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TABLE- PROVISION OF EXTERIOR OPEN SPACES AROUND THE BUILDINGS Sl. No.

Height of the Building Exterior open spaces to be left out on Upto (m.) all sides in m. (front rear and sidesin each plot)

1 15 5 2 18 6 3 21 7 4 24 8 5 27 9 6 30 10 7 35 11 8 40 12 9 45 13 10 50 14 11 55 and above 16 Note: (i) On sides where no habitable rooms face, a minimum space of 9.0 m. shall be left for heights above 27.0 m. (ii) In case of multi storied buildings the exterior open space around a building shall be of hard surface capable of taking load of fire engine weighting up to 45 tonnes.

INTRODUCTION
An apartment, or flat, is a self-contained housing unit that occupies only part of a building. Such a building may be called an apartment building, especially if it consists of many apartments for rent. Apartments may be owned by an owner/occupier or rented by tenants. In simple words apartment is the building in which accommodation is provided for 3 or more families living independently of one another

Historical background:
High-rise apartment buildings had already appeared in ancient antiquity: the insulae in ancient Rome and several other cities in the Roman Empire, some of which might have reached up to 10 or more stories, one reportedly having 200 stairs. In Egypt, there were many high-rise residential buildings, some seven stories tall that could reportedly accommodate hundreds of people. AlMuqaddasi in the 10th century described them as resembling minarets,

while Nasir Khusraw in the early 11th century described some of them rising up to 14 stories, with roof gardens on the top storey complete with ox-drawn water wheels for irrigating them. By the 16th century, Cairo also had high-rise apartment buildings where the two lower floors were for commercial and storage purposes and the multiple stories above them were rented out to tenants. The 16th century Yemeni city of Shibam is made up of over 500 tower houses,each one rising 5 to 11 stories high, with each floor having one or two apartments. The city has the tallest mud buildings in the world, with some of them over 30 meters (100 feet) high. During the 19th century tenements became the predominant type of new housing in Scotland's industrial cities, although they were very common in the Old Town in Edinburgh from the 15th century where they reached ten or eleven storeys high and in one case fourteen storeys. Built of sandstone or granite, Scottish tenements are usually three to five storeys in height, with two to four flats on each floor. In 1839, the first New York City tenement was built, housing mainly poor immigrants. The Dakota (1884) was one of the first luxury apartment buildings in New York City. The majority, however, remained tenements. Some significant developments in architectural design of apartment buildings came out of the 1950s and 60s.Apartments were popular in Canada, particularly in urban centres like Vancouver, Toronto and Montreal in the 1950s to 1970s. By the 1980s, many multi-unit buildings were being constructed as condominiums instead of apartments, and both are now very common. Specifically in Toronto, high-rise apartments and condominiums have been spread around the city, giving almost every major suburb a skyline The earliest apartment buildings were in the major cities of Sydney and Melbourne as the response to fast rising land values. Melbourne Mansions on Collins Street, Melbourne (now demolished), built in 1906 for mostly wealthy residents is believed by many to be the earliest.

NEED OF APARTMENTS

Scarcity of land. Higher land value Inconveniency of services like water supply in individual level Inconveniency of construction work in individual level. security and privacy Increase in population migration to city trend of parent-child unit eliminating the extended family concept

CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH RISE APARTMENTS


Two entrances/exits, front and back Laundry, water, heating, telephone, cable, electricity facilities common, parking, air conditioner, extra storage, garbage disposed in trash containers, provision of fire escape and lifts because of the no. of stories Space must be simple and universal for variety of lifestyles Balconies for asthetic purpose , visual extention of living space, outdoor sitting area, green area, extra storage space.

