!tha' / shei. htou:
-
for level tone
-oS
[e] ja. tha' I ja .. pe' Ie' shei. htou:
-oS
[e. ] ja pe' Ie' shei. htou: au' ka. mji'

-0
[a] jei: chao
.... 1
[a] mau'cha.
-0
[a. ] jei: chao au' ka. mji'

-1
[a. ] mau' chao au' ka. mji'

-oa
[a: ] jei: chao wi' sa. pau'
-1.
[a: ] mau' chao wi' sa. pau'
8-0
[0] ~ w e i htou: jei: chao
8-1
[0] ~ w e i htou: mau' chao
8-0
[0. ] ~ w e i htou: jei: chao

au'ka. mji'
8-1
[0. ] ~ w e i htou: mau' chao

au'ta. mji'
7
Vowel Sormd Values Names
symbols
G....&
[0] htou: jei: chao
shei. htou:
G-T
[ 0 ] htou: mau' chao
shei. htou:
L
[ U. ] ngin
..
[u] ngin
il
[u: ] ngin wi' sa. pau'
0
[ou] loun: gji: tin ngin
L
0
[ou. ] loun: gji: tin ngin
L-
au' ka. mji'
0
[ou: ] loun: gji: tin ngin
-I
L
shei. htou:
8
Lesson 1
Vowel Ii /
o and ! are written directly over single-width eon..onants, but
over the right side of double--width consonants. In each case the
consonant is written first, the vowel second. -: (for high-faDing tone)
is written at the end of the syllable.
o
CD CD:
o
HOW TO WRITE MYANMAR CONSONANTS WITH VOWEL / j /
The order of the strokes is as illustrated below. Let's read and write.
1 2 3
0 0
[ki. ]
00
0)
ro
e
~
I ki J
m
(Y.)
~
e e e
[ki: J
('f)
00: 00:
9
1 2 3
0
S
0
[khi. ]
S S
Q Q
[khi]
S S S
Q Q Q
[khi: ]
S S s: s:
0 0
[gi. ]
(') (') (')
Q Q
[gi]
(') (') (')
Q Q
(')
Q
[ gi: ]
(')
0: 0:
0
u:>
0
[gi. ]
u:>
U)
Q
u:>
Q
[gi ]
u:>
U)
Q Q
u:>
Q
[gi: ]
00 u:> 00:
0
c
0
[ ngi. ]
C C
Q
C
Q
[ngi ]
C C
Q Q
C
Q
[ngi: ]
c c: c:
0
0)
0
[ si. ]
0) 0)
Q
0)
Q
[ si ]
0) 0)
Q
0)
Q Q
[ si: ]
0) 0) 0):
0
00
0
[hsi. ]
00 &'0
Q
00
Q
[hsi]
00 &'0
Q
00
Q Q
[hsi: ]
00 00: 00:
10
Exercise 1 - Read and COJ!Y the following words in MYamnar.
ee e e
000
0)
0)1
lkiwil I si I I si: I
II New Zealand l' to line up, l' to ride, to flow,
wingless bird to place in a row to put on; to wear (shoes)
e ee
~
Q)
Q)QI
Ihsil Ihsi mi: I Injil
II oil II open oil lamp II younger brother
(ora boyor man)
0 e e
00 00 00:
I bti. I Ibtil Ihti: I
v totouch II lottery
" umbrella
e
.;
;: 3
Idil I ni I lni: I
a4J r colloq 1 this v to be red v to be near; to be close
ee ee e
00
0')0)
0'):
Ipipil Ihisil I hi: I
. II whistle II BC{Before Christ)
" comb
ooe e 0 e
(00):0)1 Q
QI
I bpi. hi. si: zi: I I mi. I Imi: I
adv effectively; v to catch; to get caught; II fire, light, electricity
thoroughly to becaugbt
0 e e
:l.') :l.')
:l:>1
Ithi. I Ithi I Ithi: I
l' to know; l' to string; to skewer l' to fruit
to be acquainted with
11
0 Q Q
:g
~ ~ :
I i. I Iii I i: I
v to be soft' to be tender v ( o f f ~ ) to be rich II windifrom the anus)
Exercise 2 - Write the following syllables in Myanmar.
I;
I :
~ :
sL si si: hsi. hsi hsi:
zi. zi zi:
njL nji nji:
tL ti ti: hti. hti hti:
dL di di:
nL ni ni:
pi. pi pi: hpi. hpi hpi:
bL bi bi:
mL mi mi:
jL ji ji:
rL ri ri:
Ii. II Ii:
wi. wi wi:
thL thi thi:
hi. hi hi:
L i i:
12
SPECIAL VOWEL SYMBOLS
Low- lJIlin me Level tone tone
o
-::D (t) Ii}
[ i. J
Exercise 3 - Read and cony the fQIIQWing words i!l Myanmar.
F]
n third in the set of twelve vowels traditionally
c;r;
taught in the learning of Myanmar language.
---,
[ i. J ppm 1 word indicating possessive case. 2 postpo-Sr--
< 8 l ~
tional marker placed at the end of an affinnative
sentence (followed by interrogative particle in the
case of an interrogative sentence}.
~
fiJ
n fourth in the set of twelve vowels traditionally
taught in the learning of Myanmar language .
. _J!!,Oll this. adj this_
13
Lesson 3
Vowel I eil
The vowel ei is written before the initial consonant symbol, even
though it is pronounced after the consonant. It is written in one stroke: c;-.
And then - (for low-falling tone) is generally written below and just to
the right of a syllable. Sometimes, however, particularly when the lower
right-hand comer of a syllable is crowded with other symbols, -t (for bigh-
falling tone) is written at the end of the syllable.
o
o
HOW TO WRITE MYANMAR CONSONANTS WITH VOWEL I ei I
The order of the strokes is as illustrated below. Let's read and write.
1 2 3
G GOO
GrY)
GOO
[ kei1
0 ..
--
CO GOO GOO
[kei ]
CO
GO')
GOO: GOO:
[kei: 1
14
1 2 3
G GS GS GS
[khei. ]

G GS GS
[khei]
G
[khei: ]
G GO GO
[ gei. ]

GO GO
[gei]
GO
[ gei: ]
G GOO GOO
[ gei. ]

G GOO GOO
[gei]
G GOO GOO:
[gei: ]
G
[ngei. ]

.,
GC GC
[ngei]

[ngei: ]
G
GQ) GQ) GQ)
[ sei. ]

G
GQ)
[sei]
G
GQ):
[ sei: ]
G GOO GOO GOO
[ hsei. ]

G GOO GOO
[ hsei]
G GOO GOO: GOO:
[hsei: ]
15
Exercise 1 - Read and copy the words in Myanmar.
Q
Ge: GG>oo GG>:
/ ngei: ! / sei di I Isei:(si:)/
v to gaze; " pagoda
v to sticky; clanuny
to look at sth vacantly enshrining sacred objects
GQ)I GQ):
GGij:
/ hsei: I i hsei: ! / zei: I
v to wash; " medicine. tobacco, n market; bazaar,
to clean (with fluid) poison, paint; dye price (of at1icles)
GOO GOO GOO:

/ tei. i I tei I i tei: /
v to place (two things) v to beat or pound n song
end to end or edge to edge repeatedly, to pound or
so as to just touch knead thoroughly
GOO GOO


I htei. I I htei / I htei: !
v to be sarcastic v to recover one's loss v to be rich; to be wealthy
G;. G;
GO
I nei. / i nei I / peii
n day " the sun, v to stay " foot (measure oflength)
GO: G<lG<l
I pei: I I hpei hpei I / bei: I
v to give; to pay " pa pa; father; daddy " side, danger; hann
16



/ mei. / / mei. zei: / / mei dei: /
v to forget, to faint; . n anaesthetic n MayDay
to lose consciousness


/ mei mei / / mei: / / mei: zei. /
If mammy; mother v to ask; to question If chin
n lowerjaw



/ iei I I jei zei: I I jei ei: I
If water If water-colour n cold water


I jei: / I lei / I lei ei: /
v to write n air; breeze; wind n cool or cold air

I lei: I lwei! lwei: /
v to be heavy v to distribute; to share, v to be far; to be distant;
n four, bow to boil over to be out of touch
G:X>
Ithei/ / thei bei: I I thei: I
v to die n danger of death v to be small


/ ei dil I ei: I lei: zei: I
n AD (abbreviation of v to v to be caIm;
Anno Domini) to be peaceful to be peaceful
17
Exercise 2 - Write the following syllables in Myanm.!lf.
kei. kei kei: khei. kh('i
khei:
gei. gei gei:
ngei. ngei ng('i:
sei. sei sei: hsei. hsei hsei:
zei. zei zei:
niei. niei nlei:
tei. tei tei: btei. htei htei:
dei. dei dei:
nei. nei nei:
pei. pei pei. bpei. bpei bpei:
bei. bel bei
mei. mei mei:
jei. jei jei:
rei. rei rei:
lei. lei lei:
wei. wei wei:
tbei. tbei tbei:
hei. hei hei:
ei. ei ei:
SPECIAL VOWEL SYMBOLS
low-falling lone level tone high-falling tone
$
-
G ~ [ei]
IS
Exercise 3 - Read and copy the following words in Mya;nmar.

- n seventh in the set of vowels traditionallj


__ _( el' 11-1'-)- taught il!.the learning of My au mar langauge. __
"" n 1 musk deer. 2 black serow or goat-antelope.
I L , __________ ---l...__________ _
19
Lesson 4
Vowel leI
... is written directly over single-width consonants but over the right side of
doubJewidth consonants. For the vowel e in level tone, the initial consonant
is followed by consonant 0) plus the symbol .:., i.e.: as in 0003. .::. and
-o? are different spelling, different meaning. But the same pronunciation.
"
CD<D
o o
"
men OJ
" "
o o
HOW TO WRITE MYANMAR CONSONANTS WITH VOWEL I e I
The order of the strokes is as illustrated below Let's read and write
-
1 2 3
.... .... .... [ke. ]
m m 00 00
.. ..
" " "
[ke. ]
m moo moo moo
.. 0
('
"
[ke]
m moo m(J.)
"-
.... [ke: ]
00 0)
m
20
1 2 3
' ,
"
[ khe. ]


r----------

[ khe. ]
J
r-------- --------t-----. --

--------
I

[khe]

i----------- -
" "
[ khe: ]
S
-----
-----

"
"
0 0
()


-e
--
() (0) (0)


I
'------r
0
(0)
I
003 I [ge]
I
't I

o 0
--- -------- -
"
[ nge. ]
C
.----

[ nge. ]
Co)

-- ----<:'--
-----
C
Co) Co)
[nge J
--
-----
----------------
"
[nge: ]
C C
Exercise 1 - ReJ!9 and copy the following words in Myanmar.
" "

"
O?'l.
mO)
ro
-----------
___ ____
/ ke / / ke: /
-- ------ ----
1-' to despraise; censure 1-' to save; to rescue v to overdo; to do beyond
accepted limit
" "
"

/ khe: / / khe: / / ge: /
--
n lead (metal) 1-' to bite n stone
21
"
~ ~
c Co:> mo:>

I nge. I I nge I Ihsel
l' to tilt, to sympathise l' to be small, to be young
" ten
" " " "
m en en en
I hse: I I te: I I te: de: I
v to swear at; to revile n hut
adv nearly; OIl the brink of
~ ~ ~
COO:> 30:>
,0:>
I hte I I de I I ne I
n plough If flying pan v to knead; to mix
"
~
"
0 00:> 0

I pe. I I pe I / pe: I
v (of a chunk) to be v to reject; to tum- down n beans
broken off; to be chipped
"
~
" (t (to:> (t

I hpe. I Ihpe I I hpe: I
v to break off a portion of v to push aside; to set n playing cards
sth aside; to discard
~
('
"
000:> 000:> 00
lbe I I be I Ibe: I
n left pron where ad) which n duck
"
~
"
a a 0:> a

I me. I Imel I me: I
v to grimace;
n title-bolder in a beauty-
v to be black; to be dark
to make a wry face
contest (as in Miss Universe)
If vote; ballot; lot
22

, ,
'1.0:>
'1.

I je Gi) I Ije:1 I je: mei I
v to laugh n _llQlice n

,

roo:> ro 00:>
I Ie: I I Ie: I lwei
n paddy field v to exchange, to change, v to buy; to purchase
to fall down; to
"

,
.
0 0.:>0:> 0.:>
I we: I I the I I the: I
n left side v to carry; to transport n sand
,

,8
<.1.)

