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NASA-CR-2

95539

MAGNETIC
_" ..--.q("l i n 0")

SHIELDING
!l/_ _ " , _"

";;_
3_ L _L_m -"I--,' O "_ e_ 4 u'J rO _ r" Z _mm _ _"_ Z

INTERPLANETARY

SPACECRAFT

AGAINST SOLAR FLARE RADIATION

t._ _1> ,o "1'1 _o _-'l ,,or--< I m

,O ,O

FINAL
k_

REPORT: Advanced

1992-1993 Design Program

NASA/USRA
0 f_ 0 N Z ,,O .$,, I r_

t_ m

by

Department

Duke University of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Durham, North Carolina 27708-0300

Science

July,

1993

Professor

Franklin H. Cock' Seth Watkins

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The

assistance Chris from

provided

by Eric

Smith,

Head Duke

of the Vesic AutoCad

Engineering and

Library the

at Duke

University, helpful input acknowledged

Sussingham our mentor,

in the Don

laboratory, Space Flight

enormously is gratefully

Carson,

at Goddard

Center

The Bond, Mustafa Doug Vaughn,

following J.P. Errico,

students Jason

have

contributed Bill Howard,

to this Goldsmith,

design John

effort: Gregory, Jr., Aaron

Alex

Adkins,

Edward Jr., Jr.,

Garverich, Holt, Olson, Eric

Tom Keith, Steege,

Harrison, Peter Laz,

Haziq, Lindquist, Brent

Douglas Krista Ward,

A1 Johnson, Vibby

Graham

Orriss,

Prasad,

Hans

Alexander

David

Wasik,

and Brian

Yamanouchi.

Table

of Contents

Abstract

........................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... Perspective Issues ..................................................................................................... Spaceflight ......................................................................

4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 11 13 14 17 17 18 23 OF 23

Introduction Historical Radiation Mass

for Manned

Shielding

................................................................................................................ Strategies ......................................................................................

Alternative Magnetic

Shielding Shielding Basis

......................................................................................................... for the Design ................................................................................

Mathematical Torus Mass

Optimization of Force

............................................................................................... in Coils ......................................................................... ........................................................................................ ............................................................................... Sail ..................................................................

Calculation Selective Shield Using Design

and Stress

Emitter

Calculations

and Spaceship the Deployed of a Prototype

Configuration

Coil as a Magnetic System

.........................................................................................

APPENDIX

..................................................................................................................... ELECTROSTATIC, - A BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PLASMA SHIELDING

MAGNETIC, SPACECRAFT

..............................................................

Abstract This project is concerned with the design and engineering of deployed, high temperature superconducting coils (DHTSC) for the production of large volume, low-intensity magneticfields to produce shielding of manned spacecraft against solar flare protons. The concept of using a superconducting coil for magneticshieldingagainstsolarflare radiationduring mannedinterplanetary missionshaslong beencontemplatedand was consideredin detail in the yearsprecedingthe Apollo missions. Only lower temperaturesuperconductors were then known, and the field coils neededto producethe protectivefield werelimited in size to the ship dimensions. Thesecoils wereineffective unlessthey carriedenormoustotal circulatingcurrents,andtheir potentialusein the Apollo program was
abandoned. the field with coils With high temperature the spacecraft mass and energy field superconductors, it has now become requirement realistic to consider lowered deploying together are made beyond system such hull and the current requirements. system coil is dramatically concomitant between capable especially possible

the total with

Importantly,

experiments

possible and

a magnetic

generating

-- the interaction to obtain a thrust materials, now appears

the field of the earth of increasing wires through the mean been

the field radius.

produced

by the superconducting high temperature

orbital produced payload

With current the

superconductor concepts

that have

within small

last year,

a test of all these aboard students,

the use of a

enough first with the

to fly piggyback groups general been of three

another

mission. groups shielding of up to seven systems supports and students, the design engineering of specific that not only advantages

Working analyses deployed are such

then with

of both systems deployed to other

requirements carried practical systems. out. The

of magnetic result

have

of this effort also show

the conclusion and energy

systems shielding

but that they

dramatic

weight

compared

Inh'oduclion

The whose using

ultimate function

objective

of this work a large

is to design, volume, low

build, intensity against against

and

fly a dual-purpose, field and

piggyback to test

payload of of

is to produce

magnetic

the concept a thrust drag, deployed wire, which

such a magnetic magnitude

field (1) to protect to stabilize

spacecraft orbits

solar flare protons, orbital of being temperature high Tc decay tested from

(2) to produce atmospheric the same

sufficient

low satellite all appear In certain where

and (3) high has are

to test the magsail temperature now been

concept.

These coil. point

to be capable orbits, high

using

superconducting developed available, to the

superconducting wires one rail

silver-sheathed the magnetic

in diameter

commercially requiring earth-orbital needs scarcely

can be used cooling

to produce

moments

required

for shielding apply directly

without to both missions without of is to

any mechanical and

system. missions.

The potential The usefulness the

benefits

of this concept shield

interplanetary to be emphasized.

of a protective of

for manned orbit perigee

Similarly, This payload space

usefulness

increasing

expenditure large develop volume

of propellant magnetic

is obvious. fields prototype

would program.

be a first step in assessing The objective

the true potential research system.

in the U.S. deployed

of this design coil (DHTSC)

an innovative,

high temperature

superconducting

Historical

Perspective

The concept particle radiation tile early radiation protection 1960s

of using has been during

superconducting developed manned since

coils to produce the late beyond from 1950s.

magnetic While

fields

for protection as a means

from

energetic

contemplated

of providing interest in of an This

missions

the magnetosphere, nuclear blasts.

the concept

gained

as a means nuclear belt loss

of protecting 250

satellites above dose

On July 9, 1962, STARFISH) 120,000 concern prototype for over rads

an explosion produced per hour.

a 1.4 megaton artificial resulted radiation in the

device

miles radiation

Johnston

Island

(Project

with a peak

rate of approximately significant

of three

satellites

1, and

produced

satellite which space

protection relied missions. missions, been 2 on

technologies. low-temperature Magnetic although reassessed With

This

concern

led to the production and he idea shielding use

of a laboratory-based was concept further developed

system manned

superconductors, was one radiation

shielding it was later

seriously field

considered

for the Apollo

abandoned. shielding in manned crew

The

of magnetic due to Mars,

shielding of high shielding over

for satellites temperature appears all other

has recently superconductors.

for satellite interest for proper

applications missions

to the advent rnagnetic energy

renewed

to provide designs.

the required

capabilities

shielding

at significant

savings

Radiation

Issues

for Manned

Spaceflight

Energetic particles particles

space

radiation Allen

is generally radiation

classified in the form

by three of galactic

prime

sources: rays,

radiation and radiation

due to trapped due to solar that pose with the and

in the Van emitted threat

Belts, storms,

cosmic

in flares, are those (typically

and the solar wind.

