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Parshat Bahalotcha 5769

Rabbi Ari Kahn


A Little Pesach

The Second Pesach


An entire year has passed. It had certainly been an
eventful year. The year began with the word of God – and
the gift of time, the Israelites were told about the Pesach –
the Passover offering, and the grand exodus which would
follow. Indeed soon the people were on their way, through
the sea into the desert, arriving at a mountain. They had
glorious highs – like receiving the Torah, and humiliating
lows, like serving a molten calf. They built the Mishkan,
but the consecration was marred by the deaths of Nadav
and Avihu.

Now they stood one year after the first Pesach, and are
told to do it again, this time not in anticipation of leaving
Egypt, but now a national observance would be
celebrated; commemorating the Exodus.

‫במדבר פרק ט‬
‫(א) וַיְדַבֵר ה’ אֶל משֶה בְמִדְבַר סִינַי בַשָנָה הַשֵנִית לְצֵאתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם‬
)‫ (ג‬:‫ (ב) וְיַעֲשו בְנֵי יִשְרָאֵל אֶת הַפָסַח בְמועֲדו‬:‫בַחֹדֶש הָרִאשון לֵאמֹר‬
‫בְארְבָעָה עָשָר יום בַחֹדֶש הַזֶה בֵין הָעַרְבַיִם תַעֲשו אֹתו בְמֹעֲדו כְכָל חֻקֹתָיו‬
:‫ (ד) וַיְדַבֵר משֶה אֶל בְנֵי יִשְרָאֵל לַעֲשת הַפָסַח‬:‫וכְכָל מִשְפָטָיו תַעֲשו אֹתו‬
‫(ה) וַיַעֲשו אֶת הַפֶסַח בָרִאשון בְארְבָעָה עָשָר יום לַחֹדֶש בֵין הָעַרְבַיִם‬
:‫בְמִדְבַר סִינָי כְכֹל אֲשֶר צִוָה ה’ אֶת משֶה כֵן עָשו בְנֵי יִשְרָאֵל‬

1. And the Lord spoke to Moses in the wilderness of


Sinai, in the first month of the second year after they
came out of the land of Egypt, saying, 2. Let the
people of Israel also keep the Passover at its
appointed season. 3. In the fourteenth day of this
month, at evening you shall keep it in its appointed
season; according to all its rites, and according to all
its ceremonies, shall you keep it. 4. And Moses spoke
to the people of Israel, that they should keep the
Passover. 5. And they kept the Passover on the
fourteenth day of the first month at evening in the
wilderness of Sinai; according to all that the Lord
commanded Moses, so did the people of Israel.
Bamidbar 9:1-5

There were however a group of people who felt


disenfranchised, those who were ritually impure and could
not participate felt as if they were excluded from the
Jewish people.
‫במדבר פרק ט‬
‫(ו) וַיְהִי אֲנָשִים אֲשֶר הָיו טְמֵאִים לְנֶפֶש אדָם וְלֹא יָכְלו לַעֲשֹת הַפֶסַח בַיום‬
‫ (ז) וַיֹאמְרו הָאֲנָשִים‬:‫הַהוא וַיִקְרְבו לִפְנֵי מֹשֶה וְלִפְנֵי אהֲרֹן בַיום הַהוא‬
‫הָהֵמָה אֵלָיו אֲנַחְנו טְמֵאִים לְנֶפֶש אדָם לָמָה נִגָרַע לְבִלְתִי הַקְרִב אֶת קָרְבַן‬
:‫ה’ בְמֹעֲדו בְתוךְ בְנֵי יִשְרָאֵל‬
6. And there were certain men, who were defiled by
the dead body of a man, so that they could not keep
the Passover on that day; and they came before
Moses and before Aaron on that day; 7. And those
men said to him, We are defiled by the dead body of
a man; Why are we kept back, so that we may not
offer an offering to the Lord in his appointed season
among the people of Israel? Bamidbar 9:6,7

Their feelings are understandable, this defining practice,


which in a sense created the nation, separated between
life and death. It separated between the Israelites who
were headed for freedom, and the Egyptians, whose every
home – which did not have the paschal lamb, and blood on
the doorposts suffered death. The blood on the doorposts
was not to be repeated, but the paschal offering would be
repeated, and those who could not participate felt as if
they were separated from the people.