I he: I lei Ie: dil
v to sing (heartily) v to be full, bloated, pron [colloq] that
to be bi& large
23
Exercise 2 - Write the following syllables in Myanmar.
ke. ke ke: khe. khe khe:
gee ge ge:
nge. nge nge:
see se se: hse. hse hse:
ze. ze ze:
nje. nje nje:
teo te te: hte. hte hte:
de. de de:
ne. ne ne:
pee pe pe: hpe. hpe hpe:
be. be be:
me. me me:
je. je je:
reo re re:
Ie. Ie Ie:
we. we we:
the. the the:
he. he he:
e. e e:
24
Lesson 5
Vowel I a I & Neutral Vowell! I
The vowel a is written after the initial consonant letter. It is written
in one stroke: -'.). It has alternate fonn used with certain consonants to avoid
ambiguity. For example,
+ -0
o + -0
gives ('Y.)
gives 00
which looks like m [ k 1
which looks like Cf) [ t ]
To avoid such confusion, the alternant-1 is used: 01,01. This alter-
nant is regularly used with &, o. C, 3. 0 and 0 .
- and -? are different spelling, different meaning, But the same
pronunciation. For example, 0 (pa.] and oJ [pa.].
Frequently - is pronounced as a neutral vowel [ i! ]. For example,
(Y.) [ka.] 'to dance' and O)CD"): [gaul: J 'to play "
01
25
HOW TO WRITE MYANMAR CONSONANTS WITH VOWEL I a I & I! I
The order of the strokes is as illustrated below. Let's read and write.
1 2 3
m m
[ka. ]
m
(")'X) (")'X)
[ka]
m
(")'X) (")'X): (")'X):
[ka: ]
S S
[kha. ]
S sl sl
[kha]
S sl sl: sl:
[kha: ]
0 0
[ga. ]
0 01 01
[ga]
0 01 01: 01:
[ga: ]
to to
[ga. ]
to
UY.) UY.)
[ga]
to
UY.) UY.): UY.):
[ga: ]
e e
[nga. ]
e el el
[nga]
e el el: el:
[nga: ]
0> 0>
[sa. ]
0> 0>0 0>0
[ sa]
0> 0>0 0>0: 0>0:
[ sa: ]
26
Exercise 1 - Read and copy the following words in Mvanmar.
00
\fY.)
(Y.Y.):
/ ka. / / ka / / ka: /
v to dance v to block (opening) n car; motor-car
0000:

0:> GOO:
/ g;u.a: I / kh'!ia: I / khalei: I
v to play n beaker; jug with beak n child; infant
and handle; kettle
til)
sao saosao
S'l.:
I khana. I / khana. khana. I I kh'!ii: /
n a moment; a short wbile
adv often; frequently n journey; travel; trip
s1 s1:
/khal / kha: I I kha: na'/
v to shake off n waist v to be bitter v to sprain one's back
01 CXY.)
til) til)
OO'Y.) Oo:Y.)
/ ga hta I 19ital / gi ja /
n Pall verse, mantra It guitar n gear
c1 c1 c1:

I nga.1 I nga! / nga: /
ffiL pron I " five, tish
G)
00 00:
/ sa. / / sa / / sa: /
v to begin; to start, n writing; letter, v to eat
to tease; to taunt sparrow

/ sajei: /
l' to write
Q'Y'.):
/ hsa: /
nsalt

/ zala. bei da. /
n hydrology
('
<0 IOU)
/ zei: we /
v to go to shopping
n customer; bu er

/ nja. /
n night
27

" Saturda

/ sa: zei: /
" medicine to be taken
ortllly
Q
&0
/ hsi /
n oil
Q

/ zi wa. bei da. /
" biology
n evening meal
2:'
/ nja/
n right -hand side
v to lie; to bluff
0)011
/
" ad ; rice in a husk
0)010)'1'
/me:/
" food
/hsa/
v to beh
Q
8,:
/ zani: /
" wife
QO
800')3 ,
/ zi wi tao da na. /
n act of sparing or saving
of life
n afternoon
2:':
/ nja: /
v to meet with, to become
man and wife
28
I hta.na.1 / htei: I Ita wei: I
v to be rich; to be wealth
o:Y.)o::Y.)
o:Y.)'P
o:Y.):
/ taja / /taja I Ita: I
" tyre
" constellation
v to forbid; to stop; to bar
0
00 CXY.):
00
/ hta. / / hta: / / hti. I
v to get up; to rise; v to put; to place; to keep v to touch
to stand
31
31,.
31QOQ

/ da / / eta ne. / ,I da bei me. I
pro" [coloq] this co,,} [colloq] and so co,,} [colloq] but;
however; nevertheless
QQOO Qt:):
,01:

/ dalei. / / da: /
II custom; tradition II knife; sword II dragon
e

lnal / na . if I na: I
v to suffer -. to be hurt
It clock; watch " ear
o C'\.':X)Q) o:Y.) o C'\.':X)o:Y.) o C'\.':X)o.Y.)
I p!la sata/ I pla tal
It plaster, adhesive tape
" pancake-like Indian
II pliers
food
29
01

--
/ pa / / Qa til /pa rami f
v to be with; to be n political party; n acquired virtue, aptitude
together with; to hold social gathering
01:
(JC\Y.): (Y.):
/ pa: / / / / hpa: /
n cheek v to be thin n bowl; cup n frog
::Y.:>1J:00 OJIJ:00O> (1Y.):
/ ba dha / / ba dha f / ba dha bei da. /
n language, religion n language n linguistics
(Ii)
::Y.:> <...>.:Y.:>
aQjC\Y.)
a<...>.:Y.:>:
/ bi ja I I mahsa la / I maja: I
n beer n cuny powder n wife
Q
a:'lCXY.>:
q:>0')IJ OOO>lJ
f mi: / / fa ba / !la. ZJl /
n railway; train II rubber n monthly salary or pay
00
C\Y.) C\Y.):
Ila. f Ila / I la: /
n moon, month v to come n mule
0 01 01:
Iwa. / Iwal lwa: /
v to be fat v to be yellow n bamboo

I a. / fa/ fa: /
v to be dumb v to gape, to open v to be vacant, to be free
30
Exercise 2 - Write the follO'wing syllables in Myanmar.
__ ____ __ __ a' __ __ a ____ __ a_: __
sa. sa sa: hsa. hsa hsa:
za. za za:
nja. nja nja:
tao ta ta: hta. hta hta:
--
da. da da:
na. na na:
pa. pa pa: hpa. hpa hpa:
ba. ba ba:
rna. rna rna:
ja. ja ja:
ra. ra ra:
lao la la:
wa. wa wa:
tha. tha tha:
ha. ha ha:
a. a a:
31
Lesson 6
Vowel 101
The vowel 0 is written a combination of <;1- plus -'.). The order is
first Q-, then the initial consonant, then ......,. For level tone, it is written: !
with......, or -1.
c
GOY:) GOY:)
o
Gill
o
o
HOW TO WRITE MYANMAR CONSONANTS WITH VOWEL / 0 /.
The order of the strokes is as illustrated below, Let's read and write.
1 2 3 4
G GOO
Goy') Goy') Goy')
[ ko1

.,
G GOO Goy')
C'
Goy')
"
[ko]
GOY)
G GOO Ga:Y.J GO'Y.)
[ko: ]
32
1 2 3 4
QS QS1
[tho. ]

GS1 QQT
[lcho]
Q91 QS1
[kho: ]
Q QO Q01 Q01 Q01
[go. ]

G QO G01 QOT QOT
[go]
Q QO Q01 Q01
[go: ]
Q Gro
Guy') Guy') Guy')
[ go.]


[go]
G Gro
Guy') GU'Y.) GUY:)
Q GOO
Guy') QUY.)
[go: ]
G GC GC1 GC1 GC1
[ngo. ]

G QC GC1
GCT ,
GCT
[ngo]
G GC GC1 GC1
[ngo: ]
Q GCO
GCIY.) GCIY.) GCIY.)
[so. ]


[so ]
G GCO
GCIY.) GGY.) QGY.)
Q QCO
QGY.) GeD')
[so: ]
Q
QQ) Q&'CY.) G&'CY.) QQCY.)
[MO. ]


[hso]
Q&'CY.>
QQ:Y.) QQCY.)
G
QQ) QQCY.) QQCY.)
[hso: ]
33
Exercise 1 - Read and copy the following words in Myanmar.

(C;CY.Y.)
(C;(Y.Y.)o (C;(Y.Y.)(t
/ ko / / ko pi! /ko hpi!
n glue; gum; paste n copy n coffee
(C;sT (C;oT
/khol I go I I go hpi!
v to name; to be called, n spade; shovel n cabbage
to call
(C;ro (C;ro(C;GY.) (C;OC:>O

/ so: I / so: zo: I I hso. /
v to be early tulv early v to play

(C;C1'Y.) (C;C1'Y.) (C;C1'Y.) (C;C1'Y.)
Ito I Itodol I to: I
v to be at tulv quite; rather n forest; jungle; wood
(c;3T (c;oo: (c;3T C\X) (c;31:x>
I do lei: I I do lal I do: dba. I
n aunt n dolar n anger
(C;o1 (C;oT (C;o1

I po. I / po I I po: I
v to be light; not heavy v to float, to emerge v to be plentiful

(C;(Y-) (C;(Y-) (C;(Y-)

Ihpo. ! Ihpol Ihpo: I
v to lighten v to expose; to reveal, v to ,be swollen; to be
n cork; sth bouy8Qt. to dig up, to clean up blollted, to be plentiful
34
(' ('



Imo.1 1 moto ka: 1 Imo: 1
v to tilt up n motorcar v to feel tired
G'P
ol
GC\Y.)C'Y.) GC\Y.):Y.)
f---- / jo: ga 1
110: ka. / 110: ba. /
n disease; ailment n the world n avarice
GolO'Y.)'l
G:X>0 G:X>000

I wo: ha fa. 1 1 tho. 1 1 tho: ka. 1
--
n term; vocabulalY_ n lock, key_ n anxiety; grief
('
Q Q
('
G<.JY.)C'Y.) G0'Y.)3
G3d0
I
1 ho kif 1 ho: di 1 lo!
n hockey ad} this v to shout; to call

(' ('
G3d00'P

10 da 1 /0 p!!fa 1 /0 earei ta /
n order n opera n operator
Exercise 2 - Write the following syllables in Myanmar.
ko. ko ko: kho. kho kho:
go. go go:
ngo. ngo ngo:
so. so so: hso. hso hso:
-
zoo zo zo:
-- - -- -----
nio. nJo njo:
to. to to: hto. hto hto:
---
do. do do:
--
no. no no:
35
It I ~ .
jo. jo jo:
rOo m ro:
10. 10 10:
woo wo wo:
tho. tho tho:
hOe bo ho:
o. 0 0:
SPECIAL VOWEL SYMBOLS
L Level tone
co C-
G:)')0 = G3d0 [0]
@> is a combinination of: and G. For level tone. it is written c:"";
plUS>.
36
Exercise 3 - Read and copy the following words in Myanmar.

[ 0 ] int word expressing surprise, joy or
sudden emotion.
:>
[ 0: ] n ninth in the set of twelve vowels tradi-
tionally taught III the learning of
Myanmar language.
:> O'Y.):>':>
[0: ga dha. ] n submission for grant exculpation
prefacing a prayer.
:>@'.)
[ 0: za] II 1 nutrient. 2 (of soil) enricher. 3
power; authority; influence. 4 order;
com-mand. 5 sweet sop.
:>@'.)GO:
[ 0: za pei: ] v to exercise 'one's power; to throw one's
weight about (figl.
:>8'J
[0: za a na] n power; authority; influence.

:>O'Y.)
[ 0: ba] n 1 aura. 2 augury, 3 applause; acclaim,
:> 0'.)1) GO :
[0: ba pei:] v 1 to cheer; to applaud. 2 to speak
words of praise.

[ 0: fa. tha. ] II lone's own offspring. 2 [colloq] eldest
son or daughter.
:>013
[0: wa cia, ] II counsel; advice; admonishment.
:>013
[0: wa da. n monk who gives counsel or advice.
0
ja. ]
<qoo
:>:>':>Q
[0: thQda. ] n drug; medicine.
37
Lesson 7
Vt()wel/oul
The vowel ou is written a combination of ~ plus;:. The order is
ftrst the initial consonant, then ~ , then "\.
o o o
o o o
o o o
BOW TO WRITE MYANMAR CONSONANTS WITH VOWEL / ou I
The order of the strokes is as illustrated below. Let's read and write.
1 2 3 4
-::--
d3
o?
0 0 [kou. ]
ro
CY.(o
- - ~ -
en c8
d?
d3
-....--!
[kouJ
m d3
d?
0 o - [kou: 1
or: ~ ~ __ c-___
38
1 1 3 4
6)
0
,
;.
,.
[khou. ]
6)
0
6) 6)
;
,
[khou]
6)
0 0
,I
0
[khou: ]
6)
ft
,I
0
0
q
q. q.
[gou. ]
0
0
0
q
q
[gou]
0
0
0
q q:
q:
[gou: ]
0
U')
0
u? u?
0
[gou. ]
U')
ute
0
U') U')
u? u?
[gou]
0
U')
0 0 0
[gou: ]
U')
ut
U?: utI
c
0
~
~ .
[ngou. ]
C
0 0
C c

[ngou]
C
0 0
~ :
[ngou: ]
c

0 0
Q) Q) ,
,.
[sou. ]
Q)
0
~ .
[sou]
Q)
Q)
0
~
~ :
[sou: ]
Q)
ro
0
~
0
(hsou. ]
Q)
~ .
00
0
~
(hsou]
00
00
0
~
~ :
[hsou: ]
00
39
Exercise 1 - Read and copy the following words in Myanmar.
o
:
Ikou: I
"nine
o
o