For interplanetary Galactic by solar of radiation cosmic flare pose

travelers, rays particles potential

the particles particles

the greatest highest finally

with high energy greater than

and fluxes. followed

contain

energies Van Allen

1 Gev),

(10 to 1000 Mev), exposures

belt radiation.

The former

two fomas

that dwarf

the latter. Historical most flares same often cited data is commonly in February powerful used to predict potential exposures, of 1960, and the benchmark of 1972. solar flares While these

occurred the most

of 1956,

November

and August are not unique. in October

are among order

ever recorded, 1972

their magnitudes was recorded events

In fact, a flare of the The unshielded and 411 rem even over with a 30

of magnitude

as the August dose

event

1989. 3

blood-forming-organ respectively. a 10 grams day period for any protection to shielding extremely While activity,

(BFO)

equivalents were

for the three 31.5 rem,

were

62 rem,

110 rem,

3 The BFO dose per square for astronauts duration

equivalents shield. 4

39.8 rein, and 50.7 rem respectively rem limit for vital organs concern benefit must from specific been

centimeter

Since

the recommended at 50 rem annually manned

is 25 rem, and is placed space missions. While

5, significant missions

be raised

long

current

U.S.

the natural attention noted that

afforded

by the Earth's design. once missions

magnetosphere, The or twice were for manned flares solar cycle

interplanetary is a period with lesser

missions

will require and it has every

in spacecraft large the flares Apollo occur

of 11 years, flares occurring to avoid

per cycle

few weeks. 6 of high years. case solar flare

successfully Mars

planned which

periods

this will not be possible of large levels. solar Finally, as well.

missions,

will last several to consider worst effects are

In addition, scenarios for flares been

the unpredictability potential will exposure

forces

mission

designers

it should If normal would

be recognized levels receive

that the cumulative flare dose activity of

of smaller it has

be quite that 7

significant

of solar an annual

assumed, per year

predicted mission.

an unprotected

crew

100 rein

on a Mars

Mass

Shielding

Mass matter have

shielding inherent shield

is

generally

referred

to as a The major

passive problem

shielding

concept.

Simply,

bulk forms shielding

of

shielding thickness the

capabilities. increases production material

encountered

with mass

is that from

the required increases. interacting

precipitously of energetic must

as the energy secondaries and

of the particles as a result it should

to be protected of energetic that

Furthermore, with

particles the level of

the shielding

be considered,

be noted

productionof secondary particlessuchasgammarays,protons,andneutrons,is a function of the


shielding however, of being penetrating spacecraft achieve material, the various inherently and specifically shielding increases concepts with increasing that have been atomic suggested This Thus, while number. all suffer is especially the structural must 8 For a Mars mass

type of

mission,

from the disadvantage the case if the most of a to

too heavy flare

for practical radiation shielding,

implementation.

of the solar provides

is to be stopped. additional shielding

configuration in order

inherent mass

strategies

be considered

reasonable

levels.

Alternative

Shielding

Strategies

A number shielding. problems involves

of active Of these,

shielding both the

concepts electric

have and

been

suggested, shielding

including strategies Thus,

electric, suffer

magnetic, from severe

and plasma technical simply to

plasma

which creating

render

their

implementation field around

infeasible.

magnetic

shielding, charged

which

a magnetic hope

a spacecraft

and thus deflecting

particles,

appears

be the greatest

for use as an active

shield.

Magnetic

Shielding

Work

on

the

magnetic Original at liquid

shielding development helium First,

concept of the

was

initiated was,

before

manned limited

spaceflight to low

was

even

realized.9,10,11 superconductors, a daunting outer space,

concept

of course,

temperature posed in

temperatures. even helium to achieve with

The use of such low temperature tile equilibrium would temperatures still state. be

superconductors

set of problems. cooling techniques shielding the only

attained needed

by a spaceship mechanical alone

to liquid in order

temperatures

through

refrigeration magnetic maintaining intensities Third, question savings the shield One might

the superconducting

This

requirement

limited for field

designs cryogenic

to the use of ship-board temperature through 13

coils 12, especially ship-board in order structures

due to the power coils required high

requirements magnetic

Second,

achievable

extremely

high currents supporting

to shield required

a reasonably for such It was coils

high volume. brought that into

the masses any gains

of the coils and the related in savings when over mass

shielding

techniques.12,14,15 protons, 16 effects that

found

a weightsupport of

was achieved was the main additional on living

protecting

against

1 bey or higher

and that the structural

component noted

of the total mass with magnetic

of the system. shields is the

concern

such

high have

magnetic been

fields

have

organisms,

especially travelers

due to long-term 17, but no opinion

exposures.

Studies

undertaken even today.

as to the potential

dangers

to space

has won general

acceptance

The debateon the generaltopic of magneticfield interactionswith living organismsstill can be seen especiallyseenwith respectto the high voltageelectricallines that areusedto supplypower acrossthe country. However, with proper designthe field presentin the crew quarterscan be reducedto values lower thannormallypresenton earth. With the adventof high temperaturesuperconductors, heightenedinterestin magnetic shieldsis apparent.This interestis further fueled by recentplanningfor a mannedmission to Mars which would directly benefit from the developmentof magneticshielding technologies. A numberof studieshave focusedon the useof the newceramicmaterialswhich can achievesuperconductivityatliquid nitrogen temperatures as well ason possibleconfigurationsfor a magneticshield. Onesuchconfigurationis that of a deployedtorus.12 Thesenew superconducting materialspresenta numberof notableadvantages, including significantly lesscooling needsaswell asdeployedconfigurationsfor superconducting wires. The deployed configuration appearsespecially promising due to enormousreductions in mass and energy requirementsover previous ship-boardcoil designs. In addition, the dangerthat catastrophic failure of the magneticshieldposesto a spaceship's crew is minimized by deploying the shield away from the shipasopposedto producingthe necessary magneticfieldswith a ship-board coil. 12

