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August 2013

PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY TO ADVANCE THE SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND APPLICATION OF WELDING AND ALLIED JOINING AND CUTTING PROCESSES WORLDWIDE, INCLUDING BRAZING, SOLDERING, AND THERMAL SPRAYING

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CONTENTS
Features
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August 2013 Volume 92 Number 8

AWS Web site www.aws.org

Departments
Editorial ............................4 Washington Watchword ..........6 Press Time News ..................8 News of the Industry ............10 Aluminum Q&A ..................18 Brazing Q&A ......................20 Technology........................22 Product & Print Spotlight ......24 Coming Events....................54 Certification Schedule ..........60 Welding Workbook ..............62 Society News ....................65 Tech Topics ......................66 Errata D1.4:2011 ..............66 Interpretations A5.01, A5.26..66 Guide to AWS Services ........83 Personnel ........................84 Classifieds ........................91 Advertiser Index..................92

Shielding Gas Blends Suited for Different Metals Gas mixes for three different metals can improve their welding Amtrak Unveils Next Era of Locomotives Amtrak anticipates growth in public transportation with its order for 70 advanced technology electric locomotives NO-Doped Shielding Gases Benefit Stainless Steel Welding Nitric oxide-doped shielding gases features and benefits are explained J. Berkmanns International Trade Fair and IIW Set to Dazzle Next Month The largest gathering of welding-related companies in the world is gearing up to display their best products H. M. Woodward How to Get Paid for Jobs Youve Completed Welding fabricators offer tips on how to attack a recurring problem getting paid for your work in a timely manner D. Sadler

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Welding Research Supplement
225-s Microstructure and Wear Properties of Fe-2 wt-% Cr-X wt-% W-0.67 wt-% C Hardfacing Layer Hardfacing electrodes with different levels of tungsten were tested to determine which displayed the best hardness and wear resistance J. Yang et al. 231-s Shunting Effect in Resistance Spot Welding Steels Part 2: Theoretical Analysis An analytical model was developed to study the effects of weld spacing and welding parameters on shunting Y. B. Li et al. 239-s Three-Dimensional Simulation of Underwater Welding and Investigation of Effective Parameters Using heat transfer equations, thermal history curves and cooling time for a wet underwater weld were obtained P. Ghadimi et al.

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Welding Journal (ISSN 0043-2296) is published monthly by the American Welding Society for $120.00 per year in the United States and possessions, $160 per year in foreign countries: $7.50 per single issue for domestic AWS members and $10.00 per single issue for nonmembers and $14.00 single issue for international. American Welding Society is located at 8669 NW 36th St., # 130, Miami, FL 33166-6672; telephone (305) 443-9353. Periodicals postage paid in Miami, Fla., and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Welding Journal, 8669 NW 36th St., # 130, Miami, FL 33166-6672. Canada Post: Publications Mail Agreement #40612608 Canada Returns to be sent to Bleuchip International, P.O. Box 25542,London, ON N6C 6B2, Canada.
Readers of Welding Journal may make copies of articles for personal, archival, educational or research purposes, and which are not for sale or resale. Permission is granted to quote from articles, provided customary acknowledgment of authors and sources is made. Starred (*) items excluded from copyright.

On the cover: A welder performs gas tungsten arc welding on stainless steel. (Photo copyright of Linde Canada Limited.)

WELDING JOURNAL

EDITORIAL
Founded in 1919 to Advance the Science, Technology and Application of Welding

AWS An American Organization, with Global Reach


A recent Welding Journal editorial (see April 2013) by AWS Vice President Dave Landon looked at the role of strategic planning as a means of ensuring the continuing success of the Society. His message touched on the importance of international growth for AWS, as well as expanding influence in all countries that rely on welding. In our bid to be the worlds premier organization devoted to welding and allied joining and cutting processes, we need to be aware of technology needs worldwide, as well as locally. While AWS will continue to have a strong domestic focus, we also need to be an effective player in an increasingly global economy. To this end, it is worth noting that a good deal of our recent expansion is international. AWS membership in other countries has developed very rapidly, with international members growing about 25% over the past three years. Our total member base outside the United States now numbers nearly 14,000. It may surprise you to learn that our second-largest membership country is India, with 2928 members. The current location of AWS World Headquarters in Doral (Miami), Fla., suits this trend well. During its early years, following formation in 1919, AWS was headquartered in New York City. With board approval, AWS relocated to Miami some 40 years ago. We have often been asked, Why Miami?, but this move has proven to be an effective location for AWS, as it centralizes travel and business dealings with other parts of the world. As part of its growing presence in other countries, AWS is involved in many international welding exhibitions, including partnerships in foreign shows that serve American exhibitors. For example, AWS will be hosting a USA Exhibitor Pavilion at the quadrennial Essen Welding Fair (Schweissen & Schneiden) in Germany this September, the worlds largest show devoted exclusively to welding technologies (see story on page 46). AWS also sponsors a USA Pavilion at the Beijing Essen Welding and Cutting Fair held each year in China. We are represented at the Japan International Welding and Cutting Show and the Brazil Welding Show, and we were present for the first time this year at the Weld Arabia show in Dubai. AWS Weldmex, held annually in Mexico, has grown each year since we acquired that show. Our U.S. FABTECH partners have contributed to this success by holding FABTECH Mexico and Metalform Mexico at the same time and place. These co-located shows have experienced strong and growing support from the Latin American market. AWS will undertake an important new show venture in 2014 when it brings FABTECH India into a partnership with the existing Weld India show in New Delhi, in cooperation with the Indian Institute of Welding. Further, we recently commissioned P. K. Das as a special contract representative for AWS interests in India and the Middle East. Our publishing activities are also growing outside the United States. Since 2007, each issue of the Indian Welding Journal has included an AWS Section with articles from our own Welding Journal, and we regularly exchange editorial materials with Modern Welding Technology, a magazine published in China. In addition, several AWS codes and standards have been translated into other languages, including publication of D1.1, Structural Welding Code Steel, in Mandarin for the Chinese market. To support our certification efforts internationally, we have more than doubled our number of international agents since 2007, and the number of certification exams conducted outside the U.S. has grown accordingly. We are also active in affairs of the International Institute of Welding, hosting the IIW Annual Assembly last year in Denver, but also participating each year in IIW Assemblies outside the United States. AWS staff and volunteers have served in many leadership roles on IIW Commissions and the IIW Board of Directors. In summary, AWS is keenly aware of the need to be represented globally as part of its overall development strategy. While we will continue to maintain a strong focus on the interests of our domestic members, we must also remain aware of the central role of welding technologies throughout the world. Ray Shook
AWS Executive Director

Officers
President Nancy C. Cole NCC Engineering Vice President Dean R. Wilson Well-Dean Enterprises Vice President David J. Landon Vermeer Mfg. Co. Vice President David L. McQuaid D. L. McQuaid and Associates, Inc. Treasurer Robert G. Pali J. P. Nissen Co. Executive Director Ray W. Shook American Welding Society

Directors
T. Anderson (At Large), ITW Global Welding Tech. Center U. Aschemeier (Dist. 7), Miami Diver J. R. Bray (Dist. 18), Affiliated Machinery, Inc. R. E. Brenner (Dist. 10), CnD Industries, Inc. G. Fairbanks (Dist. 9), Fairbanks Inspection & Testing Services T. A. Ferri (Dist. 1), Victor Technologies D. A. Flood (At Large), Tri Tool, Inc. S. A. Harris (Dist. 4), Altec Industries K. L. Johnson (Dist. 19), Vigor Shipyards J. Jones (Dist. 17), The Harris Products Group W. A. Komlos (Dist. 20), ArcTech, LLC T. J. Lienert (At Large), Los Alamos National Laboratory J. Livesay (Dist. 8), Tennessee Technology Center M. J. Lucas Jr. (At Large), Belcan Engineering D. E. Lynnes (Dist. 15), Lynnes Welding Training C. Matricardi (Dist. 5), Welding Solutions, Inc. J. L. Mendoza (Past President), Lone Star Welding S. P. Moran (At Large), Weir American Hydro K. A. Phy (Dist. 6), KA Phy Services, Inc. W. A. Rice (Past President), OKI Bering R. L. Richwine (Dist. 14), Ivy Tech State College D. J. Roland (Dist. 12), Marinette Marine Corp. N. Saminich (Dist. 21), NS Inspection and Consulting K. E. Shatell (Dist. 22), Pacific Gas & Electric Co. T. A. Siewert (At Large), NIST (ret.) H. W. Thompson (Dist. 2), Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. R. P. Wilcox (Dist. 11), ACH Co. J. A. Willard (Dist. 13), Kankakee Community College M. R. Wiswesser (Dist. 3), Welder Training & Testing Institute D. Wright (Dist. 16), Zephyr Products, Inc.

AUGUST 2013

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WASHINGTON WATCHWORD

BY HUGH K. WEBSTER AWS WASHINGTON GOVERNMENT AFFAIRS OFFICE

National Manufacturing Strategy Legislation Reintroduced


The American Manufacturing Competitiveness Act of 2013 (H.R. 2447) has been introduced in the House, and a companion Senate bill is expected soon. The legislation is intended to bring together the private and public sectors, to develop recommendations, to revitalize American manufacturing, and create good-paying, middle-class jobs here at home, according to its main sponsor, Rep. Lipinski (D-Illinois). An earlier version of this legislation actually passed in the House in 2012 by a significant margin but died in the Senate. In fact, this same legislation was originally introduced in 2011 under a different name, The National Manufacturing Strategy Act. It was thought that the new name, especially one that incorporates the word competitiveness, would attract more support, which apparently has been the case. Like its predecessors, this legislation would require the federal government to develop and update every 4 years a strategic plan to improve government coordination and provide longterm guidance for federal programs and activities in support of United States manufacturing competitiveness, including advanced manufacturing, research, and development. The goals of the strategic plan would be to: P romote growth, including job creation, sustainability, and competitiveness in the United States manufacturing sector. Support the development of a skilled manufacturing workforce. Enable innovation and investment in domestic manufacturing. Support national security.

importers of products that can be used without a license, such as welding rods that contain thorium, will now need to apply to the NRC for specific licenses to distribute these products. Such licenses will impose new requirements for labeling (including safe handling instructions along with the distributed product), quality control, reporting, and record keeping. While the NRC recognizes that the use of source in welding rods is becoming less likely, and typical exposures to users is likely less than previously estimated, nevertheless, exposures can be [further] limited by a user who is properly informed concerning the inherent risks of exposures and methods for reducing exposure. For source material being processed or in a dispersible form, such as liquid or powder, the limit on the use or transfer at any one time without a license is decreasing from 15 to 3.3 lb; the annual limit will drop from 150 to 15.4 lb. Limits are not changing for anyone possessing source material in a solid, nondispersible form. This final rule becomes effective August 27, 2013.

Bill Designed to Reduce Paperwork Burden


The Burdensome Data Collection Relief Act (H.R. 1135), which has been approved by the House Financial Services Committee, would repeal the section of the Dodd-Frank Act that requires publicly held companies to disclose in every public filing the ratio between the CEOs pay and the total median compensation for all other employees. The concern is that this requirement, which is broadly considered to be unworkable and unnecessary, has been interpreted as requiring all public companies to determine the compensation of all of its employees around the world, calculate the median annual compensation, and include this information in every filing. The time and effort required to develop and monitor these statistics could be extensive. However, supporters of the requirement believe that it gives investors important information.

Administration Issues Report on IP Enforcement


The White House has issued its 2013 Joint Strategic Plan on intellectual property (IP) enforcement. The primary purpose of the plan is to set forth how the federal government can best provide the legal, regulatory, and policy environment appropriate to protect and advance intellectual property in the United States.. Among the concerns addressed in the report are The continued significant risk to the U.S. economy posed by IP infringement, especially overseas. Abusive patent practices, such as patent trolls. Efforts by foreign governments to condition market access, the ability to do business on the transfer of trade secrets, or proprietary information. The report also observes that 3D printing has the capacity to revolutionize manufacturing and research and development capabilities [largely] by reducing traditional barriers such as production, labor, and shipping costs.

Federal Estate Tax Once Again Proposed for Repeal


Each year, there is an effort in Congress to eliminate the federal estate tax (commonly referred to by its detractors as the Death Tax), and 2013 is no exception, with introduction of the Death Tax Repeal Act of 2013 (S. 1183, H.R. 2429). This bill would repeal the estate and generation skipping transfer taxes and tax lifetime gifts at a top rate of 35%. This legislation is seen as potentially beneficial in particular to small- and medium-sized companies, including manufacturers that are family-owned.

NRC Issues Final Uranium and Thorium Rules


The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has amended its regulations to require that the initial distribution of source material (i.e., uranium and thorium) be explicitly authorized by a specific license. The result will be that manufacturers and 6 AUGUST 2013
Contact the AWS Washington Government Affairs Office at 1747 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20006; e-mail hwebster@wc-b.com; FAX (202) 835-0243.

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PRESS TIME NEWS


EWI Commits to National Accelerated Welder Training
EWI, Columbus, Ohio, is launching a program to train 25,000 welders in the United States over the next three years. The Clinton Global Initiative Commitment to Action, finalized on June 14 at the Clinton Global Initiative America Manufacturing Working Group meeting in Chicago, Ill., is aimed at helping the shortage of skilled replacement workers facing American companies as the economy improves. EWI and its affiliate, RealWeld Systems, Inc., are set to introduce welder training and credentialing advancements that will set a future standard. Utilizing the RealWeld Trainer, a motion-capture system that tracks and measures a welders technique during live welding, they will develop badge credentials for industry-specific welding procedures based on the Mozilla Open Badges standard. These can be incorporated into an existing welding instruction curriculum. The American Welding Society, Weld-Ed, and The Manufacturing Institute have joined the endeavor to help develop training standards and define a certification system. Once in place, the program will be implemented through a network of 200 community colleges, career centers, and training sites.
Publisher Andrew Cullison Editorial Editorial Director Andrew Cullison Editor Mary Ruth Johnsen Associate Editor Howard M. Woodward Associate Editor Kristin Campbell Editorial Asst./Peer Review Coordinator Melissa Gomez Publisher Emeritus Jeff Weber Design and Production Production Manager Zaida Chavez Senior Production Coordinator Brenda Flores Manager of International Periodicals and Electronic Media Carlos Guzman Advertising National Sales Director Rob Saltzstein Advertising Sales Representative Lea Paneca Advertising Sales Representative Sandra Jorgensen Senior Advertising Production Manager Frank Wilson Subscriptions Subscriptions Representative Tabetha Moore tmoore@aws.org American Welding Society 8669 NW 36 St., # 130, Miami, FL 33166-6672 (305) 443-9353 or (800) 443-9353 Publications, Expositions, Marketing Committee D. L. Doench, Chair Hobart Brothers Co. S. Bartholomew, Vice Chair ESAB Welding & Cutting Prod. J. D. Weber, Secretary American Welding Society D. Brown, Weiler Brush T. Coco, Victor Technologies International L. Davis, ORS Nasco D. DeCorte, RoMan Mfg. J. R. Franklin, Sellstrom Mfg. Co. F. H. Kasnick, Praxair D. Levin, Airgas E. C. Lipphardt, Consultant R. Madden, Hypertherm D. Marquard, IBEDA Superflash J. F. Saenger Jr., Consultant S. Smith, Weld-Aid Products D. Wilson, Well-Dean Enterprises N. C. Cole, Ex Off., NCC Engineering J. N. DuPont, Ex Off., Lehigh University L. G. Kvidahl, Ex Off., Northrup Grumman Ship Systems D. J. Landon, Ex Off., Vermeer Mfg. S. P. Moran, Ex Off., Weir American Hydro E. Norman, Ex Off., Southwest Area Career Center R. G. Pali, Ex Off., J. P. Nissen Co. N. Scotchmer, Ex Off., Huys Industries R. W. Shook, Ex Off., American Welding Society
Copyright 2013 by American Welding Society in both printed and electronic formats. The Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed herein. Data and information developed by the authors of specific articles are for informational purposes only and are not intended for use without independent, substantiating investigation on the part of potential users.

WPI, GM Global Powertrain Engineering Receive Patent


The Center for Heat Treating Excellence at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI), Worcester, Mass., and one of its members, GM Global Powertrain Engineering, have been awarded U.S. Patent No. 8437991, Systems and Methods for Predicting Heat Transfer Coefficients during Quenching. It will help make cast parts more durable. The inventors are Qigui Wang, PhD, GM Powertrain; Bowang Xiao, PhD, GM Powertrain; Gang Wang, PhD, associate professor at Tsinghua University in China (formerly a research scientist at WPI); Richard D. Sisson, PhD, George F. Fuller Professor of Mechanical Engineering at WPI and director of WPIs Materials Science and Engineering Program; and Kevin Rong, PhD, professor of mechanical engineering at WPI.

Projects Break Ground to Improve Railroad Safety


The U.S. Department of Transportations Federal Railroad Administration recently revealed the North Carolina Department of Transportation has started constructing rail safety improvement projects along the North Carolina Railroads Piedmont Corridor between Raleigh and Charlotte. These projects are part of the Piedmont Improvement Program, supported by a $520 million American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 grant. They will enhance safety for train travelers, motorists, and pedestrians while laying the foundation for a higher-performing freight and passenger rail network. In addition, new grade separations such as road or rail overpasses or underpasses, and highway-rail grade crossing closures and enhancements, will enable trains on the Piedmont Corridor to travel faster plus help communities benefit from reduced roadway congestion and improved safety at crossings.

Trident Technical College to Celebrate 50th Anniversary, Seeks Stories from Former Students
Next year marks the 50th anniversary for Trident Technical College (TTC), North Charleston, S.C. Welding has been one of the colleges core programs since 1964. To celebrate, it would like alumni and former students to share their stories, including what they have been up to and how TTC changed their lives. College history, memories from the TTC family, photos, business and community partnerships, and more will be highlighted. Sign up at www.tridenttech.edu/alumni.htm or e-mail alumni@ tridenttech.edu.

AWS Mailing Address Changed


All mail for the American Welding Society (AWS) world headquarters should be sent to 8669 NW 36 St., # 130, Miami, FL 33166-6672. Beginning this month, the USPS will stop forwarding mail addressed to the former LeJeune Rd. location.

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NEWS OF THE INDUSTRY

Friction Stir Welding Tools Will Help Build the Worlds Largest Rocket
Engineers at NASAs Michoud Assembly Facility, New Orleans, La., are installing large tools to weld pieces of the core stage for the Space Launch System (SLS). This new, heavy-lift rocket will send humans to deep-space destinations, including an asteroid and Mars. One of the challenges that we face in building this large core stage is to develop world-class tooling using modern manufacturing methods in an affordable way, while maintaining the scheduled first launch in 2017, said Tony Lavoie, manager of the Stages Office at NASAs Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala. Six welding tools will be used to handle assembly of the new cryogenic core stage on SLS. Suppliers worked with NASA and The Boeing Co. of Huntsville over the course of a year to design and build the tools. The circumferential dome weld tool will be used to perform circumferential friction stir welds in producing dome assemblies for the SLS core stage cryogenic tanks. The gore weld tool will perform vertical conventional friction stir welds in producing gore assemblies for the SLS core stage tanks. In addition, the circumferential dome weld and gore weld tools are for the enhanced ro- This artist illustration features the vertical weld center, a fricbotic weld tool used to make dome components for SLS. The ver- tion-stir-weld tool for wet and dry structures on the Space Launch tical weld center, a friction-stir-weld tool for wet and dry struc- System core stage. (Image courtesy of NASA/MAF.) tures on the SLS core stage, will weld barrel panels to produce whole barrels for the two pressurized tanks, intertank, forward skirt, and aft engine section; it stands about three stories tall and weighs 150 tons. The segmented ring tool will use a friction-stir-weld process to produce segmented support rings for the SLS core stage. Also, the vertical assembly center 170 ft tall and 78 ft wide will join domes, rings, and barrels to complete tanks or dry structure assemblies. The tool will perform nondestructive examination on the completed welds. It is anticipated to be completed in 2014. Were already welding on the new tooling and are gathering information well need to start production welding, said Rick Navarro, Boeing operations manager at Michoud. That old saying, measure twice, cut once, applies in spades when youre building a 5.5-million-pound rocket. We do a lot of testing, validating, and what we call qualifying welds that ensure we have all the information we need to build with 100% quality assurance.