Moreover, the defilement by a dead body is part of


vicissitudes of life. A thriving bustling community will have
births and sadly will also have deaths.1 Those who deal
with the dead are performing an important mitzva, an
unparalleled mitzvah of chesed.2 The members of the
group who prepare the body for burial, and take care of
the burial are called to this very day the chevra kadisha

1
See Comments of Ibn Ezra
‫אבן עזרא על במדבר פרק ט פסוק ו‬
:‫ לא יתכן שיהיה מחנה ישראל גדול ושלא ימותו שם מתים בכל יום‬- ‫ויהי אנשים‬
2
See Rashi Bereishit 47:29
‫רש"י בראשית פרק מז‬
:‫ שאינו מצפה לתשלום גמול‬,‫ חסד שעושין עם המתים הוא חסד של אמת‬- ‫חסד ואמת‬
the holy society. Why should the performance of a mitzva,
certainly an important mitzva cause the practitioners to
suffer religiously, by being excluded from the paschal
service?3

A Second, Second Pesach


Moshe feels that the question is a valid one and asks God
what should be done:

‫במדבר פרק ט‬
‫ פ‬:‫(ח) וַיֹאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם מֹשֶה עִמְדו וְאֶשְמְעָה מַה יְצַוֶה ה’ לָכֶם‬
8. And Moses said to them, Wait, and I will hear what
the Lord will command concerning you. Bamidbar 9:8

The answer received is extraordinary; an answer which


flies in the face of the laws of offerings. Under normal
circumstances the time an offering can be brought is
precise, if the day in missed the opportunity is forfeited.4
Nonetheless, they are told that there would be a second
opportunity to bring this offering:

‫במדבר פרק ט‬
‫ (י) דַבֵר אֶל בְנֵי יִשְרָאֵל לֵאמֹר אִיש אִיש כִי‬:‫(ט) וַיְדַבֵר ה’ אֶל מֹשֶה לֵאמֹר‬
)‫ (יא‬:’‫יִהְיֶה טָמֵא לָנֶפֶש או בְדֶרֶךְ רְחֹקָה לָכֶם או לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם וְעָשָה פֶסַח לַ ה‬
‫בַחֹדֶש הַשֵנִי בְארְבָעָה עָשָר יום בֵין הָעַרְבַיִם יַעֲשו אֹתו עַל מַצות ומְרֹרִים‬
‫ (יב) לֹא יַשְאִירו מִמֶנו עַד בֹקֶר וְעֶצֶם לֹא יִשְבְרו בו כְכָל חֻקַת‬:‫יֹאכְלֻהו‬
‫ (יג) וְהָאִיש אֲשֶר הוא טָהור ובְדֶרֶךְ לֹא הָיָה וְחָדַל‬:‫הַפֶסַח יַעֲשו אֹתו‬
‫לַעֲשות הַפֶסַח וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶפֶש הַהִוא מֵעַמֶיהָ כִי קָרְבַן ה’ לֹא הִקְרִיב בְמֹעֲדו‬
:‫חֶטְאו יִשָא הָאִיש הַהוא‬

9. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 10. Speak to


the people of Israel, saying, If any man of you or of
your posterity shall be unclean because of a dead
3
In the words of the Seforno Bamidbar 9:7 – why should our mitzva cause a sin – by non-compliance
to the pesach mitzva.
‫ספורנו עה"ת ספר במדבר פרק ט פסוק ז‬
:‫ שזו מצוה עוברת‬.‫ במועדו‬.‫ מאחר שהיתה טומאתנו לדבר מצוה למה תהיה גוררת עבירה‬.‫ למה נגרע‬,‫אנחנו טמאים לנפש אדם‬
4
The principle is known as ‫ עבר זמנו בטל קרבנו‬avar zmano batel korbano. See Tosfot Brachot 26a SV
Ibaya Lihu. It is there explained that the daily prayers, which were instituted by the forefathers, and
commemorate a sacrifice from the Mishkan, can be said even if the proper time passed, because of the
aspect of the prayers which were instituted by the forefathers. However musaf (the additional prayer
said on holidays) can not be made up, for this is a commemoration of the additional offering brought on
holidays.
‫תוספות מסכת ברכות דף כו עמוד א‬
‫ לא בעי אם טעה ולא התפלל תפלת מוסף דהא ודאי אינו מתפלל בערבית דהיאך‬- '‫איבעיא להו טעה ולא התפלל תפלת מנחה כו‬
‫יקרא את הקרבנות וכבר עבר זמן מוסף וגם לא תיקנו שבע ברכות של מוסף אלא משום ונשלמה פרים שפתינו ובזה ודאי עבר‬
.‫זמנו בטל קרבנו אבל שאר תפלות דרחמי נינהו ולואי שיתפלל אדם כל היום כולו ואין כאן עבר זמנו בתפלה אחרת‬
body, or is in a journey far away, he shall still keep
the Passover to the Lord. 11. The fourteenth day of
the second month at evening they shall keep it, and
eat it with unleavened bread and bitter herbs. 12.
They shall leave none of it to the morning, nor break
any bone of it; according to all the ordinances of the
Passover they shall keep it. 13. But the man who is
clean, and is not in a journey, and refrains from
keeping the Passover, that same soul shall be cut off
from among his people; because he brought not the
offering of the Lord in his appointed season, that man
shall bear his sin. Bamidbar 9:9-13

The normal rules of offering are ignored; the people would


receive a second chance. Why in this case were the rules
changed? What is it about this situation that allowed a
second chance? Perhaps understanding why they were
impure would help us unravel this mystery. We saw earlier
that they were defiled due to an anonymous death in the
camp. This question is debated in the Talmud, and three
explanations for the defilement are offered. The Talmud
was discussing the principle of osek bmitzva patur
mmitzva, if someone is involved with the performance of
one mizvah they are then absolved from the performance
of second mitzva:

‫תלמוד בבלי מסכת סוכה דף כה עמוד א‬


+‫במדבר ט‬+ :‫ דתניא‬,‫והעוסק במצוה פטור מן המצוה מהכא נפקא? מהתם נפקא‬
‫ויהי אנשים אשר היו טמאים לנפש אדם וכו' אותם אנשים מי היו? נושאי ארונו של‬
‫ מישאל ואלצפן היו שהיו‬:‫ רבי עקיבא אומר‬:‫ דף כה‬,‫ דברי רבי יוסי הגלילי‬,‫יוסף היו‬
‫ כבר היו‬- ‫ אם נושאי ארונו של יוסף היו‬:‫ רבי יצחק אומר‬.‫עוסקין בנדב ואביהוא‬
‫ אלא עוסקין במת מצוה‬.‫ יכולין היו ליטהר‬- ‫ אם מישאל ואלצפן היו‬,‫יכולין ליטהר‬
.‫ שחל שביעי שלהן להיות בערב פסח‬,‫היו‬
But is the law that he who is engaged on one
religious duty is free from any other deduced from
here? Is it not deduced from elsewhere, As it has
been taught: And there were certain men who were
unclean by the dead body of a man, etc. Who were
these men? They were those who bore the coffin of
Joseph, so R. Jose the Galilean. R. Akiba said, They
were Mishael and Elzaphan who were occupied with
[the remains of] Nadab and Abihu. R. Isaac said, If
they were those who bore the coffin of Joseph, they
had time to cleanse themselves [before Passover,]
and if they were Mishael and Elzaphan they could
[also] have cleansed themselves [before the
Passover]. But it was those who were occupied with a
meth mizwah, the seventh day [of whose
purification] coincided with the eve of Passover, as it
is said, They could not keep the Passover on that day,
on ‘that’ day they could not keep the Passover, but
on the morrow they could? Talmud Bavli Sukka
25a,b

While the Talmud gravitates to the opinion that those who


died were anonymous people, the opinion of Rabbi Yose;
that it was those who were entrusted with carrying the
remains of Yosef, which has captured the imagination of
later authorities. The Midrash clearly states that the
creation of Pesach Sheni was not the performance of a
pedestrian deed; it was the remains of Yosef which
generated this extraordinary law.