Mathenmtical Basisfor
The concept has been behind practical of using deployed high temperature investigatorsl2,18,

the Design

superconducting and it is instructive the desired

coils for producing to examine characteristics

magnetic

fields

developed this concept. full sized

by several First, scenario,

the basic of the

principles In a With field as

it is important it is desired

to establish

shield. radius.

to fully protect level

an area of a spaceship particles,

of 10 meters

the constraint strength

of establishing once

the maximum the protected to measure

of energetic

the necessary This dimension,

magnetic

can be calculated radius, is only in meters,

dimension

is determined. protected characteristic

Cst, known complete dimension,

the Strrmer protection measured

has been achieved

shown

the magnetically 40% of that

region length

19, although 9. This

in approximately as follows20:

is determined

C,, =/_lqFtoM V 4rP

(1)

where

the particle /-to=

charge of free space

the permittivity 4xx 10-7 H/m

relativistic

particle

momentum

The magneticmoment,M, canbe calculated using therelation M


for which = NIA (2)

the number = = the current

of turns in the loop in each turn by the loops

I A

the area enclosed forming the coil

Now, case

momentum of basic

is calculated particles,

as the product

of the mass must

and the velocity be made. as follows:

of an object. Thus, in the

However, case

in the

relativistic of light,

considerations

of particles

approaching

the speed

the momentum

is calculated

p _

mov _l-(c) 2

(3)

where

mo v c = = =

the particle

rest mass

the particle the speed

velocity of light

3 x 108 nVs

The

calculation

of momentum 4:

as achieved

using

equation

3 may

also be achieved

using

the relativistic

relation

in equation 1

1- c

Iv;
the ratio in equation of the actual 5: energy of the particle in question to the rest energy Energy / Rest Energy

(4)

Equation particle,

4 is simply as simplified

of that

7= Actual

(5)

In St6rmer

the

specific

case

of

interest,

if

it is desired 25 meters.

to fully The

protect

a radius moment

of 10 meters,

then

the from

radius

will need

to be approximately

magnetic

may be calculated

equation 1. A cutoff energyof 200 MeV hasbeensuggested 21, andto protect a St6rmerradius of
meters from protons of this energy, the relativistic the kinetic energy through momentum must be found. Knowing that 1 MeV to determine equivalent velocity to 1.6 x 10 -13 joules, of those protons. of 200 MeV solving protons can be used

25 is the

This is achieved

the following:

K. E. = mc 2 - mo c2

(6)

Here, joules speed

mo is the mass of kinetic of light).

of the proton a proton

which

is 1.66 x 10 -27 kg. at a speed

Thus,

using

equation

6 with 3.2x10 57%

-11 the to these

energy,

is traveling of the proton Using

of 1.7 x 108 m/sec using equation

(approximately

The momentum

can then be found 1, the magnetic m 2. coils

3, and is determined against

be about particles Now, can

3.6 x 10 -19 kg-m/sec. is thus found the case of to be nearly a ship-board

equation

moment

for protection

1.4 x 1010 ampere-turns coil versus deployed since

be examined

in greater

detail.

In particular,

the magnetic current,

moment

increases

as the area

enclosed with

by the coil it is immediately of the coil. To obtain

seen that the needed the dependence

I, for a single stored solve

tum coil will decrease energy needed to

the radius the

of the total one can

electrical for

activate equation

shield

as a function

of the radius

of the toms,

the total

current

using

1, to give:

I = 4 nC_P qYo A

(7)

Equation function

7 may be solved, of radius as

for example,

for 200 MeV

protons

to approximate

the current

in amperes

as a

4.5x10 I R2

9 (8)

Here,

it is interesting

and important

to note a relation

which

determines

the energy

required

for magnetic

shielding. The energy stored in the system, E, is given by

E = LI z

(9)

where

the coilinductance.

10

If equation7 is substitutedinto equation9, andif


expression for energy as a function of radius

the inductance

is assumed

to be a constant,

then an

is obtained:

7rC),P E= L/ q -- oA ) \

t"4

(10)

For the example substituted

that we have

here considered

(200 MeV

protons,

Cst of 25 meters),

equation

8 can be

into equation

9 to yield:

E:L

(21019) R4

(11)

While

it should

be realized St6rmer This

that this equation, radius, the important

of course, result the radius

varies

with the energy

of the particles on the radius

as well as to the minus the larger coils of

with the desired fourth power.

shown

is the dependence

shows

that the smaller factor. the bigger

and consequently relevant when

the smaller considering

the torus, deployed the torus,

the energy much the larger energy

required size,

by a massive since likewise

This is especially the radius the

and consequently energetic

the bigger again

the smaller power

requirement

for protecting

from

same

particles,

by a fourth

dependence.

Torus

Mass

Optimization

The radius mass

torus

size

and

mass

can be optimized be realized

with

knowledge

of the total (TM)

mass

as a function

of the

of the torus. (MW)

First,

it should mass

that the total mass

is simply

the sum of the wire

and toms-tube

(MT):

Mror

= Mw + Mr

(12)

The

wire mass

is determined

as follows:

M w = 2 JrRap

(13)

where

R a

= = =

torus radius total cross sectional area of wire to the total current density

ratio of the current

11

superconductor

wire density

The toms-tube

mass

is found

as follows:

M r = 2zcRm

(14)

where

the mass of the toms

per unit length.