Weld.com Launches Forum


Weld.com, Pittsburgh, Pa., recently added the Weekend Warriors Forum to its site. One of the features launched with this is the Monthly Welders Contest where participants can compete for prizes. Currently, the forum is running a contest challenging users to submit their best welding cart design. The one receiving the most likes at the end of the summer (Labor Day) wins. Heres the award: Weld.com will be launching a new gas metal arc welding video series where in the first episode, it will be building this cart, and when complete, the finished product will be shipped to whoever submitted the design. To enter, visit the sites forum, create a username, design your cart, and post it.

Flame Tech Supports Welding Career Day


Flame Technologies Inc., Cedar Park, Tex., recently sponsored a Cut and Drop contest at Austin Community Colleges annual Applied Technologies Open House. Students demonstrated their knowledge on operating a cutting torch and showed off their 10 AUGUST 2013 Colten Caroselli (left), a Luling High School student pursuing a welding career, is shown with Dean Bridges, district sales manager at Flame Technologies. As 1st-place winner, he received a cutting kit sponsored by the company as part of a Cut and Drop contest.
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skill levels cutting through a -in. metal plate while being timed. The top three contestants received product prizes from Flame Techs Dean Bridges, district sales manager, and Phil Montez, sales/marketing specialist. Fifty-three participants competed in the event. Also, the company and other manufacturers spoke to students about career options and equipment choices.

Greenbrier Presents New Auto-Carrying Railcar with Patented Adjustable Deck

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A Greenbrier welder at the companys new Concarril Mexico facility (Plant #2) finishes a side sheet weld using flux cored arc welding on a covered hopper railcar, which will be used to transport frac sand for horizontal drilling.

Shown at the unveiling for the Multi-Max auto-carrying railcar are customers and Greenbriers commercial team members. The Greenbrier Companies, Inc., Lake Oswego, Ore., have revealed Multi-Max, an automobile-carrying railcar featuring a patented adjustable deck, that allows it to be used for bi- and tri-level service. Complete deck adjustments can be made in about five hours without removing the deck. The sealed end door deFor info go to www.aws.org/ad-index

WELDING JOURNAL

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ters theft and vandalism, offering security for vehicle protection over long-distance hauls. Enhanced door edges provide smooth cargo loading, reducing the risk of damage during transit. The railcar was developed with input from Class I railroads and vehicle manufacturers. Greenbrier took the lead with several railroads to capture ideas, design those concepts, and now build a railcar that meets our needs today and tomorrow, said Paddy ONeill, senior director equipment planning at Norfolk Southern Corp. Railroads carry approximately 70% of all new vehicles manufactured in North America. Over the next three years, independent industry forecasts project that deliveries of vehicle-carrying railcars will exceed 10,000 units in North America. Mexico recently surpassed Japan as the largest exporter of light vehicles to the United States and is forecast to increase its share of North American light vehicle production over the next decade. This shift will further support growth in automobile rail loadings with rail as the preferred transportation method for light vehicles manufactured in Mexico. Greenbriers vehicle-carrying railcar products, including Multi-Max, are manufactured in Mexico as well.

SGS, acting as client representatives on integrity digs, will be performing on-site inspections in Wisconsin. Mandatory regular monitoring and inspection programs redflag pipeline features requiring visual inspection to determine the need for repair or other action. Integrity digs involve excavating a section of buried pipe for cleaning and examination. Defects are repaired, the pipe recoated, and reburied. In some cases, old pipe sections are cut and replaced with new welded pipe.

GE and Manufacturing Institute Expand Skills Training Program for U.S. Veterans
GE, with the Manufacturing Institute and National Association of Manufacturers, recently announced 190 new manufacturers have joined the Get Skills to Work coalition. The companies will receive access to online resources for helping connect with veterans who possess skills important to manufacturers. These include LinkedIn and the US Manufacturing Pipeline, which showcases digital Military Manufacturing Badges for veterans with experience in welding and other high-demand occupations. In addition, the coalition announced an extra 1000 training slots for veterans at TechShop, a membership-based do-it-yourself workshop and prototyping studio. The Department of Veterans Affairs Center for Innovation has linked its partnership with TechShop by joining the coalition as well.

SGS Receives Contract to Provide Nondestructive Examination


On May 27, SGS received a contract to provide nondestructive examination (NDE) and certified welding inspections for an energy delivery provider in North America. This partner also operates the worlds longest crude oil and liquids transportation system. According to the agreement, scheduled to run June 1 until August 1 of this year, five Certified Welding Inspectors from

Stanco Celebrates 25th Anniversary


Stanco Manufacturing, Inc., Atlanta, Tex., a manufacturer of personal protective equipment, turned 25 years old on April 12.

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AUGUST 2013

Dean Wilson (left), AWS president-elect, presented an appreciation certificate to Edward R. Stanley, founder of Stanco Manufacturing, in honor of the companys 25th anniversary. The event, celebrated with a luncheon at its manufacturing facility, included distinguished guests, retirees/current employees, friends, industry associates, and local officials. Edward R. Stanley, who started the business in 1988 and is current president/COO, was honored with a presentation by Dean Wilson, Well-Dean Enterprises and American Welding Society (AWS) president-elect. Craig Loos, ORS Nasco, spoke of his companys association with Stanco from day one, being its first customer, and building a cohesive relationship.
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WELDING JOURNAL

15

ExxonMobil Commits $500,000 to Workforce Training


ExxonMobil will fund a $500,000 workforce training program for enabling Houstons community colleges to prepare thousands of local residents for high-paying jobs in the local chemical manufacturing industry. The initiative, building on the Lee College ExxonMobil Process Technology Program, will benefit 50,000 students and educators over the next five years. Lee College will work with Houston Community College, Lone Star College, San Jacinto Junior College, Alvin Community College, Wharton County Junior College, Brazosport College, Galveston College, and College of the Mainland. The purpose is to train students seeking certification or degree completion programs for welding, pipefitting, instrumentation, electrical, machinist/millwright, and other skills. There are also plans to include area high schools.

ABB Robotics hosted more than 1000 people during its annual
Technology Day held May 15 at the companys U.S. headquarters and training center in Auburn Hills, Mich. The 55,000-sqft exhibit floor included more than 40 live robot-related demos and 45 small-group, topic-specific seminars.

L.B. Foster Co., Pittsburgh, Pa., has completed delivering approximately 2600 tons of 36-in.-diameter steel pipe to Balfour Beatty Infrastructure, Inc., for use as lateral shoring struts in excavating San Franciscos new Transbay Transit Center.

SME, Dearborn, Mich., is integrating events, publishing, membership, the Tooling U-SME online training division, and SME Education Foundation around a mission to inspire, prepare, and support its stakeholders in advancing manufacturing. It will also refer to itself by its monogram and has a new logo.

First Coast Technical College, an AWS member, recently announced the applied welding technology program is returning to its main campus in St. Augustine, Fla., with classes scheduled to begin August 19 for adults and high school students.

Industry Notes
Through the Boy Scouts of America (BSA), 4422 Welding Merit
Badges were earned from March to December 2012. According to BSA, this number is huge because it was achieved during the first 10 months of the badges launch. It also expects the number of welding badges distributed this year to double based on Jamboree exposure and work being done with Lincoln Electric.

Quality Steel Corp., Cleveland, Ohio, an ASME propane tank


manufacturer, has acquired American Welding and Tank with facilities in Fremont, Ohio, and West Jordan, Utah, from Taylor-Wharton International.

Laboratory Testing Inc., Hatfield, Pa., has expanded services


for X-ray inspection. Its Nondestructive Testing Dept. now per continued on page 88

16

AUGUST 2013

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/ The VR 5000 Case feeder is compact, sturdy and portable making it ideal for welding on rail vehicle construction. Its light weight (22 pounds) and comes with a Bayonet connector which protects it from strain when pulling on the hosepack (up to 225 feet). Synergic and manual, water or gas-cooled models. To see the VR5000 Case feeder in action visit www.youtube.com/FroniusWelding and search VR 5000. To learn more visit www.fronius-usa.com

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ALUMINUM Q&A
Q: I have been attempting to qualify a
complete joint penetration groove weld, welding procedure, with 38-in.-thick 6061T6 base material and 5356 filler metal. I employ a very good welder, experienced with gas metal arc welding aluminum, who cleans the aluminum plates thoroughly before welding. We find our welds to have very low porosity levels and no signs of any other significant discontinuities. The two root bends and two face bends subjected to the guided bend test are passing with no problems. However, the welds are failing to pass the reduced section transverse tension tests. For this particular aluminum base material, the welding code requires that we obtain a minimum tensile strength value of 24 ksi. We are consistently obtaining values below this, and the test samples are failing in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). Someone suggested that we need to use a higher preheat temperature, so we increased it from 300 to 400F. This has not helped the situation. Can you please explain why a weld that appears to be completely sound and can pass both root and face bends does not provide the minimum tensile strength requirements of the code?

BY TONY ANDERSON

Fig. 1 This chart shows the effect of varying heat inputs on the tensile strength of 6061T6. As can be seen, as the heat input is increased, the tensile strength of the base material decreases. The 5083 base material has been added to show how the 5xxx series, nonheattreatable alloys are far less affected by the heat of the welding operation. have on more than one occasion found incorrect testing procedures to be the cause of illogical test results. If the mechanical testing was performed by a reputable testing facility, it would be extremely unlikely that this is your problem. in the HAZ, and you increased the preheat temperature from 300 to 400F. These two statements strongly suggest that the reason for your weld test failures is associated with overheating the base material during the welding operation.

A: There are three items I would suggest


you consider as being a possible reason for this unfortunate situation. I will start with the most unlikely possibility and conclude with the one I think most probable.

Overheating the Base Material The Correct Base Material


Check material certification to ensure that you are actually using a 6061-T6 base material. I was once informed of a similar situation where the material being used for test plates was identified as a lower-strength 6xxx series alloy. Aluminum-base Alloy 6063, for instance, has a lower tensile strength than 6061 and is only required to provide 17 ksi when transverse tension tested. This situation may be unlikely, but if both materials are being used in the same facility and somehow they have been substituted, it may be your problem. Considering all the information you have provided, I strongly suspect that overheating is the most probable reason that you are not passing the tension tests. You state that you are using 5356 to weld 6061-T6; this is very acceptable and should in no way contribute to your problem. You also say that you have a good welder who cleans the plates thoroughly before welding, and this would support your claim that you have low porosity welds with minimum discontinuities that can pass both root and face bend tests. I strongly suspect that you have a good welder and a very good weld, which has more than adequate strength to pass the tension tests. Therefore, I would expect to find the reason for the weld test failures to be more closely associated with the condition of the base metal HAZ rather than the weld. I believe your problem is associated with some of the other facts that you report. You say that the weld failures occur

How Does Overheating the Base Material Affect the Strength of the Welded Joint?
The minimum tensile strengths prescribed by the welding code for the heattreatable aluminum base alloys, such as 6061-T6, are derived from their overaged and partially annealed condition. Heat-treatable alloys are strengthened to their T6 temper condition through a thermal process called precipitation hardening. The precipitation hardened condition of the base metal, which provides the 6061-T6 its minimum tensile strength of 42 ksi, is significantly affected during the welding process. A narrow band of base metal, immediately adjacent to the weld known as the HAZ, is heated to a temperature that is conducive to a metallurgical change in the base material. Compounds, in this case magnesium silicide, are precipitated out of solution in a process called overaging; this process will reduce the tensile strength in the HAZ. A reasonable amount of strength re-

Testing Procedures Used


Check to ensure that the transverse tension tests have been conducted in accordance with the testing requirements specified by your code, the samples tested were prepared correctly, and the test results are based on sound calculations. I

18

AUGUST 2013

duction for this base metal, welded in the T6 temper, has been established as being reductions to no lower than 24 ksi after welding. This 24 ksi minimum is only obtainable if attention is paid to controlling the heat input during welding and avoiding the introduction of excessive amounts of heat for prolonged periods. In theory, if when welding the temperature was sufficiently high and maintained for a long enough period, we could reduce the strength of the weld HAZ of 6061-T6 to its annealed condition, which is around 18 ksi. The reason why we dont typically reach the annealed condition is because the time required to fully anneal the alloy (many hours) is generally much longer than the time required when making a weld. This being said, it must still be realized that the higher the heat during welding, the greater the strength lowering reversal, and that any method that can be used to lower the overall heat exposure in the HAZ will result in improved transverse tensile strength of the welded joint Fig. 1.

has cooled to 150F, or even to room temperature. Third, avoid slow travel speeds; welding aluminum hot and fast is the preferred method of choice, using high power density (the upper end of the recommended range of both amps and volts) and a relatively fast travel speed (favorable to good fusion and acceptable weld profile). Using these techniques to produce stringer beads will provide the following two advantages: help to lower heat input, which in turn should improve tensile strength help to avoid incomplete fusion problems, which can occur when welding at slower speeds that may allow excess molten aluminum filler metal to flow onto the high thermally conductive base plate and not completely fuse.

base metal HAZ during the welding process. The arc welding process has the potential to overheat these types of base metals to an extent that their tensile strength can drop to below the minimum prescribed by the code. To consistently pass tension tests, it is necessary to institute procedural controls that minimize heat input during welding. Welding aluminum hot and fast is the generally accepted method of creating a stronger welded joint and reducing the potential for incomplete fusion.

Summary
If a weld made in an aluminum heattreatable alloy meets the requirements for guided bend testing, and gives the appearance of being relatively free of discontinuities, yet has insufficient tensile strength to pass transverse tension tests, the most obvious reason for its low strength would be overheating of the

Preheating
Preheating this type of material (heattreatable aluminum) is best avoided; there should be no necessity to preheat 3 8-in.-thick base material, other than to remove moisture, which is achievable at a temperature a little over 100F. The 300 and 400F preheating temperatures that you have been using are seriously excessive and for that matter, outside of the code requirements. The American Welding Societys D1.2, Structural Welding Code Aluminum, specifies the following under its requirements for preheat and interpass temperatures: When welding the heattreatable aluminum alloys or the 5000 series aluminum magnesium alloys containing more than 3% magnesium, the preheat and interpass temperature shall not exceed 250F. Holding time at this temperature shall not exceed 15 min.

TONY ANDERSON is director of aluminum technology, ITW Welding North America. He is a Fellow of the British Welding Institute (TWI), a Registered Chartered Engineer with the British Engineering Council, and holds numerous positions on AWS technical committees. He is chairman of the Aluminum Association Technical Advisory Committee for Welding and author of the book Welding Aluminum Questions and Answers currently available from the AWS. Questions may be sent to Mr. Anderson c/o Welding Journal, 8669 NW 36 St., # 130, Miami, FL 33166-6672, or via e-mail at tony.anderson@ millerwelds.com.

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Suggestions
Following are some suggestions on how you may improve your tension test results and hopefully qualify your welding procedures. First, remove the excessive preheat temperature; it should be perfectly acceptable to weld these test samples without any preheat. My suggestion would be to use a preheat temperature of 150F maximum, applied primarily to remove moisture immediately prior to welding. Second, carefully monitor your interpass temperature; do not continue welding a subsequent weld pass until the weld

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WELDING JOURNAL

19

BRAZING Q&A
Q: We need assistance to design and
manufacture a structure for cryogenic work that will be immersed in liquid nitrogen with the upper tubing staying at ambient temperature. The application of low-weight metals is very desirable but the bottom plate or cup should be made from copper as the metal with the best thermal conductivity. The cylinder can be made of aluminum, titanium, or magnesium alloys. As any combination of these metals with copper is not weldable, we have to join the cylinder, the bottom, and tubing by brazing or soldering. But we cannot find any data about the mechanical behavior of brazed joints of dissimilar metals at cryogenic thermal cycling. How should we select a filler metal or solder for this job? What would be the best material combinations to provide reliable work for at least 2000 hours?

BY ALEXANDER E. SHAPIRO

A: You are right, the properties of brazed joints subjected to low temperatures are not known for many base metal/filler metal combinations. Some data were published for brazed joints designed for use in nuclear industry applications, but the joining technique is definitely not suitable in your case. Therefore, I only can share with you some data obtained from my own experience (Ref. 1) Figs. 1, 2. As shown in Fig. 1, the first effect that you can face is shrinkage porosity in the brazed joints, especially at the interfaces between the base metal and the joint metal. The porosity results from thermal stresses appearing between two metals having slightly different coefficients of thermal expansion. The vacancies formed here during cycle-by-cycle of cryogenic treatment are accumulated to form tiny pores by coalescence. So, the first rule of designing joints projected for cryogenic thermal cycling is to use ductile metals that can release thermal stresses by their plasticity. The ductility of joint metal is more important here than shear or tensile strengths of the joints. Secondly, we can expect that microstructures of both base metal and filler metal will be changed due to quenching by deep and fast cooling in liquid nitrogen. And this really happens Fig. 2A, B. Microconstituents observed appear similar in these samples regard-

less of cryogenic cycle experienced, e.g., Fig. 2A reveals large needles, while in Fig. 2B small needle-like crystals appear. Consequently, the strength of brazed or soldered joints is changed, too. The needle-like microconstituent appears to be present in increased quantity in the sample that underwent one cycle of cryogenic cooling. Some improvement of joint strength can be expected resulting from the hardening effect of filler metal after cryogenic cooling. The tensile strength of soldered joints of aluminum cast Alloy A356 after cryogenic cooling reached 9.8 ksi (67.6 MPa), while joints as soldered failed practically immediately after loading, at <1 ksi (<6.9 MPa). The same effect significantly improves the strength of copper brazed joints made with standard silver filler metal BAg-24. Shear strength after brazing and one cycle of cryogenic cooling is 18.9 ksi (130.4 MPa), while after brazing only 14.1 ksi (97.3 MPa). Not only microstructure and mechanical behavior of the joint metal can be changed by cryogenic cooling but also structure and properties of the base material. Cryogenic treatment is well known to improve hardness and wear resistance of alloy steels. Cryogenic cooling may result in complete martensitic transformation or precipitation hardening, which was not completed in the steel as delivered by the manufacturer. The same effect causes an increase in the yield and/or tensile strength of aluminum or titanium alloys (Ref. 2). We found that ultimate tensile strength of aluminum cast Alloy A356 (Al-Si eutectic) grew, after cooling in liquid nitrogen, from 34 to 4244 ksi (235 to 290304 MPa), which is ~26% of improvement. The strength of cast magnesium Alloy AZ91C improved by ~9%: from 34 to 37.05 ksi (235 to 256 MPa). The strength of wrought titanium Grade 2 also went up after cryogenic treatment from 132.9 to 137.7 ksi (917 to 950 MPa). However, the increase of strength does not always occur. If the base metal was heat treated properly, then cryogenic cycling may not improve its mechanical properties. For example, the strength of cold-rolled precipitation-hardened aluminum A7075 bars did not change during such processing. Cold-rolled copper bars also almost

Fig. 1 Shrinkage porosity at the interface of copper and P81 brazing filler metal after cycling in liquid nitrogen.