‫שמות רבה (וילנא) פרשה כ ד"ה יט וחמושים עלו‬


)‫ ויקח משה את עצמות יוסף עהכ"א (משלי י‬,‫וחמושים עלו בני ישראל שעלו מזוינין‬
‫חכם לבב יקח מצות שכל ישראל היו עסוקים בכסף וזהב ומשה היה עסוק בעצמות‬
‫ והיו עצמותיו של יוסף מחזרין עמהם‬...,'‫יוסף שנאמר ויקח משה את עצמות וגו‬
‫) אנכי אכלכל‬/'‫בראשית נ‬/ ‫ א"ל הקב"ה אתה אמרת לאחיך (שם‬,‫במדבר מ' שנה‬
‫אתכם חייך אתה נפטר ויהיו עצמותיך מחזרין עמהם במדבר מ' שנה שנאמר‬
‫(במדבר ט) ויהי אנשים אשר היו טמאים לנפש אדם ואין אדם אלא יוסף שנאמר‬
‫ בזכות‬,‫) וימאס באהל יוסף‬/‫תהלים ע"ח‬/ ‫ וכתיב (שם‬,‫(תהלים עח) אהל שכן באדם‬
,‫עצמותיך הם עושים פסח קטן‬
AND THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL WENT UP ARMED (XIII,
18)--They went up armed against all attacks. AND
MOSES TOOK THE BONES OF JOSEPH (ib. 19).
Concerning him does it say: The wise in heart will
take good deeds (Prov. X, 8), for at the time when the
whole of Israel were busily occupied in collecting gold
and silver, Moses was occupied with collecting the
bones of Joseph, as it says: AND MOSES TOOK THE
BONES OF JOSEPH. … During the entire forty years’
wanderings in the wilderness, the bones of Joseph
traveled with them. God had said to him [Joseph]:
‘Because thou hast said: "I will feed you" to thy
brothers, I assure thee that when thou art dead, thy
bones will journey with them for forty years in the
wilderness,’ as it says: But there were certain men,
who were unclean by the dead body of a man (Num.
IX, 6). The word ’man’ refers to Joseph, for it says:
The tent which He had made to dwell among men
(Ps. LXXVIII, 60), and then: Moreover He abhorred the
tent of Joseph (ib. 67) For the sake of thy bones
shall they celebrate the lesser Passover.
Midrash Rabba Sh’mot 20:19

The Midrash connects the Pesach Sheni with Yosef, as


reward for a specific deed of Yosef, his remains travelled
with the community, because he took care of and fed his
brothers. To fully appreciate this gesture we need to
appreciate the context. Yaakov has died and the brothers
and Yosef have returned to Egypt. The brothers are
apparently frightened; therefore they take a preemptive
action, and offer to be slaves to Yosef. One who is not
scared would not offer themselves to a life of servitude,
the sad case was that the brothers were scared of
something worse than servitude; they were scared of
death.

‫בראשית פרק נ‬
‫(יד) וַיָשָב יוסֵף מִצְרַיְמָה הוא וְאֶחָיו וְכָל הָעֹלִים אִתו לִקְבֹר אֶת אבִיו אחֲרֵי‬
‫(טו) וַיִרְאו אֲחֵי יוסֵף כִי מֵת אֲבִיהֶם וַיֹאמְרו לו יִשְטְמֵנו יוסֵף‬:‫קָבְרו אֶת אבִיו‬
‫ (טז) וַיְצַוו אֶל יוסֵף לֵאמֹר‬:‫וְהָשֵב יָשִיב לָנו אֵת כָל הָרָעָה אֲשֶר גָמַלְנו אֹתו‬
ָ‫(יז) כֹה תֹאמְרו לְיוסֵף אנָא שָא נָא פֶשַע אחֶיך‬:‫אבִיךָ צִוָה לִפְנֵי מותו לֵאמֹר‬
ְ‫וְחַטָאתָם כִי רָעָה גְמָלוךָ וְעַתָה שָא נָא לְפֶשַע עַבְדֵי אֱלֹהֵי אבִיךָ וַיֵבְך‬
ָ‫(יח) וַיֵלְכו גַם אֶחָיו וַיִפְלו לְפָנָיו וַיֹאמְרו הִנֶנו לְך‬:‫יוסֵף בְדַבְרָם אֵלָיו‬
)‫ (כ‬:‫ (יט) וַיֹאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם יוסֵף אל תִירָאו כִי הֲתַחַת אֱלֹהִים אנִי‬:‫לַעֲבָדִים‬
‫וְאתֶם חֲשַבְתֶם עָלַי רָעָה אֱלֹהִים חֲשָבָה לְטֹבָה לְמַעַן עֲשֹה כַיום הַזֶה‬
‫(כא) וְעַתָה אל תִירָאו אנֹכִי אֲכַלְכֵל אֶתְכֶם וְאֶת טַפְכֶם‬:‫לְהַחֲיֹת עַם רָב‬
:‫וַיְנַחֵם אותָם וַיְדַבֵר עַל לִבָם‬
14. And Joseph returned to Egypt, he, and his
brothers, and all who went up with him to bury his
father, after he had buried his father. 15. And when
Joseph’s brothers saw that their father was dead,
they said, Joseph will perhaps hate us, and will
certainly pay us back for all the evil which we did to
him. 16. And they sent a messenger to Joseph,
saying, Your father did command before he died,
saying, 17. So shall you say to Joseph, Forgive, I beg
you now, the trespass of your brothers, and their sin;
for they did to you evil; and now, we beg you, forgive
the trespass of the servants of the God of your father.
And Joseph wept when they spoke to him. 18. And his
brothers also went and fell down before his face; and
they said, Behold, we are your servants. 19. And
Joseph said to them, Fear not; for am I in the place of
God? 20. But as for you, you thought evil against me;
but God meant it to good, to bring to pass, as it is
this day, to save much people alive. 21. Now
therefore do not fear; I will nourish you, and your
little ones. And he comforted them, and spoke kindly
to them. Bereishit 50:14-21