The

optimum

size

in terms

of the radius and then setting and

is finally

determined

by differentiating

the total

mass

with

respect With

to the toms radius, the above

this to zero. calculated First, upon results, it is possible to now optimize the

procedure

previously constraints. is based radius

size and mass forms Mylar.

of the torus for particular toms is 87 g/m,

it is assumed the estimated equation

that the mass total surface

of the tube which area required for the and

the desired Assuming

which

protection

of a St6rmer

of 25 meters,

8 can be used wire must

to perform

optimization. these

Further

constraints

on the capabilities properties

of the superconductor

be established wire.

can be based density

on recent

reported

of high temperature

superconductor

It is claimed 8 g/cm 3. to be the

that a current Now,

of 108 amps/m to protect wire

2 can be achieved from 200 MeV

22, with a wire density protons, then the total

of approximately mass can be found

if it is still desired

sum of the superconductor Knowing that the critical

mass and the toms

mass

using the ratio

the above

results. to the cross Thus, sectional using area

current

in a wire is simply area

of the current

(a) of that wire, 8, the following

the cross-sectional approximation

can be computed

as a function

of radius.

equation

results:

a-'--

45 R2
I

(15)

The

mass

of the wire

may then be calculated

by simply

multiplying

the circumference

of the wire by the

cross-sectional

area and the density

of the wire.

This results

in the following:

M w = 2zcRag

2.3x106 R

(16)

Next,

the mass

of the

torus=tube

must

be calculated,

and

this is found

similarly

as the product

of the

circumference

and the mass of that tube per meter:

Mr = 2ZcR(O.O9 .--_:) = O.55R

(17)

12

*4

Thus

the total mass,

being

the sum of the wire mass

and tube mass,

is simply:

2.3x10 Mrr R

+0.55R

(18)

To find the optimum zero as follows:

size,

equation

18 can be differentiated

with respect

to the radius

and set equal

to

dMro r dR

2.3 x 10 6 _-0.55 = 0 R2

(19)

Solving equation

this equation 18 to be 2240

yields

an optimum

radius

of 2036

meters. system. case.

The

optimmn

mass be noted

is then found

using of for

kg for the full size (not prototype) of the tube in the optimum proton energy, or tube mass

It should This problem

that the weight repeated

the wire is equal any assumed

to the weight radius,

can be easily

St0rmer

per unit length.

Calculation

of Force

and Stress

in Coils

The system. coil may

forces These

and

stresses

involved may

in

a deployed

coil First, the magnetic force in a single wire

characteristics

be calculated

as follows.

be determined

from the following

relation23:

PolZ [ln(

8R ]

(20)

where

R r

= =

the coil radius the wire radius the permittivity 4nx10 -7H/m of free space

/1 o = = I =

the current

The wire radius is equal determined to the using

must ratio

be calculated, of the current

and this is achieved (I) to the critical

once current

again

by realizing (J).

that the area of the wire Thus, the wire radius is

density

the following

relation:

13

r = _/---_

(21)

As an example, is 108 anaps/m be determined stress is simply

if the required 2, a required from equation

current

is 1093

amps

as calculated

above

and the critical

current

density force to

wire radius

of 1.87 x 10 .3 meter is found

is found.

This allows

the magnetic is very

20, and this value

to be 1.82 newtons, below:

which

low.

The

the ratio

of the force

to the area, as is shown

(7--

FMAG /l_r 2

(22)

Using The

equation stress

22, a stress in terms

of 1.66 x 105 N/m 2 is found. of the St6rmer radius and relation: the coil radius can be calculated by combining

equations

1, 20, and 22, to obtain

the following

=JC PFln(8R] TjL kr) -3]


As an approximation, of the StOrmer term. radius it can be seen and decreases from equation as a function 23 that the stress of the square increases as a function radius,

(23)

of the square the lnR

of the torus energy

neglecting radius.

All of these

calculations

can be repeated

for any chosen

particle

and St/Jrmer

Selective

Emitter

Calculations

With wire

the

planned

use

of

superconducting deployed

wire,

the equilibrium the necessity require

temperature of supplemental below

attained cooling. the

by the This

in the currently to the fact Even

envisioned that the

state 12 suggests conditions and emitter films with

is due

superconducting selective absorber with glass

temperatures with

equilibrium to emissivity of silver, the

temperature. ratio of 6.17

by using

coatings an internal

an absorptivity layer

x 10 -2,

achievable attained

reflecting

equilibrium with its major the known

temperature length

is still 147OK. 12

This assumes

that the coil consists

of 1 wire

oriented of

perpendicular

to the sun. Of course, materials.

this is well above

the transition

temperature

high temperature

superconducting

14


(_)

2I_.

'

Fig.

1 Torus

geometry

shown

in (a) cross of the toms)

section

and (b) area projection

(Note:

not to scale,

the

sunlight

is parallel

to the plane

A different to use providing the central selective

approach absorber

to the problem and emitter

of cooling coatings

a deployed a greater absorptivity

high temperature area

superconducting For example, across

coil is by of

over

of illumination. ratio

a mesh region

or Mylar inside

sheet

that has a desired as shown in Figure

to emissivity

the length

the toms,

1, and by orienting area is significantly may be proven of that energy.

that sheet decreased.

perpendicular

to the

sun, the area of illumination The between body desirability of adding

compared this sheet

to the radiating to the design

by examining The

the energy absorbed

balance by a

the absorption

of solar energy

and the reradiation

total power

is governed

by the following

relation:

Pi. = S_zA1

(24)

where

the solar power the absorptivity

flux (watts/cm

2)

AI=

the illuminated

area

The total power

radiated

away

from a body is found

as follows:

15

co., = o-eAsT 4
where the Stefan-Boltzman 5.67 x 10 12
C =

(25)
constant 4

watts/cm2-K

the emissivity the emitting the temperature area of the body

A2=
Te =

If it is now

assumed area

that the major and the emitting

radius area

of the torus

is 2036

meters First,

and the minor the illuminated

radius area

is 0.5 meter, is simply the

the illuminated product

can be determined. diameter, as indicated

of the major

diameter

and the minor

below:

A 1 = (2R)(2r)

(26)

This

is calculated

to be 4072

m 2 with the example

we have

been

using.

The emitting

area is next found

as follows:

A 2 = [(2nR)(2nr)]

+ [2n(R

- r) 2]

(27)

This

accounts Now,

for the area by setting


I

gained equation

from

the inner

sheet

of foil, and is calculated 25, the following relation

to be

2.61

x 107 m 2 in

this case.