Fig. 2 Fillet microstructure after soldering A356 aluminum cast alloy with Sn20Zn solder. A After soldering; B after one cycle of cryogenic cooling.

did not respond to cooling in liquid nitrogen (Refs. 1, 2). The increased strength of the base

20

AUGUST 2013

metal will definitely reflect strength of brazed or soldered joints. For example, brazed joints of titanium made with Al5Mg-0.4Fe filler metal exhibited improved strength ~11.6 ksi (80 MPa) after brazing plus cryogenic cooling vs. 9.9 ksi (68 MPa) immediately after brazing. Thirdly, very often, the brazing thermal cycle works as a tempering or even an annealing heat treatment of wrought base metals. For example, the brazing temperature of all aluminum alloys is in the range of 580610C (10761130F); but most heat treatment operations are carried out below 450C (840F). Titanium alloys are mostly brazed above the transus temperature; or sometimes, alloy steels are brazed above or close to the temperature of martensitic transformation but they are cooled after brazing in a furnace or in air losing hardness and strength. Deep quenching in liquid nitrogen can be used for recovering mechanical properties of base materials after brazing and this point should be taken into consideration when one selects materials for brazed structures. Summarizing the above factors, we can say that metallurgical compatibility of base and filler metals, as well as their possible structural transformations during deep cooling, are the most important points when designing brazed or soldered joints projected for operation in a cryogenic medium. Preliminary testing is necessary to find out the effect of cryogenic cycling on mechanical behavior and microstructure of base materials and brazed or soldered joints. For your application, I would recommend a titanium cylinder with the thread connection to the copper cup that can be sealed by brazing either with a silver filler metal like BAg-24 or with aluminum filler metal BAlSi-4. An alternative solution is soldering of thread connection of aluminum cylinder with the copper cup using Sn-9Zn or Sn-20Zn solders.

This column is written sequentially by TIM P. HIRTHE, ALEXANDER E. SHAPIRO, and DAN KAY. Hirthe and Shapiro are members of and Kay is an advisor to the C3 Committee on Brazing and Soldering. All three have contributed to the 5th edition of AWS Brazing Handbook. Hirthe (timhirthe@aol.com) currently serves as a BSMC vice chair and owns his own consulting business. Shapiro (ashapiro@titanium-brazing.com) is brazing products manager at Titanium Brazing, Inc., Columbus, Ohio. Kay (Dan@kaybrazing.com), with 40 years of experience in the industry, operates his own brazing training and consulting business. Readers are requested to post their questions for use in this column on the Brazing Forum section of the BSMC Web site www.brazingandsoldering.com.

References 1. Faith, C., Gould, E., McNeal, A., Alexandrov, B., and Shapiro, A. 2009. Evaluation of brazed and soldered joints after thermal cycling in liquid nitrogen. Proc. of 4th Int. Brazing and Soldering Conference. AWS, Orlando. pp. 176180. 2. Lulay, K. E., Khan, K., and Chaaya, D. 2002. The effect of cryogenic treatment on 7075 aluminum alloy. J. Materials Engineering and Performance 11(5): 479480.
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WELDING JOURNAL

21

TECHNOLOGY
BY BRAD MUTSCHLER AND DALE KEIL

Increasing Welding Efficiency in the Railcar Industry


With the demand to use rail freight on the rise over the past few years, it is important to keep up with demand for locomotives and other railcars to support the industries that need to ship their products, such as minerals, fuels, and hard goods, to customers, distributors, and distribution centers. Since 1980, rail freight shipments have grown nearly 500% with an expected 200% growth to come over the next 20 years. That growth, along with freight rail rates being near an all-time-record low, has many freight car manufacturing facilities gearing up to meet this increased demand for manufacturing a greater number of cars to be delivered per year. However, a limiting factor to how many tanker cars or boxcars can be delivered depends on how fast they can assemble and weld all of the integral structures. At many of the top rolling stock manufacturers in the United States and around the world today, welding professionals and engineers are faced with questions of how do we produce rail cars and locomotives faster and more efficiently? One key response is to control the labor costs and time most often associated with the welding and construction of these cars. Today, nearly all railcars are assembled and welded by hand, which is a slow, cost-ineffective process. Manual welding requires a relatively high level of training and skill. As skilled welders become more difficult to find, mechanized welding is an economical alternative that makes less-skilled welders more efficient in producing higher quality welds. Less welder skill and physical effort are required using mechanized welding solutions. When looking at typical welding deposition rates and operating factors, the benefits of mechanizing are not only well grounded, but indicate a relatively quicker return on investment on your equipment. Additionally, typical deposition rates for manual shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) are between 0.4 and 0.7 kg/h, while the semiautomatic hand-held gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process increases the rates to around 1.11.4 kg/h. If you have taken the steps necessary to upgrade your welders from SMAW to semiautomatic GMAW already, why not take it one step further and invest in mechanization to potentially double your deposition rates? Typical deposition rates after mechanizing can peak from 1.6 to 3.0 kg/h depending on your process selection. Typical operating factors increase as well from typically 4050%, to in excess of 70% for arc-on time. One way to take advantage of these mechanization gains is with a self-propelled welding tractor. Welders often work in close, tight-fitting quarters and need machines to not only fit where they have to weld, but that can also take the abuse of day-to-day industrial welding environments. An example of a welding tractor used in boxcar and tank car facilities is the KBUG-1200 from Bug-O Systems. This unit is a small, rugged welding machine. This type of machine removes the torch from the welders hand and offers precise procedure control and excellent repeatability to ensure consistent weld quality in each joint and from one joint to the next. The company also offers three other self-propelled tractors along with two types of rail-guided tractors. Of the three tractors offered, the features of each are dual torch configuration, all-position weave welding, and a slim-line model for tight spaces where horizontal clearance is an issue Fig. 1. These tractors feature a digital display of travel speed to give the operator real-time feedback while welding to be able to maximize control of the weld pool. In addition to a speed display, each machine is also capable of performing 22 AUGUST 2013

Fig. 1 A close-up view of a fillet weld being produced with a welding tractor. continuous or stitch welding in a programmed sequence along with programmed pool buildup and crater fill for the beginning and end of every weld. Since a tank car transports crude oil and other, often flammable, liquids, the integrity of its construction is critical and it is important to get the weld right the first time to eliminate costly repairs. One railcar manufacturer discovered that a car typically had between 40 and 60 pinhole-sized leaks per assembled section due to starts, stops, and inclusions in the welds. Every time there is a stop or start, which is common with manual and even semiautomatic welding, this is a potential area for a slag inclusion of other defect to occur. After the manufacturer introduced mechanized welding to the process, the number of leaks went from around 4060 to less than 5 on average per assembled section. Nearly eliminating the defects dramatically lowered their costs. Also used in railcar building are circumferential welding machines that can be used to weld nozzles onto a piece of pipe or vessel in diameters ranging from 1 to 50 in. These machines can be used for the GMA, flux cored arc, or submerged arc welding processes. These units rotate 360 deg without cable wrap and stay mounted to the workpiece until the weld is complete. Typically, the circumferential welding machine mounts to a self-

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Figs. 2, 3 Typical circumferential welds such as used to attach the kingpins to the wheel truck assembly on a locomotive.
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centering three-jaw chuck that allows for fast setup. When moving from one weld joint to the next, the entire unit can be hoisted via overhead crane and positioned on the next joint to be welded. Mechanized circumferential welding also offers cost savings through weld quality, consistency, and higher deposition rates. On locomotives, the wheel truck assembly is a primary example of where circumferential welding machines are used. Located on the wheel trucks are two large pins on the chassis that support the wheel trucks. For this welding application, the chassis is positioned so that the pins are located in the vertical position and the weld joint then becomes a simple, flat, downhill weld. The pins are approximately 10 in. in diameter at the top and roughly 30 in. in length with a base measurement of 3 ft. The base plate where they are welded is typically 1.5-in.-thick steel and must be completely filled with weld material Figs. 2, 3. To complete the weld, the welding machine is attached to the pin using the three-jaw chuck that supports the entire machine. The machine operator must manually position the welding gun using vertical and horizontal racking systems before proceeding with the weld. Typically, each weld joint takes multiple passes to fill and is generally 6070% faster with the circumferential welding machine than with traditional welding methods. Once welding is complete, the operator lifts the machine and positions it over the next kingpin assembly to be welded and repeats the process. Since the system is self-aligning, setup is fast and the operator is welding the next one very quickly.

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BRAD MUTSCHLER (bmutschler@weld.com) is a mechanical engineer, and product & industry manager Shipyards, and DALE KEIL (dkeil@weld.com) is a product manager, Bug-O Systems, Canonsburg, Pa.
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WELDING JOURNAL

23

PRODUCT & PRINT SPOTLIGHT

Shielding Gases Designed for Welding Carbon and Stainless Steels


Numerous products are included in the companys line of Maxx shielding gases. The Ferromaxx gases result in faster, cleaner welding of carbon steel. Inomaxx gases provide maximum performance for welding stainless steel. Alumaxx, a multipurpose shielding gas, is designed for high-quality welding of aluminum and its alloys. Also, the company provides assist gases for high-performance laser beam cutting in a range of supply systems that can meet specific pressure and flow requirements. It provides gases for welding and cutting in traditional bulk supply as well as its CryoEase microbulk system, an alternative to cylinder supply, which eliminates reordering cylinders/packs, plus cylinder handling and changeover. With this, gas is always on tap, gas purity is more consistent, and shielding gas mixtures can be produced on-site. Air Products
www.airproducts.com/industries/metals/metal-fabrication.aspx (800) 654-4567

Reel Makes Welding on Railroads Easier

Welding Gas Mixer Yields Multiple Combinations

Video Explores Careers in Welding for Women

The N400 Series gas hose reel improves the efficiency and safety of welding operations on railroads. Featuring a narrow frame and compact mounting base, it is useful for limited space environments. The model features two swivel joint inlets and two outlet risers to handle 1 4- or 38-in. oxygen/gas dual welding hoses in lengths of up to 100 ft. Hannay Reels
www.hannay.com (877) 467-3357

The MAP Mix Provectus, originally designed for producing modified atmosphere packaging gas mixtures in the food processing industry, has been reconfigured to accept argon. This makes it useful for delivering gas mixtures in a wider range of applications, including welding. The product uses a new operating principle to produce a compact and versatile system. It blends argon in addition to other gases, including carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitrogen, for producing multiple welding mixtures in proportion and at exact flow rates. Dansensor
www.dansensor.com (+45) 57 66 00 88

The American Welding Society has released a new video titled Women in Welding. The nine-min-long video explores some of the exciting career opportunities available to women who decide to invest their time in the study of welding. Such career options include welding instructor, certified welding inspector, weld process specialist, welding technician, and company president. The video can be viewed at the following link: www.youtube. com/watch?v=vHtHOumts7k. More information can be found online at www.careersinwelding.com. American Welding Society
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PRODUCT & PRINT SPOTLIGHT


continued from page 24

Testing System Simplifies Railroad Car Maintenance

Manufacturing Manufacturin uring

Pendant HMI. The power source interface is integrated, giving users control over voltage, current, speed, gas flow, and other welding parameters from the same interface as the robot. ABB Robotics
www.abb.com/robotics (248) 391-9000

Flux Cored Welding elding Wire W


COBALT LT NICKEL HARDFACE E STAINLESS TAINLESS

Full Line Brochure Introduces Electrodes

Pocket Corpac combines nonintrusive corrosion testing with the portable convenience made possible by acoustic emission technology. Less than a quarter of the size of its predecessor and with the latest user-guided software, the product detects localized corrosion without taking industrial structures out of service. It increases operational safety with short, periodic, in-service monitoring, while simplifying asset maintenance on a variety of industrial structures and materials, such as railroad tank cars, storage tanks, pressure vessels, and pipelines. Mistras Group, Inc.
www.mistrasgroup.com (609) 716-4000

ALLOY Y STEEL EEL TOOL STEEL STEE EEL MAINTENANCE MAINTENAN CE FORGE ALLO ALLOYS OYS
The companys new 100-page catalog describes its complete line of flux- and metal-cored welding electrode products. It provides information on more than 170 carbon steel, low alloy, stainless steel, nickel-alloy, and hardfacing electrodes. The catalog also offers the following details: descriptions, classifications, shielding gases, welding positions, characteristics, typical mechanical properties, typical deposit compositions, and applications. New to this version are the Select 4130C, a metal-cored, nickel-chromiummolybdenum-bearing wire with Select Alloy 2594-AP and 2594-C, two stainless steel duplex electrodes. Select-Arc
www.select-arc.com (800) 341-5215

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Robots Arm Provides Shielding Gas Protection


The IRB 1520ID features internal Axis-1 routing of the welding cabling, a compact swing base, and 30% less weight than the IRB 1600ID. The upper arm integrated dressing design simplifies programming and provides protection for all media, including shielding gas, welding power and wire, and pressurized air. This extends hose life and allows more flexible movements. The robot offers a 1.5-m reach and 4-kg payload. It is also equipped with the companys second-generation TrueMove technology and has its Flex-

WELDING JOURNAL

27

Cutting Machine Incorporates Downdraft Table

Low backlash planetary gearboxes and large-diameter pinions deliver accurate motion. The product is available in two cutting widths 5 and 6 ft. Koike Aronson, Inc./Ransome
www.koike.com (800) 252-5232

welding at the installation site. The tape is hand applied to preheated pipes, typically 2 to 6 in. on each pipe end, before entering the powder coater. It is engineered to endure high temperatures (450460F) for short times (12 min). After coating is applied, the tape is removed. Shurtape
www.shurtape.com (888) 442-8273

Tape Enables Joint Welding Pipe Sections

Digital Turntable Offers Load Capacity of 300 lb


Utilized on small-to-large weld assemblies, the CobraTurns ability to rotate welding jobs makes it useful for all applications up to the rated load capacities. With an input of 120 VAC at 50/60 Hz, it has a balanced load capacity of 300 lb (horizontally) in the forward and reverse operating directions. Its blue LED display offers 1/10th rev/min digital real-time feedback and displays the turntables speed of 0.210 rev/min. The versatility enables an adjustable table tilt of 0 to 90 deg, and comes supplied with an on/off
continued on page 31

The Monograph Extreme CNC plasma cutting machine features a unitized downdraft table that has a compact perimeter to minimize its footprint and deep design to maximize fume extraction. It can be equipped with a conventional plasma system from 65 to 200 A, as well as an optional oxyfuel torch. The controller is a Hypertherm Edge-Pro Ti CNC with Integrated Sensor Ti Torch Height Control. This simplifies use by the operator, who has a full view of the cutting operation.

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PRODUCT & PRINT SPOTLIGHT


continued from page 28

brochure may be downloaded from the Web site listed below. Camfil APC
www.camfilapc.com (800) 479-6801

mended operating speeds are 12,000 to 32,000 rev/min depending on burr size and shape. PFERD Inc.
www.pferdusa.com/inoxburs (978) 840-6420

Burrs for Working Stainless Steel

Fiber Disc Made for Rapid Stock Removal

foot control. Options include a heavy-duty variable speed foot control, slotted 10-in. turntable top, or a 4-in. ID/OD 3-jaw chuck. MK Products
www.mkproducts.com (949) 863-1234

Brochure Showcases Dust Collector Filters

A line of burrs for working stainless steel (INOX) features high stock removal with a high-grade surface finish. They also offer ergonomic performance with reduced vibration and noise. The tooth geometry quickly removes large chips from all austenitic and rust- and acidresistant steels without heat discoloration. Available in cylindrical, ball, and flame shapes, the burrs feature 38 and in. head diameters, all with a -in. shank. Recom-

The Pearl CoolMAX is a zirconia resin fiber disc that features a cooling agent to reduce heat and discoloration of the material. Designed for rapid stock removal, the disc is useful for sanding and grinding sheet metal, stainless steel, and ferrous metals. Pearl Abrasive Co.
www.pearlabrasive.com (800) 969-5561

The companys new product brochure features its line of HemiPleat extreme nanofiber filters. The cartridge dust collector filters offer high filtration efficiencies and low pressure drop, plus are designed to withstand the rigors of pulsecleaning for long life and reduced energy and operational costs. The brochure summarizes product features and describes the technology used to produce a highperforming nanofiber media. HemiPleat extreme filters are available with MERV 15 and 16 efficiencies and in a choice of media to meet special performance needs, with models available for both new and retrofit applications. The
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Catalog Features New Portable Air Cleaner

with hood. Detailing some of the applications for which the attachments are used, the catalog also highlights the units low power requirements, 1000 ft3/min motorblower assembly, Roto-Pulse high-efficiency cartridge cleaning system, various filter options, and complete specifications. The catalog is free upon request. Micro Air Clean Air Systems
www.microaironline.com (866) 566-4276

point and single-sided protection, it features a low-profile design for quick machine integration. With a built-in automatic range detection of 10 m, the light curtain is able to determine the distance to the sender. It offers an IP 67 industrial design and operating temperature down to 30C. It is available in heights from 300 to 2100 mm with 14 and 30 mm resolutions and can be used in machine building, consumer goods, and storage/conveyor applications. SICK
www.sickusa.com (800) 325-7425

Light Curtain Delivers Automatic Range Detection

Weld Cleaning Brush Brings High Knot Count

The companys full-color catalog showcases the new TM 1000 TaskMaster, a portable unit that offers shop and plant air cleaning. It shows the products available attachments, including articulated source capture arms in various sizes, dual articulated arms, downdraft table, backdraft hood, and long reach flexible hose

The deTec4 Core, a guard-only safety light curtain, employs QuickFix and FlexFix brackets, which can be positioned in any location on the housing without causing blind zones. Useful for hazardous The 412-in. Roughneck weld cleaning brush is designed for use on 412-in. grinders. Useful for surface preparation along with root pass and interpass weld cleaning, it features a high knot count and short trim length. The brush is available in both carbon steel and Type 302 stainless steel wire with a variety of arbor hole options. Weiler Corp.
www.weilercorp.com (800) 835-9999

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Company Launches New Mobile Web Site

November 20-21, , 2013


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The company revealed its new mobile Web site for smartphones, m.miyachieurope.com. Available in English, German, Spanish, French, and Dutch, it offers access for engineers, purchase managers, and employees looking for news about the companys Europe Corp., Peco resistance products, Eapro systems, and lasers. Users can view regional office contact informa continued on page 87

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An aluminum mainframe being welded with a shielding gas blend. (Image provided by Tracker Marine.)

Shielding Gas Blends Suited for Different Metals


New material applications require optimized shielding gas blends

n todays industrial manufacturing environment, welding shops large and small demand higher productivity and quality from gas metal arc welding (GMAW), gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), and flux cored arc welding (FCAW). Manufacturers are becoming increasingly concerned with the challenges of joining new materials in special applications. In the past, generic shielding gases

were used and still can be used to weld 95% of materials. Today, many companies are using the same gas blend they have been using for the past 25 years, but even though it gets the job done, the companys traditional gas of choice may not be the best. To meet todays advanced requirements, new developments in technology have allowed for the creation of precise formulations of gas blends suited to meet

the most challenging welding applications. Optimized gas blends address specific application problems that will ultimately increase productivity and save costs. With the advances in todays technology and depending on the type of material to be joined galvanized steel, stainless steel, or aluminum manufacturers have the ability to use enhanced, more efficient blends for specific

Information supplied by Praxair, Inc., Danbury, Conn.