AMENITIES & SERVICES:


PUBLIC FACILITIES:
WATER SUPPLY LAUNDRY AND DRIER ELECTRICITY SURFACE DRAINGE GARBAGE AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM PEDESTRIAN AND VEHICULAR LANE COMMUNITY FACILITIES: TELECOMMUNICATION

PARK AND PLAYGROUND MULTIPURPOSE HALL SECURITY HEALTHCARE & RECREATIONAL SPA

COMMERCIAL FACILITIES:
MARKET & STORES BANK ENTERTAINMENT SECTOR

FACTORS AFFECTING HIGH RISE APARTMENTS:


Land topography: slope economics Available materials/ technology: steel structure Skilled manpower Market situation: people to buy, available land

SITE CONSIDERATION
Site Characteristics
Physical characteristics of a site may impose limitations on a building program ; therefore an early analysis of site data and condition should be undertaken by the architect in order to ascertain and evaluate such limitations .Borings and samples taken at the site wil provide information regarding location and extent of rock, bearing capacity of the subsurface strata at various levels, and the level of a water table .A survey indicating boundaries, contours,or spot elevations is necessary and, in the case of difficult sites, such a survey may indicate terrain and other conditions which will strongly influence design decisions . Limitations imposed by difficult terrain-in addition to those imposed by local laws or ordinances may limit such items as location of driveways and parking entrances .

Building Orientation
Building orientation may be influenced by a number of factors such as site, view (desirable or undesirable), sun, and prevailing winds .Closely interrelated to building orientation is the question of internal circulation and floorlayout of the building . Figure 8 indicates how different layouts lend themselves to solutions of site problems .

Floor Shape and Size


The shape and size of an apartment building can have significant influence on the cost and consequently the feasibility of a project . The shape of the repetitive typical floors influences the cost of constructing and enclosingthe floors . For purposes of economy and efficiency, building shape should be such that expensive exterior walls are minie,ired inratio to area enclosed and that breaks and direction changes in the perimeter are minimized. Area of a typical floor may affect costs . For example, pouring of a typical tier in a castin-place concrete building is a continuous process and requires a full concrete crew throughout . The area of a typical floor or part thereof should be such as to efficiently utilizethe day's productivity of a concrete crew. Similaranalysis and considerations should be appliedto other building techniques or systems.

Building Height
The cost of a building may be affected by building height . A building may be of such height that it exceeds prevailing capacities in terms of available construction equipment and contractor experience . In addition to considerations of what is possible, there are considerations of what is practical and efficient from a cost standpoint . Of the various mechanical systems which serve an apartment building, each has various increments and "stepup" points . For example, there is a situation such that the addition of a single extra floor could require a substantial increase in elevator service either through an additional elevator or an expensive increase in elevator speed. Similar situations exist for heating, cooling, plumbing, and ventilating systems, and opinions of the various consultants in these areas should be solicited .

Length and Width


Additional costs resulting from an increase of building length or width are generally proportionate to increase in area, However, as with other such items, there are step-up points at which there are disproportionately large increases in cost for slight dimensional increases.

DESIGN AND PLANNING PRINCIPLE


In very general terms the criteria for planning housing accommodations for the age 1 . Smell size and compactness for conclose venience and economy 2. Fireproof construction planned for maximum safety. 3. Minimizing of the problems and effort of housekeeping and daily activities 4. "Livability," pleasantness, and the effact of spaciousness. 5. A high degree of privacy 6. Careful avoidance of an institutional look . Other criteria affecting the different functional areas of the dwelling are discussed briefly in the following paragraphs . Many states have established official standards dealing with minimum areas, design features, etc., for housing for the aged. Before proceeding with specific designs, such local standards, if any, should be consulted.

Sleeping Areas
A separate bedroom is necessary for two-person occupancy, but a sleeping alcove or a combined living-sleeping arrangement is often satisfactory for single persons. The separate bedroom should always be large enough to accommodate twin beds, and it isA combined livingsleeping arrangement is the most economical in terms of space but has the disadvantages of lack of privacy and a tendency to be untidy . The sleeping alcove is a generally satisfactory compromise, since it offers almost the same economy as the combined arrangement but without its

drawbacks . The alcove should be large enough to accommodate all the essential items of any sleeping area -bed, night table, storage chest, closet, and chair-and it should be possible to close off this area from the living area if desired. There should always be an operable window in the alcove for light and ventilation.