Ihsou. I
v to block
o

Itou. I
v to touch sth Ii tl
o

/ nou. /
n breast milk:
o
I u. I
v to send oir
" grandfather
o
:
o

I sou. I
., to suckle
o
o
Itoul
v to be short

/ nou. zi /
n condensed milk
o
:
/mou: /
" sky, rain
v to
o
I soul
., to be wet
o
:
Ihsou: I
v to be bad
o
I
I tou: I
. to increase
o
:
/ nou: I
v to wakeu
o
" jam; candied fruit
v to leak; to dri
40
0 0 0
~ : "{ ~ :
/ jou: / I lou / / thou: /
v to be simple; to be v to want; to need; n sheep
honest, to be used to to wish for; to desire
0
. ~
0
otO'X> Sf:
/ hou ha / loul lou: !
n that; that thing v to be old; to be aged n pot
Exercise 2 - Write the following syllables in Myanmar.
kou. kou kou: khou. khou khou:
gou .. gou gou:
ngou. ngou ngou:
sou. sou sou: hsou. hsou hsou:
zou. zou zou:
njou. njou njou:
tou. tou tou: htou. htou htou:
dou. dou dou:
nou. nou noo:
pou. pou pou: hpou. hpou hpou:
bou. bou bou:
mou. mou mou:
Jou. jou jou:
rou. rou rou:
lou. lou lou:
wou. wou wou:
thou. thou thou:
hou. hou hou:
ou. ou ou:
41
Lesson 8
Vowel luI
The vowel u is written under the consonant. It is written: L for
low-falling tone and i for level tone. For high-falling tone, it is written i
plus -:. But L or -I is lengthened and written to the right of the
consonants and &. For both short Wld long forms
are used, as in 6 and
23ll-23Il=
42
..
HOW TO WRITE MYANMAR CONSONANTS WITH VOWEL luI
The order of the strokes is as illustrated below. Let's read and write.
1 2 3 4
('Y.)
or or
[ku. ]
('Y.)
or Oi ~
[ku ]
00
or Oil
Oil: Oil:
[ku: ]
9
, ,
[khou. ]
9
,
i i
[khou]
9
,
i
i: i:
[khou: ]
0
<{ <{
[gu. ]
0
<{ Q
2
[gu ]
0
<{
Q
QI
<2:
[gu: ]
C
'C 'C
[ngu. ]
C
'C ~ ~
[ngu]
C
'C ~
~ : ~ :
[ngu: ]
G>
~ ~
[su. ]
G>
~ i i
[su]
G>
Oi i
i: w:
[su: ]
CllJ CllJl CllJl
[zu. ]
CllJ GlJl GlJIL GlJIL
[zu ]
GlJ GlJl GlJIL
GlJIL: GlJIL:
[zu: ]
43
Exercise 1 - Read and copy the following words in Myanmar.
Of Oil
Oil:
! ku.1 I ku! I ku: I
v to give medical v to help; to aid; to assist v to cross over; to cross
treatment; to cure (a to swim. to copy
i
i:
I khu.! Ikhul I khu:!
v to prop up n caterpillar, jelly-fish v to IJIunk,pick, cull


I gu.1 Igu. talo: I I guo na. I
n now; the present n these days; nowadays n just now; a moment ago
2
! gu! Ingu! !ngu tu du!
--
n cave, tomb v to be sullen adv sullenly
O? W
W:
! su.! I su I ! su:!
v to collect, to save v to bulge; to swell v to be pricked
OX?

! hsu.! I hsu I ! hsu: !
n prize, v to boil, to be noisy, to n thorn; spike
thing wished, desired scold
or

ltu.1 ltu I I tu: I
v to imitate, to vie with v to alike; to be the same v to dig, to be burnt
44
I htu. I Ihtul
v to a m m e r ~ to beat v to be thick; to be dense
i'
,
I du: I Inu. I
II knee v to be soft, to be young
I u. I
v to be short v to be hot; to be warm
Ibudal
n railway station
:
Imu: I
v to feel d' and sick
Ilu. I
v to take b force' to rob n
:
I htu: I
v to be extraor .
t=
Inu: I
v to become soft
II
I bu. I
II knob; ; node
:
Ibu: I
II kind of gourd, tin; jar;
container; box with cover
Ilu:!
v to smear, to writhe
45
Exercise 2 - Write the following syllables in Myanmar.
SUo su su: hsu. hsu hsu:
zu. zu zu:
nju.
l!iu
nju:
tu. tu tu: htu. htu htu:
duo du du:
nu. nu nu:
pu. pu pu:
~ u . hpu hpu:
bu. bu bu:
mu. mu mu:
ju. ju ju:
ru. ru ru:
lu. lu lu:
wo. wu wu:
thu. thu thu:
hu. hu hu:
u. u u:
SPECIAL VOWEL SYMBOLS
46
2 is a single letter and pronounced in tone. e is for
level tone and is for high-falling tone.
2 2
Exercise 3 - Read and copy tlw fQllowing wQrd in MYanmar.
[u. ]
,
n fifth in the set of twelve vowels traditionally
2 taus!!t in the learning of Mxanmar language.
2
[u. ] n 1 egg, roe. 2 tuber or bulb. v to lay (egg).
20?
(u. duo ] n 1 season. 2 weather. 3 climate.
--"-
2
0G3
I u. badei] II enacted law; customary law.

[u. bnma] n likeness; simile; example; parable.
2{3J
[ou' 0: 1 n 1 koel :2 siren.
e
[ u1 n sixth in the set of twelve vowels traditionally
tauidlt in the learning of Myanmar
2:
[u; ] II title prefixed to the name of a man or a monk.
...

[u: zi: J n 1 leader. :2 head.
2 = 'PC){
[u: ja lu] n whoever comes frrst.

[u: jei] It 1 scalp. 2 number (of men, animals, things,
etc.)

[u: lei: ] It mother's younger brother; uncle.
47
Lesson 9
Diacritics for clusters of consonants
In Myanmar writing system, ill [j], 'l[ j ], 0 l w 1 and (]) I h ]
combine with other consonants to form syllable-itlitial clusters.
Symbol Sound Origiollal C01l50llalll Name
-J
[j ]
corresponding to 00
[ja. pin. ]
E
[j ]
to
'1
[ ja. ji' ]
-
[w)
corresponding to 0
[wa. hawe: ]
0
-
[ h )
corresponding to
0)
[ ha. htou: ]
J
Both 1I and G represent consonant sound [j ] after other letters, as
qj [pj] or [pj], [ mj ] or [mj]. They are also used with the
symbols for 00 [k], Q [kh], 0 [ g ] to write the initials 01J [kj] or
[kj], 'lI [ch] or [ch] and 'lI [gj] or (9 [gj].

1+ u
I:
<iJ
I I
I:
I:
@
[ pj] [ pj] . + [J]
: + [j 1
1+ -J

11
I:

11
17b 1
1+ -J
I:
t1J
17b]

[ bj ]
. + [J]
17m]
1+ u


17m]
I:
: + [j] [mj J
48
Ic I+G --1-' fi ,j 14> ,I .... 'I
I j J r tfIj, nit- U J <= l}ljl I .
> ,
, ,
_co -ut: I lid: ,,:' .... ,,":;'
However, d:fJ or f kj ]. 'U 01:' r ch j, llnd C(J or G' tliiJ were' ':, J
'dustets or-consonants aiid as they were spelt in those days, .
Phoncctically. in present day Myallllar language they are single cOliso-
nants,
I: I: I
IT)
+
I-
-
6 w
l k I
+ ! . 1
;:::
l kJ J ' .lJ
I
Is'
'0 represents non-initial 0 l w 1; it is written directly below a single-
" width consonant like Q, but below the right half of a double-width con-
sonant like 00 - 06 '
[IT; [ : I: (7J frkh; t I: It]
I: I: I
49
J 1 : I: I II .-. f'--n ]--+-1 :---"'[ ]--1-1 :-_ --fl
1 . I: I: [ II r--- +--1 : I -+-1 :--""[ !'---fw;1
17b ) I: I: [ 111--- -] --+1-:-[ --+-1 :-[ ---fl
1 em ) I: I: [ !w) 1---1 ]----+1-:-[ --+-1 :-[ og---'jw,",-]--II
I
'1 I + - I = a II C\) I ++ ['OW] 1:- ["6
tW
] I
[j ] + = [jw ] I-[----=l]--+-_ ---"'_
I ) I: I: [ I t-I ]-+-1 ---I1-:-[-?1-=-----11
Phonectically,3') is not a consonant. It is a vowel and pronounced as a
vowel. For example, :ra + 05 - :ra05 [u / 1 and :ra + ; - :ra; [un].
SO
T represents h in the initial clusters are not written with a
unitary symbol (as &, 00 ). . . ...

I: [I] I:

I: [I]
I-
. = [hnJ 1
[is]
I: [I]
I:
,
17bs] I: [I] I:
'f
[hs ] [hs]
I;} ]
I: [I] I:


I: [I] I:
CXf
[sh] [ sh J

I: [I] I:
"f
[ hI)
However, [sh] is cluster of consonants and pronounced as it was
spelt in those days. Phonectically, in present day Myanmar language they
are single consonant.
Complex combinations:
I: II: 1:[I1I:[!]I:[ki[fJ 1
17kh]I:IJ I:[R I
17&1 1:[:]
51
17m) I:[J I:[I) 1:(5 I:[I) I
1m I:[I) I:(l) l:pdWf I
I:) I: I: [ I) I: I
HOW TO WRITE MYANMAR CLUSTERS OF CONSONANT'S
WITH 7 SIMPLE VOWELS
The order of the strokes is as illustrated below. Let's read and write.
Single Qusteror
+ Vowel I i I + Tone I, II, III
Writing Sound
Consonant CODSOIWIt
1 2 3 4 5 6
m
CY.lJ o:1l
[kji.]
Q
m
0'11 cr.u
[kji]
cr.u c41
Q
m
CY.lJ:
[kji:]
52
Single Cluster of
+ Vowel I i I + Tone I, II, III
Writing Sound
Consonant Consonant
1 2 3 4 5 6
m

~ ~
[kji.]
m

~ ~
[kji)
m

~ : ~ : ~ :
[kji:]
0
m
06 06
0
[kwi.]
06
Q
m
06 06
Q
[kwi]
06
Q Q
m
06 06
06=
Q
[k:wi:]
06:
0
m
01J oaJ oaJ
0
[kjwi.]
oaJ
Q
m
01J oaJ oaJ
Q
[kjwi]
oat
Q Q
m
01J oaJ oaJ
oat:
Q
[kjwi:]
oaJ:
m

~ ~ ~
[kjwi.]
m

~ ~ ~
[kjwi]
m

~ ~
~ : ~ :
[kjwi:]
~
0
'1. ~ ~
[sbi.]
Q
'1. ~ ".
Q
[sbi]
~
q
~
0
~
~ : ~ :
[sm:]
.a
0
'1 ~ .a i
[shwi.]
'1 ~ .a i i
[shwi)

G
'1. ~ .a .a
.as Aa
[shwi:}
53
Stogie Cluster of
+ Vowel I i I + Tone I, II, III
Sound
Consonant Consonant
1 2 3 4 5 6
0
m
06 06
0 [kwi.]
06
(i)
m
06 06
(i) (i)
"
m
06 06
06:
(i)
[kwi]

- [kwi:j- (Ii)
06=
0
m
o:u oaJ aaJ
(i)
m
o:u oaJ oaJ
(i) (i)
m
o:u oaJ oaJ
oaJ=
0 [kjwi.]
r-_oaJ
(Ii)
[kjwi1

(i)
fkjwi:l
oat:
m
(i

m
(i

B--
[kjwL)


m
(i



[kjwi:]
. ---
0
'1
0 [shi. ]

----
I--
'1 it
Q
(i)
q

JL_-

r----t---
1--"----
.a
0
q
.a
Q
q
.a .a
I
I
11
!
[shiJ
i
- I

r . .a
(i) [shwi]
.a
Q Q
q
.a .a
.a:
Q
(sips! J
,a=
54
Single Cluster of
+ Vowel lei I
Wrido& Sound
Consonant Consonant
+ Tone I. II, III
1 2 3 4 5 6

Q<Y.ij.
kjei.
(; (;00

kjei


kjei:
(;

Q.
.
kjei.
Q (;00
.Q
kjei
Q QOO
Q
kjei:

Q06.
kwei.
Q QOO
Q06 Q06
kwei

QOO

Q061
kwei:

QOO
Q<Y.ij
QoaI QoaI.
Qoat.
kjwei.

QoaI
kjwei
Q QOO
Q<Y.ij

QcraJl

kjwei:
Qoo
..:,::j



kjwei.
--"\


<"'3

kjwei




kjwei:



QS,.
jwei.


jwei
(,j;'l
Qa
l

jwei:
(,j;'l
shei.
Q
Q'l

shei


shei:

(,j;'l
9,s 9,s. Q,s
shwei.
g
Q'l
g,s

shwei


(;.,8

(;,s}
shwei:
55
Single Ouster 01
+ Vowel I e I + ToneI,n,m
CODSOIWIt Consonant
wrttIDg ScMmd
1 2 3 41 5 6
,
cr.U.
00
CY.lJ CY.lJ
kje.
t-
OO
CY.lJ

kje
CY.lJ
,
00
CY.lJ
kje:
00

6 03 JO
kje.