A Second Chance
Yosef’s response to their offer, was not just non
belligerence or non-violence, he offered to care for them,
to feed them. He offered to treat them as brothers, as
family. The reason they feared, was there was a time long
ago, before Yosef became a viceroy in Egypt, that they
wished to thrust him out of the family, an act which would
have cut him out of the Jewish people. Now with his father
dead and buried Yosef could have his sweet revenge.
Instead of intimidation and violence Yosef offers a gesture
of love. Ironically had he accepted their offer, he would
have been again separated from his family. But Yosef
offers to feed them; he wants to be with them. His reward
was that he remained with his family, with his people, and
when they leave he will leave with them.5

This may allow us to understand why Yosef is connected


with Pesach Sheni. When those who could not bring the
offering complained, they described their plight not just
that they would not be able to fulfill the command – but
they would be unable to fulfill the command among the
rest of the people:

‫במדבר פרק ט‬
5
The Midrash Sh’mot Rabbah 20:19, stresses that Yosef was taken from Shechem, in order for the sale
of Yosef to have full and final closure, he will need to be returned to Shechem
‫שמות רבה (וילנא) פרשה כ ד"ה יט וחמושים עלו‬
‫כך משכם גנבו אחיו של יוסף אותו ומכרו אותו וכשבא ליפטר מן העולם השביע אותם אמר להם בבקשה מכם אחי משכם‬
‫גנבתם אותי חי החזירו את עצמותי לשכם לכך נאמר )יהושע כד( ואת עצמות יוסף אשר העלו בני ישראל ממצרים קברו‬
.‫בשכם‬
Similarly, it was from Shechem that the brothers of Joseph had stolen him and had sold him: and when
he was about to die, he adjured them: ' My brothers! ye have stolen me from Shechem while I was
alive, I pray you, return my bones to Shechem.’ For this reason does it say: And the bones of Joseph,
which the children of Israel brought up out of Egypt, buried they in Shechem (Josh. XXIV, 32)
‫(ז) וַיֹאמְרו הָאֲנָשִים הָהֵמָה אֵלָיו אֲנַחְנו טְמֵאִים לְנֶפֶש אדָם לָמָה נִגָרַע‬
:‫לְבִלְתִי הַקְרִב אֶת קָרְבַן ה’ בְמֹעֲדו בְתוךְ בְנֵי יִשְרָאֵל‬
Why are we kept back, so that we may not offer an
offering to the Lord in his appointed season among
the people of Israel? Bamidbar 9:7

Non performance of the Pesach offering is related to


separation from the people of Israel:

