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The pronoun

Pronouns replace nouns or rather noun phrases, since they cannot generally occur with determiners or attributive adjectives. Main differences between pronouns and nouns: Pronouns constitute a closed system Case contrast: There are differences among the three cases (subjectivegenitive-objective) Person distinction: 1st, 2nd and 3rd person. There is no difference between singular and plural number in the 2nd person, except for reflective pronouns (yourself-yourselves) Gender: distinction in the 3rd person (he-she-it). Also Relative Pronouns manifest a distinction between personal (who-whom) and non-personal (which) Number: the number system of pronouns is different from that of nouns. Classification Central: Personal: I, me, you, etc Reflexive: myself, ourselves, etc Possessive: my/mine, our/ours, etc Relative: Wh series, that, zero Interrogative: wh series Demonstrative: this/these, that/those Indefinite: Positive: Universal: each, all and the every series (everybody) Assertive: multal group (many, much), paucal group (few, little), one, several/enough and the some series. Non-Assertive: any series (anybody) and either Negative: The no series (nobody) and neither

Interesting tips: First and second person are said to have relative value because of the role of the speaker. These are called deitic pronouns

The editorial we. A writer may not be writing for himself but for the whole board of management of the paper. In the same way royal we (aguante Clau!) We replaces you, which is felt to be too authorative. Us has almost obligatory contraction in Lets but not were let means permit In colloquial English We is sometimes used for me, especially after an imperative: Lets have a look (let me have a look) Both subjective and objective case can be used as predicative complement: It was him, it was he who came. However there are some vacillation in certain cases: Nobody but him can make it- nobody except he- he is more intelligent that she- as intelligent as her. This reason for this vacillation is that than and as can be analyzed either as prepositions which require the objective forms One may refer to an animal as She or he even when one knows nothing about the sex of the particular animal. It may be used of human beings (baby, child) He or she may be said of a thing instead of it in order to show a certain kind of sympathy with or affection for a thing. The best known instance is she said of a ship or boat, train, cars, countries, cities and other abstract notions. Personal pronouns + premodifiers: poor me! Personal pronouns +post modifiers: All-both: preceding one word verbs (we all like it), following unstressed anomalous finite (they were both there). A noun Ph: I want you girls to do this. Emphatic sel-pronouns: The pronoun may be found directly after the head or separated from it by intervening words: He himself did it or he did it himself. The pronoun it: Anaphoric it: it refers to something previously mentioned. Anticipatory/cataphoric it: anticipating clauses Unspecified it: weather it, time it, idiomatic it. In impersonal statements: It says.. Emphatic it, with cleft sentences To identify someone unknown: who is it? It can stand for a whole sentence: You all saved my life. I shall never forget it. (this is not generally used with verbs like know, remember try, tell, forget) The pronoun so: so is similarly used to stand for an affirmative statement, especially after certain verbs (say, think, hope, believe, etc): Will I pass the exam? I think so. The pronoun they: The unspecified pronoun they may also be used without any reference to previously mentions persons: They said he drank himself to death. Self-pronouns The self pronouns are formed by adding self (plural selves) to the possessive adjectives of the first and second person.

Reflexive use: the person denoted by the subject and the person denoted by the object are identical (Im teaching my self Latin)