34

AUGUST 2013

processes and applications. Once the underlying problem in a welding procedure is identified, the inefficiencies in the results of current processes can be corrected by implementing the use of a more advanced shielding gas blend to enhance productivity.

Welding Galvanized Steel with Reduced Porosity


The use of galvanized steel is becoming increasingly important as manufacturers are progressively becoming more concerned with the effects of corrosion. The process of welding galvanized steel, which is one of the best corrosion resistance products, has been around for years. The issue is that when the galvanized steel is arc welded, the zinc coating vaporizes during the welding process, causing spatter and porosity problems. Welds can have a poor appearance. Tracker Marine Group, manufacturer of TRACKER boat trailers, switched to HeliStar GV, a helium-enhanced shielding gas blend developed by Praxair

for welding galvanized steel Fig. 1. Tracker Marine is the only boat trailer manufacturer in the U.S. that uses galvanized steel. Eight years ago, the company made the switch from welding plain carbon steel to galvanized steel. Initially when welding galvanized steel, the company experienced the typical issues such as porosity, inconsistent weld shape, and overall poor weld appearance. The final product wasnt smooth and resulted in additional time and labor to produce a quality product. The first line of defense in welding galvanized steel is welder training, said plant manager Hugh Lynas. We make sure the welders at Tracker Marine are trained and fully certified, to ensure safety and to maximize the use of their time. When the company made the switch to the shielding gas blend, the welding parameters were reset to weld with a lower heat input. Reducing the heat of the weld, reduced the amount of spatter. The helium-based shielding gas blend made the welds noticeably smoother.

By reducing arc instability and spatter, fume levels were reduced, as were potential burns to welders. Adding the blends into the welding processes also helped reduce postweld cleanup and reduced the cost for welding gas.

Welding Stainless Steel with Less Distortion and Spatter


Stainless steel is relatively easy to weld, but challenging to keep flat. Stainless steel doesnt conduct heat well, and when heat is applied during the welding process, the steel tends to buckle. One solution is to weld it quickly, but the question is how? Thermal Care, Inc., manufacturer of process cooling equipment in industrial heat transfer products, including central chillers, temperature controllers, pumping systems, portable chillers, and tower systems, recently tried an argon-based shielding gas blend, Stargon SS. With this blend, distortion was minimized. The company uses this shielding gas

Fig. 1 A galvanized trailer frame being welded with a helium-enhanced gas blend. (Image provided by Tracker Marine.)

WELDING JOURNAL

35

blend with a precise mixture of argon, carbon dioxide, and oxygen to weld 304L stainless steel. Dave Roush, purchasing and planning manager for Thermal Care, has been involved in welding stainless steel products for 22 years. Since switching to the blend he has noted improvement in productivity, less overwelding, and faster travel speeds. The current shortage of helium is consequently driving up the price of the gas. The increased cost of the traditional trimix previously used to weld stainless steel prompted Thermal Cares change. Replacing outdated GMAW machines with pulsed power sources plus the use of the shielding gas blend has reduced the grinding time needed to clean up spatter. The company now maximizes productivity while saving on consumables since its switch to pulse welding machines using a nonhelium shielding gas blend.

Welding Aluminum Mixed Gas Development


Aluminum has many desirable characteristics lightweight, high strength, corrosion resistance, and can be recycled. To weld aluminum successfully technical training is extremely important as issues such as incomplete fusion at the start of a weld, cracking at the ends of a weld, and wire feedability will affect the outcome of the weld. Pure argon or mixtures with helium are typically used to shield aluminum to prevent atmospheric reactions and the formation of oxides in the weld or on its surface. Mixing helium with argon improves the penetration and welding speed joining aluminum. A new aluminum shielding gas blend currently being developed at Praxair has been tested using a small percentage of other gaseous additives that resulted in enhanced performance characteristics, such as penetration similar to that produced by helium. This allows for faster travel speeds, improved arc stability, and a reduced cleaning zone alongside the weld.

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Amtrak Unveils Next Era of Locomotives

Siemens and 69 local manufacturers in 23 states are included as part of a national community for building new rail cars
Information provided by Amtrak (www.amtrak.com), Siemens Rail Systems (www.usa.siemens.com/railsystems), and Fronius USA, LLC (www.fronius-usa.com).

new age of Amtrak service for northeast intercity rail passengers is coming down the tracks. Recently, the first of 70 advancedtechnology electric locomotives built by Siemens rolled off the assembly line see lead photo. The first units of the $466 million order will be field tested this summer for entry into revenue service in the fall. The Amtrak Cities Sprinter (ACS-64) locomotives are being assembled in Siemens Sacramento, Calif., rail manufacturing plant powered by renewable energy with parts supplied by its plants in Norwood, Ohio, Alpharetta, Ga., and Richland, Miss.

In addition, there are nearly 70 other suppliers representing more than 60 cities and 23 states.

Traveling the Locomotive Way


The new Amtrak locomotives will help power the economic future of the northeast region, provide more reliable and efficient service for passengers, and support the rebirth of rail manufacturing in America, said Amtrak President and CEO Joseph Boardman. More and more Americans are parking their cars and choosing the comfort

The Amtrak Cities Sprinter (ACS64) locomotives will operate at speeds up to 125 mph on the Northeast Corridor and Keystone Service. The first three locomotives of the Siemensbuilt equip ment will be field tested this summer for entry into revenue service this fall.

Fig. 1 Joseph Boardman (left), Amtrak president and CEO, poses with Michael Cahill, president of Siemens U.S. Rail Systems division, outside of an ACS64 locomotive.

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Fig. 2 An interior view of the ACS64.

and convenience of trains, metros, and streetcars as their preferred way of traveling, added Michael Cahill, president of Siemens U.S. Rail Systems division. In Fig. 1, Boardman is pictured with Cahill in front of an ACS-64 locomotive. An inside shot of the unit is highlighted in Fig. 2.

Speed Capabilities, Power Elements


The new locomotives will operate on northeast regional trains at speeds up to 125 mph on the Northeast Corridor (NEC) along the Washington/New York/ Boston route and Keystone Service trains at speeds up to 110 mph on the Keystone Corridor from Philadelphia to Harrisburg, Pa. All long-distance trains operating on the NEC will be powered by these locomotives. Additionally, the ACS-64 will have a peak of 8600 hp with good acceleration capabilities to achieve revenue service speeds of 125 mph pulling up to 18 Amfleet coach cars, while simultaneously providing up to 1000 kVA of head-end power for auxiliary train equipment such as interior lights, electrical outlets, and air-conditioning/heating. The locomotive is based on Siemens newest platform, the Vectron. Dual auxiliary inverters provide redundancy to ensure heating and cooling, and lighting and door systems remain in service should one inverter fail.

mobility for the people, businesses, and economy of the entire northeast region. The 70 locomotives could collectively save more than 3 billion kW hours of energy. This translates to more than $300 million in savings over 20 years.

Fabrication Details, Including Welding Work


As of press time, Siemens was in the process of moving from the welding and training that occurred in Germany for the first few car shells to its Sacramento, Calif., plant where that process is transitioning for remaining production. Beginning this month, the car shells will be welded in Sacramento. Its initial team includes eight welders who are now starting to work on the cars after having been trained in Germany. The company expects the team may be expanded based on scheduling needs. The welders are mainly performing gas metal arc, shielded metal arc, and gas tungsten arc welding (limited welds) with construction materials and metal used being A588B/A606 or equivalent. As partially displayed in Fig. 3, the Fronius USA, LLC equipment purchased for this locomotive project included ten TransSteel 3500 systems for compact steel welding and 9 TPS3200 welding machines with VR4000 wire feeders for pulse welding stainless steel. 40 AUGUST 2013

Smart Technology Specifics


The microprocessor system installed in the locomotive allows for self-diagnosing technical issues. The on-board computer system can notify the engineer and operator of any maintenance issues and take self-corrective action to maintain operation.

Safety Factors
The Amtrak-specific design meets the latest Federal Railroad Administration safety requirements, including crash energy management components like frontend strength and a crumple zone for collision with large objects, in addition to an enhanced safety cage, push back couplers, and anticlimber functionality. The ACS-64 enhanced design allows for more efficient maintenance as well to ensure locomotives are returned to service as quickly as possible.

EnergyEfficient Features
The locomotives are not only designed for easier maintenance but to improve energy efficiency by using a regenerative braking system. It will feed energy back into the power grid to enhance

Testing Efforts
The first three locomotives will undergo a comprehensive testing program

Fig. 3 About 20 welding systems were purchased for this locomotive project. Shown is the TransSteel 3500.

ice in fall 2013. Producing the remaining units will subsequently ramp up for scheduled delivery of approximately two locomotives per month through 2016.

for improved reliability and service along the Northeast and Keystone Corridors.

Conclusion
As part of the Amtrak Fleet Strategy Plan to modernize and expand its equipment, the units will replace electric locomotives that have 25 and 35 service years, plus average mileage of more than 3.5 million miles traveled (with some approaching 4.5 million miles). So just think about it the next time you travel by train in the northeast region, you could be riding in style thanks to one of these new ACS-64 locomotives. The benefits offered, including reliability, efficiency, mobility, and economic growth, are significant. Also, the high power, regenerative braking, key safety points, efficient maintenance, smart technology, and redundancy features these hold are worthwhile.

Job Creation Aspects


We are committed to connecting people, communities, and jobs. This project does all three, said Karen Hedlund, Deputy Federal Railroad Administrator. Investing in manufacturing, these 70 new locomotives are creating and preserving jobs in 60 cities across the country while meeting the growing demand

this summer, including two at a U.S. Department of Transportation facility in Pueblo, Colo., and one on the NEC. The many tests include ride quality, maximum speed, and diagnostics. Once commissioned, it is expected the first locomotive will enter revenue serv-

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WELDING JOURNAL

41

NO-Doped Shielding Gases Benefit Stainless Steel Welding

Fig. 1 A welder performs gas tungsten arc welding on stainless steel.

Using nitric oxide-doped shielding gases can help to reduce ozone emissions and the formation of hexavalent chromium
tandards (Ref. 1) and welding guides provided by the manufacturers of welding machines (Refs. 24) provide excellent introductions to the welding process Fig. 1. They also touch on the importance and various functions of the shielding gas during welding, which go far beyond protecting the weld pool against the atmosphere. Shielding gases influence material transfer, arc stability, and, therefore, spatter. Different shielding gases also require different voltages to start and sustain the arc, which impacts heat input, and consequently, process speed, bead profile, wetting, and distortion. All of these effects are controlled primarily by the ionization energy and heat conductivity of the shielding gas. Argon (Ar), helium, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and hydrogen are recognized as the primary constituents of modern shielding gases. The ionization energy and heat conductivity of these gases differ significantly Fig. 2, Table 1. Over the last 60 years, many argon-based shielding gases have been created and reported on, always starting with the inert argon and then adding at least 1% but often more of one or two of the other gases. In addition to all the shielding gas functions discussed so far, shielding gases also impact hazardous emissions of the welding process. The hazardous emissions most often reported on are fumes, ozone (O 3) and, in the case of stainless steel welding, hexavalent chromium (CrVI). Twenty-five years ago, the ozone problem triggered development and commercialization of a new breed of shielding gases that are blended with nitric oxide (NO). The two distinct differences to other shielding gases are the use of a new gas component nitric oxide and the fact that it is added in a small amount much less than 1%. The intent of this article is not to educate the reader about the basics of the

BY J. BERKMANNS
J. BERKMANNS (joachim.berkmanns@linde.com), PhD, is the national technical manager for Linde Canada Limited. Photos copyright of Linde Canada Limited.

welding process but to discuss features and benefits of NO-doped gases in general as well as in welding of stainless steel specifically.

Ozone
Ozone emissions when welding were recognized as an occupational hazard in the mid 1980s (Ref. 5). At low levels (0.1 ppm), a sensation of dryness and irritation in nose and throat is felt after a short period. At higher levels (0.11 ppm), ozone can cause nasal congestion, chest pain, and headache, as well as loss of breath. A great deal of research has been conducted regarding ozone emission rates (Ref. 6), which vary by process and welded material. Ozone is formed when ultraviolet (UV) radiation emitted by the arc comes into contact with oxygen at the boundary between shielding gas and at-

mosphere. Ultraviolet radiation in itself presents a danger as it has been shown to cause skin cancer. But when its wavelength matches the bonding energy of an oxygen molecule (around 5eV), it can easily split the molecule into two oxygen atoms, which then loosely combine with other oxygen molecules to form ozone (Ref. 7). Because the bond of the third oxygen atom is weak, ozone is a much stronger oxidizing agent than oxygen (Table 2). Unfortunately, many welding processes emit the required wavelength in the range of 175240 nm (Ref. 8). Attempts to reduce ozone emissions came in a variety of ways; for example, by reducing the UV radiation or blocking it from getting to the atmosphere. Small additions of magnesium, zinc, or aluminum to the welding wire were also tested, which reduced the ozone by oxidizing to magnesium, zinc, or aluminum

Fig. 2 Thermal conductivity for several shielding gas components. WELDING JOURNAL 43

oxide. Reducing ozone emissions by employing a shielding gas solution was achieved successfully through adding nitric oxide (NO) to the shielding gas in very small amounts. The NO is entirely consumed in the welding process converting ozone into oxygen and nitrogen dioxide. These shielding gases have been commercially available for many years now, and several government laboratories and research facilities (Ref. 7) have confirmed the reduction in ozone. Welders report a distinct reduction in the typical sweet smell of ozone when using these gases. Aside from lowering ozone emissions and thereby improving the welders working environment, the addition of NO offers additional advantages. First, the addition does not contain carbon or hydrogen as with some blended mixtures. Carbon and hydrogen pickup are problematic when welding certain steels. Second, as the NO reacts with the ozone it produces oxygen. As indicated in Table 1, nitric oxide as well as oxygen have the lowest ionization energies of all shielding gas components and hence increase arc stability and heat input, which has been reported in earlier publications (Ref. 9).

Table 1 Ionization Energy for Several Shielding Gas Components Chemical Ionization Energy [eV] 24.58 15.75 13.77 13.6 12.06 9.26

Table 2 Oxidizing Potential for Oxygen and Ozone Oxidizing Reagent Oxidizing Potential [V] 2.07 1.23

Helium Argon Carbon Dioxide Oxygen (atomic) Oxygen (molecular) Nitric Oxide

Ozone Oxygen

Hexavalent Chromium
Another occupational hazard, especially when welding stainless steel, is exposure to hexavalent chromium (CrVI). Chromium in the amount of 1218% is commonly used as an alloying element in stainless steels to achieve corrosion resistance. Chromium can be oxidized to different degrees, meaning it can produce compounds with one, two, or three oxygen atoms. Chromium combined with three oxygen atoms is called hexavalent chromium and is a known carcinogen. In the previous section, it was pointed out that ozone is a strong oxidizing agent. Consequently, the question arises as to whether lower levels of ozone in the vicinity of the arc coincide with lower levels of hexavalent chromium when welding stainless steels. If so, NO-doped shielding gases may lower the emissions of hexavalent chromium by lowering the ozone levels. In Ref. 10, welding fumes were exposed to concentrations of oxygen up to 100% and two different concentrations of ozone. While none of the oxygen concentrations appeared to increase the Cr VI/total Cr ratio significantly, ozone concentrations of 10 and 30 ppm did. In the following, publications that have reported on ozone and hexavalent 44 AUGUST 2013

chromium emissions are reviewed. When welding stainless steel, chromium is vaporized and becomes part of the welding plume. When modeling the formation rates of the different oxidation stages of chromium, it was calculated that Cr VI is only formed in very small amounts of less than a quarter of a percent by weight of total fume (Ref. 11). However, it was also indicated that in real measurements the Cr VI levels were higher by several magnitudes suggesting that initially less oxidized chromium compounds had later been oxidized into hazardous CrVI. The chances that chromium oxides are further oxidized within the vicinity of the arc increase with the presence of more oxygen atoms. Adding zinc to the core of tubular metal cored welding wire was investigated using several shielding gases (Ref. 12). The zinc additions increased fume levels and decreased ozone levels for all shielding gases. Hexavalent chromium was also reduced for all but the pure-oxygen-containing shielding gases and the lower oxidization potential in the vicinity of the arc caused by the lower ozone levels is suggested as a possible mechanism. In a separate paper (Ref. 13), the same research group tested NO-doped shielding gases as the primary shielding gas as well as the outer shroud gas in a double-shrouded torch. The results are interesting as the NO-doped gas reduced ozone as well as CrVI significantly and to a similar amount when used as the primary shielding gas. When used as the outer shroud gas around a 95% Ar/5% CO 2 mix, the ozone reduction was stronger but the CrVI reduction weaker. The study also shows a potential link between ozone and CrVI reduction. However, because of the limited scope, it was suggested that more work needs to be carried out. Recently, when ozone as well as CrVI emissions were measured more broadly (Ref. 14) for five different processes with

different shielding gases, it was found that decreasing ozone formation correlates with decreasing Cr VI formation under many of the conditions studied, citing Pearson correlation coefficients above 0.89. Furthermore, the studies suggest that controlling ozone generation may be a crucial factor in the control of hexavalent chromium. Also recently, fume and Cr VI generation were measured during welding of austenitic, ferritic, and duplex stainless steels with a variety of Ar/CO 2 and Ar/O 2, and Ar/CO 2/O 2 shielding gases (Ref. 15). Gases with a high oxidizing factor (89) were compared with gases that have medium (45) and low (1.52) oxidizing factors. It was found that gases having high and medium oxidizing factors caused high levels of Cr VI, while gases with a low oxidizing factor resulted in low levels of CrVI.

Conclusion
Several studies have been referenced that report on CrVI formation as a function of oxygen presence in the vicinity of the arc. The presented literature is only a small cross section of the total welding research so the reader is invited to study additional material. Also, the mechanisms for CrVI formation are complex and new findings become available often. However, at this time the absence of strong oxidizers in the vicinity of the arc when welding stainless steel correlates to a decrease in the emissions of harmful CrVI. Ozone is a particularly strong oxidizing agent and its presence was investigated and directly relates to the presence of CrVI. This indicates that NO-doped shielding gases not only offer a way to reduce ozone emissions but also Cr VI formation when welding stainless steel all while providing improved arc stabilization and heat input. As for the reduction in CrVI formation, more research is needed and the use of a NO-doped shielding gas should only be viewed as one step toward creating a better weld environment. The correct use of suitable personal protective gear and effective fume extraction are always recommended.