00
03
kje
00 00
j
6
kje:
00
ag

kwe.
('
00
ag ago.:>
('
kwe
ago.:>
00
ag

,
kwe:
C'1J
, ,
00
C'6J C'6J oaJ.
kjwe.
00
CY.lJ C'6J

kjwe
oaI
,
00
CY.lJ C'6J
kjwe:
00 00
J
kjwe.
00

i

kjwe
00

kjwe:
a R
,
q
a.
jwe.
q
R

jwe
q
a
,
a
jwe:
q

she.
('
'l. fl
flo.:>
she
'l. fl
she:
-q
.i
,
.a .a.
shwe.
'l. .a

shwe
.8
,
'l. .8
shwe:
56
" .
..
SInJIe
'.
+Vo'ftl,a, + Tone I, II, ID
c
CODIOIWIt C
Writtng Souad
1 2 J. 4 5 6
00'
i
, ';<tlJ "
' '
i ':
}
, ';':!.
"
"
. .,;.,''-
,
"
m
a.tJ'
a:u:>
.,
CY.) '. '.<Y.lI'
. <"qp ,
,
.,
<Y.lP
e
'
\
. e ."\ ..
,..
rp
" ffi
' ..
" .
,<,." 'y
,

i
. ro

l',,;,
" , ,
./ ..
ro
-.,.
:>
:>:

00
06 06
kwa.
00
06
kwa
00
06

0'6->:
kwa:
:011
"
,
00
061
kjwa.
00
011 061 oar
kjwa
00
011 061
CY6P:
kjwa:
00 00
:i
kjwa.
00 00
e&
kjwa
00 00 (i


kjwa:
}
'1
"
i
\
."'"
" "
jwa.
'1
' .

R=>
.,
fP
jwa
'1
9 fPC
jwa:
q
.'

:1._,
.. '

q

;
1P
sha
\
<
'1
"

;PI
8ha:
. " ..
.,'
57
Slap
'-
CbtIter of
+ V"eI 1{)1
W ....... ,. Soad
ConsOlUllli consonant
+ TOIlfII m
1 2 3 4 5 6
Q
Qo:u?
,.kja.
..
tjo
Q
Q(T.)
. .
>
.
Q Qoo
kjo:
Q Qoo
kjo.
Q
QOO
kjo
,
Qoo
kjo:
Q
Q
Qq
sho.
Q
sho
Q Q
sho:
Single Cluster or
+ Vowel lout + Tone I, II, III
Consonant Consonant
Writing Sound
1 2 3 4 5 6
CY.lJ
0
o:UL o:UL
(Y.)
CY.lJ
kjou.
(Y.)
CY.lJ o:U o:UL
kjou
0
o:UL
0
(Y.)
CY.lJ CY.lJ
O'1lL:
kjou:
I""


(Y.)
03 J
kjou.
(Y.)
103
roo

3l
kjou
(Y.)
6

kjou:
'1

shou.
'1

shou
'1


shou:
0 0 0
:x>

0
shou.

0 0
:x>

0
shou

0


:x>

0
shou:

58
Single Cluster of
+ Vowel lUI + Tone I. II, III
Writing Sound
Consonant Consonant
1 2 3 4 5 6
("f)
01J O1JL O1Jl
kju.
0:>
01J O1Jl O1Jll O1JIL
kju
0:>
01J O1Jl O1Jll
O1Jll:
O1Jll: '
kju:
--
0:>
6 6l
(l
kju.
--
00

6l
Il (IL
kju
0:>

@l @Il
Ilz @Il:
!gU:
q
fl
shu.
q
fl
shu
-- q fl

shu:

:>qJ

shu.

:>.:ij

shu

:>.:ij


shu:
Exercise - Read and copy the following words in Myanmar.
0 0 Q Q
o:n o:n 000')
01)4Y.):
<">11:
I kji. gji. te'l I kji za: I / kji: /
mit! crawling with; rolling v to tease; to jest II crow; house crow
in (wealth)
0

G01J=g:>
/ kjei ei: I I kjei: jwa I / kjei: zu: shi. i
v to be placated: n vIllage v to be indebted to sb,
to settle amicably to be beneficial
59

....
o:u
oo
o:u o:u
I kje I I kje: I I kja. I
v to be wide; to be broad, v to be having spaces v to fall; to drop, to fail, to
to be loud between component units decline, to cost

011011"
<YiP: G<YiP
'kj: gj, I / a. a. na. na. , I kja: I Ikjo I
adv properly n tiger v to ge over, to exceed,
0 0
G<YiP
O1Il
O1Il:
I kjo: I I kjou I I kjou: /
n back; behind; rear l' to boil, to melt v to break, to be creased
G6
/ kari. ja I I kji: I I kjei I
n [gram] verb v to be big, to be older v to be crumbled
G6:
6
03
6
I kjei: I I kje I Ilge: I
n copper or brass or n star v to scatter; to cast
bronze, money, price
>
>: >:
--
I kja I / kja: / I gja: /
n water-lily; lotus v to hear n in-between; interval;
v to take a long time interim



/ kjou / I / kjou: za: I
l! to meet sb on arrival, to n rope; string; cord v to try; to endeavour;
welcome sb or sth to make great effort
60
('


I kwei. I I kwei: I Ikwel
v to turn; to veer v to to curl v to to conceal
,""
Ikwe: I Ikwa. I Ikwal
v to be broken v to be bandy-legged v to become detached,
to differ, to arate
"
(io:
GaaJ:
aaJ
I kjwei: / Ikjwe: I Ikjwa: I
v to feed n water buffalo v to boast; to brag


I chao I I chal I cha: I
v to put down; to drop v to be poor, inferior n merry-go-round
(in Quality)
Q Q



I chi I I chi: kju: I I chul
v to lift, to v to praise; to honour n jingle bell
"

I chi I I I che. I
v to sneeze v to lend, to borrow v to ex erate
('
G6lP
c;SJ? c;6lP
I cho: I I cho. I I cho I
-
v to be slippery, to be v to coax; to persuade. v to slip, to miss
smooth, to be handsome to soothe; topac!tY Ohepoint, target)
61
0 0 0


I chou: I
v to break, to turn


I che ri I I chao I I cha: na: I
n white ant v to be differ
I chei I rna. I
v to crush into bits
I che I /khwa. I Ikhwa/
v to aint, to decorate v to sit astride

/ khwei I Ikhwei: I / khwei: chi I
v to coil; to curl up n dog n stool

...
<C;810Y->
Ikhwe: I Ikhwe: wei I I chwei tal
v to break, tosepaJ"ate v to distribute v to be economical
...
<C;8J:
fiJ
/ chwei: I I chwei: rna. / I chwe: I
n sweat; perspiration n daughter-in-law n phlegIll. mucus
... 0
<">1J
62

ei. /
v to be tired of
v to borrow, to lend
" "
9.

/ hnge. / Iswal I swe: I
v to pour (out) v to be impudent v to attach finnly
0


/ hswei mjou: I I hswei: I I hswei: nwei: /
II relatives; kin v (of wood) to decay v to discuss; to confer
"

('


Ihswe: / / hswe: gjou: / / hswe ta /
v to hang, to pull, to draw II necklace; chain II sweater; pull-over
o
I zwe: I
n tenacit; erseverance v to be considerate
0
('
21
2::2 l:C 00 0'6-'=
/ hnji / I hnjou: nge / I twa: thwa: I
v to smell rank (of blood) v to be dejected; to be sad v to crawl; to creep
f----
Goa GO
G06.
Goa =
I twei wei I I twei. / I twei: I
v to be in a daze or stupor v to see, to meet v to think; to imagine
63
\
aa

0'600CJY.)

I twe: I I twe ta I I htwa: I
!--
n coach or wagon v to be strongly attached v to be large; to be stout;
(railway) to to burly; to be chubby
0


I nju kali ja. I ; nwa: / i nwei /
!--
n nucleus n bull; cow; ox n summer; hot season
"



;a
/ nwe.; Inwel Ihnama. I
v to behave in a dainty, n creeper; vine n man's younger sister
enchanting matlller



f--.
/ hnamjo: I I hna chei / / hnasei: /
v to be sorry to lose sth, v to sneeze v to catch cold
to be stingy, miserly

,
0
;l:
/ hnei: / / hne: / I hnou: /
v to be slow n oboe (Myanmar type) v to awaken someone

qp
/ hnwa / Ihnwei: / I pja I
v topeel v to warm sth v to be in a flurry

qp:
Gc.u?

- I pja: I / pjo. I / pjo I
nbee v to be soft; to be weak v to melt; to dissolve,
to happy, glad, merry
64
co .....
@


--
/ pjo bwe: za: / / pja. / / pja. bwe: /
n picnic v to show; to display n exhibition; show; fair
/ 'a: /
v to be flat v to finish
@l
G@:

/ pju. / / pjei: / / pjo: I
v to do; to act, to make v to run, to move fast v to speak; to tell
Bl

/ pjou / / pwa. / / pwa: /
v to collapse; to fall down v to spread; to swell, v to grow or increase
to be allover the place in number; to duplicate


I pwei / / pwei. / I pwei: /
11 to be besieged with, 11 to lift, carry or hold up n mole, ringwonn
to play around in one's arms
..... .....


<tP
/ pwe: / I pwe: za: I / hpja /
n public function; festival, n broker n mat
fair
('
qp: Gqj?
G<tP
I hpja: / / hpjo. / / hpjo /
v to have fever v to be pale; to be faded; v to dissolve (in liquid), to
to be light (colour} make
/ h 'a I
v to spread out in all
direction, to radiate
Il
.I hpju I
v to be white; to be fair, to
be pure

I hpje: I
v to widen (as of mouth),
to tear (paper, clothes, etc)

I hQwa.!
v to raffle, to mess up

I hQwei: I
v to be white

I bja mja: I
v to be full of anxiety
f-------
(C;gOr(
/ bweiju /
v to take offence
65
v to comb or brush (hair)
ILI
I hpji: I
v to sprinkle

I hpjo: I
v to blanch with boiling
water (vegatable, fiuit)

/ hpwa I
v to puff (in smoking)
"

I hpwe: /
n bran, paddy husk

/ bjo: /
n kind ofiong drum
"
06.
Ibwe. /
n title or award
v to bluff; to pretend
(C;
I hpjei I
v to untie; to undo,
to answer, to reply
@l
/ hpjou I .
v to demolish, to destroy;
to scatter

I hpwa: hpwa: /
n granny; grandma
0 Q

--
/ biu rou karei si /
n bureaucracy
QQQ
goo
I bwi pi pi I
n VPP
(value
"
0'6'J16h,
I bwa: !@ne: /
adv (appear) suddenly
66
0



I mja: I I mjo: I I mjoul
v to be many; to be much v to float; to drift v to swallow; togobble
n emerald
n mist; haze; fog n earth; land; ground; soil
(Oo


I mjei be: I I mje: I I mjo: I
n groundnut; peanut v to be firm; to be resolute v to be in a coma



I hpwei: I Imwa. I Ihmwei. jal
n town; city v to be spongy; to be flaky n mattress

"-


I mwei: I I mwei: mju jei: I Imwe: I
v to give birth; to be born n animal husbandry v to be poor

r:>

Ihmal I hmi khoul I hmei: I
v to send word; to leave v to depend on someone, v (of eyelids) to close
word, to order sth to take refuge in partially, to catnap
....

Ibme. /
II mole
v to expect; to look for-
ward to to ho for
W
/ sha/
v to search; to look for
I shu I
v to breathe; to inhale
~
~ O O o : Y . )
I shejal
n share
/ '0. /
v to subside; to lessen
67
o
I hmou I Imweil
II mushroom, s n snake, s
~ :

Ibmwei. / Ibmwei: I
v to twirl; to spin; to flail v to be fragrant, to SMell
sweet
I sha. I
v to choose; to select
0
W:
~
I sha: / I shi. /
v to be rare; to be scarce v to be, to have

I shei. I
n front v to be ancient
....
G.a
.a
I shwei I I shwe: I
ngold v to be wet
I lwe: I
t\f
I hla.1
v to be pretty
I shal
n ton e

I shoul
II ravine; gully
t09.
Ihwei I
v to butt; to gore
0


It
I thwei: tou: I
v to suffer
fromh ension
68
a?=
I hli: I
v to slice; to cut
I shoo zei: I
It

n sale; reduced rice

I hlwa.1
II saw

Ithwa: I
II tooth v to go
(,'

/ thwe I
v to be connect; to join,
to be slender
to"]>
I hlei /
n boat
I shol
v tow h
e "

I hwi: g.ane: I
adv with a whiz

I thwei: I
II blood
e
(,'
roc
I sm lin I
n shilling
69
Aoother vowel symbols for I i I, I ei I and I e /
There are another vowel symbols for / j I, / ei / and Ie/. They are
- ~ , - ~ and - ~ : . The initial consonant is followed by consonant
[oj] plus the symbol .: [called Altha'), i.c. as in : : o ~ . Level tone is basic,
low-falling tone is ""TItten with -; [called au'ka.mji'J. i.e. as in ;:uei, and
high-falHng tone is written with -: [called shei. gao paul), i.e. as in : : o ~ : ,
According to the situations, it is pronounced as / i / or / ei / or / e I.
70
HOW TO WRITE MYANMAR CONSONANTS
WITH VOWEL I i I or I ei lor I e I
The order of the strokes is as illustrated below. Let's read and write.
1 2 3 4

[ dhi. ]
:0


:l.')