24 equal

to equation

is obtained:

(28)

Finally, estimated using below

if the same

absorptivity

to emissivity orbit, 1350

ratio

of 6.17 x 10 -2 is used, then the equilibrium of 21.9

and if the solar temperature K is achieved,

constant

is

to be that at Earth 26. This

watts/m2,12

can be found which is well

equation

reveals

that an equilibrium temperature alternative

temperature

the required it appears

equilibrium that

of approximately to using

77 K. cooling exists. However, numerous be

Thus, design required may

a viable

mechanical First,

problems

are presented material, penalty,

by this configuration. and the deployment but this would cooling This might need systems. be difficult

a total area of 1.3 x 107 m 2 of foil would not be trivial. Second,

as the sheet a mass

of such a foil would to be evaluated

this foil (and

present

in light

of the enormous

masses

energies) would

required need

by mechanical

A third problem due to variations

is that the orientation in the intensity

of the torus

to be maintained.

of the magnetic

16

field, but is certainly achievablewith present-dayorientationand stabilizationtechnologiesdeveloped for satellites. Fourth,it shouldbenotedthat a temperature gradientwould exist acrossthe areaof the web or foil, with the coldestpoint beingat or nearthe middle. This might requireincreasingthe rateof thermal conduction in the web or foil. If a hollow web was used,this problem could be solved by allowing a gasto circulatethroughthe matrix by forcedconvection. Only a smallquantityof gaswould be requiredhere. Alternatively, the entire configurationcould be allowed to cool naturally, as long as thenecessary time for suchcoolingis within practicallimits on sucha mission. This entirely self-cooled system,with its stringentrequirementon orientation,may not bepractical with manydesignsthat have already been proposedfor a Mars mission. However, it does indicate the engineeringpossibility of dispensingwith mechanical coolingentirely if the missiondesigncanbeapproached with a freehand.

Shield

and Spaceship

Configuration

previously

published such

design

for

a manned of producing has as shown been

Mars artificial adapted

expedition gravity to 2.

took

into

account and

special in a

considerations, specific ship

as the requirement This magnetic eight field geometry shield, configuration to protect those

by rotation,

resulted

geometry. coil a figure

incorporate This geometry important

a high displays design

temperature a coil of

superconducting approximately production around

in figure state.

in deployed the crew

One thus

criteria

is the

of a magnetic of those

quarters, such

and

a distribution field

of the

coil wires of

the exterior quarters

areas

areas is essential out.

that the magnetic

in the interior

the living

are substantially

canceled

Using

the Deployed

Coil as a Magnetic

Sail

It

was

first

suggested field

by

Engleberger provide field

24

that the interaction amount

between

a shipboard Since

magnetic

field force

and the earth's will increase moments calculation scale) been Zubrin case,

magnetic as the ship's here

could

a small increases,

of propulsion. from

this propulsive

magnetic that

it is evident this

the magnitude case.

of the magnetic However, detailed payload it has also protons. in either

discussed shows

it is possible

to consider moment

in the

present anaps.m

that with

a assumed of thrust

magnetic

of 1.5x106 in this fashion.

2 (the prototype interestingly, of the repelled Since,

20 millionths suggested

of a pound

can be obtained

More

that thrust

may also be obtained

due to the change of 0.01 and since might

in momentum

has estimated what is needed here,

that accelerations is a large magnetic

on the order moment

m/s 2 may

be obtained..25 is produced the same

this is what be tested

by the method payload as that

described

it is evident

that both of these

concepts

using

17

_Lf3 L D -t_--_cS 0 _.rj I.f3 "o ,--t qC o o,,-

,__

(u+'

(5

_I

_- u_z
..C'_

D A N_

_0

cZ_

__-<
Z

_
;::1 ,,-,

needed orbit order

to test shows

radiation

shielding

Furthermore, 200

an analysis miles,

of the amount

of drag drag

to be experienced

in

that for orbits

at approximately Thus,

the atmospheric

is, typically, drag

also on the by means of

of 20 millionths repulsion

of a pound. appears

the concept

of compensating

for atmospheric

magnetic

to be viable. 26

Design

of a Prototype

System

Efforts prototype one which

have system

been

focused

in the current shielding

design concept.

cycle

on defining

the

criteria

for constructing is envisioned, orbit.

to test the magnetic of being

A small, on another

self-contained mission into

payload

is capable design includes

launched

piggyback areas:

geosynchronous

Prototype

the following

torus

deployment

system

sensing

technologies

command,

control,

and communications

teclmologies

energy

control

technologies

thermal

considerations

flexible

superconducting

wire

An important matter using

consideration the equations wires

is scaling, given

i.e. the sizing have shown

of the deployed that with

coil.

Detailed available a radius

calculations high

on this

above

currently

temperature ten meters to

superconducting shield mass

it should zone

be possible the torus

to use a deployed major diameter

coil having against

of under

a 10 centimeter goal is 200 kg. S.R. Shielding", Engineering

around

50 MEV

protons.

The total system

1 Hawkins, Satellite Cryogenic York,

"A Six-Foot

Laboratory Advances (Sections

Superconducting in Cryogenic M-U). Edited

Magnet Engineering.

System

for

Magnetic

Orbital 1964 New

in International Conference

Proceedings Plenum

of the Press,

by K. D. Timmerhaus,

1965, pp. 124-136.

18

2 Vittitoes, Charles N., "Magnetic-Filed Shielding of Satellites From High-Energy-Electron Environments," Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, SAND--89-2956, May 1990.
3 Simonsen, Mars, NASA Lisa C. and John E. Nealy, 3079, 1991. Radiation Protection for Human Missions to the Moon and

Technical

Paper

4 Townsend, Radiation Rockets,

Lawrence SHielding

W.,

John

E. Nealy,

John

W. Wilson, Interplanetary

and William Missions,"

Atwell, Journal

"Large

Solar

Flare and

Requirements pp. 126-128.

for Manned

of Spacecraft

Vol.

26 (1989),

5 Fry,

R.J. and D.S. Nachtwey,

"Radiation

Protection

Guidelines

for Space

Mission,"

Health

Physics,

Vol. 55, No. 2, August,

1988, pp. 159-164.

6 Nealy, Radiation

John

E.,

Lisa

C. Simonsen, for Solar

Lawrence Cycle XXI

W. Townsend, (1975-1986)",

and

John

W. Wilson, 901347,

"Deep-Space

Exposure

Analysis

SAE Paper

1990, pp. 980-987.