References 1. ANSI/AWS 5.10-94, Recommended Practices for Shielding Gases for Welding and Plasma Arc Cutting . Miami, Fla.: American Welding Society. 2. GMAW Welding Guide. Cleveland, Ohio: The Lincoln Electric Co. 3. Guidelines for Gas Metal Arc Welding. Appleton, Wis.: Miller Electric Mfg. Co. 4. Guidelines for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding. Appleton, Wis.: Miller Electric Mfg. Co. 5. Zens, D. E., et al. 1986. Safety and health in welding An evaluation of respiratory protection. Welding Journal 65(9): 57. 6. Ozone in welding and related procedures. Literature report from Berufsgenossenschaft Metal Nord (BHM), 2002. 7. Facts about: Ozone reduction with MISON shielding gases. AGA Gas. 8. Emission of UV radiation during arc welding. Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), 2011. 9. Lindstroem, J. 1988. Adding NO to argon or argon/helium mixtures does the trick. INALCO Conf. 10. Madden, M. G. 1987. Hexavalent chromium in aerosols evolved during a high temperature metallurgical process. PhD thesis, University of Bradford. 11. Eagar, T. W., et al. 1998. Study of chromium in gas metal arc welding fume. Proceedings of ASM-AWS Trends in Welding Research Conference. 12. Dennis, J., et al. 2002. Control of occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium and ozone in tubular wire arcwelding processes by replacement of potassium by lithium or addition of zinc. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 46(1): 3342. 13. Dennis, J., et al. 2002. Control of exposure to hexavalent chromium and ozone in gas metal arc welding of stainless steel by use of secondary shield gas. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 46(1): 4348. 14. Keane, M., et al. 2009. Hexavalent chromium content in stainless steel welding fumes is dependent on the welding process and the shielding gas. J. Environ. Monit. 11: 418424. 15. Matusiak, J., and Wycislik, A. 2010. The influence of technological conditions on the emissions of welding fume due to welding of stainless steel. Metalurgua 49(4): 307311.

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WELDING JOURNAL

45

International Trade Fair and IIW Set to Dazzle Next Month


Since its premiere in 1952, and every four years since, the trade fair has been the must-attend event for industrialists and fabricators worldwide
BY HOWARD M. WOODWARD
HOWARD M. WOODWARD (woodward@aws.org) is associate editor of the Welding Journal.

he welcome mat will be out once again Sept. 1621, 2013, to continue a long tradition with the Schweissen & Schneiden 2013 International Trade Fair Joining, Cutting, Surfacing, presented every four years in Essen, Germany. This years exhibition of the worlds latest welding, cutting, thermal spraying, robotics, and allied technologies will be held in 17 fair halls and the Galeria at the 1.1-million sq-ft Messe Essen complex Fig. 1. The 2009 Fair, despite a sluggish economy worldwide, attracted 52,655 visitors who explored the presentations of

1016 exhibitors representing 42 countries. Attendance this year is projected to be greater.

IIW and German Welding Society Events to Colocate


The 66th International Institute of Welding (IIW) Annual Assembly and International Conference will convene in the Congress Center in Essen Sept. 1117, featuring a two-day conference titled Automation in Welding, Sept. 16, 17. Organized into six main events, researchers and industry representatives

will present papers detailing new applications of welding technology including those for laser, arc, and resistance welding, and the manufacture of tubes and pipelines. Complete information, including descriptions of numerous spouse tours, are posted online at www.iiw2013.com. Concurrently, at the DVS/GSI booth in Hall 12, the German Welding Society (DVS) Congress 2013 has plans to introduce research results and market developments and solutions that will interest manufacturers and users of joining, cutting, and surfacing technologies.

Fig. 1 A view of the Messe Essen Place of Events, venue for the 2013 Essen Trade Show. 46 AUGUST 2013

Fig. 2 A section of the American Pavilion at the 2009 Trade Fair.

Forum for Upcoming Scientists


The DVS Students Congress on Sept. 17, to be held at the DVS/GSI booth, will offer young engineers and scientists a platform to report on their projects and introduce themselves to industry leaders.

from the Peoples Republic of China in the International Welders Competition. The 10th DVS Young Welders Competitions will include three different contests this year. The International Competition between Europe and China will take place on Sept. 20 at the fair.

New Companies Showcased


For the first time, the Fair will assist promising newly established German companies to present their innovative products, services, and technologies. The Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Technology is supporting the companies by bearing up to 80% of the costs of constructing and renting their booths. The exhibits, to be located in a 970-sqft area in Hall 9, will include welding gap clips for root welding, special nozzles, and mobile lasers designed for use on ships and drilling rigs, among other innovations.

WELDCUP and the Young Welders Competitions


Several competitions are scheduled to be held in the Galeria for talented young welders to demonstrate their skills. New this year will be the WELDCUP event where contestants from 15 European nations will compete for the prize. In other competitions, young welders from all over the world will compete against each other to determine the winner in each of four manual welding processes. The events will start with the traditional German National Challenge, followed by WELDCUP 2013, with various European teams each comprised of a maximum of four young welders. An international jury will independently evaluate all WELDCUP test pieces in order to identify the best candidates in individual and team competitions. Finally, the winners of WELDCUP and a German team will compete against eight welders

Thermal Spraying to Be Featured


There will be a number of innovative exhibits at the fair promoting equipment, installations, and materials for brazing, soldering, heat treatment, and especially thermal spraying demonstrated by the 13 member companies of the German Association of Thermal Sprayers comprised of nine German companies, three Swiss, and one Dutch company. Featured will be thermal spraying torches, coating systems for agriculture, the textile industry, automotive sector, and laser optics for spraying torches in addition to the associated powder nozzles and feeders. Visit the 2200-sq-ft exhibition at Booth A120 in Hall 5 where specialists will demonstrate how thermal spraying can protect metals, ceramics, plastics, textiles, wood, glass, and turnkey installations for surfacing. Also, they will demonstrate a cross section of applications for the manufacture of turbine blades, sealing rings, printing rolls, and other products.

Lineup for the Seven National Booths


The United States will maintain cooperative booths for 25 companies in Hall 7 operated by the American Welding Society and additional manufacturers in Hall 8 managed by Bug-O Systems, for a total exhibition area of 8600 sq ft Fig. 2 . In addition to the updated products for automated welding, thermal spraying, and underwater cutting, U.S. firms will introduce their latest developments for compact circumferential welding devices, digital fillet welding equipment, and weld-tracking systems among other new technologies. WELDING JOURNAL 47

The other national cooperative booths will be maintained by the welding interests in China, France, Italy, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. China will maintain cooperative booths in Halls 7, 8.1, and 9.1 to display the nations latest technologies in inverter welding and cutting devices, wirefeed units, and safety equipment including autodarkening welder hoods. The French booth in Hall 9 plans to feature products from 12 firms, including welding technology for oil and gas pipelines, and safety equipment. Italy will display its production technology, automation welding of lamp posts and light technology towers, manufacture of truck tanks, and robotic cells in Hall 6. Japan, in Hall 7, will present the nations new lines of welding electrodes, automatic welding machines and pneumatic tools. To be introduced at the show will be high-frequency beveling machines, mobile vertical beveling machines, and spot welding and precision testing devices. South Koreas first appearance at the

fair will be centered in a 2150-sq-ft booth in Hall 7. New products to be displayed will be welding and plasma cutting devices plus some innovative solutions for extracting welding fume. Taiwans cooperative booth in Hall 8 will display the wares of ten companies including plasma cutting machines and microwelding devices, eye and body protection products, and welding filler metals designed for the specialized applications in the automotive and petrochemical industries.

The Messe Essen exhibition complex is about a 20-minute ride from the Dsseldorf Airport with both taxi and airport shuttle service provided to the complex. Visitors planning an extended stay in Germany may want to consider purchasing railway tickets. Visit the official Web site www.schweissen-schneiden.com for complete vendor and visitor information.

Tour the Essen Area


While attending the Fair, be sure to save some time to explore the Essen-area attractions Fig. 3. More than half the city is green with parks, farms, and meadows offering a lush landscape. It is a sharp contrast to what it was like in the early 1800s when Essen was a mining town of 4000, and later growing to 731,000 residents with the industrial revolution. Today, with the loss of the heavy industry, the population has declined to 576,000 and the mines have become tourist attractions. Two of the mines, Zeche Carl and Zeche Zollverein, have been designated historic landmarks featuring cultural cen-

Welding and Cutting Today


The newspaper Welding and Cutting Today, published by DVS, will be the official daily publication at the show. It will offer fresh, topical, and colorful articles, and report on show happenings.

Admission Prices and Transportation


The ticket prices are about $50 for a one-day ticket and $117 for a six-day ticket.

Fig. 3 Essen, Germany, site of the Schweissen & Schneiden 2013 International Trade Fair and 66th IIW Annual Meeting.

48

AUGUST 2013

ters, restaurants, and conference facilities. Another attraction for locals and tourists alike is the Baldenevsee, a large water reservoir where one can stroll along the boardwalk past numerous cafs, restaurants, and beer gardens.

Also popular is the Villa Hgel, built in 1873 amid the 150-acre Hgel Park. It houses historical exhibits and is the site for special events. And, just behind the Messe exhibition complex is the 170-acre Grugapark famous for its attractive hor-

ticultural gardens of native and exotic plants. Close at hand to the showplace, it offers visitors a relaxing change of scene.

American Companies Exhibiting at the Messe Essen Trade Fair


American Torch Tip Co. Ametek Specialty Metal Products Aquasol Corp. ARCON Welding Equipment, LLC ArcOne Welding & Safety American Welding Society Bernard Welding Broco, Inc. Bug-O Systems International Cantesco/Kemper System CK Worldwide Cor-Met, Inc. Electron Beam Technologies, Inc. Esco Tool Co. The Fabricator Genstar Technologies Co., Inc. Harris Products Group Hascor USA, Inc. Hobart Brothers Co. International Thermal Spray Assn. Inweld Corp. ITW Jetline Engineering Mathey Dearman, Inc. Metal Man Work Gear Co. Miller Electric Mfg. Co National Bronze & Metal, Inc. NetBraze LLC J. P. Nissen Co. Oxford Alloys, Inc. Phoenix International PlasmaCAM Polymet Corp. Postle Industries, Inc. Pro Spot International Selectrode Industries, Inc. Sellstrom Mfg. Co. Special Metals Welding Products Co. Strong Hand Tools Sumner Mfg. Co., Inc. United States Welding Corp. Uniweld Products, Inc. Weld Engineering Co. Weld-Aid Products Weldcraft Products

WELDING WIRES MIG Welding Wires ! TIG Welding Rods ! Submerged Arc Welding Wires ! Mild Steel Welding Wires ! High Temperature & Creep Resistant Welding Wires ! Flux Cored Wire ! Aluminium Wire ! Bronze Wire ! Copper Zinc Tin Alloyed Wires ! Oxyfuel Gas Welding Rods STICK ELECTRODES Stainless Steel Electrodes ! Cast Iron Electrodes ! Hard Facing Electrodes ! Pipe Welding Electrodes ! High Strength Cryogenic Electrodes ! High Temperature & Creep Resistant Electrodes ! Corrosion Resistant Electrodes ! Heat Resistant Electrodes ! Nickel Base Electrodes SUBMERGED ARC WELDING FLUX Aluminate Rutile Fluxes ! Aluminate Basic Fluxes ! Fluorid Basic Fluxes ! Manganese Silicate and Calcium Silicate Fluxes WELDING MACHINES MIG/MAG & RECTIFIERS ! INVERTER ! TIG ! AC/DC TIG ! DC TIG ! Pulsed MIG/MAG ! Synergic MIG/MAG ! AC/MIG-MAG ! Submerged Welding Machines ! Air Plasma Cutting ! Welding Generators

SCHWEISSEN & SCHNEIDEN - 2013 International Trade Fair Joining Cutting Surfacing 16 - 21 September 2013 / Essen GERMANY

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How to Get Paid for Jobs Youve Completed


These tips can help you collect monies your business is owed
BY DON SADLER
DON SADLER (don@donsadlerwriter.com) is a freelance writer and editor who covers business and financial topics.

ost professionals in the welding industry get into the business because they are good at welding and theyre passionate about it. Many quickly discover, however, that theres a lot more to running a successful welding business than just being a good welder. The owner of a welding business wears many different hats in addition to welder. One of the most important hats, and the one that most welders are the least prepared for, is the financial hat. And a big part of wearing that hat is collecting payment for jobs after youve completed them. Getting paid can be tough its one of the hardest parts of running a welding business, said Danny Massa, vice president of D&D Mobile Welding and Fabrication, Inc., Ft. Lauderdale, Fla. You might have done a five-star job, but youre still waiting to get paid because the general contractor hasnt gotten paid yet, or because the customer is holding retainage due to something thats out of your control. For example, Massa said his company completed a $1.8 million job last summer but it is still awaiting payment of the final $200,000 thats being held due to retainage. That represents our profit on the job. Most contracts include retainage or paid-when-paid provisions if you dont like it, the customer will find somebody else for the job. Youre not the only game in town.

Keys to Collecting
Experienced owners of welding businesses say there are several keys to collecting payment from customers. The first is covering all your bases before you start the job with regard to getting contracts and purchase orders completed and signed by all parties. This is very important without the right signed paperwork, youre dead in the water when it comes to collecting, said Gilly Burrion, COO of Florida Gas Welding Supply, Hollywood, Fla. The company once had to sue a major customer to collect money owed and was able to settle with them out of court. Having all the signed paperwork in order was a big part of reaching a positive settlement, Burrion recalled. We usually create a letter of intent that describes the scope of the project before proceeding to set up the job, added Massa. Most jobs are actually done through the contractors contract, and then we attach our letter of intent to this as an addendum so its clear what our obligation is. Wyatt Swaim, CEO of WJS Consulting, Gueda Springs, Kan., echoed this point about clarifying your specific responsibilities: Be very clear up front and in writing about the specific job youre performing. Communicate every detail of your responsibilities in the purchase order or contract.

The next key is to perform credit checks on all new customers. We require a minimum of three credit references from new customers, and then we call them and ask about the customers payment patterns, said Burrion. We usually get honest and thorough replies from these references. If we find out that a customer typically pays in more than 60 days, we might not want to do business with that customer. Of course, many major customers and government agencies dictate the payment terms themselves, and welders are sometimes faced with a take-it-or-leaveit situation if they want the business. Small business owners, including welders, often aspire to land big business customers, but you have to be aware that big businesses often take a long time to pay, said Swaim.

Offering Payment Terms


Based on the results of your credit check, you may decide that a customer is COD, or you may offer them payment terms. We usually specify that payment is due within 30 days, and that interest charges will apply after this time if the payment is late, said George Rolla, an AWS Certified Welding Inspector, Educator, and Welder, and the owner of Advanced Weldtec, Inc., in Los Angeles, Calif. In most instances, if a customer hasnt paid in 60 days, they dont intend WELDING JOURNAL 51

to pay. But fortunately, this has rarely happened to us. Swaim said he offers 30-day payment terms to customers hes comfortable extending credit to, as well as a 2% discount if they pay within 10 days. But the reality is that my customers actually pay anywhere from 30 to 90 days. Most businesses nowadays play the game to stretch out their payments to vendors and suppliers as far as they can its pretty standard. Swaim said he sometimes uses a little humor with late-paying customers. He has a hand stamp that says in Dirty Harry style, Go ahead make my payment! In a few instances, he has sought help from a collection agency and taken customers to small claims court. Small claims court is easy you just file your claim and pay a small fee and then you usually get paid, because the customer sees that youre serious. But youre probably going to lose this customer, so you have to decide if its worth it. He wasnt as pleased with his experiences with collection agencies. They mostly go after deadbeat accounts that try to negotiate the debt down further, and then they take one-third of whatever is collected. Massa agreed: We dont use collection agencies theyre going to take their cut, and then things get messy with the customer. We tried it a couple of times and got nowhere. Hes willing to work with clients if they are up front about why they havent paid, like if they are having cash flow problems. Well work out a payment plan with a customer half a loaf is better than none. We try

to accommodate all of our customers, if possible. He also stresses the fact that his company is very particular about the kinds of customers it works with. We dont work with just anybody we try to pick and choose the best customers. Rolla echoes this: Im very picky about who I work with. Small welding shops and selfemployed welders are sometimes vulnerable to nonpayment if they want the business too much and feel like they cant afford to turn a job down. Unfortunately, this happens all the time.

Collecting Down Payments


Of course, the more money you can collect from customers up front, the less youll have to collect after the job is finished. All the experienced welding business owners said they collect a 50% deposit up front when they can, especially if they have to lay out money for materials and supplies. Its nearly impossible to get full payment up front, but if I can get half, thats usually pretty good, said Rolla. Massa said he has one employee dedicated to handling billing and collections. I call her my little pit bull. But there are still times when I have to call customers about late payments, and I dont have a problem with this. Swaim also said he calls customers when late payments hit the 90 day mark. But this is sometimes awkward because my relationship is with a technical per-

son or engineer, not the purchasing agent, and they dont want to get involved in payment issues. He adds what he calls an invisible PIA (pain in the ___) surcharge of maybe 5% to jobs for some customers whom he knows are going to take a long time to pay. Massa pointed out a common problem for welders when it comes to collecting payment is the fact that there are lots of middlemen involved in many jobs designers, architects, engineers, contractors, etc. We start laying out money as soon as a job starts for materials, suppliers, and employee salaries but we often dont collect any money for at least 60 days. And we dont hold any retainage. But I do negotiate better prices with my suppliers because they know theyre going to get paid by me quickly, so they have an extra incentive to get the job done on time. Fortunately, we have a strong enough cash flow to operate this way financially.

Deliver Quality and Customer Service


Finally, Rolla stresses the importance of always doing a high-quality job and delivering a high level of customer service and satisfaction when it comes to collecting payment. When customers are happy, there usually isnt a problem in collecting payment. You should also concentrate on raising your skill level so that you are in high demand, and try to get into an industry niche so you arent a dime-a-dozen welder.

Collections Tips
Here are five tips from experienced welding business owners for collecting payment after a job is complete: 1. Create an accounts receivable aging report. This will tell you which accounts are past due and how late they are so you know where to concentrate your collection efforts. It will track the payment status of all of your customers by time period (such as 030 days, 3060 days, etc.) and amounts due. 2. Act quickly. The chances of collecting payment drop quickly over time: from 74% after 90 days to about 50% after six months and just 23% after one year, according to data from the Commercial Collection Agency Association. Call or e-mail customers as soon as the payment is past due to inquire about its status. If youre friendly and nonthreatening, this will often get the problem resolved quickly. 3. Consider offering a payment plan. If the customer is having cash flow problems, you might consider negotiating a payment plan for the past-due amount. It should specify that consecutive payments of a certain amount will be made over a certain number of months ideally, the debt will be paid in full within six months. Formalize the agreement in writing and have it signed by both parties. 4. Send a past-due letter. If these steps dont yield results, you may have to get a little more serious. A past-due letter should be sent via certified mail, clearly explaining the delinquent status of the account. For example: This letter is to follow up on phone messages and e-mails regarding the past-due status of invoice #ABC. Please remit payment at once, or contact us if you have any questions about the invoice. 5. Get help from a professional. If a past-due letter gets no response, you might consider turning the account over to a collection agency. But this may threaten your future relationship with the customer, so weigh the value of the relationship against the amount of money owed to decide whether to go this route or simply write off the debt.

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AUGUST 2013

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COMING EVENTS

NOTE: A DIAMOND ( ) DENOTES AN AWS-SPONSORED EVENT.


Organized by DVS (German Welding Society). www.dvsev.de/IIW2013/. GAWDA Annual Convention. Sept. 1518. Orlando, Fla. Gases and Welding Distributors Assn. www.gawda.org. ASM Heat Treating Society Conf. and Expo. Sept. 1618. Indiana Convention Center, Indianapolis, Ind. www.asminternational.org/ content/Events/heattreat/. IIW Intl Conf. on Automation in Welding. Sept. 16, 17. Essen, Germany. www.iiw2013.com. Event in the IIW Annual Assembly. Schweissen & Schneiden 2013 Intl Trade Fair Joining, Cutting, Surfacing. Sept. 1621. Essen, Germany. Sponsored by DVS, German Welding Society. www.schweissenuschneiden.de/en/schweissen_schneiden/index.html. 9th Annual Northeast Shingo Prize Conf. Sept. 24, 25. The Resort & Conference Center at Hyannis, Hyannis, Mass. www.neshingoprize.org. POWER-GEN Brasil 2013, HydroVision Brasil, and DistribuTech Brasil. Sept. 2426. Transamerica Center, So Paulo, Brazil. www.power-gen.com. Canadian Manufacturing Technology Show (CMTS) 2013. Sept.
continued on page 57

59th Annual UA Assn. of Journeymen and Apprentices of the Plumbing and Pipefitting Industrys Instructor Training Program. Aug. 1117, Washtenaw Community College, Ann Arbor, Mich. www.visitannarbor.org/news/detail/ann-arbor-welcomes-the59th-annual-united-association-instructor-training-p. Intl Conf. on Solar Energy Materials and Energy Engineering (SEMEE2013). Sept. 1, 2. Hong Kong. www.semme-conf.org.