‫במדבר פרק ט‬
‫(יג) וְהָאִיש אֲשֶר הוא טָהור ובְדֶרֶךְ לֹא הָיָה וְחָדַל לַעֲשות הַפֶסַח וְנִכְרְתָה‬
‫הַנֶפֶש הַהִוא מֵעַמֶיהָ כִי קָרְבַן ה’ לֹא הִקְרִיב בְמֹעֲדו חֶטְאו יִשָא הָאִיש‬
:‫הַהוא‬
13. But the man who is clean, and is not in a journey,
and refrains from keeping the Passover, that same
soul shall be cut off from among his people; because
he brought not the offering of the Lord in his
appointed season, that man shall bear his sin.
Bamidbar 9:13

The punishment is described as karet, which means to be


spiritually separated from the Jewish people. This
punishment is usually reserved for severe crimes, when
someone has done something severely wrong. In this
instance it is not that something was done, rather it was
for being passive and not performing a task required task
– eating from the paschal lamb. The only other
punishment of karet meted for nonperformance of a
positive commandment is non-performance of
circumcision. These two commandments have a
commonality, they both define peoplehood, and non-
performance is a bill of divorce from the Jewish people.
Karet as punishment for these omissions may be more of a
result of not doing an act which defines the Jewish people,
rather than as a punishment per se.

Yosef was thrust out of his people, and he had an


opportunity to thrust out his people. Instead he chose the
moral high road. He chose love, he chose peace he chose
camaraderie. He chose family.

Yosef’s heroic gesture resulted in a second chance;


another attempt for the nation to be one. As a result of
this gesture Yosef’s remains would travel with them on
their journey. He would leave and finally go back home to
Israel with his family. Nonetheless his remains, like all
Jewish corpses generated impurity, however it was
deemed inconceivable, that those who tended to Yosef,
would feel separated from the community, with beautiful
poetic justice God gave them a second chance. The
normal rules of sacrifices could be suspended. Yosef’
benevolence is mirrored by God’s benevolence. A new
holiday representing second chances would be
established.6 A fitting holiday for Yosef.7

The enslavement in Egypt resulted from the sale of Yosef.