[dhi 1
:l.') :l.')
:0

[ dhi: ]
:0
:l.')

:0



[ si. 1
0) 0) 0)

[ si]
0)


[ si: ]
0) 0) 0)


2 3 4
[pjei. ]
[hpjei. ]
[hpjei: J
1 2 3 4

[te. ]
en en en

[te/ti]
0)


[te: J
00 en
0)



[hte. ]
00 00
oo2:l

[hte]
00 00 ex>
/
71
Exercise - Read and copy the following words in Myanmar.
/ k'i bu(/
nbullet

/ kji. I
v to look at


I chi. I
v to be feeble; to be
infirm; to be paralysed


Ihse I
n dam; weir

(Y.) Q(Y.)
lte. ma'i
v to be straight

00
I hte. /
11 to ut in; to insert
n stem; method
v to respect; to revere

I kji I
v to be clear; to be clean


I chi I
n thread; yarn; cotton
v to bind; to tie; to fasten


I hsi: bu: I
v to acquire (knowledge,
riches, merit, etc)
(Y.)
v to be steadfast;
to be stable; to endure

01 00
Ihte wal
11 to be and
v to be full
v to be cordial, to be
eeable


I kji: da'i
n land forces; army


I sil
n bigdrum
(musical instrument)


I hswe: Ie: I
n small bells
(Y.)
I te: khou /
v to put up at; to lodge

,


I ne: I
v to be small, to be little
I h ei. I
v to fufil to add
pron who

I mji I
v to sound; to produce
sound


I ji: za: I
It sweetheart


/ hIe. I
v to go or move round
sth; to tum; to spin


I dill I
ad) this


I i: I
n sound of groaning
72



I me: I
v to be black; to be dark

I mji: I
n ass; donkey
v to try; to taste


/ Ie bin: /
It throat; neck

G>O:
I hIe. za: /
v to deceive; to play one
false


/ the: (till:) /
v (of rain) to be violent;
to be strong


/ e. gan: I
n drawing-room; parlour
n consonant
v (of cloth, paper, etc)
to be near disint ation

ao:>
I jijwe I
v to hope for; to aim at;
to intend


lIe: /
part also, too


I hIe: /
n (bullock) cart


/ hi: I
v (of earthquake) to
rumble; to roar


/ e. dhe /
n guest
73
Lesson 10
Nasalized vowel/in /
The initial consonant is followed by consonant C [ng] plus the
symbol [called !tha'], i.e. as in .Level tone is basic, low-falling tone
is written with -; [called au' ka. i.e. as in and high-falling tone
is written with -t {called sbei. gao pau'], i.e. as in For few
consonants, they can be followed by consonant / 2 [njl plus the symbol
. c: 0:
-, I.e. at) III CY.ij2 ' d>2 .
c c
('
CDC
CDC
CDC:
0
c c c
0112 D1Jrt
CYiJ2:
c c c
0ij2




74
HOW TO WRITE MYANMAR CONSONANTS
WITH NASALIZED VOWEL I in I
The order of the strokes is as illustrated below. Let's read and write.
1 2 3 4
~ ~ ~
[kin. ]
ro roc roc roc roc

~ ~
[kin]
ro roc roc roc
~ ~ t'
[kin: ]
ro roc roc roC: roC:
~ ~ ~
[khin. ]
9 9C 9C 9C 9C

t' t'
[kbin]
9 9C 9C 9C
~ ~ t'
[khin: ]
9 9C 9C SCI SCI
~ ~ ~
[ngin. ]
C CC CC CC CC

~ t'
[ngin 1
C cc CC CC
t' ~ t'
[ngin: 1
C cc cc CC: CC:
1 2 3 4
~
[kjin. ]
< " > 1 1 ~
t'
[kjin]
<">112
t'
[kjin: ]
<">112:
~
[chin. ]
t'
[chin]
6112
~ t'
[chin: ]
~ 2 : ~ 2 :
75
Exercise - Read and COPY the following \vords in Mvanmar
C' C'
,
mc

mc:oo
I kin I / kin mara I I kin: de: !
v to roast, broil, barbecue 11 camera 11 guard house

C' C'
o:u c;: '1. o:uC:U
I kjin I ! kjin. dha: ja. I / kiin: pa. /
l' to reel pain l' to be accustomed to l' to hole; to celebrate
C'
62
C' @ C'
O:U2:
06C: uc
I kjin: / / kjin I / kwin: bjin I
v to be narrow v to avoid; to shun n field; open tield

C' C'
6lCt(p:
<lJC:
/ kjwin: / / khamja: I / gjin: /
v to remain proll vou 11 ginger
C'
sue
8 8:
/ chin / I chin / / chin: /
--
v to be sour: to be acid 11 mosquito 11 basket
C' C' 0 C'

nCar
m
c
/ khwin. ju / I gin dou / / gjin I
v to take leave 11 short and stubby person It top (toy)
(of absence)
(58:
<:'6 C'
('
t1)C moo

/ njin: / I sin kje I I sin. /
v to refuse to obey v to be free from: to be 11 glaze
clear; to be pure
76

OD8(C;sT
<De :OY.): ODC

/ sin: za: ! ! hsin / / hsin. kho /
v to think; to consider n elephant v to summon
....
ODC:
roC:'),
/ hsin: i / hsin: je: / / njin tha /
v to go down, to descend v to be poor v to be smooth
(' ....


O'.)C 0'.) C o:Y.:>:

/ hnjin: ze: / / tin / / tin. ga: /
v to torture v to put or place sth n tank (armoured
on sth combat vehicle)

('
06COiJOO
06C:
roCS(-':
/ twin kje / / twin: / / htin sha: /
v to be important; to n pit; well; hole v to be visible distintly,
prosper; to be influential (in the ground) to be wen-known
('

('

'C
'C:
/ htwin: htu. / / nin / / nin: /
v to carve; to sculpture pron you v to step on
('

roC:
O1JC
"6<:
! lin: / / hlin (ljin) / / lwin. /
v to be bright, to be clear v to be swift; to be fast v to be blown away

(' ('
OC
:A)C
/ hlwin. / / win I I thin I
v to spread; to dissemi- v to enter; to come in; to v to teach; to train,
nate; to propagate go in, to join; to enlist to learn
77
Lesson 11
Nasalized vowel/an I
The initial consonant is followed by consonant a:> [n] or., [n]
or G.) [m] plus the symbol.! [called atba'], i.e. as in 3c::rl, :l:)', o o ~ .
Level tone is basic, low-falling tone is written with -; [called au' ka. mj;'],
i.e. as in ::n;. and high-falling tone is written with -2 [called sbei. gao
'J
. . ~
pau ,I.e. as m \ ) ~ : .
~ [called thei: dhei: tin1 is also used for level tone, i.e. as in O?,
and [called tbei: dbei: tin aut ka. mji'J for low-falling tone, i.e. as in 00.
3ClD
~ .
o o
78
HOW TO WRITE MYANMAR CONSONANTS
WITH NASALIZED VOWEL I an I
The order of the strokes is as illustrated below. Let's read and write.
1 2 3 4
~ ~
[dan]
3 300 300 300
~ ~ ~
[dan. ]
3
3, 3, 3,. 3,.
~ ~
[dan]
3
3,
3,
3,
~ ~ ~
[dan: ]
3
3, 3, 3,: 3,:
~ ~ ~
[Ian: ]
00 O O ~ O O ~ O O ~ : ooa:
1 2 3 4
[kan. ]
00 00 00 00


[kan ]
00 00 00

I 03 ~ . ~ .
[kjan. ]

I ~
[kjan ]
Exercise - Read and copy the following words in Myanmar.
~ ~ ~
00,. 00, 00,:
I kan. I Ikanl I kan: I
v to block; to form into II lake; pond; tank v to be blind
compartment
~

o:iJ
Y . ) ~ :
00
I kan: I Ikanl I kjan I
II bank (of river); shore II one's deed, luck v to smear; to plaster
79
<:' <:'
6
CYiJ'
CYiJ,:WJ
I kjan I I kjan: rna I I kjan /
---
1-' to remain v to be healthy n sugar-cane

<:' <:' <:'
3C106p
3,.
I kian: / I danja / I dan. dalun I
v to be r-ough; to be harsh 11 wound 11 horseradish tree
<:' <:' <:'
3,
3,:

I dan! / dan: I / nan: I
11 copper, aluminium 11 swing v to smell, to kiss

<:' <:' <:'
0000:
00,:00,:

-
/ Ian ba: / flan: zan: I flan: I
t-----
11 tall man
----
v to be fresh n road; street; pathway

<:' <:'
0.:> 0.:> ,: :>..)
1----- c----- --
/ than I I than: I I than: I
c--- --
II iron, iron nail n million v to yawn
<:'

s?@>
00,

Ihanl I ani I an. 0: I
n gesture; pose; posture 11 molar, tray; drawer v to be amazed; to be
wonder struck
<:' <:' <:'



I an / I an za I I an: I
v to vomit; to retch n dice v to refund, to give back

80
Lesson 12
Nasalized vowel I un I
At ftrst, the initial consonant is followed by non-initial 0 [w J
[called wa. bswe:], it is written directly below a single-width consonant like
g, but below the right half of a consonant like 0) - 8,
And then, it is followed by consonant., [n] or [m J plus the
symbol 2. rcalled atha'], i.e. as in "6;' Level tone is basic,
thlling tone is written with -; [caned au' 1m. mji'], i.e. as in 06;. and
tone is written with -! {called sbei. gao pau'], i.e. as in
i [called wn. hswe: thei: dhei: tin] is also used for level tone, i.e.
as in !, and i . [called WH. hswe: tbei: dbei: tin au' 1m. mji'] for
falling tone, i.e. as .
-----
81
HOW TO WRITE MYANMAR CONSONANTS
WITH NASALIZED VOWEL I un I
o
The order of the strokes is as illustrated below. Let's read and write.
)
2 3 4
('
<'
CY6 ~ .
- ~ ~ .
C'
('
0 6 ~
<:'
<Y6
0 6 ~ :
I 2 3 4
('
<:'
~ : ~ :
<:' <:'
~ : ~ :
Co'
('
~ : ~ :
[kuD. J
[kun)
[kun: ]
[kun: ]
[hsun: ]
[lun:]
(lwan:)
82
1 2 3 .:3
[sun]

..

.
[hsun. ]

Exercise - Read and copy the following words in Myanmar.
061
/Iron/
It net; casting net
It island
/ chWl/
1----
v to sharpen to Ii pomt


--
/ SWl. /
v to throwaway

O'6Q:
/ Iron: (kwan:) /
It betel vine, betel leaf
/ ChWl: /
It iron hook or goad
to drive an de hant


/ sun/
n kite
061'
/kjun/
It slave
v to somersault
/
n cotton wool
w;:
/ sun: /
v to be stained

.. ------,
/ / hsun. a. / / lun. /

n food (offered to the v to be mute; to be dumb v to wriggle; to writhe
Buddha or monks
v to
83
Nasaliztd vowel I em I
At first, the initial consonant is followed by vowel symbol ! [i.)
[called loun: gji: tin], it is written directly over single-width consonants, but
over the right side of double-width consonants, as in " And then, it is
followed by consonant, [n] ore (m 1 plus the symbol! [called .tha'),
i.e. as in Level tone is basic, low-falling tone is written with -;
(called au' ka. mjl']. i.e. as in 03;' and high-falling tone is written with-:
[called abel. ga. pau'], i.e. in
DC de
0('


0(' 0(\
0<'

"
OC
84
HOW TO WRITE MYANMAR CONSONANTS
WITH NASALIZED VOWEL I ein I
The order of the strokes is as illustrated below. Let's read and write.
1 2 3
0 0

0,
0 0

0,
0 0

0,
----_.
03
0

---- ----
--0---
0
00 00
---
as as
--
2 3
0('
00,=
4 5
0(' 0('
0.,
O,@
--"--
0('
0,
0(' 0('
0,
0,=
0('
o (' --

..
0('

-----

0('

4 5
0('
[pein.]
0., ..
1---
0
('
0,
[pein]
1--- 0 ('
[pein:]
0,=
0('
. --

[lem.]
.,
1--- 0('
----
[lein]

1---
0
('--
-----
[lein. ]

[kjein.]
"------"':.---"-::------+'-------'
[kjcin]
f----::!"---'---+-----------
[kjein: ]
[kjein.]
[kjein]
[kjein:]
0(' 0('
, ___________ -----I
---+-----
1--__ I_k_c ____ in_:_I____ _ _____ e_in_,_!_ ---1--- ! kjein: /
v to smart: n number l' to curse with haml
or evil to others to be set on ed e
85
~ ~
~ ~ :
O ~
611'
; kjein; ; kjein:; ; chein;
n cane; rattan v to proclaim (one's v to weigh, to aim,
prowless), to scold to aim for to aspire to
~ ; : ~ ~ :
( S ~
; chein:; ; chern:; ; njein.;
v to make an appointment v to threaten to thunder v to feel springy
; njein;
v to be still; to be static
; sein; ; sein.; ; sein;
93 diamond em 11 to s - , to feel the chill
~ ~ :
0(-
~ ~
QOa
..
f--
; sem:; ; hsem. ; ; tein;
[-----------
v to be green' unripe v to be rich in taste 93 cloud
I htein: ;
0(' 0('
, ~ ~
,a
; nein.; ; hnein; ; hnem.;
v to be lower v to degrade, to suppress v to lower
86
Lesson 14
Nasalized vowel I OUR I
At first, the initial consonant is followed by vowel symbol l [u. 1
(called t!ebaun: Olin), it is written directly under single-width consonants,
but under the right side of double-width consonants, as in,. <,,? And then, it
is followed by consonant, [ n 1 or e [m] plus the symbol! [called ,IItha'l.
i.e. as in <"?4, ,;. Level tone is basic, lowfalling tone is written with -;
[called au' kat mji'], i.e. as in 4t; .. and tone is written with -,
[called shei. ea. pau'], i.e. as
1- {called thei: dhei: tin - taehaun: ngin) is also used for level
tone, i.e. as in 01. [called the!: dhei: tin - ogia - au' ka.
mji'l for low-falling tone, i.e. as in "*. and l' [called thei: dbei: tin -
t!ehaun: ngin - sbei. ge. pau'1 for high-falling tone.
o 0 0
C'
('
<:'



==
0 0
)

tI

87
HOW TO WRITE MYANMAR CONSONANTS
WITH NASALIZED VOWEL / OUD /
The order of the strokes is as illustrated below. Let's read and write.
1 2 3 4 5
(' (' ('
[koun.]
m
or
or,
nt, or,. or,.
_CYt,
('
[koun]
m
or
or, or,
(' (' ('
[koun:]
ro
nt
nt,
or,
or,: or,:

"i.
[loun.]
C\) C\)
at
C\{.