16th Annual Aluminum Conf. Sept. 4, 5. Chicago, Ill. Sponsored


by the American Welding Society (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 264; www.aws.org/conferences. 12th Intl Conf. on Application of Contemporary Non-Destructive Testing in Engineering. Sept. 46. Grand Hotel Metropol, Portoroz, Slovenia. Sponsored by The Slovenian Society for Non-Destructive Testing. www.fs.uni-lj.si/ndt. LPPDE-North America. Sept. 911. Savannah, Ga. Lean Product & Process Development Exchange, Inc. Address e-mail to lppde@leanfront.com. Lasers for Manufacturing Event (LME 2013). Sept. 11, 12. Schaumburg Convention Center, Schaumburg, Ill. Laser Institute of America. www.laserevent.org; lme@lia.org. 66th IIW Annual Assembly. Sept. 1117. Essen, Germany.

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Drawing on more than 50 years of welding experience, author Jack R. Barckhoff, P.E., gives you a solid step-by-step plan to manage your welding operations for maximum productivity and cost efficiency. Specific recommendations and real-life production examples illustrate how your welding team can realize productivity gains of 20 percent to 50 percent. Total Welding Management explains the management principles, structure, and details you need to transform your welding operations from a cost center into a profit center. A must-read for supervisors, managers, and executives who seek to make their welding operations more efficient and more productive. 185 pages, 35 figure, 20 tables, hardbound. Order yours today: 888-WELDING (935-3464). Outside North America: 305-824-1177. Online: www.aws.org/standards Order code: AWS TWM, $49.50
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COMING EVENTS
continued from page 54

FFA Annual Convention. Oct. 30Nov. 3, Kentucky Exposition Center, Louisville, Ky. Future Farmers of America. www.ffa.org/Pages/default.aspx. ASNT Fall Conf. and Quality Testing Show 2013. Nov. 47, Rio Hotel, Las Vegas, Nev. The American Society for Nondestructive Testing. www.asnt.org. POWER-GEN Intl Event. Nov. 1214, Orange County Convention Center, Orlando, Fla. www.power-gen.com/event-info.html.

30Oct. 3. The International Centre, 6900 Airport Rd., Mississauga, Canada. Society of Manufacturing Engineers. (888) 3227333, ext. 4426; www.cmts.ca. Brazil Welding Show 2013. Oct. 14. So Paulo, Brazil. Sponsored by DVS, German Welding Society. www.brazil-welding-show.com/. National Manufacturing Day. Oct. 4. Events held nationwide. Sponsored by Fabricators & Manufacturers Assn. To find events planned near you, visit www.mfgday.com for interactive map. ICALEO Intl Congress on Applications of Lasers & ElectroOptics. Oct. 610, Hyatt Regency Miami Resort, Miami, Fla. www.lia.org/conferences/icaleo. The Intl WorkBoat Show. Oct. 911, Morial Convention Center, New Orleans, La. www.workboatshow.com. WESTEC. Oct. 1517. Los Angeles Convention Center, Los Angeles, Calif. The Society of Manufacturing Engineers. (800) 7334763; www.westeconline.com. Canadian Intl Aluminum Conf. Oct. 2125, Palais des Congrs de Montral, Montreal, Que., Canada. www.ciacmontreal.com. 12th Inalco Intl Aluminum Conf. Oct. 21, 22, Palais des Congrs de Montral, Montreal, Que., Canada. www.inalco2013.com.

FABTECH 2013. Nov. 1821, McCormick Place, Chicago, Ill.


This exhibition is the largest event in North America dedicated to showcasing the full spectrum of metal forming, fabricating, tube and pipe, welding equipment, and myriad manufacturing technologies. American Welding Society. (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 264; www.fabtechexpo.com.

5th Thermal Spray Technology: High-Performance Surfaces.


Nov. 19. McCormick Place, Chicago, Ill. Sponsored by Intl Thermal Spray Assn., an AWS Standing Committee. itsa@thermalspray.org. American Welding Society. (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 264; www.fabtechexpo.com.

ITSA Intl Thermal Spray Assn. Annual Meeting. April


2426. Savannah, Ga. Sponsored by Intl Thermal Spray Assn., an AWS Standing Committee. itsa@thermalspray.org; www.thermalspray.org.

FABTECH India colocated with Weld India. April 1012, 2014,


Pragati Maidan Exhibition Complex, New Delhi, India. Concur-

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WELDING JOURNAL

57

rent with the 2014 Intl Congress of the IIW. Cosponsored by AWS, FMA, SME, PMA, CCAI, and India Institute of Welding. www.fabtechexpoindia.com.

Basic and Advanced Welding Courses. Cleveland, Ohio. The Lincoln Electric Co.; www.lincolnelectric.com. Basics of Nonferrous Surface Preparation. Online course, six hours includes exam. Offered on the 15th of every month by The Society for Protective Coatings. Register at www.sspc.org/training. Best Practices for High-Strength Steel Repairs. I-CAR courses for vehicle repair and steel structural technicians. www.i-car.com. Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors Training Courses and Seminars. Columbus, Ohio; (614) 888-8320; www.nationalboard.org. Canadian Welding Bureau Courses. Welding inspection courses and preparation courses for Canadian General Standards Board and Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission certifications. The CWB Group, www.cwbgroup.org. CWI/CWE Course and Exam. Troy, Ohio. A two-week preparation and exam program. Hobart Institute of Welding Technology; (800) 332-9448; www.welding.org. CWI/CWE Prep Course and Exam and NDT Inspector Training Courses. An AWS Accredited Testing Facility. Courses held yearround at 1144 N. Graham St., Allentown, Pa., and at customers facilities. Welder Training & Testing Institute; (800) 223-9884; info@wtti.edu; www.wtti.edu. CWI Preparatory and Visual Weld Inspection Courses. Classes presented in Pascagoula, Miss., Houston, Tex., and Houma and Sulphur, La. Real Educational Services, Inc. (800) 489-2890; info@realeducational.com. Consumables: Care and Optimization. Free online e-courses on the basics of plasma consumables for plasma operators, sales, and service personnel; www.hyperthermcuttinginstitute.com. Crane and Hoist Training for Operators. Konecranes Training Institute, Springfield, Ohio; (262) 821-4001; www.konecranesamericas.com. Discontinuities and Defects E-Course Seminar. Five video segments with a total run time of 70 min concluding with a test, a certificate of completion, and 1.0 continuing-education unit. Intended for anyone involved in arc weld inspection, quality control, engineering, or supervision. Hobart Institute of Welding Technology. www.welding.org/c-54-e-courses.aspx. Dust Collection Seminars. Free, full-day training on industrial ventilation basics and OSHA, EPA, and NFPA regulations. Presented throughout the year at numerous locations nationwide. Call Camfil Farr APC, (800) 479-6801. EPRI NDE Training Seminars. Training in visual and ultrasonic examination and ASME Section XI. Sherryl Stogner (704) 5476174; sstogner@epri.com. Environmental Online Webinars. Free, online, real-time seminars conducted by industry experts. For topics and schedule, visit www.augustmack.com. Environmental Training Classes in Awareness, Aboveground Storage Tanks, HazWaste Compliance, Stormwater Compliance. Courses presented in Orlando, Fla.; San Antonio, Tex.; New Orleans, La.; Nashville, Tenn.; Anchorage, Alaska; and San Diego, Calif. Contact EPA Alliance Training Group for schedules. www.epaalliance.com. Fabricators and Manufacturers Assn. and Tube and Pipe Assn. Courses. (815) 399-8775; www.fmanet.org.
continued on page 88

FABTECH 2014. Nov. 1113, Georgia World Congress Center,


Atlanta, Ga. This exhibition is the largest event in North America dedicated to showcasing the full spectrum of metal forming, fabricating, tube and pipe, welding equipment, and myriad manufacturing technologies. American Welding Society. (800/305) 4439353, ext. 264; www.fabtechexpo.com.

FABTECH 2015. Nov. 912, McCormick Place, Chicago, Ill. This


exhibition is the largest event in North America dedicated to showcasing the full spectrum of metal forming, fabricating, tube and pipe, welding equipment, and myriad manufacturing technologies. American Welding Society. (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 264; www.fabtechexpo.com.

Educational Opportunities
Aluminum Welding Technology School. Oct. 13, AlcoTec, Traverse City, Mich. For brochure and to register, visit www.alcotec.com/us/en/education/Training-Alcotec.cfm. Brazing School Fundamentals to Advanced Concepts. Oct. 2224 (Greenville, S.C.); Nov. 1921 (Simsbury, Conn.). www.kaybrazing.com/seminars.htm; dan@kaybrazing.com; (860) 651-5595. CWI Preparation Courses. Aug. 1923, Nov. 1115. D1.1 Endorsement: Aug. 23, Nov. 15; D1.5 Endorsement: Aug. 16; API Endorsement: Nov. 8. All courses and endorsements held at Welder Training & Testing Institute, 1144 N. Graham St., Allentown, Pa. www.wtti.com; (610) 820-9551, ext. 204. Fundamentals of Welding Engineering. Aug. 59, EWI, Columbus, Ohio. www.ewi.org/events; education@ewi.org. Grounding and Electrical Protection Courses. Aug. 15, 16, Chantilly, Va.; Oct. 17, 18, Albuquerque, N.Mex. Lyncole XIT Grounding, www.lyncole.com/courses; education@lyncole.com. Industrial Ventilation Training Programs. Oct. 1416, Birmingham, Ala.; March 1719, 2014, Las Vegas, Nev. For electronic copy of the brochure e-mail rdeckhoff@gmail.com. The Deep South Center for Occupational Health & Safety. Introduction to Friction Stir Welding. Nov. 6, EWI, Columbus, Ohio. www.ewi.org/events; education@ewi.org. Laser Vision Seminars. Aug. 28, 29; Oct. 2, 3; Nov. 6, 7; Dec. 4, 5. Servo-Robot, Inc. www.servorobot.com. Laser Welding and Equipment Fundamentals. Sept. 19, EWI, Columbus, Ohio. www.ewi.org/events; education@ewi.org. Modern Furnace Brazing School. Oct. 2224. Wall Colmonoy, Madison Heights, Wis. www.wallcolmonoy.com. ASM Intl Courses. Numerous classes on welding, corrosion, failure analysis, metallography, heat treating, etc., presented in Materials Park, Ohio, online, webinars, on-site, videos, and DVDs; www.asminternational.org, search for courses. Automotive Body in White Training for Skilled Trades and Engineers. Orion, Mich. A five-day course covers operations, troubleshooting, error recovery programs, and safety procedures for automotive lines and integrated cells. Applied Mfg. Technologies; (248) 409-2000; www.appliedmfg.com. 58 AUGUST 2013

CERTIFICATION SCHEDULE

CERTIFICATION SEMINARS, CODE CLINICS, AND EXAMINATIONS

Certified Welding Inspector (CWI) LOCATION SEMINAR DATES Anchorage, AK Exam only Miami, FL Sept. 1520 Idaho Falls, ID Sept. 1520 St. Louis, MO Sept. 1520 Houston, TX Sept. 1520 New Orleans, LA Sept. 2227 Fargo, ND Sept. 2227 Pittsburgh, PA Sept. 2227 Indianapolis, IN Sept. 29Oct. 4 Corpus Christi, TX Exam only Long Beach, CA Oct. 611 Tulsa, OK Oct. 611 Cedar Rapids, IA Oct. 611 Miami, FL Exam only South Plainfield, NJ Oct. 1318 Portland, OR Oct. 1318 Nashville, TN Oct. 1318 Atlanta, GA Oct. 2025 Shreveport, LA Oct. 2025 Detroit, MI Oct. 2025 Roanoke, VA Oct. 2025 Cleveland, OH Oct. 27Nov. 1 Spokane, WA Oct. 27Nov. 1 Sacramento, CA Nov. 38 Corpus Christi, TX Exam only Miami, FL Nov. 1015 Anapolis, MD Nov. 1015 Dallas, TX Nov. 1015 Chicago, IL Exam only Miami, FL Exam only Los Angeles, CA Dec. 813 Orlando, FL Dec. 813 Reno, NV Dec. 813 Houston, TX Dec. 813 St. Louis, MO Exam only

EXAM DATE Sept. 21 Sept. 21 Sept. 21 Sept. 21 Sept. 21 Sept. 28 Sept. 28 Sept. 28 Oct. 5 Oct. 12 Oct. 12 Oct. 12 Oct. 12 Oct. 17 Oct. 19 Oct. 19 Oct. 19 Oct. 26 Oct. 26 Oct. 26 Oct. 26 Nov. 2 Nov. 2 Nov. 9 Nov. 16 Nov. 16 Nov. 16 Nov. 16 Nov. 21 Dec. 5 Dec. 14 Dec. 14 Dec. 14 Dec. 14 Dec. 14

Certified Welding Supervisor (CWS) LOCATION SEMINAR DATES Miami, FL Sept. 2327 Norfolk, VA Oct. 1418 CWS exams are also given at all CWI exam sites.

EXAM DATE Sept. 28 Oct. 19

Certified Radiographic Interpreter (CRI) LOCATION SEMINAR DATES EXAM DATE Chicago, IL Sept. 2327 Sept. 28 Pittsburgh, PA Oct. 1418 Oct. 19 The CRI certification can be a stand-alone credential or can exempt you from your next 9-Year Recertification. Certified Welding Sales Representative (CWSR) CWSR exams will be given at CWI exam sites.

Certified Welding Educator (CWE) Seminar and exam are given at all sites listed under Certified Welding Inspector. Seminar attendees will not attend the Code Clinic portion of the seminar (usually the first two days).

Certified Robotic Arc Welding (CRAW) The course dates are followed by the location and phone number. Dec. 913 at ABB, Inc., Auburn Hills, MI; (248) 3918421 Aug. 1923, Dec. 26 at Genesis-Systems Group, Davenport, IA; (563) 445-5688 Oct. 14 at Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, OH; (216) 383-8542 Oct. 2125 at OTC Daihen, Inc., Tipp City, OH; (937) 667-0800 Training: Sept. 2325, Nov. 1820 Exams: Sept. 2627, Nov. 2122 at Wolf Robotics, Fort Collins, CO; (970) 225-7736 On request at MATC, Milwaukee, WI; (414) 297-6996

9Year Recertification Seminar for CWI/SCWI (No exams given.) For current CWIs and SCWIs needing to meet education requirements without taking the exam. The exam can be taken at any site listed under Certified Welding Inspector. LOCATION SEMINAR DATES Denver, CO Sept. 1520 Dallas, TX Oct. 611 New Orleans, LA Oct. 27Nov. 1 Seattle, WA Nov. 38 Miami, FL Dec. 813

IMPORTANT: This schedule is subject to change without notice. Applications are to be received at least six weeks prior to the seminar/exam or exam. Applications received after that time will be assessed a $250 Fast Track fee. Please verify application deadline dates by visiting our website www.aws.org/certification/docs/schedules.html. Verify your event dates with the Certification Dept. to confirm your course status before making travel plans. For information on AWS seminars and certification programs, or to register online, visit www.aws.org/certification or call (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 273, for Certification; or ext. 455 for Seminars. Apply early to avoid paying the $250 Fast Track fee.

60

AUGUST 2013

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WELDING WORKBOOK

Datasheet 342

Purpose of Shielding Gases and Gas Properties


The purpose of shielding gases is to promote a desirable weldment or cut and to protect the molten metal from atmospheric contamination. The basic properties of gases as related to the performance of the welding or cutting process include ionization potential, thermal properties, and reactivity. The following are specific property descriptions: Ionization Potential. Ionization potential is the energy necessary to remove an electron from a gas atom (Table 1). The ionization potential of a gas at arc temperatures influences the arc voltage as well as the thermal energy delivered to the weld. As ionization potential increases, greater welding voltage is necessary to sustain the arc. The ionization potential of helium (24.5 eV) is much higher than that of argon (15.7 eV); therefore, it is easier to start an arc with argon shielding. Thermal Conductivity. The thermal conductivity of a gas is its ability to conduct heat. Argon, which has a low thermal conductivity, produces an arc that has a narrow hot core and a cooler outer zone. Helium has a high thermal conductivity and conducts heat outward from the core producing a broader plasma and more even heat distribution. Reactivity. Reactivity, as it applies to shielding gases, is a comparative measurement of how readily a given shielding gas will react with the molten weld metal. Argon and helium are inert, and therefore have no effect on the weld metal. The following gases react with metals, and their properties are listed: Hydrogen, a reducing gas, will preferentially react with metallic oxides of the molten weld metal, thereby helping to prevent oxide inclusion; however, when used on hardenable steels, this shielding gas can produce some adverse effects, such as underbead or hydrogen-induced cracking. Oxygen and carbon dioxide fall into a category of reactive gases known as oxidizers; they will react with the molten metal in the arc and in the weld pool to form oxides.
Table 1 Properties of Gases Properties Density(2) Liquid Density(3) Heat of Vaporization(5) Boiling Point(7) Thermal Conductivity(8) Ionization Potential Molecular Weight Notes: (1) Flammable limits of hydrogen: in air, 4.174.2% (vol); in O2, 4.793.9% (vol). (2) At 70F [21C] and 1 atm. (3) At boiling point. (4) Saturated liquid at 1.7F [16.8C]. (5) All at boiling point except CO2. (6) Liquid CO2 at 300 lb/in.2 [2.07 MPa] and 1.7F [16.8C]. (7) All at 1 atm except CO2 at sublimation point. (8) All at 32F [0C] except CO2 at 77F [25C]. Units lb/ft3 [kg/m3] lb/ft3 [kg/m3] Btu/lb [KJ/kg] F [C] Btu/h ft F [watt/m K] eV Argon 0.103 [1.656] 86.98 [1394] 69.7 [162.0] 302.6 [185.9] 0.0094 [0.0153] 15.7 39.94 Helium 0.0103 [0.1656] 7.803 [125] 8.77 [20.4] 452.0 [268.9] 0.0886 [0.1532] 24.5 4.003 Hydrogen(1) 0.0052 [0.0834] 4.28 [68.6] 192.7 [448.2] 423.0 [252.7] 0.1008 [0.175] 13.5 2.016 Carbon Dioxide 0.114 [1.833] 63.3(4) [1014] 119.3(6) [276.8] 109.3 [78.5] 0.0093 [0.0162] 14.4 44.01 Nitrogen 0.0725 [1.1605] 50.9 [808.8] 85.6 [149.1] 320.4 [195.8] 0.0147 [0.0254] 14.5 28.013 Oxygen 0.0828 [1.326] 51.22 [820.5] 91.7 [213.0] 297.3 [183.0] 0.0149 [0.0258] 13.2 31.99

Nitrogen, when exposed to elevated temperatures associated with welding, will react with metallic elements to form nitrides. Nitrogen will cause porosity and loss of toughness in ferritic (carbon steel, low-alloy, and alloy steel) welds. Nitrogen can dissolve in nominally austenitic and duplex stainless steel weld metals, and, as an alloy element, it reduces ferrite content. Properties of Shielding Gases. Argon (Ar) is denser than air, chemically inert, colorless and odorless both as a gas and as a liquid, and constitutes slightly less than 1% of the earths atmosphere. It promotes good arc initiation due to its low ionization potential. Helium (He), the second least dense known element, is chemically inert and less soluble in liquids than any other gas. It is used either alone or in combination with other gases for several welding, cutting, and purging applications and processes. Hydrogen (H2), the least dense known element, is chemically active. Its high heat conductivity makes its mixtures useful in selected welding and cutting applications. Be aware that hydrogen is a highly flammable gas and a mixture of hydrogen with oxygen or air in a confined area will explode when brought in contact with a flame or other source of ignition. Oxygen (O2), which is denser than air, accounts for 50% of the earths crust and 21% by volume, of the atmosphere. It vigorously supports combustion and combines with practically all known elements except the inert gases. Additions of small percentages of oxygen to inert gases influence process characteristics of gas metal arc and flux cored arc welding. Carbon dioxide (CO2), which is denser than air, is a colorless gas with a faintly pungent odor and somewhat acidic taste. While most reactive gases cannot be used alone for shielding, carbon dioxide is an exception. It is used extensively alone and as a component of gas mixtures. Alone it cannot produce the spray transfer mode with gas metal arc welding. Only argon mixtures containing <20% CO2 will produce the spray transfer mode.

