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Angle Bisectors To find the equations of the bisectors of the angle between the lines a1x + b1y+ c1 = 0 and

a2x + b2y + c2 = 0. A bisector is the locus of a point, which moves such that the perpendiculars drawn from it to the two given lines, are equal. The equations of the bisectors are a1x+b1y+c1/a12+b12 = + a2x+b2y+c2/a22+b22.

AP is the bisector of an acute angle if, Tan (PAN) = tan (/2) is such that |tan /2| < 1. AP is an obtuse angle bisector if, Tan (PAN) = tan (/2) is such that |tan /2| > 1. Notes : When both c1 and c2 are of the same sign, evaluate a1a2 + b1b2. If negative, then acute angle bisector is a1x+b1y+c1/a12+b12 = + a2x+b2y+c2/a22+b22. When both c1 and c2 are of the same sign, the equation of the bisector of the angle which contains the origin is a1x+b1y+c1/a12+b12 = + a2x+b2y+c2/a22+b22. Bisectors of the angle containing 2 2 a1x+b1y+c1/a1 +b1 = +a2x+b2y+c2/a22+b22 if b2 + c2 have the same sign. the a1 + point (, ) is b1 + c1 and a2 +

Bisectors of the angle containing the point (, ) is 2 2 2 2 a1x+b1y+c1/a1 +b1 = +a2x+b2y+c2/a2 +b2 if a1 + b1 + c1 and a2 + b2 + c2 have the opposite sign. Illustration: For the straight lines 4x + 3y 6 = 0 and 5x + 12y + 9 = 0 , find the equation of the (i) (ii) (iii) bisector of the obtuse angle between them, bisector of the acute angle between them, bisector of the angle which contains (1, 2)

Solution: Equations of bisectors of the angles between the given lines are 4x+3y6/42+32 = + 5x+12y+9/52+122 9x 7y 41 = 0 and 7x + 9y 3 = 0.

If is the angle between the line 4x + 3y 6 = 0 and the bisector 9x 7y 41 = 0, then tan = > 1. Hence (i) (ii) The bisector of the obtuse angle is 9x 7y 41 = 0. The bisector of the acute angle is 7x + 9y 3 = 0.

For the point (1, 2) 4x + 3y 6 = 4 1 + 3 2 6 > 0. 5x + 12y + 9 = 12 12 + 9 > 0. Hence equation of the bisector of the angle containing the point (1, 2) is 4x+3y 6/5 = 5x+12y+9/13 9x 7y 41 = 0. Pair of Straight Lines The equation ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0. Represents a second degree equation where a, h, b doesnt variables simultaneously.

Let a 0. Now, the above equation becomes a2 x2 + 2ax (hy + g) = aby2 2afy ac on completing the square on the left side, we get, a2 x2 + 2ax (hy + g) = y2 (h2 ab) + 2y (gh af) + g2 ac. i.e. (ax + hy + g) = + y2(h2ab)+2y(ghaf)g2ac

We cannot obtain x in terms of y, involving only terms of the first degree, unless the quantity under the radical sign be a perfect square. The condition for this is, (gh af)2 = (h2 ab) (g2 ac) i.e. g2h2 2afgh + a2f2 = g2h2 abg2 abg2 ach2 + a2bc cancelling and diving by a, we have the required condition abc + 2fgh af2 af2 bg2 ch2 = 0 Illustration: What is the point of intersection of two straight lines given by general equation ax2+ 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0? Solution: The general solution is ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 (1)

Let (, ) be the point of intersection we consider line paralleled transformation. x = x + , From (1) we have a(x + )2 + 2h(x + ) (y + ) + b(y + )2 + 2g(x + ) + 2f(y + ) + c = 0 ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + a 2 + 2h + b2 + 2g + 2f + 2x(a + h + g) + 2y + 2y (h + b + f) = 0 ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2x(a + h + g) + 2g + 2y (h + b + f) = 0 y = y +

