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Code No: R5310306

1
 III B.Tech I Semester(R05) Supplementary Examinations, May 2009 THERMAL ENGINEERING-II (Mechanical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

 (a) 1. List out the advantages of reheat cycle. (b) A two stage steam turbine receives steam at 40 bar and 375 0 C. The expansion in the ﬁrst turbine is carried out until the steam is just dry saturated. Before entering the second turbine the steam is reheated at constant pressure to original temperature of 375 0 C. The steam expands in the LP turbine to a condenser pressure of 0.035 bar, Calculate: i. work output in kJ/kg ii. heat supplied per kg of steam iii. speciﬁc steam consumption iv. the cycle eﬃciency. The process of expansion may be considered isentropic and feed pump work neglected. [4+12] (a) 2. What is the fundamental diﬀerence between internally ﬁred and externally ﬁred boilers? Explain with sketches. (b) Describe the working of a Locomotive boiler with the aid of neat sketch. [6+10]

3. In an installation 5 kg/sec of steam at 30 bar and 300 0 C is supplied to a group of six nozzles in a wheel chamber maintained at 7.5 bar. Determine the dimensions of the nozzles of rectangular cross sectional ﬂow area with aspect ratio 3:1. The expansion may be considered meta-stable and friction is neglected. Also calculate

 (a) Degree of under cooling and super saturation (b) Loss in available heat drop due to irreversibility (c) Increase in entropy (d) Ratio of mass ﬂow rate with meta-stable expansion to that of expansion in thermal equilibrium.

[16]

4. What is compounding? Describe various ways of compounding impulse turbines and give their merits

and demerits.

[16]

5. The blade tip angles of a reaction turbine are 32 0 and 25 0 for ﬁxed and moving blades respectively. The mean ring diameter of a pair of blades is 1.5 m and the blade height is 0.15 m. The steam which passed through the pair at a rate of 20 kg/s is dry saturated at 24 bar. Find

 (a) axial velocity (b) blade speed and (c) power developed at that speed. [16] (a) 6. Diﬀerentiate between wet air pump and dry air pump and also derive the equation for volumetric eﬃciencies for both the cases. (b) A surface condenser deals with 2100 kg of steam per hour and the air leakage amounts to 0.8 kg per hour. The temperature of air pump suction is 35 0 C and the vacuum is 680 mm of Hg when the barometer reads 760 mm of Hg. Determine the capacity of wet air pump which has a volumetric eﬃciency of 75%. [8+8] (a) 7. Explain diﬀerent applications of gas turbine power cycles in power sector industries. (b) Draw the schematic diagram of closed cycle gas turbine and explain its working. [8+8] (a) 8. Explain the working principle of Pulse jet engine with suitable diagrams. (b) Discuss the possibility of rocket powered vehicle having a ﬂight velocity greater than the exhaust

velocity of the rocket motor?

[8+8]

Code No: R5310306

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III B.Tech I Semester(R05) Supplementary Examinations, May 2009 THERMAL ENGINEERING-II (Mechanical Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

Max Marks: 80

 (a) 1. Describe the diﬀerent processes of Rankine cycle. Derive the expression for its eﬃciency and show them on P-v and T-s diagrams (b) A simple Rankine cycle works between pressure of 30 bar and 0.04 bar, the initial condition of steam being dry saturated, calculate the cycle eﬃciency, work ratio and speciﬁc steam consumption. [8+8] (a) 2. Give relative merits and demerits of natural draught over artiﬁcial draught, (b) A boiler is equipped with a chimney 25 meters high. The temperature of outside air is 25 0 C and the average temperature of ﬂue gases in the chimney is 320 0 C. If the boiler is supplied with 20 kg of air per kg of fuel burnt, calculate the theoretical draught created in terms of i. mm of water column ii. meter of column of hot gas. Also calculate the velocity of ﬂue gases in chimney, if 60% of the draught is lost in friction at grate and passages. [4+12] (a) 3. Derive the expression relating the critical pressure ratio to the index of expansion n, for expansion in a nozzle. (b) Find the maximum discharge and exit diameter of a convergent-divergent nozzle which receives dry and saturated steam at 15 bar and discharges to an impulse turbine at 0.3 bar. Neglect friction and take throat diameter equal to 8 mm. [8+8]

4. What is compounding? Describe various ways of compounding impulse turbines and give their

merits and demerits.

[16]

5. A 50% reaction turbine with symmetrical velocity triangles running at 400 rpm has the exit blade angle as 20 0 and the velocity of steam relative to the blades at the exit is 1.35 times the mean blade speed. The steam ﬂow rate is 8.33 m/s and at a particular ring, the speciﬁc volume is 1.381 m 3 /kg. Calculate for the stage

 (a) suitable blade height, assuming the rotor mean diameter is 12 times that of the blade height (b) the diagram work. [16] (a) 6. Draw the schematic diagram of low level counter ﬂow jet condenser and explain its working principle. (b) What are the advantages and limitations of surface condensers over jet condensers? [8+8] (a) 7. Explain the eﬀect of isentropic eﬃciency of turbine and compressor on the work output of gas turbine cycle. (b) Derive the thermal eﬃciency of gas turbine unit with multi stage compression with inter- cooling and multistage expansion with reheating. [8+8] (a) 8. What is meant by thrust? Derive its equation of turboprop engine from the ﬁrst principles. (b) Explain the advantages and disadvantages of bipropellants used in rocket engines over

monopropellants.