Excerpted from AWS C5.10/C5.10M: 2003, Recommended Practices for Shielding Gases for Welding and Cutting. 62 AUGUST 2013

www.aws.org/w/a/certification/index.html www w.aws.org/w/a/certification/index.html .aws.org .

AWS CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS


The certification programs developed by the American Welding Society are designed to distinguish highly-skilled members of our industry as the best in their field. Because AWS accreditation is widely recognized, domestically and globally, being certified by AWS in your field can be your first step toward significant professional advancement and increased business opportunities. Many companies have enjoyed success with AWS certified individuals, and look to continue to, because of the assurance of quality workmanship and skill that an AWS certification brings. Agentes Internacionais de Certificao autorizados pela AWS
Associao Brasileira de Soldagem (ABS) Rua Dr. Guilherme Bannitz 126 cj 42 Itaim Bibi, So Paulo, SP 04532-060 Tel: +(55) 11 3045-5040 Fax: 11 3045-8578 www.abs-soldagem.org.br d.almeida@abs-soldagem.org.br marta@abs-soldagem.org.br

The Certification programs for individuals are:


Certified
  

Welding W elding Inspector

CWE WE E CRI RI I

- Certified We Welding elding Ed Educator ucator

SCWI - Senior Certified Welding We elding Inspector  CWI - Certified Welding Welding Inspector Inspector


- Certified Radiographic Interpreter - Certified Welding We elding S Sales ales Representative - Certified Robotic Arc rc We W Welding elding Operator - Certified We Welding elding Engineer

CA CAWI WI - Certified Associate Welding We eld elding Inspector

CWSR WSR R CRA CRAW W

With three ree dif different fferent f levels of certific certification according with the education and continuing experience of the inspector , this is the most widely recognized and inspector, internationally popular certification of ffered f WS. offered by A AWS.

CWEng WEng g CW W

- Certified We Welder elder

An A WS certification can help you disti nguish yourself from the pack and begin your AWS distinguish ascension into a growing industry with a career that can be rewarding as well as fulfilling. If you would like to take the initiative , getting certified by AWS AWS is the way to go! initiative,

In addition to certifying individuals, AWS AW WS also has programs pro designed for companies:

W Welders elders

Certification

Accreditation of International Quality

Robotic

Operators Certification

AWS In todays competitive and uncertain professional climate, an A WS certification gives you an edge. The AWS marketplace will recognize your A WS credentials as an attestation of the skills, experience and knowledge that you industry. and your team have gained through your years in the welding industry . The industry will recognize that your company has the resources, procedures and personnel required to obtain and uphold one of our certifications.

Our industry is moving toward the future: Make sure you are a part of it. Get an A WS certification now! AWS

A An nA Association ssocia ation of W Welding elding M Manufacturers anufacturers

A WEMCO Ima Image ge of fW Welding eld elding ld Initia Initiative tive


W We e ask that you speak fr from om your heart about your job and share share what you like about the industry. industry.
By: Jim Horvath, Victor Victo i tor T Technologies, echnologies, e h l i Inc. I mittee Chair, Chair r, Image of W elding e WEMCO Subcommittee Welding

The The W Weld eld and nd Shine Pr Program, ogram,

CALL FOR V VOLUNTEERS OLUNTEERS

An Open Letter T To o The W Welding elding Industry


As everyone should be aware, suffering from a lack our industry is suf ffering f of young entrants into the welding industry industry. . This is evident in all facets of our industry industry, , from hands-on welding to the many business Jim Horvath disciplines related to welding. The barrier to entry into our industry is low low, , with welding programs readily available through vocational schools as well as many distributors throughout the country country, , we are still not seeing the level of new recruits that we would expect. At the request of WEMCO, the American We Welding eld elding Society has been tasked with providing volunteers with a presentation that promotes our industry to students and young professionals pursuing a career in welding. This presentation can be shared with junior colleges, teacher PTA associations, PT TA mee meetings, guidance counselors, and any other groups that have some influence over career choices of our younger generation. Youre Whats Y oure o probably asking as yourself at this point, What s dif different ff ferent about this p program that hasn hasnt t been done before? We Well, ell, the ans answer is YOU! We e ask that you speak s from your heart about your

industry. job and share what you like about the industry . The key to success of the "Weld Weld and Shine" program is to get as many members of the welding community in front of these groups as possible. The effort Your our ef ffort f on your part p is minimal. Y o role will wil be to show the presentation, engage the audience in questions, and provide information about your career in the welding industry. . Whatever your position may be, whether sales, industry marketing, hands-on welding, counter sales, etc., we hope you will share with these groups the many opportunities available in welding. In conjunction with developing the presentation, the American Welding We elding eld Society is asking you to join our Speakers Speaker s Bureau. The list of speakers will be available to the aforementioned groups. Y You ou o will not be asked to community. travel any distance outside your community . If youre not available for a presentation, we understand, but hope you can participate as other opportunities arise. Please industry, join me in giving some of your time back to our industry , which has provided us with the opportunity to raise families, send our children to college, and enjoy the benefits of employment.

To T o learn more about ab bout the Weld We eld and Shine Program, please contact the WEMCO Management Specialist Ms. Keila DeMoraes 305.443.9353 ext. 444 or via email kdemoraes@aws.org

SOCIETYNEWS
BY HOWARD WOODWARD woodward@aws.org

D. Fred Bovie Library Rededicated at AWS World Headquarters


Lou Bovie represented her late husband D. Fred Bovie June 14 at the rededication of the welding library and conference room named in his honor at AWS World Headquarters in Miami, Fla. Joining Mrs. Bovie in the ribbon-cutting ceremony were Gerald Uttrachi, chairman of the AWS Foundation board of trustees, and an AWS past president; Sam Gentry, executive director, AWS Foundation; and Ray Shook, AWS executive director. Originally dedicated in 2001 at the Societys former headquarters location on LeJeune Road, the D. Fred Bovie Library and Museum was established to enable visitors to peruse welding-related literature, memorabilia, and historical artifacts. An AWS Life Member, D. Fred Bovie served on the AWS Foundation board and was its first Trustee Emeritus. He offered scholarships through The Ohio State University for students pursuing welding-related degrees. For 27 years, Bovie worked at Airco where he served as vice president and general manager for the arc equipment and filler metal business. In 1980, he joined Alloy Rods Corp. where he served as president until ESAB purchased the company; he then served as president and chief executive of the ESAB Group, Inc., until he retired.

Shown at the D. Fred Bovie Library ribbon-cutting ceremony are (from left) Sam Gentry, Gerald Uttrachi, Lou Bovie, and Ray Shook. Inset: The D. Fred Bovie Library wall plaque.

Nominations Sought for National Officers


AWS members who wish to nominate candidates for President, Vice President, and Director-at-Large on the AWS Board of Directors for the term starting Jan. 1, 2015, may 1. Send their nominations electronically by Oct. 8, 2013, to Gricelda Manalich at gricelda@aws.org, c/o W. A. Rice, chairman, National Nominating Committee; or 2. Present their nominations in person at the open session of the National Nominating Committee meeting scheduled for 2:00 to 3:00 P.M., Tuesday, Nov. 19, 2013, during FABTECH 2013 at McCormick Place, Chicago, Ill. Nominations must be accompanied by biographical material on each candidate, including a written statement by the candidate as to his or her willingness and ability to serve if nominated and elected, letters of support, plus a 5- 7-in. head-and-shoulders color photograph. Note: Persons who present their nominations at the Show must provide 20 copies of the biographical materials and written statement.

WELDING JOURNAL

65

Tech Topics
Errata: D1.4/D1.4M:2011 Structural Welding Code Reinforcing Steel Page 40, Figure 6.5 (c), the 8 in the formula should read B. Correct the formula to read: LMIN = 2L1 + 16D + B Official Interpretation AWS A5.26/A5.26M-97 Specification for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Electrogas Welding AWS Log: A5.26/A5.26M-97-I01 Inquiry: If a manufacturer of self-shielded electrogas electrodes does not manufacture a 0.120-in. (3.0-mm) wire, then can they classify their electrode based on the use of a 332-in. (2.4-mm) size (if that is the closest size produced) using their recommended procedure appropriate for that size, which could require use of a beveled joint? Response: Yes Official Interpretation AWS A5.01M/A5.01:2008 (ISO 14344:2002 MOD) Procurement Guidelines for Consumables Welding and Allied Processes Flux and Gas Shielded Electrical Welding Processes Inquiry: Is analysis of weld metal chemical composition sufficient to satisfy that all wet mixes within the lot are equivalent per AWS A5.01 controlled chemical composition? Response: No.

Revised Standard Approved by ANSI D1.2/D1.2M:2013, Structural Welding Code Aluminum. Approved 6/11/13. Standards for Public Review AWS-NAVSEA B2.1-1-302-20XX, Welding Procedure Specification for Naval Applications (SWPS-N): Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Carbon Steel (S-1), 18 through 112 Inch Thick, MIL-7018-M, AsWelded or PWHT Condition, Primarily Plate and Structural Naval Applications. New, $9, 8/5/13. A. Diaz, adiaz@aws.org. AWS-NAVSEA B2.1-1-312-20XX, Welding Procedure Specification for Naval Applications (SWPS-N): Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Carbon Steel (S-1), 18 through 112 Inch Thick, MIL-7018-M, AsWelded or PWHT Condition, Primarily Pipe for Naval Applications. New, $9, 8/5/13. A. Diaz, adiaz@aws.org. D15.1/D15.1M:20XX-AMD1, Railroad Welding Specification for Cars and Locomotives. Amendment, $129, 7/15/13 (3rd BSR-8). S. Borrero, sborrero@aws.org. B2.1/B2.1M:20XX , Specification for Welding Procedure and Performance Qualification. Revised, $121, 7/29/13 (2nd BSR8). A. Diaz, adiaz@aws.org. AWS was approved as an accredited standards-preparing organization by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in 1979. AWS rules, as approved

by ANSI, require that all standards be open to public review for comment during the approval process. The above standards are submitted for public review with the expiration dates shown. A draft copy may be obtained from the Staff Secretary listed with the document. ISO Standards In the United States, if you wish to participate in the development of International Standards for welding, contact A. Davis, adavis@aws.org. New Standards Projects Development work has begun to revise the following two standards. Affected individuals are invited to contribute to their development. Contact Staff Secretary S. Borrero, sborrero@aws.org; ext. 334. Participation on AWS Technical Committees is open to all persons. A2.4:20XX, Standard Symbols for Welding, Brazing, and Nondestructive Examination. This standard establishes a method for specifying certain welding, brazing, and nondestructive examination information using symbols, including the examination method, frequency, and extent. Detailed information and examples are provided for the construction and interpretation of the symbols. Stakeholders: Engineers, students, welders, educators,

designers, and manufacturers. A3.0M/A3.0:20XX, Standard Terms and Definitions, including Terms for Adhesive Bonding, Brazing, Soldering, Thermal Cutting, and Thermal Spraying. This document is a glossary of the technical terms, both standard and nonstandard, used in the welding industry, arranged alphabetically. Its purpose is to establish standard terms to aid in the communication of welding information. Stakeholders: Engineers, educators, students, welders, program managers, government agencies, and those in the automotive, aerospace, plastics, structural, marine, and shipbuilding industries. Technical Committee Meetings All AWS technical committee meetings are open to the public. Persons wishing to attend a meeting should e-mail the committee secretary listed. Aug. 7, Committee on Personnel and Facilities Qualification. Pittsburgh, Pa. S. Hedrick, steve@aws.org. Sept. 10, D15 Committee on Railroad Welding. Smyrna, Ga. S. Borrero, sborrero@aws.org. Sept. 10, D15A Subcommittee on Cars and Locomotives. Smyrna, Ga. S. Borrero, sborrero@aws.org. Sept. 26, 27, C1 Committee on Resistance Welding. Columbus, Ohio. E. Abrams, eabrams@aws.org.

Candidates Sought for Annual Masubuchi Award


November 1, 2013, is the deadline for submitting nominations for the 2014 Prof. Koichi Masubuchi Award. This award includes a $5000 honorarium. It is presented each year to one person, 40 years old or younger, who has made significant contributions to the ad66 AUGUST 2013 vancement of materials joining through research and development. Nominations should include a description of the candidates experience, list of publications, honors, and awards, and at least three letters of recommendation from fellow researchers. The award is sponsored by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Dept. of Ocean Engineering. E-mail your nomination package to Todd A. Palmer , assistant professor, The Pennsylvania State University, tap103@psu.edu.

Thermal Spray Association Members Convene in Utah

Shown are several International Thermal Spray Association members and guests during their tour of the Snow Basin Resort, home of the 2002 Olympic Winter Games. The International Thermal Spray Association (ITSA), a Standing Committee of the American Welding Society, held its annual membership meeting and technical program June 68 in Ogden, Utah. A professional industrial association, ITSA is dedicated to expanding the use of thermal spray technologies for the benefit of industry and society. The Association is closely interwoven with the history of thermal spray development in this hemisphere. Founded in 1948, and once known as Metallizing Service Contractors, it has been closely tied to almost all major advances in thermal spray technology, equipment, and materials, industry events, education, standards, and market development in North and South America. A company-member industrial association, ITSA invites all potential member companies to talk with its officers, committee members, and company representatives to better understand member benefits. A complete list of ITSA member companies, their products and services, and their representatives can be reviewed at www.thermalspray.org. Mark your calendar: Nov. 1820, 2013: Visit the Thermal Spray Pavilion and Conference to be held during FABTECH in Chicago, Ill. April 2426, 2014: The next ITSA annual meeting will be held in Savannah, Ga.

Opportunities to Serve on AWS Technical Committees


Volunteers are sought to contribute to the following technical committees. Visit www.aws.org/technical/jointechcomm.html. Safety and Health Committee seeks educators, users, general interest, and consultants. S. Hedrick, steveh@aws.org. Oxyfuel gas welding and cutting, C4 Committee seeks educators, general interest and end users; Friction welding, C6 Committee seeks professionals; High energy beam welding and cutting, C7 Committee seeks professionals. Robotic and automatic welding, D16 Committee seeks general interest and educational members. C. Lewis, clewis@aws.org. Magnesium alloy filler metals, A5L Subcommittee seeks professionals. R. Gupta, gupta@aws.org. Local heat treating of pipe, D10P Subcommittee seeks professionals; Mechanical testing of welds, B4 Committee seeks professionals. B. McGrath, bmcgrath@aws.org. Reactive Alloys, G2D Subcommittee seeks volunteers; Titanium and zirconium filler metals, A5K Subcommittee seeks professionals; Welding qualifications, B2B Subcommittee seeks members; Friction stirwelding of aluminum alloys for aerospace applications, D17J Subcommittee seeks members. A. Diaz, adiaz@aws.org. Resistance welding equipment, J1 Committee seeks educators, general interest, and users; Thermal spraying and automotive welding, the D8 and C2 Committees seek educators, general interest, and end users; Machinery and equipment, Surfacing and reconditioning of industrial mill rolls, D 1 4 and D14H Committees seek professionals. E. Abrams, eabrams@aws.org.

Name Your Candidates for These AWS Awards


The deadline for nominating candidates for the following awards is December 31 prior to the year of the awards presentations. Contact Wendy Sue Reeve, wreeve@aws.org; (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 293. tions with industry and other organizations, and for contribuWilliam Irrgang Memorial Award tions of time and effort on behalf of the Society. This award is given to the individual who has done the most George E. Willis Award over the past five years to enhance the Societys goal of advancThis award is given to an individual who promoted the ading the science and technology of welding. It includes a $2500 vancement of welding internationally by fostering cooperahonorarium and a certificate. tive participation in technology transfer, standards rationaliHonorary Membership Award zation, and promotion of industrial goodwill. It includes a This award acknowledges eminence in the welding profession, $2500 honorarium. or one who is credited with exceptional accomplishments in the International Meritorious Certificate Award development of the welding art. Honorary Members have full This honor recognizes recipients significant contributions to rights of membership. the welding industry for service to the international welding comNational Meritorious Certificate Award munity in the broadest terms. The award consists of a certificate This award recognizes the recipients counsel, loyalty, and and a one-year AWS membership. dedication to AWS affairs, assistance in promoting cordial relaWELDING JOURNAL 67