7 Woodward, Mars, Penelope

Daniel

and Alcestis

R. Oberg, Inc.,

"The Medical

Aspects

of a Flight

to Mars",

in The Case for

J. Boston,

Ed., Univelt,

1984, p. 173-180.

8 Kash, September,

Sidney

W.

and

Robert

F. Tooper,

"Active

Shielding

for Manned

Spacecraft,"

Astronautics,

1962, pp. 68-75.

9 Levy, Avco

R.H.,

Radiation Div.,

Shielding

of Space

Vehicles

by Means TN 61-7),

of Superconducting Apr. 1961.

Coils,

Avco

Corp.,

Everett

Res. Lab., Res. Rep

106 (AFBSN

10 Dow, Manned

Norris Space

F.

"Structural Symposium,

Implications

of the Ionizing California,

Radiation April 20-22,

in Space",

Proceedings

of the

Stations

Los Angeles,

1960 (as cited by Levy).

11 Singer, IAF,

S.F.,

"Some August

Consequences

of a Theory

of the Radiation

Belt",

9th Annual

Congress

of the

Amsterdam,

26, 1958 (as cited by Levy).

12 Cocks, Concept Manned 99-102.

F. Hadley, for Producing

"A Deployable Magnetic Missions",

High Shields

Temperature Against Both

Superconducting Solar Flare and

Coil Galactic

(DHTSC) Radiation

- A Novel During 1991, p.

Interplanet,'u'y

Journal

of the British

Interplanetary

Society,

Vol. 44, Mar.

19

13 Englesson,GeorgeA. and Glenn Murphy, "SuperconductingCoils for Shielding in Space",In


American Stones I966, Institute to Mars p. 282-287. of Aeronautics Baltimore, and Astronautics, MD, March 28-30, and American Astronautical Papers. Society, AIAA, Stepping New York, Meeting, 1966. Technical

14 Brown,

G.V., Eds.,

"Magnetic

Radiation

Shielding",

in High

Magnetic

Fields. 1962.

H. Kolm,

B. Lax, F. Bitter,

and R. Mills,

The MIT Press,

Cambridge,

MA, pp. 370-378,

15

Dow,

Norris Space

F.

Structural

Implications General

of the Electtric

Ionizing Co., Nov.

Radiation 30, 1959

in Space, (as cited

TIS in 14).

Report

No.

R60SD376,

Science

Laboratory,

16 Kash, June

S.W.,

"Mininmm

Structural

Mass

for a Magnetic

Radiation

Shield",

AIAA

Journal,

Vol.

1,

1963, p. 1439-1441.

17

Kholodov,

Yu.

A.,

Space

Biology

and Pole,

the Priroda

Magnetic (Moscow),

Field.

Translated

into

English

from

Kosmicheskaya Systems

Biologiya

i Magnitnoye

no. 4, 1966, p. 114-115, Div., 31 Jan. 1967.

by Air Force

Command,

Wright-Patterson

AFB,

Ohio,

Foreign

Technology

18

Hilinski,

Erik Magnetic

J. and Shield",

F. Hadley in press.

Cocks,

"A Deployed

High

Temperature

Superconducting

Coil

(DHTSC)

19 St6rmer,

C.,

The Polar

Aurora,

Oxford,

at the Clarendon

Press,

p. 292,

1955.

20 Helgesen, due

John

O. and

Frank with

A. Spagnolo, Application Aerospace

"The Motion to Sollar

of a Charged

Particle

in a Magnetic Institute 27-29,

Field of 1966,

to a Finite

Solenoid

Radiation

Protection",

American CA, June

Aeronautics Paper 66-512.

and Astronautics,

Sciences

Meeting,

4th, Los Angeles,

21 Townsend, Effectiveness Conference

L. W., J. W. Wilson, of a Proposed on Environmental Magnetic

J. L. Shinn, Shielding 20th,

J. E. Nealy, Concept

and L. C. Simonsen, Mars 9-12,

"Radiation SAE,

Protection lntersociety 901343.

for Manned VA, July

Missions",

Systems,

Williamsburg,

1990, SAE Paper

22 Amato, 308.

Ivan,

"New

Superconductors:

A Slow

Dawn",

Science,

Vol.

259, January

15, 1993, pp. 306-

20

23 Moon,

Francis

C., Magneto-Solid

Mechanics,

John Wiley

& Sons,

New York,

1984.

24 j. Engleberger,

U.S. Patent

No. 3,504,868,

granted

April

7, 1970.

25 Zubrin, British

Robert

M.,

"The Society,

Use

of Magnetic

Sails

to Escape

from

Low

Earth

Orbit",

Journal

of the

Interplanetary

Vol. 46 (1993),

pp. 3-10.

26

Woodcock, p. 50.

Gordon

R.,

Space

Stations

and

Platforms,

Orbit

Book

Company,

Malabar,

Florida

(1986),

21

22

_7, 2: .........

5_

.-'_ ' .... ':_"

APPENDIX

MAGNETIC,

ELECTROSTATIC, SPACECRAFT

AND

PLASMA

SHIELDING

OF

- A BIBLIOGRAPHY

A compilation radiation ensure articles, equipment by means inclusion and

is given other

of references

to methods Both

of shielding computer

spacecraft

from searching

solar has

and been

galactic used journal and to

than mass reference

shielding. materials

and manual covers

of older

and this compilation as well interest,

government field testing

reports,

patents.

Literature Other standards

on magnetometers topics of related

as magnetic but not covered fields to most

facilities

are not covered. protection

herein,

include:

magnetic

sails, radiation The spacecraft

and practices, has recently,

and magnetic been central

in space. concepts for the protection available of were

employment using

of superconductors fields; until

magnetic With

however,

the superconducting superconductors, to be possible.

materials

not conducive studies have

to use. been

the development and major designs design

of high temperature advantages from appear

new active A review systems.

shielding

undertaken reveals would in 1955,

of literature However, no

on shielding survey Aurora,

concepts

ranging without

shipboard

coils to deployed Carl St6rmer's

of this field published basis

be complete which

referencing

pioneering

book,

The Polar provides the

although

not directly magnetic

concerned radiation

with spacecraft shielding work.

shielding

mathematical

for virtually

all subsequent

1')$8
1. Singer, IAF, S.F., "Some Consequences August of a Theory of the Radiation Belt", 9th Annual Congress of the

Amsterdam,

26, 1958.