"i
[loun]
C\) C\)
at
[loun:]
C\) C\)
at
at: at:
1 2 3 4 5

~ ~ l ~ L ~ l .
[ kjou.]

~ ~ L ~ l
[kjou]

~ ~ l
~ l : ~ l :
[kjou:]
(' (' ('
[hmoun.
if
y y,
y,
y,. ~ , .
]
if 'i
('
i--- ('
[hmoun]
y, y, y,
(' (' ('
[hmoun:
if
y y,
r--- Y'
y,= y,=
J

<I;
[shoun.]
51 ~
~
~ . ~ .
[shoun]
51 ~ ~ ~
~ ~
~ : ~ :
[shoun:]
88
Exercise - Read and copy the following words in MyaD1l1ar.
or;


or;:
/ koun / Ikoun: I I kjoun I
n goods; conunodity v to bend, to be bent v to meet or happen by
v to be finished, run out n land, high ground chance, to be 0ppol1une
('

y;
y

/khoun/ / khoun/ / goun: dada: I
v to jump up lover n chair;bench n over-bridge



<"lilY;.

/ choun / / gjoun hmoun. / I SOlin: i
v to cover; to wrap n wheat flour II witch



cr; err;
.I hsoun: / / zoun I I toun I
v to come to an end, n zone v to tremble; to shake;
to lose, to die to quake; to quiver

or:
at
;:
/ toun: I / htoun / / noun: /
n log; block of wood v to be dull, to be v to be tired; to be wom-
numbled, to be torpid out; to be fatigued


;;:
<i;:
<i
/ hnoun: I ! poun: I ! poun I
n rate l' to hlJe 11 form. picture, story
@l':
'(9l=


/rloun: /
' . i' /
i PJoun. i
/ hpoun I
v to be depleted
v to smile 1l dust
89
~ Q ~
~ :
l':
en 0.:> C\') <f , :
I te Ii hpoun: I I hpoun: I I hpoun: I
n telephone v to cover, to conceal sth v to waste; to squander
~ l
~ :
~
:rt,:
I hpjoun I I boun: I / hpoun: I
v to be scared n bomb n power; glory
~ ~ ~
't'.
't;C\Y.>2
't;:
/ moun. / / moun la 'u. I I moun: i
n snack n radish v to hate; to dislike
~

'1'
U?
'J.=
I hmoun I I joun i I joun: I
v to be dim, to be gloomy v to believe; to trust II office, court

~ : a.i:
\1.
/ shoun. I I shoun: I I loun: I
v to wrinkle, to shrink v to fail (examination) v to be round; globular

~ =
3f.
3f
I thoun: I loun. / I oun I
n three v (of sky) to become v to crowd together;
v to use; to spend overcast to assemble
~ ~ .
~
2l
GO' C:3f=
3f;:
/ounl I gaun: oun: I / oun: /
n invocation at the n pillow n coconut palm
beginning of a mantra
90
Lesson 15
Nasalized vowel I ain I
At first, the initial consonant is foHowed by vowel symbol [i. 1
[called Ioun: gii: tin] and l [u. 1 [called t,!cbaun: gin}, it is written
directly under consonants, but under the tight side of double-
width consonants, as in ;, o?' And then, it is followed by consonant C
[ ng ] plus the symbol [called .@tba'], i.e. as in Level tone is
basic? low-falling tone is written with -;; [called au' 1m. mji'], i.e. as in
and high-falling tone is written with -# [called sbei. gao pan'], i.e. as in
oC' Ot' 0('
::C!tc : :,.: ,:. :::::
. OC' OC' .. 0<:'
91
HOW TO WRITE MYANMAR CONSONANTS
WITH NASALIZED VOWEL / aiD /
The order of the strokes is as illustrated below. Let's read and write.
1 2 4


[kain.]
ro C

0
[kain]
ro ro
0
[kain:]
ro ro
0
[khain.]
S S
Q)
2
[khain]
0
[khain:]
S
Q)
[kjain.]
[kjain]
[kjain:]
hmain.
hmain
hmain:
Exercise - Read and copy the following words in Myanmar.

0(' 0('


I kainl I khain / / khain: I
v to hold in the hand v to be steadfast v to order or ask
0(' 0('
C
I ngainl / hsain I I tain I
v to mope n shop; stall; store v to complain, to inform
92
ot' ot' ot'
orC:
CX?C
CX?C:
--
! tain: / / htain / I htain: i
----.
l' to measure; to gauge v to sit II Thai
ot'
Q
ot'
o t'
l
C
uy')'l ;C
;ec &:>:
-
/ dainja ji ! / nain / / nain gia: /
- . "- -----
n diary v to win; to conquer n foreign country
ot'
(l6
ot'
<?C <fC
--
/ Qain! ipjain!
--

/ hQain I
---
v to ovvn; to possess v to compete II file
ot' Oc:'
'fC
'fC:
I main / I main: / I mjain /
II mile II mile v to be rich in variety
0<:- ot' ot' t'

ur
C
U
C
:
UC
:
Ihmainl / jain! / jain: Qin: !
11 to mope; to be do\Vl1cast v to incline; to lean v to rally round; to come
to the aid of; to help
a?8G>6
0<:- CJ<:-
C\( C : 0')0:
ate:
/ lain sin I / lain: ga: / / hlain: /
-
II licence " route bus
II wave
0<:' 0<:- 0<:-
er
C
:
arC
/ wain: / / thain: I / ain /
11 to be circular II martial arts II pond; puddle; pool
93
Nasalized vowel I aun I
At first, the vowel symbol [ei 1 [called tb!.wei htou:] is written
before the initial consonant and -? [a] [calJed jei: cha.1, it is written
directly after the initial consonant letter, as in 90'Y.). -1 [a] [mau' tha.]
is used with 9, (), C, 3, 0 and 0, as in Q&l. And then, it is followed by
consonant C [ng] plus the symbol I:' [called @tba'], i. e. as in
Q&1 Level tone is basic, low-falling tone is vvritten with -; [called au' 1m.
mji'], i.c. as in Q&l and high-falling tone is written with -: [called
shei. gao pau']. i.e. as in
G{)YJC
GOYJC GOYJC:
o
o

[93? [
94
HOW TO WRITE MYANMAR CONSONANTS
WIm NASALIZED I aun I
The order of the strokes is as illustrated below. Let's read and write.
1 2 3 4 5 6
(-
<:'
(-
kaun.
G
GO') GO'Y.) GO'Y.)C GO'Y.)C GO'Y.)C GO'Y.)C

<.' <.'
kaun
G GOO
GO'Y.) GO'Y.)C GO'Y.)C GO'Y.)C
-'
<:'
(' ('
kaun:
G GOO
GO'Y.) GO'Y.)C GO'Y.)C GO'Y.)C: GO'Y.)C:
G GQ GQ1 GQlc
khaun.

G Gf.))lc GO)18 GO)18
khaun
G
GO) G(;)l G(;)l C G(;)18 Gf.))18: G(;) 18:
khaun:
1 2 3 <$ 5 6 7


c:' c:' e
kjaun.



e e
kjaun
--

@<Y.{j eoqrc eO':/Pc
ecr:u
ec-qp
e<Y.tr
c
e

e
kjaun:
e em


e e
c-- e --

@


CMUll.
--
--,

--
@liij
e e
ChaUll
<.l
<.lGtP <.lGtPc

---
I-----'
c:'
'- e
chaun:
<.l <.lli>


eSij?C3
e
<.l
, ro::.Y., c
1--,


kjmlll.
<.l @oo @rro
@
kjaun
j
. --
...
ecm
GC I


kJ8un:
<.l em
@"3,
@
t-." e
e e
chaun.
e @Ii>

I I
@str<t
e

@w


chaun'-
I"'"'
"
e
----':"-
e
chaun:
@ @Ii> eoo
I

1 2
.)
<3 5 6
e
kjauu,
@ @
C

@
kjaun
@
chaun:
95
Exercise - Read and copy the following words in Mvanmar.
C' C'

G(y'y')C:
GCW
C
:
/ kaun: / I kjaun: .I ! kjaun /
v to be good; nice II school, monastery II cat

GO)18:
C'
GS C't=
G6lP
C
/ khaun mou: / / gaun:! / chaun /
II roof II head v to be loose
C'

C'
G6tP
C
:
GOY.:>C
,

/ chaun: J ! hnjaun.! I saun. /
II creek; stream; brook II spike on the ground v to wait for
C' C' C' C'
GQY.)C: GQ(Y.)C:

I saun: I
/ hsaun: /.
/ njaun bin /
II harp n cold season, n banyan tree
C'
(' ('

GOY..>C GOY..>C:
,: naun: / ! taun! ! taun: I
v (of muscles) to be stiff n mountain; hill, v to ask for (sth)
south (direction) II basket
C'
('
C'
G<xy')C G<xy')C Gcxy')C:

! htaun! I daun.! I htaun: I
v to stand, to set up II corner, angle v to pound
G31t:
C'
(' ('

/ daun: / / naun da. I I hnaun. she' /
II peafowl n repentance; remorse v to disturb; bother;
interrupt; annoy
96
Go18
{' {'
GO C't, ..
Go18:
/ paun / /paun moun. I / paun: /
--
If thigh Il bread v to add; mix,
to be friends; associate
G:>8 G:>8:
(:'
0(:'
_. . __ ... _---
--
__ .
! pjaun /
._----1--.-
! iaun: / I __
v to shine, to joke; jest to millet, maize If tountain pen
-
------.-.----+-.------,------. ....'...--.-.. -1---------.--
/ baun: bi /
1----_._-_ .._._-"---_ ... _-+-----_ .... _---_._-_ .. --+-_ .... _-------.
n trousers: ants
v to swell
/ shaun / / laun I
v to sell to avoid to be burnt
/ laun: / ! thaun I I aun /
v to our; to water If sandbank; beach v to ass (examination)
97
Lesson 17
Vowels followed by glottal stop
There are four vowel followed by glottal stop [ i', e', a', u' ] and four
diphthongs fgl10wed bv a glottal stop [ ei', ou', ai', au' ] in Myanmar lan-
guage. The symbol [ , ] in the transcription is regularly written in
Myanmar with four final consonants: d3 , , r:A, and ~ . These are marked,
like -03 [ e ] , with the !!,tha' to show that" they do not begin new
, syllables.
Single vowel Vowel Names
followed by glottal stop symbols
i'
<:'
sa. thai
-Q)
c--- --1---
C'
G-OO
th!!,wei htou: tao tha'
.
<:'
-')q}
jei: eha sa. tha'
----
e'
C'
ka. tha'
-00
- --
('
a' -0')
tao tha'
._-
<:'
-0
pa. tha'
.
--
C'
-')0')
jet: eha tao tha'
u'
<:'
wa. hswe: tao thai
00')
~
wa. hswe: pa. thai
0
L;iPhthOngS vowel
Vowel Names
110'1'1'00 by glottal stop
symbols
ei'
0 c:-
loun: gji: tin tao tha'
-0')
O ~
lOUD: gji: tin pa. tha'
-0
ou'
<:'
tao chaun: ngin tao tha'
I
'TO?
<:'
tao ehauD: ngin pa. tha'
'TO
l
ai
v
0
(-
lOUD: gjt: tin tao chaun: ngin
'TOO
b. b . ~ v
,',j
('
th!,wei bioo: jet: cha b. fha'
G-'JOO
98
HOW TO WRITE MYANMAR CONSONANTS
WITH GLOTTAL STOP Iii /
The order of the strokes is as illustrated below. Let's read and write.
1 2 3 4
00 000
~
000
~
[ki' ]
000
~ c
[kill' ]
~ Q0
~ 0 ~ 0
L ~
011
0
c c
[kji' ]
011
0 0
!-----
C C
'1)
'1)0 '1)0 '1)<
[ chi' ]
I
c c
[ zi' ]
@':>
Q) @':>Q) @':>Q)
Exercise - Read a:vd copy the following words in Myanmar.
(,'
~
{'
Sijd> ClJ d> o:Y.:>:
/ chi' / / chi' / / gji' ka: /
v to love; have affection v to sCfCl.e; shred
n l e ~
99


0)0):)'Y..>: (10) (tOO) aO)
/ si' tha: ! / ri' / / ri' mji' /
n soldier n zip n origin; root; source
(' (' ('
2tQ)
OOQ) OOQ)
I hnji' I I ti' / I hti' I
v to squeeze none v to emit a loud noise
(' (' ('
,Q) ;Q)
00)
I ni' I I hni' / /pji' /
.-
v to sink, to drown n two v to immerse;dip v to throw; toss away
('

('
gjQ)
<tJQ)
I pji' / I pji' hmu. I I hpji' /
v (of fluid) to be thick n crime; offence v to squeeze

('
qjQ)
I hpji' / I bji' / / mji' I
v to be, to become n beer n river
(' (' ('

OOQ)
qQ)
llunji'l Iji' / / .li' /
n bamboo shoot v to be tipsy; to be dmnk v to wind, to screw
(' (' ('
...

