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Code No: R5310306

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III

B.Tech I Semester(R05) Supplementary Examinations, May 2009 THERMAL ENGINEERING-II (Mechanical Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

(a)

1. List out the advantages of reheat cycle.

(b)

A two stage steam turbine receives steam at 40 bar and 375 0 C. The expansion in the first turbine is carried out until the steam is just dry saturated. Before entering the second turbine the steam is reheated at constant pressure to original temperature of 375 0 C. The steam expands in the LP turbine to a condenser pressure of 0.035 bar, Calculate:

i. work output in kJ/kg ii. heat supplied per kg of steam

iii. specific steam consumption

iv. the cycle efficiency.

The process of expansion may be considered isentropic and feed pump work neglected. [4+12]

(a)

2. What is the fundamental difference between internally fired and externally fired boilers? Explain with sketches.

(b)

Describe the working of a Locomotive boiler with the aid of neat sketch.

[6+10]

3. In an installation 5 kg/sec of steam at 30 bar and 300 0 C is supplied to a group of six nozzles in a wheel chamber maintained at 7.5 bar. Determine the dimensions of the nozzles of rectangular cross sectional flow area with aspect ratio 3:1. The expansion may be considered meta-stable and friction is neglected. Also calculate

(a)

Degree of under cooling and super saturation

(b)

Loss in available heat drop due to irreversibility

(c)

Increase in entropy

(d)

Ratio of mass flow rate with meta-stable expansion to that of expansion in thermal equilibrium.

[16]

4. What is compounding? Describe various ways of compounding impulse turbines and give their merits

and demerits.

[16]

5. The blade tip angles of a reaction turbine are 32 0 and 25 0 for fixed and moving blades respectively. The mean ring diameter of a pair of blades is 1.5 m and the blade height is 0.15 m. The steam which passed through the pair at a rate of 20 kg/s is dry saturated at 24 bar. Find

(a)

axial velocity

(b)

blade speed and

(c)

power developed at that speed.

[16]

(a)

6. Differentiate between wet air pump and dry air pump and also derive the equation for volumetric efficiencies for both the cases.

(b)

A surface condenser deals with 2100 kg of steam per hour and the air leakage amounts to 0.8 kg per hour. The temperature of air pump suction is 35 0 C and the vacuum is 680 mm of Hg when the barometer reads 760 mm of Hg. Determine the capacity of wet air pump which has a

volumetric efficiency of 75%.

[8+8]

(a)

7. Explain different applications of gas turbine power cycles in power sector industries.

(b)

Draw the schematic diagram of closed cycle gas turbine and explain its working.

[8+8]

(a)

8. Explain the working principle of Pulse jet engine with suitable diagrams.

(b)

Discuss the possibility of rocket powered vehicle having a flight velocity greater than the exhaust

velocity of the rocket motor?

[8+8]

Code No: R5310306

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III B.Tech I Semester(R05) Supplementary Examinations, May 2009 THERMAL ENGINEERING-II (Mechanical Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

Max Marks: 80

(a)

1. Describe the different processes of Rankine cycle. Derive the expression for its efficiency and show them on P-v and T-s diagrams

(b)

A simple Rankine cycle works between pressure of 30 bar and 0.04 bar, the initial condition of steam being dry saturated, calculate the cycle efficiency, work ratio and specific steam

consumption.

[8+8]

(a)

2. Give relative merits and demerits of natural draught over artificial draught,

(b)

A boiler is equipped with a chimney 25 meters high. The temperature of outside air is 25 0 C and the average temperature of flue gases in the chimney is 320 0 C. If the boiler is supplied with 20 kg of air per kg of fuel burnt, calculate the theoretical draught created in terms of i. mm of water column

ii. meter of column of hot gas.

Also calculate the velocity of flue gases in chimney, if

60% of the draught is lost in friction at grate and passages.

 

[4+12]

(a)

3. Derive the expression relating the critical pressure ratio to the index of expansion n, for expansion in a nozzle.

(b)

Find the maximum discharge and exit diameter of a convergent-divergent nozzle which receives dry and saturated steam at 15 bar and discharges to an impulse turbine at 0.3 bar. Neglect friction and take throat diameter equal to 8 mm. [8+8]

4. What is compounding? Describe various ways of compounding impulse turbines and give their

merits and demerits.

[16]

5. A 50% reaction turbine with symmetrical velocity triangles running at 400 rpm has the exit blade angle as 20 0 and the velocity of steam relative to the blades at the exit is 1.35 times the mean blade speed. The steam flow rate is 8.33 m/s and at a particular ring, the specific volume is 1.381 m 3 /kg. Calculate for the stage

(a)

suitable blade height, assuming the rotor mean diameter is 12 times that of the blade height

(b)

the diagram work.

[16]

(a)

6. Draw the schematic diagram of low level counter flow jet condenser and explain its working principle.

(b)

What are the advantages and limitations of surface condensers over jet condensers? [8+8]

(a)

7. Explain the effect of isentropic efficiency of turbine and compressor on the work output of gas turbine cycle.

(b)

Derive the thermal efficiency of gas turbine unit with multi stage compression with inter-

cooling and multistage expansion with reheating.

[8+8]

(a)

8. What is meant by thrust? Derive its equation of turboprop engine from the first principles.

(b)

Explain the advantages and disadvantages of bipropellants used in rocket engines over

monopropellants.