1960
2. Dow, N.F., Space "Structural Stations Implications of the Ionizing Radiation April in Space", 20-22, Proceedings of the Manned

Symposium,

Los Angeles,

California,

1960.

1')61
PII_CEDIhG PAGE _J[.ANK NOT 23 FILMED

Levy,

R.H.,

"Radiation Everett

Shielding

of Space

Vehicles

by Means

of Superconducting Apr.

Coils",

Avco

Corp.,

Avco

Div., Res. Lab.,

Res. Rep.

106 (AFBSD

TN 61-7),

1961, see also ARS J.,

Vol. 31, Nov.

1961, p. 1568-1570.

4. Brown,

G.V.,

"Magnetic Eds.

Radiation

Shielding",

in High

Magnetic

Fields.

H. Kolm,

B. Lax, F. Bitter,

and R. Mills,

The MIT Press,

Cambridge,

MA, pp. 370-378,

1962.

5. Dow,

N.F., General

S.P. Shen, Electric

and J.F. Heyda, Co., Philadelphia,

Evaluations PA, NASA

of Space Contract

Vehicle NASr-34,

Shielding. Rept.

Space R62SD31,

Sciences Apr.

Lab., 1962.

Edmonson,

N., C.D. Verwers, Energy Hazards

and F.L. Gibbons, Div. of Tech. of the Sym.

"Shielding Inform.,

of Space

Vehicles D.C., Nov.

by Magnetic Protection

Fields", Against

In Atomic Radiation

Commission, in Space, Proc.

Washington, Tenn.,

at Gatlinburg,

5-7,

1962, p. 808-818.

7.

Kash,

S.W.

and R.F. Tooper,

"Active

Shielding

for Manned

Spacecraft",

Astronautics,

Vol. 7, Sept.

1962, p. 68-75.

8. Levy,

Richard by Means

It.

"Author's

Reply

to Willinski's Coils'",

Comment

on 'Radiation Vol.

Shielding

of Space

Vehicles

of Superconducting

ARS Journal,

32, 1962, p. 787.

9. Levy,

R.H., Nov.

The Prospects

for Active

Shielding,

Avco-Everett

Research

Lab.,

Everett,

MA, AMP-94,

1962.

10.

Norwood, Commission, Space,

J.M.,

"The

Combination Inform.,

of Active Washington, Tenn.,

and D.C.,

Passive Protection

Shielding", Against

In

Atomic

Energy in

Div. of Tech. of the Sym.

Radiation

Hazards

Proc.

at Gatlinburg,

Nov.

5-7, 1962, p. 819-828.

11.

Tooper,

R.F. and W.O. 1962.

Davies,

"Electromagnetic

Shielding

of Space

Vehicles",

IAS Paper

No. 62-

156, June,

12. Tooper,

R.F.,

Electromagnetic Report on Contract

Shielding

Feasibility

Study,

Armour 1962.

Research

Foundation

Summary

Technical

AF 33(616)-8489,

September,

13.

Willinski,

Martin

I.

"Comment

on

'Radiation

Shielding

of

Space

Vehicles

by

Means

of

24

Superconducting Coils'", ARS


1963
14. Kash, S.W., "Minimum Structural

Journal,

Vol. 32, 1962, p. 787.

Mass

for a Magnetic

Radiation

Shield",

AIAA

J., Vol.

1, June

1963, p. 1439-1441.

15.

Kash,

S.W.

and

R.F.

Tooper,

"Correction

on

Active

Shielding

for

Manned

Spacecraft",

Astronautics,

January,

1963, p. 43.

16. Madey,

Richard,

"Shielding

Against

Space

Radiation",

Nucleonics,

Vol.

21, May

1963, p. 56-60.

i7.

Norwood, Dynamics,

J.M.

and F.L.

Gibbons,

Studies

of Magnetic 4 Nov. 1963.

Shielding

and Superconductivity,

General

Fort Worth,

TX, AD-423178,

18.

Shen,

S.P.,

"Nuclear

Problems

in Radiation

Shielding

in Space",

Astronautica

Acta,

Vol. IX, Fasc.

4, 1963, p. 211-274.

19.

Stekly, AMP

Z.J.J.,

Magnetic

Energy 1963.

Storage

Using

Superconducting

Coils,

Avco-Everett

Researc

Lab.,

102, January

20.

Tooper,

Robert

F.,

Electrostatic AFB, Ohio, Report

Shielding

Feasibility

Study

[Final Sys.

Report, Planning,

June

1961-Sept.

1962],

Wright-Patterson Technical

Directorate

of Advanced

Armour

Foundation

Documentary

No. ASD-TDR-63-194,

May,

1963.

21.

Vogler,

Frank

H.,

"Electrostatic 31st, New

Shielding York,

for Space

Vehicles", 1963,

Institute 63-12,

of the Aerospace see also AIAA

Sciences, J., Vol. 2,

Annual May

Meeting,

NY, Jan. 21-23,

Paper

1964, p. 872-878.

1964
22. Bhattacharjie, Artificial A. and I. Michael, Radiation Belt", AIAA "Mass and Magnetic Dipole Shielding Against Electrons of the

J., Vol. 2, Dec.

1964, p. 2198-2201.

23.

Bernert,

R.E. and Z.J.J. July,

Stekly,

Magnetic

Radiation

Shielding

Systems

Analysis,

NASA-CR-64915,

AMP-134,

1964.

25

24.

Feasibility Contract

of Magnetic

Orbital

Shielding AD483301,

System, May,

Report 1964.

of Lockheed

Missiles

and

Space

Co.,

No. AF 04(695)-252,

25.

Felten,

James

E.,

"Feasibility

of Electrostatic Sciences,

Systems

for Space

Vehicle

Radiation

Shielding",

Journal

of the Astronautical

Vol. 11 (1), Spring

1964, p. 16-22.

26.

Good, Space

R.C.,

S.P.

Shen,

and

N.F.

Dow,

Active Aug.

Shielding General

Concepts Electric

for

the Ionizing

Radiation

in

[Final Lab.