Which must be in the form ax'2 + 2hxy + by = 0 This cannot be possible unless a + h + g = 0 h + b + f = 0 Solving /hfbg = /hgaf = 1/abh2 = hfbg/abb2, = hgaf/abh2 Illustration: Represent lines y = 2x and y = 3x by a homogeneous equation of second degree Solution: (y 2x) (y 3x) = 0 Or 6x2 5xy + y2 = 0 Illustration: Represent lines parallel to y = 2x and y = 3x by a second degree equation Solution: (y 2x c1) (y 3x c2) (where c1 and c2 are constants) = 6x2 5xy + y2 + (3c1 + 2c2) x + ( c1 c2) y + c1 c2 = 0 Note: 1. Homogeneous part is same as for the equation of above illustration. Therefore, the homogeneous part of a general second degree equation determines the slope of the lines i.e. lines parallel to ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + c = 0 and through the origin are represented by the equation ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0

2. The equation ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2fy + c = 0 represents a pair of parallel straight lines if h/a = b/h = f/g or bg2 = af2 The distance between them is given by 2g2ac/a(a+b) or f2bc/b(a+b) Illustration: Does the second degree equation x2 + 3xy + 2y2 x 4y 6 = 0 represents a pair of lines. If yes, find their point of intersection. Solution: We observe that a = 1, h = 3/2, b = 2, g = 1/2, f = 2, c = 6 \ abc + 2fgh af2 bg2 ch2 = 12 + 3 4 1/2 + 27/2 = 0 Therefore the given second-degree equation represents a pair of lines, x2 + 3xy + 2y2 x 4y 6 = (x + 2y + 2) (x + y 3).

Consider the equations formed by first two rows of i.e. ax + hy + g = 0 and hx + by + f = 0 i.e. x + 3/2 y 1/2 and 3/2 x + 2y 2 = 0 Solving these, we get the required point of intersection. i.e. 2x + 3y 1 = 0 3x 4y 4 = 0 Solving the above equation, we get x = 8, y = 5. Note: (2x + 3y 1)(3x + 4y 4) x2 + 3xy + 2y2 x 4y 6.

Angle between pair of lines represented by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 Comparing the coefficients of x2, y2 and xy, we get b(y m1x) (y m2x) = ax2 + 2hxy + by2

m1 + m2 = 2h/b and m1 m2 = a/b tan acute = |m2m1/1+m1m2| = |(m1m2)2 4m1m2/1+m1m2| = |2h2ab/a+b| Caution: 1. If two lines through the origin are represented by y = mx and y = m2x, we cannot write (y m1x) (y m2x) ax2 + 2hxy + by2

Because coefficient of y2 on left hand side is one on right hand side, it is b. 2. Note: 1. 2. If two lines are coincident then tan = 0 h2 = ab If two lines are perpendicular then m1m2 = 1 a + b = 0 i.e. x2 + 2hxy y2 always represents pair of mutually perpendicular lines through origin. 3. Two lines are equally inclined to axes but are not parallel. For such a case let us take a line l1 which is inclined at an angle , then l2 is inclined at ( ). tan ( ) = tan . which is the condition for two lines inclined equally to axes. 4. m1 = h+h2ab/2 and m2 = hh2ab/b The given equation represents real lines only when h2 ab > 0

Illustration: What is the equation of the pair of lines through origin and perpendicular to ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 Solution: Let ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 represents the lines y = m1x (i) and y = m2x (ii) Lines perpendicular to the lines (i) and (ii) are y = 1/m1 x and y = 1/m2 x respectively and passing through origin

i.e. m1y + x = 0 and m2y + x = 0 Their combined equation is given by (m1y + x) (m2y + x) = 0 m1m2 y2 + (m1 + m2) xy + x2 = 0 a/2 y2 2h/b xy + x2 = 0 bx2 2hxy + ay2 = 0 is the equation of the pair of lines perpendicular to pair of lines ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 Note: Coefficient of x2 and y2 are interchanged and the sign of xy term is reversed.