[8+8]

Code No: R5310306

3

III B.Tech I Semester(R05) Supplementary Examinations, May 2009 THERMAL ENGINEERING-II (Mechanical Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

Max Marks: 80

 (a) 1. Does it make a diﬀerence to the enthalpy of combustion, if it is burnt with pure Oxygen or air? What about the adiabatic ﬂame temperature? (b) Determine the adiabatic combustion temperature for the steady ﬂow burning of propane (C 3 H 8 ) with 100% excess air with propane and air supplied at 1 bar, 25 0 C. Assume that reaction goes to completion. [6+10] (a) 2. How are the steam boilers classiﬁed? (b) Sketch and describe the working of Lancashire boiler. [8+8] (a) 3. Explain what is meant by critical pressure ratio of a nozzle. (b) Steam is supplied to a nozzle at 13 bar, 0.9 dryness fraction and expands to 1.4 bar. The velocity at throat pressure of 8 bar is 3% less than the theoretical value and complete expansion takes place with an eﬃciency ratio of 0.9. If the throat section of each nozzle is to be about 1 sq.cm., determine suitable number of nozzles and specify the proper throat and outlet areas. The steam discharge through the nozzle is at the rate of 5 kg/s. [4+12]

4. An impulse turbine with a single row wheel is to develop 100 kW and the blade speed is 150

m/s. A mass of 2 kg/s is to ﬂow through the nozzle with exit velocity of 350 m/s. The velocity coeﬃcient of the blade is 0.8, while the steam is to ﬂow axially after passing through the blade

ring.

diagram eﬃciency.

Also calculate the

Find out the nozzle angle and the blade angles at exit and inlet.

[16]

 (a) 5. Draw the combined velocity triangle for Parson’s reaction turbine and Explain the salient features. (b) In a single stage reaction turbine, both the ﬁxed and moving blades have the same tip angles of 35 0 and 20 0 for inlet and outlet respectively. Determine the power required if the isentropic heat drop in both ﬁxed and moving rows is 23.5 kJ/kg. The mean blade speed is 80 m/s and the steam consumption is 22,500 kg/h. [8+8]

6. A steam turbine discharges 5000 kg of steam per hour at 40 0 C and 0.85 dry. The estimated air leakage 15 kg/hr. The temperature at the suction of the air pump is 32 0 C and the temperature of the condensate is 35 0 C. Calculate

 (a) the vacuum gauge reading (b) capacity of air pump and (c) loss of condensate in kg per hour. [16] (a) 7. Explain the operating principle of Brayton cycle with a schematic diagram, p-v and T-s diagrams. (b) Derive the thermal eﬃciency of Brayton cycle in terms of pressure ratio and polytropic index. [8+8] (a) 8. Explain the essential diﬀerences between rocket propulsion and turbojet propulsion? (b) What is the importance of speciﬁc impulse in rocket engines? [8+8]

Code No: R5310306

4
 III B.Tech I Semester(R05) Supplementary Examinations, May 2009 THERMAL ENGINEERING-II (Mechanical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. An internal combustion engine burns liquid Octane and uses 150% theoretical air. The air and fuel enter at 25 0 C, and the products leave the engine exhaust ports at 900 K. In the engine 80% of the Carbon burns to CO 2 and the remainder burns to CO. The heat transfer from this engine is just equal to the work done by the engine. Determine

 (a) the power output of the engine if the engine burns 0.006 kg/s of fuel, and (b) the composition and the due point of the product of combustion. [16]

2. (a) What are the factors involved in the selection of a boiler? In what circumstances are the water tube boilers used in preference to ﬁre tube boilers?

(b) Sketch and describe Cochran vertical boiler. What are its special features?

[8+8]

3. (a) Explain the terms“over expanding” and “under expanding” as applied to a ﬂuid ﬂow through a nozzle.

(b) Describe the changes which occur in a convergent divergent nozzle as the back pressure is slowly

[8+8]

4. What is compounding? Describe various ways of compounding impulse turbines and give their merits

increased from the design pressure up to the pressure at entry.

and demerits.

[16]

5. (a) With the help of combined velocity triangle, establish the expression for power developed, diagram eﬃciency and stage eﬃciency of a reaction turbine.

(b) What are diﬀerent applications of reaction steam turbine? Explain with suitable examples. [8+8]

6. (a) What is regenerative steam condenser? Explain with a simple diagram.

(b) A surface condenser ﬁtted with separate air and water extraction pumps has a portion of the tubes near the air pump suction screened oﬀ from the steam so that the air is cooled below the condensate temperature. The steam enters the condenser at 38 0 C and the condensate is removed at 37 0 C. The air removed has a temperature of 36 0 C. If the total air inﬁltration from all sources together is 5 kg/h, determine the volume of air handled by the air pump per hr. What would be the corresponding value of the air handled if a combined air and condensate pump was employed? Assume uniform pressure in the condenser.

[6+10]

7. (a) What are diﬀerent parameters inﬂuence the performance of gas turbine cycle. Explain.

(b) In a gas turbine power cycle, the pressure ratio is 6 and the maximum cycle temperature is 650

0 C. The air enters to the cylinder at 15 0 C and the ﬂow rate of air is 12 kg/s. Determine the

[8+8]

power developed and thermal eﬃciency of cycle.

8. (a) Deﬁne and explain the terms:

i. Thrust ii. Thrust power,

iii. Eﬀective jet exit velocity,

iv. Propulsive eﬃciency related to turbojet engines.

(b) Describe the nuclear rocket engine with a neat sketch and explain its merits and demerits. [8+8]