Report,

1 Sep. 1962-31

1963].

Co., Philadelphia,

PA, Space

Sciences

NASA-CR-58950,

31 Jan. 1964.

27.

Hoag, July,

E. D. and Z.J.J. 1964.

Stekly,

Superconducting

Coil

Technology.

NASA-CR-64915,

AMP-134,

28.

Kelm,

S. and P. Odelga,

"Employment

of Superconductors Wissenschaftliche

in Spaceflight Gesellschaft

[0ber fiir Luft-

Die Anwendung und Raumfahrt, Berlin, Vol. 14,

Von Supraleitern and Deutsche West May Germany,

Ftir Die Raumfahrt]", Gesellschaft Sept. 14-18,

far Raketentechnik 1964, Paper,

und Raumfahrtforschung, see also Zeitschrift

Jahrestagung,

fiir Flugwissenschaften,

1966, p. 242-247.

29.

Levy,

Richard

H. and G. Sargent

Janes,

"Plasma

Radiation

Shielding",

AIAA

J.,

Vol.

2, Oct. 1964,

p. 1835-1838.

30.

Levy,

R.H.

and G. S. Janes, AD-448095,

Plasma Sep.

Radiation 1964.

Shielding.

Avco-Everett

Research

Lab.,

Everett,

MA, RR-192,

31.

Petrov,

A.,

"The

'Magnetic

Walls'

of

a Cosmic

Ship", Systems 1967.

Nauchn.-Tekhn. Command,

Obshchestva Wright-Patterson

SSSR AFB,

(Moscow), Ohio,

no. 6, 1964, p. 60-61, Technology Div.,

see also Air Force AD 661766, 31 Mar.

Foreign

1')65
32. Bernert, NASA, R.E. and Z.J.J. Stekly, "Magnetic Radiation against Shielding Using in Space, Superconducting 1965, p. 199-209. Coils", In

Washington

2d Syrup. on Protec.

Radiations

33.

Hawkins,

S.R.,

"A Six-Foot

Laboratory

Superconducting

Magnet

System

for Magnetic

Orbital

26

Satellite Shielding",In International


M-U. Proceedings of the Cryogenic 18-21, also Philadelphia, 1965, Brechna, p. PA, August 124-135. p. 136.) (see

Advances

in Cryogenic

Engineering, University Plenum

Volume

10, Sections

Engineering Ed. by K.D.

Conference, Timmerhaus, S.H.

of Pennsylvania, Press, New York, and H.

1964,

Discussion,

C.H.

Rosner,

Minnich,

C. Laverick,

34.

Kash,

S.W.,

"Magnetic

Space

Shields", Biennial

American Gas Dynamics in Plasma University,

Institute

of Aeronautics 6th, American Gas Anderson

and Astronautics, 1L, Aug.

and 25-27,

Northwestern 1965, and Paper

University, 65-629

Sympositon, Dynamics; Biennial T.P.

Evanston, Institute

see also Advances and Northwestern 25-27, Press, 1965,

of Aeronautics Symposium, 6th, Eds.,

Astronautics, ILL.,

Dynamics and R.W.

Evanston, Northwestern

August

Proceedings,

Springer,

University

1967, p. 135-166.

35.

Levy,

R.H.,

"Comment Belt'",

on 'Mass

and Magnetic

Dipole

Shielding

Against

Electrons

of the Artificial

Radiation

AIAA

J., Vol. 3, 1965, pp. 988-989.

36.

Levy,

R.H. and S. Janes,

Plasma

Radiation Dec. 1965.

Shielding.

AVCO-Everett

Research

Lab.,

Everett,

MA.

NASA-CR-71254,

AMP-179,

37.

Levy,

R. H. and S. Janes, Radiations

Plasma

Radiation

Shielding,

In NASA,

Washington

2d Symp.

on Protec.

against

in Space,

1965, p. 211-215.

38.

McDonald, Fields

Perry and

F.,

An

Annotated Shielding Labs.

Bibliography Aginst Space

on Motion Radiation. Nov.

of Charged Brown

Particles Engineering

in Magnetic Co., Inc.,

Magnetic AL. Research

Huntsville,

NASA-CR-68657,

1965.

39.

Prescott, Magnetic Space,

A. D., E. W. Urban, Shielding Problems",

and

R. D. Shelton, In NASA,

"The

Application

of the Liouville against

Theorem Radiations

to in

Washington

2d Syrup. on Protec.

1965, p. 189-198.

1')66
40. Englesson, Aeronautics Meeting, York, George A., "Superconducting Coils for Shielding Astronautical A Volume in Space", Society, of Technical In American Stepping Papers. Institute of

and Astronautics, Baltimore, MD, March

and American 28-30, 1966.

Stones

to Mars New

AIAA,

1966, A66-25262,

p. 282-287.

27

41. Helgesen, JohnO. andFrank A. Spagnolo,"The Motion of a ChargedParticlein a MagneticField dueto a Finite Solenoidwith Application to Solar Radiation Protection", American Institute of
Aeronautics 1966, Paper and Astronautics, 66-512. Aerospace Sciences Meeting, 4th, Los Angeles, CA, June 27-29,

42.

Levine, AIAA

S.H.,

A. Bhattacharjie,

and R. Lepper,

"Forbidden

Regions

Produced

by Parallel

Dipoles",

J., Vol. 4, 1966, p. 654.

43.

Levine, Institute June

Samuel

H. and

Richard

Lepper,

"Analogue Aerospace

Studies Sciences

of Magnetic Meeting,

Shields", 4th,

American CA,

of Aeronautics 1966, Paper

and Astronautics, 66-513,

Los Angeles,

27-29,

see also AIAA

J., Vol. 6, Apr.

1968, p. 695-701.

44.

Levy,

R.H.

and

G.S.

Janes,

"Plasma

Radiation

Shielding

for

Deep

Space 120.

Vehicles",

SpaceAeronautics,

Vol. 45, Feb.

1966, p. 106, 109, 110, 112, 115, 117,118,

45.

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35

One highlight of the semester classwork underthe NASAAJSRAAdvancedDesign Programwas a teleconferencewith our NASA mentor, Don Carson,at Goddard SpaceFlight Center. The classis showninteractingduring this meeting.

36