The callus meal eaten as Yosef languished in the pit
required a tikun. They broke bread as Yosef screamed.
They were impervious to his screams, for they had
deemed him no longer part of the Jewish people. It was a
meal which brought the brothers together, together in a
6
According to the Zohar (Bamidbar 152b) the spiritual feeling of Pesach Sheni can be felt for seven
days:
‫ רעיא מהימנא כרך ג (במדבר) פרשת בהעלותך דף קנב עמוד ב‬- ‫זוהר‬
‫ אי רזא דפסח רזא דמהימנותא דישראל עאלין בה‬,‫פקודא )ל( למעבד פסח שני על אינון דלא יכילו או דאסתאבו במסאבו אחרא‬
‫ אלא כיון‬,‫שלטא בניסן וכדין איהו זמנא לחדוה איך יכלין אלין דלא יכילו או דאסתאבו למעבד בירחא תניינא דהא אעבר זמנא‬
‫דכ"י מתעטרא בעטרהא בניסן לא אתעדיאת כתרהא ועטרהא מנה תלתין יומין וכל אינון ל' יומין מן יומא דנפקו ישראל מפסח‬
‫ כרוזא כריז כל מאן דלא יכיל למחמי‬,‫ מאן דבעי למחמי למטרוניתא יכיל למחמי‬,‫יתבא מטרוניתא בעטרהא וכל חילהא בחדוה‬
‫ אימתי כרוזא כריז בארבעה עשר לירחא תניינא דהא מתמן עד שבעה יומין תרעין‬,‫מטרוניתא ייתי ויחמי עד לא ינעלון תרעיה‬
‫ )פקודא דא לספור ספירת העומר צז א‬:‫ ועל דא פסח שני ע"כ‬,‫ מכאן ולהלאה ינעלון תרעי‬,‫)פתיחן‬:
There is a commandment to bring a Pesach sheni for those who were unable to fulfill the mitzvah in the
proper time, or were impure with some other impurity. If the secret of Pesach is the secret of the faith
which Israel entered, this rules (only) in the month of Nisan, then is the time for joy, how can someone
who was impure or missed the (proper) time bring the offering in the second month – the (correct) time
has passed?
The answer is that the community of Israel is endowed with the crown in the month of Nisan, the
crown is not removed for thirty days. And for these thirty days the matron sits with her crown and all
the hosts rejoice. And whoever wishes to see the matron can see. The crier then goes and announces
whomever can not see the matron can come and look before the gates are closed. When does the crier
go out? On the fourteenth of the second month and from that day the gates are opened for seven more
days, from that day onward the gates are closed, this is the Pesach Sheni
7
See Shem Mishmuel Bahalotcha 5672
‫ שנת תרע"ב‬- ‫ספר שם משמואל פרשת בהעלותך‬
‫ והם‬,‫ והנה יוסף השביע את ישראל שיעלו את עצמותיו עמהם‬,‫ויהי אנשים וגו' אותם אנשים מי היו נושאי ארונו של יוסף היו‬
‫ ואולי הטעם‬.‫ ע"כ חשבו שיהי' הדין אצלם כמו בכל ישראל שטומאה דחוי' בציבור‬,‫שנשאו את ארונו היו במקום כל ישראל‬
‫ אבל ציבור ממש שדוחין‬,‫ וכמו חגיגה שאינה דוחה שבת‬,‫ מפני שעדיין יש להם תקנה בפסח שני‬,‫שלא הסכים עמהם הש"י הוא‬
'‫ דאי אמרת שאין דוחין ולא עבדי ציבור בראשון שוב אינם עושין את השני כלל וכמו שהי‬,‫הוא משום דאין להם תקנה בשני‬
:‫ ודו"ק‬,‫הציבור זבין בראשון‬
‫ דהנה אמרו ז"ל )דב"ר פ"ב סי' ה'( יוסף שהודה‬,‫ובזה יש לפרש דברי המדרש )שמו"ר פ' כ'( שבזכות יוסף עושין פסח קטן‬
‫ אלא‬,‫ והי' הדין נותן שידחה טומאה ויעשו בראשון כנ"ל‬,‫ ובזכותו היו כל ישראל משועבדים להעלותו‬,‫בארצו נקבר בארצו‬
‫ אבל בשאר טמאים אי לא היתה נתחדשה ההלכה לעשות פסח שני ע"י נושאי ארונו של יוסף‬,‫שנעשתה להם תקנה שיעשו בשני‬
‫ א"כ כל ענין פסח‬,‫ אבל כשנתחדשה הלכה ע"י נושאי ארונו של יוסף שוב גם שאר הטמאים עושין פסח שני‬,‫היו נדחין לגמרי‬
‫ ודו"ק‬,‫שני הוא רק בזכות יוסף‬
‫‪dastardly deed, with one brother missing. When the Jews‬‬
‫‪leave Egypt they are commanded to have a meal and eat‬‬
‫‪the Paschal lamb, but now they are told they must bring‬‬
‫‪the family together when they eat.‬‬

‫שמות פרק יב‬


‫)ג) דַבְרו אֶל כָל עֲדַת יִשְרָאֵל לֵאמֹר בֶעָשֹר לַחֹדֶש הַזֶה וְיִקְחו לָהֶם אִיש שֶה‬
‫לְבֵית אבֹת שֶה לַבָיִת‪):‬ד) וְאִם יִמְעַט הַבַיִת מִהְיֹת מִשֶה וְלָקַח הוא ושְכֵנו‬
‫הַקָרֹב אֶל בֵיתו בְמִכְסַת נְפָשֹת אִיש לְפִי אכְלו תָכֹסו עַל הַשֶה‪:‬‬
‫‪3. Speak to all the congregation of Israel, saying, In‬‬
‫‪the tenth day of this month they shall take every‬‬
‫‪man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers,‬‬
‫‪a lamb for a house; 4. And if the household is too‬‬
‫‪little for the lamb, let him and his neighbor next to‬‬
‫‪his house take it according to the number of the‬‬
‫‪souls; according to every man’s eating shall you‬‬
‫‪make your count for the lamb. Sh’mot 12:3,4‬‬