[8+8]

Code No: R5310306

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III B.Tech I Semester(R05) Supplementary Examinations, May 2009 THERMAL ENGINEERING-II (Mechanical Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

Max Marks: 80

(a)

1. Does it make a difference to the enthalpy of combustion, if it is burnt with pure Oxygen or air? What about the adiabatic flame temperature?

(b)

Determine the adiabatic combustion temperature for the steady flow burning of propane

(C 3 H 8 ) with 100% excess air with propane and air supplied at 1 bar, 25 0 C. Assume that

reaction goes to completion.

[6+10]

(a)

2. How are the steam boilers classified?

(b)

Sketch and describe the working of Lancashire boiler.

[8+8]

(a)

3. Explain what is meant by critical pressure ratio of a nozzle.

(b)

Steam is supplied to a nozzle at 13 bar, 0.9 dryness fraction and expands to 1.4 bar. The velocity at throat pressure of 8 bar is 3% less than the theoretical value and complete expansion takes place with an efficiency ratio of 0.9. If the throat section of each nozzle is to be about 1 sq.cm., determine suitable number of nozzles and specify the proper throat and outlet areas. The steam discharge through the nozzle is at the rate of 5 kg/s. [4+12]

4. An impulse turbine with a single row wheel is to develop 100 kW and the blade speed is 150

m/s. A mass of 2 kg/s is to flow through the nozzle with exit velocity of 350 m/s. The velocity coefficient of the blade is 0.8, while the steam is to flow axially after passing through the blade

ring.

diagram efficiency.

Also calculate the

Find out the nozzle angle and the blade angles at exit and inlet.

[16]

(a)

5. Draw the combined velocity triangle for Parson’s reaction turbine and Explain the salient features.

(b)

In a single stage reaction turbine, both the fixed and moving blades have the same tip angles of 35 0 and 20 0 for inlet and outlet respectively. Determine the power required if the isentropic heat drop in both fixed and moving rows is 23.5 kJ/kg. The mean blade speed is 80 m/s and the steam consumption is 22,500 kg/h. [8+8]

6. A steam turbine discharges 5000 kg of steam per hour at 40 0 C and 0.85 dry. The estimated air leakage 15 kg/hr. The temperature at the suction of the air pump is 32 0 C and the temperature of the condensate is 35 0 C. Calculate

(a)

the vacuum gauge reading

(b)

capacity of air pump and

(c)

loss of condensate in kg per hour.

[16]

(a)

7. Explain the operating principle of Brayton cycle with a schematic diagram, p-v and T-s diagrams.

(b)

Derive the thermal efficiency of Brayton cycle in terms of pressure ratio and polytropic

index.

[8+8]

(a)

8. Explain the essential differences between rocket propulsion and turbojet propulsion?

(b)

What is the importance of specific impulse in rocket engines?

[8+8]

Code No: R5310306

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III

B.Tech I Semester(R05) Supplementary Examinations, May 2009 THERMAL ENGINEERING-II (Mechanical Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. An internal combustion engine burns liquid Octane and uses 150% theoretical air. The air and fuel enter at 25 0 C, and the products leave the engine exhaust ports at 900 K. In the engine 80% of the Carbon burns to CO 2 and the remainder burns to CO. The heat transfer from this engine is just equal to the work done by the engine. Determine

(a)

the power output of the engine if the engine burns 0.006 kg/s of fuel, and

(b)

the composition and the due point of the product of combustion.

[16]

2. (a) What are the factors involved in the selection of a boiler? In what circumstances are the water tube boilers used in preference to fire tube boilers?

(b) Sketch and describe Cochran vertical boiler. What are its special features?

[8+8]

3. (a) Explain the terms“over expanding” and “under expanding” as applied to a fluid flow through a nozzle.

(b) Describe the changes which occur in a convergent divergent nozzle as the back pressure is slowly

[8+8]

4. What is compounding? Describe various ways of compounding impulse turbines and give their merits

increased from the design pressure up to the pressure at entry.

and demerits.

[16]

5. (a) With the help of combined velocity triangle, establish the expression for power developed, diagram efficiency and stage efficiency of a reaction turbine.

(b) What are different applications of reaction steam turbine? Explain with suitable examples. [8+8]

6. (a) What is regenerative steam condenser? Explain with a simple diagram.

(b) A surface condenser fitted with separate air and water extraction pumps has a portion of the tubes near the air pump suction screened off from the steam so that the air is cooled below the condensate temperature. The steam enters the condenser at 38 0 C and the condensate is removed at 37 0 C. The air removed has a temperature of 36 0 C. If the total air infiltration from all sources together is 5 kg/h, determine the volume of air handled by the air pump per hr. What would be the corresponding value of the air handled if a combined air and condensate pump was employed? Assume uniform pressure in the condenser.

[6+10]

7. (a) What are different parameters influence the performance of gas turbine cycle. Explain.

(b) In a gas turbine power cycle, the pressure ratio is 6 and the maximum cycle temperature is 650

0 C. The air enters to the cylinder at 15 0 C and the flow rate of air is 12 kg/s. Determine the

[8+8]

power developed and thermal efficiency of cycle.

8. (a) Define and explain the terms:

i. Thrust ii. Thrust power,

iii. Effective jet exit velocity,

iv. Propulsive efficiency related to turbojet engines.

(b) Describe the nuclear rocket engine with a neat sketch and explain its merits and demerits. [8+8]