OOQ)
,,:?Q)S,
I shi' / IIi'1 I hli' khane: I
n eight v to slip out; slip away adv flitlingly; fleetingly
(' (' (' ('
:A)Q)

I thi' I I hi' 0 I I i' I
v to be new n log;timber v to shout loudly v to squeeze or throttle
100
.
0


Ii' nei. I / akou I / ama. I
n(Muslims) Id-day n elder brother n elder sister
c c c
HOW TO WRITE MYANM.A.R CONSONANTS
WITH GLOTTAl, STOP / e' /
The order of the strokes is as illustrated below. Let's read and write.
1 2 3 4
C' C'
[ke' ]
00 0000 0000 0000
C' C'
[khe' ]
& SOO
6)00 6)00
-- -
C'
('
[ kje' ]
011 011
00
011
00
011
00
C'
('
[ che']
SU
0ij00
SUm SUm
Exercise - Read and copy the follo\\ring words in Myanmar.
C'
60'3
C' C'
011
00
06
00000
I kje' I I kje' I / kwe' la' I
v to be properly cooked n fowl; chicken n blank; vacant area
(' ('
(iO'3
('

SOO
I kjwe' kjwe' hsu I / kjwe' I I khe' /
v to make tumultous n rat; mouse v to be difficult, tough,
noises, to be bubbling hot stiff, hare (of problems)
101
<::'

<::' <::'
ijm
<] 00 GOO o:Y.)2
I che' I Ikhwe'l I gje' lei jin I
v to cook n cup; bowl n jet plane
I hnge' I I se' I
n bird n banana n machine ; mill
<::' <::' <::' <::'
&0 00 &0 00 8m

I hse' hse' I I ze' I I nje' njo: I
adv without fail n nape of the neck v (of skin) to be smooth
and delicate

<::' <::'
0000 0000
/ hnje' I I te' / / hte' I
v to be small; diminutive l' to climb up; ascend v to be sharp; be keen
<::'
"-
,0-3
<::'
3mS,
;00
I de' khane: I I ne' I I hne' /
adv . quickly; immediately v to be black, to be deep v to beat, to hammer
<::' <::'
0-3'l03l
om
qJm
/ pe' I I pie' / I JJie' jepju. I
v to splash; to throw v to be destroyed; to be v to make fun of
ruined, break down (someone)
<::' <::'
{'
tal tal
(900
<tim

Ihpe' / / hpje' I / be' ti: ri: ja: I
v to bug; embrace v to destroy; ruin n bacteria
102
crl
~ ~
goo
:Doo
Ibje' .I Ibwe'l Ibe'l
II width; breadth II mud; mire; bog II direction, side
: ~ : C'
0000 000
@OOO ~ O
HOW TO WRITE MYANMAR CONSONANTS
WITH GLOTTAL STOP I a' I
The order of the strokes is as illustrated below. Let's read and write.
1 2 3
"
~
[ka' ]
00
000') 000') 000')
t' t'
[ka' ]
00 roo roo roo
~ t'
[kha' ]
S SO:> sen soo
~ t'
[kha' ]
S SO SO SO
t' t'
[kja' ]
01)
01)00 01) en 0110')
t' t'
[kja' ]
01J
01)0
0'1J0
01)0
"-
103

[khja' ]
00
611
00 00

[khja' ]
6ij
0


[za' ]

C!f'.) C!f'.)(Y.)
(ff.)00
(ff.)(Y.)
Exercise - Read and com: the following words in Myanmar.


000
0iJ0
I ka' kji: I lka'i I kja' I
n scissors v to come close, to stick n Kyat: Myanmar unit of
money

{' {'
SOO SO
I kji: gja' I I kha' I I kha' I
v to supervise v to beat or strike, to kick, v to spoon out or ladle
to flutter, to hedge (fence) (of curry, soup, etc)
{'

GUO
COO 00
I eha' I I nga' I ! sa' I
v to be flat, to subside v to starve; to be hungry v (of taste) to be hot

{' {' ...
<If:> 00
@0000':)0:

1--
I za' I I za' ka: I I hsa' khane: I
n drama; play n picture; movie (film) atlv suddenly and quickly

{'

2:!0
0000
I hsa' pja I I hnja' I I ta' I
n soap v to cut with scissors v to know: to be clever
{' {'
G0a3fBl:
000 000
I ta' I I hta' I I eta' kjou: I
v to fix; attach, to impose atlv again; once more n electric wire
104
(' . (' ('
QOoo<l ,00
,0
/ da' poun/ / na' / / na
'
/
v to be small; diminutive n opulent; lord; nat spirits v to be fully cooked
,8
('
(' ('
000
00')
/ hna' / / pa' / I pa' kja: e' /
n mucous discharge from v to wind around; wrap n crack; fissure
the nose; snot around; circle
('
@a3
('

(90')
.
I pu. pja' / / pja' I / hpa' /
v to be short; squat 11 to snap; break; be cut otT v to read
(' (' (' ('
a3
<tJ00 00 00
qj
0
<tJ O_"il :
/ hpja' la' / / hpja' hp.E' Iu: I ___
v to be brisk; active 11 to writhe with pain v to cut, to go across
(' (' (' (' (' ('

=r:> 00 ID OY.:>:

/ bja' saun: / I ba' saka: ! / rna' ta' ja' / ____
n kind oflute n bus v, to be in an upright
position

(' (' ('
00 0 GO'Y.)C
'1
0
! mja' / / ja' taun / / ja' /
v to be noble, n fan v to stop, to stand upright
to gain profit (hand-held instrument)
(' ('
e
('

00000000
"to
,-
/ sha' / / la' hsa' / / hla' /
v to be flat; thin v to be fresh 'Ii' to open; expose,
n shirt to leave out; omit
105
(' ('

('

:00') 3;)()
----I---
/ hlja
'
si
'
/ / tha' /
/ at /
Ii electricity v to kill n pin; needle
1
______

_011
6ij
HOW TO WruTE MYANMAR
WITH GLOTTAL STOP I u' I
of the strokes is as illustrated below. Let's read and write.
2 :3 4
--
[ku' ]
[ku' ]
--
[khu' ]
('
[ldm' ]

___
-
('
[kju' ]
0aJ
__ ?al
00
0)
(' ('
[kbju' ]
31 31
00
8)00

106
6
ItyJ
tyJu tyJ8 tyJ8
[ kju' ]
(' ('
[ju' ]
'1 a a
oo
a
oo
a
oo
('
I
('
[ju' ]
''1
a
au au ao
.Ex('rcis(' - Read and copy the following words in Myanmar.
('
"- <'
I
tyJ8
0600
oaJOO
i
/ ku' ke: / ! kju' /
I
! kju' /
V 10 manage, supelvise v (0f hall, feather) to drop I l' to be crisp; brittle
out, to be free, unfettered i
(' ('
0
('
aJOO

/ kIm' ! / chu' / / sou zu' /
f--
v (of male birds) to fight l' to take off, remove to be wet, to soak; wet
I (shoes, clothes, hat, etc)
(' (' (' ('

/ su' kje / / hsu' khu: / / zu' /
II vest v to pick or pluck fruit ad .. forcibly; obstinately
(' (' ('
0

ea
OO
06C?cx(Z
,/ nju' / ! hnju''/ / tu' htou: /
l' to droop, to tall for (sb) " h) bend (a stick, jI to patter; chatter; prate
a branch, etc)
('

('

goo
--
/ pu' /
--

/ hpu' /
v to rub; smear, to brush l' to be clustered n monitor lizard
107
g8
('0 (' ('
06
000
,0 c ; ~ ~ o o
/ hpu' / /bu' hwna' / / cho: mu' /
v to wash, to pound n boots' shoes v to be smooth
/ hmu' I
/ 'u' /
- - - - ~ ~ ~ ~ - - - - ~ - - _ 4
v to be fluent V to recite
HOW TO WRITE MYANMAR CONSONANTS
WITH GLOTTAL STOP I el'l
The order of the strokes is as illustrated below. Let's read and write.
1 2 3 4
0 0 0
{'
0
{'
[ kei' ]
00 00 moo rooo 0000
0 0 O{' O{'
[ kei' ]
ro ro roo roo roo
0 0 0
{'
0
('
[khei' ]
S S
sO') sO') SOO
0 0 0(' 0('
l khei']
S S so so so
108
0 0 0 0
[kjei' ]
O'1JOO O'1JOO
00
0
[kjei' ]
0'1J0 0'1J0
<">11
0
0 0 0
[chei' ]
SUOO
00 00
[chei' ]
[kjei' ]
Exercise - Read and copy the following words in Myanmar.
I kei' moun. I
" cake
o
00
I chei' I
o
Q)OO
I sei' I
II mind; thought
0
0000
/ tei' /
v to be silent; to beguiet

000
" crown of

o
I chei' I
II sealin wax; lac
o "

I sei' badi: .I
" prayer beads


I tei' khwei /
II tape_{audio, video, etc)

o
o
000
0
GO)
/ gaun: njei' /
v to nod (one's head)
0
000000,.
I htei' Ian. I
v to be frightened
v to

o
I hnei' I
109
,
0 C- O C' 0 C'
00') (90')
I pel' / / hpei' / / bei' /
f---
v 10 close: shut v to invite, to spjll 11 the last
II COltOll clolh; cloth
I
0 C' OC'
COO 00 3d 0
o C'@

E i mei' hswct !
/ Je(pja ! ! ei' I
.--
11 friend 11 bU1ert1v v to siet:E
HOW TO MYANMAR COi\'SONANTS
WITH GLOTTAL STOP lour I
The order of the strokes is as illustrated below. Let's read and write.
1 2 3 4
C' c-
I kou']
00
Of
0':(0')
CY:(OO
O?OO
C' C-
[kou
i
J
m
or
0':(0
orO orO
I
110
,-----
<:' <:'
S


[khou' ]
<:' <:'
[khou' ]
S


<:' <:'
[kjou' ]
01J O1Jl
CY1JlO
O1JlO O1JlO
<:' <:'
[chou' ]
6lJ 6lJl

6lJl
O

l
lOJ lcrl
[kjou' ]
<:' <:'
[shou' ]
".
".0 ".0 ".0
0:[8
<:'
[Wou' ]
or
0:[
0:[0 0:[0
Exercise - Read and copy the following words in Myanmar.
<:' <:'0 <:'
ot
OJ

O1JlO
/ kou' / .I gout pou:.I .I kjou' /
v to scratch; claw II trapezius J,roll [colloq] I
lcrl
<:'
CUl
OJ
/ kjou' I Ikhou' I / gjou' .I
II casket v to hack; to chop; to cut II rake; razor blade holder
crcrl
<:' <:'
ceO
I ngou' I I ngou' I / sou' /
II stump (of tree); stake v to dive (into deep water) v to tear
<:' <:'


/ sou' I I hsou' / I hsou' I
v to suck; to soak up v to withdraw; retreat v to grip; grasp; hold
<:'
('
<:'
CY.(OO CY.(O
<Xt
OO
I dou' I
.I tout I
/ htou' /
II stick v to tie; bind; fasten v to take out
III
<' <' <' <'
CJt
,00
,oosa:
I htou' I I hnou'l Ihnakhan: I
v to pack; bundle; wrap v to pull out, to subtract n ljp; lips, brim; rim
9.cA
<' <'
9.0 "to
I pou' i I pou' I I Iou' I
v to tap (someone with v to decay; rot, v to do; work, to make,
hand); pat, to strike; hit to be wasted to work at, to behave; act
HOW TO WRITE MYANMAR CONSONANTS
WITH GLOTTAL STOP / ai' /
The order of the strokes is as illustrated below. Let's read and write.
1 2 3 4 5
0
d?
0 o (' o ('
kai'
m m
arm arm
or
m
2
0 0
~ r r S ~ r r S
khai'
Q
t:t t:t
oo
0 0 0
o ("--
0
('
kjai'
<Y.ij oqj
O1Jl O1U
m
OiIlm OiIlm
112
0 0 0

0 c
chai'
SU SU
Oijl
SUl
OO


--:;;;

kjai'

@l
lOO

chai'
-
0 0 0 o c o c
hmai'
'1 'f <t
<tOO
0 0 0 o c o c
shai'
"L


0 0 0 o c:
I
o c
hlai'
Of Of "t 9
00
"roo "too
}:xercise - Read and copy the follo\ving words in Myanmar.
=,..
I
0 <:: 0 e 0 c
8l
a3
ot
ro
0iJ l ro Oill 00
f------'
I
kjai' kjai' hsu / / kjal' I I kai' /
1---' .