‫‪Bring the family together, and even invite the neighbors if‬‬
‫‪you can. The offering must be eaten with Matzah, perhaps‬‬
‫‪bread which symbolized haughtiness – and that horrific‬‬
‫‪meal eaten within earshot of the pit was deemed‬‬
‫‪unacceptable. In fact all bread and bread products must‬‬
‫‪be exorcized from the home. However Pesach Sheni has‬‬
‫‪no such requirement, now bread and matzah can reside‬‬
‫‪together in one home – truly an extraordinary holiday8. A‬‬
‫‪holiday of unity9, a holiday which shows the love that God‬‬
‫‪has for His people, a holiday of second chances.10‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪See Rashi Bamidbar 9:10‬‬
‫רש"י במדבר פרק ט פסוק י‬
‫פסח שני מצה וחמץ עמו בבית ואין שם יום טוב‪ ,‬ואין איסור חמץ אלא עמו באכילתו‪:‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪Yosef represents unity see Sfat Emet Miketz 5652‬‬
‫שפת אמת ספר בראשית ‪ -‬פרשת מקץ ‪ -‬שנת [תרנ"ב]‬
‫ובאמת יוסף הצדיק הוא בחי' השבת והשבת הוא כולל כל ימי השבוע‪ .‬ויוסף הוא הכולל כל נפשות בני ישראל ולכן קרבנו הוא‬
‫קרבן ציבור וקרב בשבת‪:‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪See Shem Mishmuel Vayikra –Chodesh 5674‬‬
‫ספר שם משמואל פרשת ויקרא ‪ -‬וחודש שנת תרע"ד‬
‫והנה יוסף באשר מיאן להתדבק לדבר שאינו ראוי לו זכה שנדבקו בו כל הכחות הקדושים‪ ,‬וע"כ בכחו לחבר ולאחד את הכל‪,‬‬
‫ומדתו צדיק יסוד עולם כי כל בשמים ובארץ ובתרגום דאחיד בשמיא ובארעא‪ ,‬ע"כ אמרו אין אדם אלא יוסף‪ ,‬ומייתי לה מאוהל‬
‫שיכן באדם התחברות עליונים ותחתונים‪ .‬ומעתה יש לומר דכל שם אדם לדורות הוא כשהוא שומר הברית‪ ,‬הוא ראוי לחבר מה‬
‫שראוי לחבר‪ ,‬וע"כ אתם קרוים אדם ולא אומה"ע כי כתיב )ישעי' ס'( ועמך כולם צדיקים‪ ,‬ולהיפוך )ירמי' ט'( כי כל הגוים‬
‫ערלים היפוך מדת צדיק‪ ,‬דצדיק לא נקרא אלא דנטר האי ברית‪:‬‬
‫והנה קרבן הוא כשמו לקרב את הכחות שראויים לקרב‪ ,‬וע"כ בראשית דיני קרבנות פריש האי שמא להורות מי הוא הראוי‬
‫להקריב קרבן‪ ,‬ואף שגם הגויים מתנדבין קרבנות ונתרבו מאיש איש‪ ,‬מ"מ אין קרבנם ענין אחד עם קרבן ישראל‪:‬‬
‫ולפי האמור יש ליתן טעם דערל אסור בפסח‪ ,‬ועיקר ענין פסח ומילה שניתן להם אז‪ ,‬כי קרבן פסח לקרב כל הכחות ואפי' כל‬
‫האכילות לגבוה‪ ,‬ומצד זה עצמו היתה הגאולה שגם הם נתקרבו ונדבקו בהשכינה וכשעלתה ממצרים נתעלו עמה‪ .‬אך א"א הי'‬
‫לקרב ולאחד את כל הכחות כי אם בכח שמירת הברית ברישא כנ"ל‪ ,‬וע"כ צריכין למילה ברישא‪:‬‬
‫ולפי האמור תובן טענת נושאי ארונו של יוסף )במדבר ט'( אנחנו טמאים לנפש אדם למה נגרע לבלתי הקריב את קרבן ה' וגו'‪,‬‬
‫דמאחר שהם נושאי ארונו של יוסף שהוא שורש ויסוד כל הקרבנות אינו בדין שידחו הם מקרבן ה'‪ .‬וזה שהשיבם משה דין פסח‬
‫שני‪ ,‬אדרבה בזכות יוסף נתגלגל על ידיהם עוד קרבן והוא פסח שני לאחד ולקרב אפי' הרחוקים מפסח ראשון‪ ,‬וזה שבמדרש‬
‫)שמ"ר סו"פ כ'( שבזכות יוסף הם עושין פסח קטן‬