}' to bIte, to cut, to ache I' (llfbolling water) to v ,to like, tG be pleased
bubble with
0
C,'O
C,'
0
C,'
t<D elm <roo
_., ... _---_.
I khai' mi, / ! hlli' chai' / / ngai' /
11 to hUTt oneself v to like l' to drowsy; feel sleepy
0
C,'
0
C,'
0 <:'
<00
Q:(oo 0(00
.-
/ sai' / / hsai' / / tai' /
l' to plant, to set up 11 to alrive 11 to crash; collide
0
C,' C,'
0
C,'
0 <:'
"1
rooo
,
;00
00
/ htai' tan I / hnai' / / pai' /
v to be worth; to have 11 to put one's hand into v to hold in the arms dose
a cCJ1ain value pocket, bag, etc to one's bosom
1[3
_____ a3
0 <.' 0 C' .....


---
/ pjai' pjai' / / bai' / I mai' me: I
--
l' continuously and It stomach; belly v to be very foolish
profusedly or heavily
0 <.' 0 <.' 0 <.'
f----
'U
OO

C\{OO
/ jai' I I shai' / Ilai' I
v to hit; strike; beat l' to breathe in, to sob v to follow; chase
0 0 .... .....
0
('
0
('
Of 00 Of 00 Of Of
or
m
3.fm
--
/ hlai' hlai' hie: hIe: I ! hai' I / ai' !
------ ---
adI' heartily: wannly v to be low necked l' to be warm; be stuffy
114
HOW TO WRITE MYANMAR CONSONANTS
WITH GLOTTAL STOP / au' /
The order of the strokes is as illustrated below. Let's read and write .
1 :2
.}
4 5 6
<.' <.'
kau'
Q Qoo
Qo:Y.) QO'.Y.) QO'.Y.)OO QO'.Y.)OO
00
Q QS Qs1 Qsloo Qs1riJ
khau'


<.' <.'
kjau'
Q
Q01r Q01roo

<.' <:'
chau'
Q QS
t-

Q
Q(o
Q O'.Y.)

kjau'


>f <.'

chau'




<.'
1--- <:'
lmau'
Q


1--" ----
<.'
e-
e
pjau'
G

Gqf> Gqf>oo Qqf>oo Gqf>oo
1-- e--
e
hmau
G




<.' t'
shau'
G

_. __
GWOO
QC9

e-
<:'
Wau'
G

Exercue = Read and copy the following words in Myanmar.




I kau' I I kjau' I I kjau' I
w to be bent, to pick up n rock, ffint, jewel v to fear; dread
I khau' I I gjau' I I chau' I
v to knock, to fold n ravine; n six v to be d





I gau' thi: jai' I I ngau' I I sau' I
--
v to play golf v to shout or rail at v to be stoop_
115
co CO CO ....
GQY.)(Y.). G<tO(Y.) GOY'J(y')OO

_. ... _-_ .. _. __ .-.-
/ hsau'/ / zau' / j tau' teo /
---._--
f--
..
--------
v to build; construct n deQth n tucktoo
co
I
G31cfJ
CO
GCXY.:>(y')
G,-::>(y')
j htau' / / dau' / / nau' /
v to prop up; support n prop; buttress l' (of liquid) to muddy,
cloudy, not clear
G;'.:><rl 1 GO 1 <rl
CO
Gqpoo
- --_. - --_ .. _---" - -------"-"---_._-------- 1----------.
/ hnau' / Lau' ! _____ . __ ! ____
-----_ .. _ .. ----"--- --- ..
v to cause water OJ liqUId tc I v to be breached; be
l' to disappear
tum turbid (by dViturbmg)
I
broken, h;l'!c 11 puncture
116
Lesson 18
Miniature symbol of devowelized nga. tha'
The special name kin: zi: is a miniature symbol of devowlized
scripted nga. tha' on the following letter, as in
e
E!3" and
Superscripted N Somnd Meaning
Form Form Value
(Correct Spelling) (Incorrect Soeilliigl
__

chin dhei. lion
--
nAl
gin: ga the Ganges
f-- 1-------------
..

----
G)
zin: gjan corridor; passage
f---- ---
tl
('
Sunday


('
la
-- ------------
OO;c\y:) ;C:c\y:)
Monday

--
('
min source of
--


prosperity,
$
('
lin ga
OOOYJ roCOYJ
verse
.. ----.-.--
-------------f-- -
labyrinth;
od.,ol
win
--- -

('
thin ga doubt; suspicion
:).)OYJ :)')COYJ
--- -

('
thin kei tao
:)')GOOOO :)')CGOOOO
sign; symbol; mark
f-- -- f-------------
6 (' (' ('
:),)00;1 COO;:
thin gan: robewom by
1----------1-----------
Buddhist monk
:>.)@,
(' thin: gjan / new year water
:).)C: 00;
dh<!gjan festival
--
'1

thin khaja. Impermanence

('
thin cha mathematics


Il7
Superscripted Non-supl'rscripted Sound Meaning
Form Form Value
(Correct Spelling) (Incorrect Suellin2)
tiO ('
('
0
('
thin: gjain:

cemetery;
r--
graveyard
---
6
('
:)..)noo :)..)cnoo
thin friend
:01,100,0

thin Buddhist synod
1-._-----------
6
f----------------
('
. -------------
:OG0')0 :)..) C : GO')'.)
thm: bo: ship; vessel

-- +--:-:--------
(' Q
in: gji
__

__ shirt, j acket, _

('
._--"-
3;)C:OGO')
in: I monar, cement
..
0
.. ------.-----
j ____
-_._----------_. __ .. _---
118
Lesson 19
Subscripted letters pa' hsin.
In Pati writing, there are subscripted letters and it is called pa' hsin.. In
many words with a closed syllable preceding another syllable, the initial
consonant of the second is written below the final consonant of the first.
The kin: zi: is superscripted letter and {!.tha' l':) is not omitted, as in
In pa' hsin., gjha' [.:) is omitted in the upper consonant and
it marks as a final consonant ofthe first syllable, as in
This system is also used for the Pali loan words in Myanmar writing.
Subscripted I NOD-subscripted Sound Meaning
Form Form Value
(Correct SpelHng) (Incorrect Spelling)
0':( ro:>.)
0':( ro :>.) f) ()
ku. lao tha. The United Nations
me'ga. Organization
0

kou'kou rain tree
O':(<JSl
0 0(.'
kei'sa. business; (04) (04)4)
.,
r--- work to be done
--
00'65 6pG4>: ood3oo 6pG<D:
ka' tilla zei: tar; coal tar
-

(' G
0000000
g!!di ba velvet
f---
CT.)
, ,
('
the: dessert
:>.)000'1.
:>.) 00" 000'1.
gan da ra.
-- ------------
<:'

gr!ba earth; world
:Y.)
<:'
(.'
<.'
religious meditation


(.' 9--
---------.---
e
koun p,!ni company

O':(aooo
( commercial)
(.'
khan da the body
st
0

r---
.. _-
0 o (.'
za rei' tao moral character
4)0qgs 4)06),0000
(.'
se'ku paper
4)<JSll
4)000'jl
(.'
<.'
(.'
se' kan. second (sixtieth
!DOO,
!DOO 00 ".
m
f-part of a minute)
1---
._-
e:-
san da la. caste of cemetery
!DW:>ro
4)oo;.pro
workers
119
Subscripted Non-sub8cripted Sound Meaning
Form Form Value
(Correct Spelling) (Incorrect Spelling)
0 0
<-
sei' c@za.
I
Q)O)@ Q)O)O)@
mental illness;
a:>
1-----------1---- C' insanity --
E\YJ
o
san: daja:
___ .... 'f -l- . _____ _ ... _w J 'P= ___ "" __ _1_-- plano
oot hsan da. desire'
.-----.. .. - _ .. _______ VIews
hsan da. me: vote
--- ----<:' " ----------.--
taxi
C' .. ---- ------ -.--------.--- --
__ I de; regional =-
1 q? 1 d'S dou' kha. . pain; suffering;
_ trouble
o C' 0 - '--, ---;----+---- . --
1 Oi 0) 1 00 0) dOll kill. tao disabled person
C'


dan rna. Dharma, the Law,
teachings of the
I----,::o------!-----O"('--------- __
__ ___ z(,!du wa. i always
I-__ __ 1--

owen di. wise man; scholar;
_ . __ c-
1ea
!:lled man.i._unt!ii...
___ p_o._un_n __ a_: ___ +--___ B_fa_hmin __ ----I

ruby (of gem quality)
--------.---
0<:' " t;;)
O;:;:Q:
jack fiuit pein: ne: dhi:
Subscripted
Form
(Cori"0Ct
Nou-subscripted
Form
(Incorrect
120
Sound
Value
bou'da.

bei' khu.
banda
throne; altar
Buddha
Wednesday
monk
property; finances
o 0 --
mel'tu copy; duplicate;
__________ 4-____ .. ____ -+ __________ +-__ __ . __
mji'ta love; kindness;
affection
cesspit; septic tank
botany
OcrlO? wu' htu. matter; object,
novel; fiction
the' killi'
thi'sa

tha'ti.
the present Myanmar
Era
truth; veracity, oath;
vow, loyalty
any living being;
creature
ability; attribute;
property, courage
121
Subscripted I I' Sound i Meaning
Form I Form Value
(Correct SI)elllng) i (lntorrect Spelling) I
122
Lesson 20
Small and big form
It is a kind of pal hsin .. And it is not written like a superscripted letter
or subscripted letter. Two small letter put into combination as a big letter.
In the big form f!..tha
l
r': J is omitted. For example, in the word o ~
/ p.im nja I [knowledge. education ] , the small form 2 [nja. tha'J
combined with another small form e-:>. 2 is pronounced Ilja' lei: l small
nja.] and 2: is called nja' gji: r big nja.]. Mostly, this system is used for
paJi loan words.
Conl.'ct Spl.'lIing Incorrect Spelling !
~ ( t w o small form) Sound V:liu(' I Meaning
21
Myanmar numerals
How to write M -
yanmar numerals
English Single Srokt'
T
Suod Value 1
Euivale nt

[ ti' ]
1 0
J
C'
[ hni' ]
')
;0,)
.....


[thoun: J
3
:A?:
----
GCO:
[ lei: J
4

Clg
( -
nga: J
5

--
6
G
G:> <'
l chau' ]-
.00
7
7
C'
l khun hni' J

I I
-
124
English Single Sroke Sund Value
Euivalent
[ sm' ]
8
[kou: ]
9
{\-----A-t----
00 G) QCH.rl [ ]
10
[ hse. ti' ]
11
[hse. hill']
12
20
J
! '\ [th
-"1 v'QIV""""'" oun: ze]
o
30
[lei: ze 1 I
12S
Lesson 22
Irregularities
There are special symbols for loan words from Pali or other languages.
They are not pronounced as they are.
CorrectSpelUDg SDeat Symbol SouDd Value MeaDiDg
(atha' )

('
[kou]
]
the body
-00
0
0(' ('
[wei'
[' ]
Person with super-
fO'l'1
-'1
zadou]
natural powers
('o('
('
[ mjin:
[4 ]
Mount Mmlfrom

-'1
mou]
Buddhist Texts

('
[ pou]
]
(ofweigbt)
-00
five ticals
0
(' ('
(bpou]
]
state of fruition on
<rOO
-00
following the Right
Patb leading to
Nirvana

-
('
[ku.dbou]
]
virtuous action;
-00
merit

('
[bou]
[' ]
lieutenant,
-00
leader, champion

('
[gjou]
]
planets in the solar
-00
syatem
Correct SileDt Symbol SouDd Value MeaDiDg
SpeWDI (atba' )
('
[da' ]
[80S ]
the basic property of
Q';)O')

matter such as soli-
dity, heat, cohesion
or fluidity
('
8
[da' hsi]
[80S ]
petrol; gasoline
G.Y.)O')&X:)

u:Y.>2

[jin]
[tX>2 ]
vehicle; craft
w.>;
[man]
[tt; ]
pride; force of
personality

-1
[APC]
[ooS ]
[Buddhism) the (our
uetber worlds