Member-Get-A-Member Campaign Final Results


Congratulations to Michael Pelegrino and Huck Hughes, 20122013 MGM Campaign winners for recruiting the most new Individual Members and most new Winners Circle Sponsored 20 or more Individual Members per year since June 1, 1999. The superscript denotes the number of times the status was achieved if more than once. E. Ezell, Mobile11 J. Compton, San Fernando Valley7 J. Merzthal, Peru2 G. Taylor, Pascagoula2 L. Taylor, Pascagoula2 B. Chin, Auburn S. Esders, Detroit M. Haggard, Inland Empire M. Karagoulis, Detroit S. McGill, NE Tennessee B. Mikeska, Houston M. Pelegrino, Chicago W. Shreve, Fox Valley T. Weaver, Johnstown/Altoona G. Woomer, Johnstown/Altoona R. Wray, Nebraska Presidents Guild Sponsored 20+ new Individual Members M. Pelegrino, Chicago 36 E. Ezell, Mobile 32 Presidents Roundtable Sponsored 919 new Individual Members R. Fulmer, Twin Tiers 10 W. Blamire, Atlanta 9 A. Tous, Costa Rica 9 P. Strother, New Orleans 9 Presidents Club Sponsored 38 new Individual Members D. Galiher, Detroit 7 W. Komlos, Utah 7 J. Smith, San Antonio 6 C. Becker, Northwest 5 R. Thacker Jr., Oklahoma City 5 L. Webb, Lexington 4 D. Wright, Kansas City 4 T. Baber, San Fernando Valley 3 J. Bain, Mobile 3 A. Bernard, Sabine 3 J. Blubaugh, Detroit 3 P. Brown, New Orleans 3 D. Buster, Eastern Iowa 3 C. Daon, Israel Section 3 G. Gammill, NE Mississippi 3 B. Hackbarth, Milwaukee 3 S. Jaycox, Long Island 3 D. Jessop, Mahoning Valley 3 D. Saunders, Lakeshore 3 T. Sumerix, Dayton 3 J. Turcott, Rochester 3 A. Winkle, Kansas City 3 R. Wright, San Antonio 3 R. Zabel, SE Nebraska 3 68 AUGUST 2013 Student Members, respectively. Listed below are the members participating in the 20122013 campaign. Standings as of June 1. See page 81 of this Welding JourPresidents Honor Roll Sponsored 2 Individual Members G. Cornell, St. Louis M. Depuy, Portland M. Douville, Central Mass./R.I. V. Facchiano, Lehigh Valley D. Hayes Jr., Louisville J. Helfrich, Tri-River P. Host, Chicago H. Hughes, Mahoning Valley J. Kline, Northern New York L. Kvidahl, Pascagoula W. Larry, Southern Colorado G. Lawrence, N. Central Florida J. Mansfield, Philadelphia E. Norman, Ozark A. Sam, Trinidad C. Shepherd, Houston T. Shirk, Tidewater G. Solomon, Central Pennsylvania A. Sumal, British Columbia R. Udy, Utah C. Villarreal, Houston J. Vincent, Kansas City A. Vogt, New Jersey J. Vorstenbosch, International B. Wahmuth, Puget Sound M. Wheeler, Cleveland L. William, Western Carolina W. Wilson, New Orleans J. Winston, St. Louis Student Member Sponsors Sponsored 4+ new Student Members H. Hughes, Mahoning Valley 106 A. Theriot, New Orleans 47 B. Scherer, Cincinnati 39 D. Saunders, Lakeshore 36 W. England, W. Michigan 33 R. Munns, Utah 33 R. Zabel, SE Nebraska 33 R. Bulthouse, Western Michigan 31 D. Pickering, Central Arkansas 31 R. Gilmer, Houston 29 T. Rivera, Corpus Christi 29 R. Hammond, Greater Huntsville 28 A. Stute, Madison-Beloit 28 T. Geisler, Pittsburgh 24 S. Siviski, Maine 24 B. Cheatham, Columbia 23 C. Kochersperger, Philadelphia 23 M. Arand, Louisville 22 V. Facchiano, Lehigh Valley 22 R. Hutchinson, Long Bch./Or. Cty. 22 D. Bastian, Northwestern Pa. 21 G. Gammill, NE Mississippi 21 J. Falgout, Baton Rouge 20 F. Oravets, Pittsburgh 20 G. Seese, Johnstown-Altoona 20 J. Theberge, Boston 20 nal for campaign rules and prize list or visit www.aws.org/mgm. For information, call the Membership Dept. (800/305) 4439353, ext. 480. J. Johnson, Madison-Beloit 19 R. Richwine, Indiana 19 K. Temme, Philadelphia 19 S. Lindsey, San Diego 17 J. Russell, Fox Valley 17 M. Anderson, Indiana 16 R. Fuller, Green & White Mts. 16 E. Norman, Ozark 16 A. Oberman, Ozark 16 C. Donnell, NW Ohio 14 J. Kline, Northern New York 13 G. Smith, Lehigh Valley 13 D. Schnalzer, Lehigh Valley 13 T. Sumerix, Dayton 12 C. Daily, Puget Sound 12 J. Daugherty, Louisville 12 C. Morris, Sacramento 12 S. Robeson, Cumberland Valley 12 J. Ciaramitaro, N. Central Florida 11 K. Cox, Palm Beach 11 A. Duron, New Orleans 11 J. Boyer, Lancaster Section 10 G. Seese, Johnstown-Altoona 10 R. Vann, South Carolina 10 C. Schiner, Wyoming 9 R. Udy, Utah 9 C. Galbavy, Idaho/Montana 8 C. Gilbertson, Northern Plains 8 J. Dawson, Pittsburgh 7 A. Badeaux, Washington, D.C. 6 T. Buckler, Columbus 6 S. Caldera, Portland 6 J. Elliott, Houston 6 T. Shirk, Tidewater 6 J. Grossman, Central Michigan 5 P. Host, Chicago 5 R. Ledford, Birmingham 5 R. Maxwell, Wheeling 5 T. Miller, Wyoming 5 G. Rolla, L.A./Inland Empire 5 G. Siepert, Kansas 5 P. Strother, New Orleans 5 W. Wilson, New Orleans 5 C. Chifici, New Orleans 4 L. Clark, Milwaukee 4 J. Ginther, International 4 C. Griffin, Tulsa 4 L. Gross, Milwaukee 4 J. Johnson, Northern Plains 4 J. Reed, Ozark 4 C. Renfro, Chattanooga 4 E. Shreve, Pittsburgh 4 P. Strother, New Orleans 4 R. Zadroga, Philadelphia 4

New AWS Supporters


Sustaining Member Companies
Abeka Celik A.S. - Abeka Steel Co. Samsun Merkez Osb Vali Erdogan, Cebeci Cad., No: 30 Tekkekoy, Samsun, Turkey Representative: Zubeyir Mustafa Cakir www.abeka.com.tr Abeka Steel is a fabricator of structural steel and bridges. It designs and constructs according to customers specifications. Chemetics, Inc. 2001 Clements Rd. Pickering, ON L1W 4C2, Canada Representative: Darryl Madussi www.jacobs.com Chemetics, Inc., designs and fabricates shell and tube heat exchangers and vessels for the petrochemical and chemical industries and also operates sulfuric and nitric acid plants. Located in the Toronto area since 1970, its state-of-the-art manufacturing shop in Pickering, Ont., opened in 2009. Craig Technical Consulting, Inc. dba Craig Technologies 8550 Astronaut Blvd. Cape Canaveral, FL 32920 Representative: Colleen Watson Picco www.craigtechinc.com Craig Technologies offers design-toproduction capability that includes specialty manufacturing, custom avionics, precision machining and fabrication, and test and evaluation services in support of the aerospace and defense industries. Certified to ISO 9001/AS9100 and ITAR compliant, the company is staffed with experienced engineers and certified technicians. Durus Industrial, LLC PO Box 12528, Tempe, AZ 85284 Representative: Lacee Dodge www.jacobs.com Guntner de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. Av. Rogelio Gonzlez Caballero # 1000 Parque Industrial Stiva Aeropuerto Apodaca, N.L. C.P. 66600, Mexico Representative: Michel Castruita www.guentner.com.mx Hardesty & Hanover, LLC 1501 Broadway, 3rd Fl. New York, NY 10036 Representative: Keith Griesing www.hardesty-hanover.com NuWeld, Inc., is a complete engineering, procurement, and construction contractor specializing in welding fabrication for nuclear safety/nonsafety-related work, complete natural gas distribution, ongoing inspection, and postproject maintenance. Precision Cut Industries 115 Ram Drive, Hanover, PA 17331 Representative: Justin Kline www.precisioncut.com

PECo Process Equipment Co. 6555 S. State Rte. 202 Tipp City, OH 45371 Representative: Attridge Gordon www.peco-us.com PECo is a robotic arc welding solution J. B. Testing, Inc. provider with more than 65 years of auto1537 92nd Ln. NE, Blaine, MN 55449 mated machine-building experience. Its inRepresentative: Jeff Boisvert house manufacturing capabilites can prowww.jbtesting.com vide everything from system positioning J. B. Testing, Inc., an ISO-approved lab, components to complete, custom solutions has offered metallographic testing services to best fit each customers requirements. for 26 years. Its methods include magnetic particle, penetrant, ultrasonic, visual, digiRasmussen Mechanical Services tal X-ray, eddy current, surface temper etch, 3215 Nebraska Ave. hardness, and computer-controlled tensile Council Bluffs, IA 51501 and hydrostatic pressure testing. Representative: Greg Schroeter www.rasmech.com Martin Sprocket & Gear, Inc. Rasmussen Mechanical Services pro3600 McCart Ave., Fort Worth, TX 76110 vides mechanical construction and heating, Representative: Butch Rodgers ventilation, and air-conditioning services www.martinsprocket.com throughout the Midwest. It offers sheet metal, boiler, and burner repair services, NuWeld, Inc. and a wholesale parts department. The com2600 Reach Rd., Williamsport, PA 17701 pany is dedicated to providing responsive, Representative: Michele March high-quality, and cost-effective solutions for www.nuweldinc.com its customers. RDR Energy Resources Rte. 6, Box 662, Clarksburg, WV 26301 Rock River Steel 8976 N. 2200 Ave., Genesco, IL 61254 Schweizer Dipple, Inc. 7227 Division St. Oakwood Village, OH 44146 Supporting Companies Elgin Sweeper 1300 W. Bartlett Rd., Elgin, IL 60120 KAT Industries, Inc. 5209 SW 23 St., Oklahoma City, OK 73128 Stork Technical Services 12144 Dairy Ashford Rd., Ste. 300 Sugar Land, TX 77478 Educational Institutions Community College of Denver 6221 Downing St. (rear building) Denver, CO 80216 Gogebic Community College E. 4946 Jackson Rd., Ironwood, MI 49938 AWS Member Counts July 1, 2013 Sustaining ......................................589 Supporting .....................................335 Educational ...................................617 Affiliate..........................................521 Welding Distributor........................52 Total Corporate ..........................2,114 Individual .................................58,878 Student + Transitional .................8,710 Total Members .........................67,588 WELDING JOURNAL 69 Laurus Technical Institute 4801 Fulton Ind. Blvd., Atlanta, GA 30336 Orange County Inspections 5316 E. Playano Ave., Orange, CA 92867 Quinlan ISD 401 East Richmond, Quinlan, TX 75474 Shawnee Community College 8364 College Rd., Ullin, IL 62992 Sunshine Bible Academy 400 Sunshine Dr., Miller, SD 57362

Affiliate Companies 21st Management Corp. PO Box 9206, Paducah, KY 42002 Accutech Mfg., Inc. 13109 Los Nietos Rd. Santa Fe Springs, CA 90670 Acutech, LLC 3816 Hwy. 40, Columbia Falls, MT 59912 Bombay Amusement Ride P Ltd. 303 Cliff Tower 3rd Cross Ln. Lokhandwala Andheri (W) Mumbai Maharashtra 400053, India Hero Protective Alloys, Inc. 400 Watt Dr., Fairfield, CA 94534 Kasal Engineering Services, Ltd. 2 Court 4 Junction off Ogunu Rd. POB 2076, Delta State, Warri, Nigeria Northeast Welding 302 Reservoir, North Attleboro, MA 02760 Powers Built Structures, Inc. POB 479, Hudson, TX 80642

Tips for Improving Section Operations


A District Director shares some fresh ideas for solving common problems
BY JOHN BRAY, District 18 director Wherever I go or whoever I speak to about the challenges facing AWS Sections, I hear the same concerns. I have found that attending a number of Section meetings and District conferences outside of my own District has been invaluable for learning just how others are tackling these problems. The following is what Ive learned from my fellow AWS Members across the country. The Board. An enthusiastic board makes a great foundation for attracting and holding new members. The chairman should be a good organizer who communicates well with inspectors, educators, factory reps, welding supply salespeople, and students. Member Retention. Being able to keep the old guard active and adding members from the younger generation of professionals is the real key. Acting on newcomers novel ideas and prospectives can make a real impact. When visitors are asked to participate at the meeting theyll likely become more interested in attending the next meeting and staying involved. Holiday parties and picnics involving spouses and the kids are excellent events for showing recognition for the members achievements, relaxing, and building member ties. Communications. The publicity chair should utilize a variety of technologies to stay in frequent contact with the members. Send out updates and newsletters using e-mails, the AWS Web site, Facebook, and other Internet contacts. Also, take advantage of the services AWS offers. It has staff dedicated to helping Sections set up and maintain their Web sites where they can display notices and photographs of recent meetings and tours. You can also contact staff to send out emails to all of your members with just one click. If you havent done so recently, check out all of the great items that have been added to the Section Tool Kit online. The Place and Time. It is important to find a convenient meeting location where the members feel comfortable. Then establish a meeting calendar with a consistent meeting time and dates. Main Events. Lining up interesting speakers and tours is not difficult. Be70 AUGUST 2013

District conferences bring Section leaders together annually to share their experiences and renew relationships. Shown are District 18 Section leaders at the 2011 conference.

lieve it or not, there are probably many informative and interesting presenters and places to visit right in your backyard. I have engaged speakers ranging from local PhDs to shop floor superintendents who made fine presentations about their specialized interests in the welding profession. You just need to ask them to appear. For additional ideas, AWS can provide Sections with a list of speakers, and be sure to check out your local speaker bureaus. They usually list speakers from power companies and other local industries who will lecture free or at low cost. Manufacturer reps can be good speakers, but make it clear your audience wants to hear technical information not a sales pitch. When possible, arrange for programs offering professional development hours to add value to your event. Conduct welding contests to make the local welding schools and students aware of your Sections services and participate at career days and vendor events whenever possible. Share the Work and the Fun. Contact another AWS Section or other local technical societies to discuss taking turns hosting meetings on topics of mutual interest. These events are often the bestattended meetings of the year and everyone gets to meet more people in the industry. Local chapters of ASM Interna-

tional, Society of Mechanical Engineers, American Society for Nondestructive Testing, and others share interests with AWS members. Likewise, the annual District conferences bring the Section leaders together to share experiences and renew relationships. Rewarding Section Sponsors. A Section with an active communications program can offer its sponsors free advertizing on the Section Web site, in its emailed newsletters, and recognition at the meetings. Offer them free dinner at the meetings or a special entry fee for your golf outing or Section seminar. Getting sponsors can be tough so care for them well. Fund-Raising for Scholarships. Historically, AWS members have been very generous in supporting students pursuing welding-related educations with Section and named scholarships, funded by a number of reliably successful events. The most popular fund-raisers I have encountered are educational seminars, golf tournaments, raffles, fishing rodeos, clay shoots, stump-the-experts panels, fish fries, and crawfish boils. Many Sections profit from organizing and presenting spring and fall education seminars, selling AWS literature, and conducting Certified Welding Inspector seminars and exams.

SECTIONNEWS

Shown at the District 2 conference are (from left) Bob Waite, Jesse Provler, Thomas Colasanto III, Dominick Colasanto, Tom Gartland, Brian Cassidy, Paul Lenox, Terry Perez, Eric Dolan, Dist. 2 Director Harland Thompson, Bill Mowbray, Gus Manz, Frank Srogota, Mike Chomin, Sal Russomanno, Ken Stockton, and Ken Temme.

District 1 District 2

Thomas Ferri, director (508) 527-1884 thomas_ferri@victortechnologies.com

Harland W. Thompson, director (631) 546-2903 harland.w.thompson@us.ul.com

District 2 Conference
JUNE 1 Activity: Harland Thompson, Dist. 2 director, conducted the meeting in Scotch Plains, N.J. Attending were Bob Waite, Jesse Provler, Thomas Colasanto III, Dominick Colasanto, Tom Gartland, Brian Cassidy, Paul Lenox, Eric Dolan, Bill Mowbray, Gus Manz, Frank Srogota, Mike Chomin, Sal Russomanno, Ken Stockton, Ken Temme, and Terry Perez , AWS representative. New York Section members are shown at the May meeting.

NEW YORK
MAY 13 Speaker: Bob Waite, P.E. Affiliation: Waite Welding Metallurgy Topic: Welding inspection using D1.1 and AISC codes Activity: Treasurer Alan Zibitt received an award in appreciation for his services.

Shown at the New York Section program are (from left) Dist. 2 Director Harland Thompson, speaker Bob Waite, Treasurer Alan Zibitt, and Chair Dominick Colasanto. WELDING JOURNAL 71

Shown at the District 5 conference are from left (seated) David Ennis, Al Sedory, Jennifer Skyles, and Frank Rose; (standing) Odell Haselden, Gale Mole, Bill Myers, Doug Yates, Ray Monson, Gilly Burrion, Kevin Rawlins, and Carl Matricardi, District 5 director.

Shown at the Philadelphia Section meeting are (from left) Dominick Colasanto, Chair Bill Mowbray, Salvatore Russomanno, Mike Chomin, Frank Srogota, and Ken Temme. Dan Moldovan (right) is shown with Allen Quigg, Reading Section treasurer.

LANCASTER
JUNE 5 Activity: The board held a planning meeting in Lancaster, Pa.

READING
Shown at the Reading Section program are the third-level welding contestants (from left) Levi Bucher, Dan Moldovan, Skyler Becker, and Diego Jimenez. APRIL 17 Activity: Mike Wiswesser, Dist. 3 director, presented the District Meritorious Award to Merilyn McLaughlin and an award to Tracy Davenport for his services as chairman. Treasurer Allen Quigg presented a Section scholarship to Dan Moldovan who also won the first-place trophy in the thirdlevel category at the recent welding contest. Other contestants recognized included Skyler Becker, Diego Jimenez, Levi Bucher, Nate Miller, Evan Hostetter, Jordan Makison, Dylan Weaver, Dylan Sheha, Kegan Landis, Alex Barlow, and Zachery Dougherty. The meeting was held at Dutch Way Restaurant in Myerstown, Pa.

PHILADELPHIA
JUNE 1 Activity: The Sections board members met for its end of the year meeting. Participating were Chair Bill Mowbray, Salvatore Russomanno, Mike Chomin, Frank Srogota, and Ken Temme. Also attending were Dist. 2 Director Harland Thompson, Terry Perez, AWS director of Certification, and Dominick Colasanto, chairman of the New York Section.

District 3
Devin Lytle is shown with Alan Shissler, Florida West Coast scholarship chair. 72 AUGUST 2013

Michael Wiswesser, director (610) 820-9551 mike@wtti.com

District 4

Stewart A. Harris, director (919) 824-0520 stewart.harris@altec.com

District 5
Carl Matricardi, director (770) 979-6344 cmatricardi@aol.com

District 5 Conference
JUNE 7, 8 Activity: The meeting was held at AWS World Headquarters in Miami. Attending were District 5 Director Carl Matricardi, David Ennis, Al Sedory, Jennifer Skyles, Frank Rose, Odell Haselden, Gale Mole, Bill Myers, Doug Yates, Ray Monson, Gilly Burrion, and Kevin Rawlins.

Shown at the Florida West Coast program are (from left) Randy Kelley, Alan Shissler, Harold Delegado, and Lianna Smith.

FLORIDA WEST COAST


MAY 4 Activity: Scholarship Chair Alan Shissler presented $750 Section scholarships to welding students Devin Lytle studying at Pinellas Technical Education Center and Harold Delegado enrolled at Hillsborough Community College (HCC). Participating were Randy Kelley and Lianna Smith, HCC welding instructor and assistant welding instructor, respectively. North Central Florida Section members and students are shown during their E-One tour.

NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA


MAY 14 Activity: The Section members met at EOne Manufacturing Co. in Ocala, Fla., to tour the facility. Greg Hofmann led the tour and explained the companys welding procedures used to manufacture frames for fire trucks, pumpers, and emergency response vehicles. A drawing was held to award AWS Student Memberships to nine of the attending students, in addition to other door prizes.

District 6
Kenneth Phy, director (315) 218-5297 kenneth.phy@gmail.com

Shown at the Niagara Frontier Section event are (from left) Ron Stahura, Fred Schmidt, John Sullivan, Jeff Klapper, Howard Johns, and Tom Matecki.

NIAGARA FRONTIER
MAY 30 Activity: The Section held its past chairmens dinner at Dominics Little River Grille in Niagara Falls, N.Y. Honored were past chairs Ron Stahura, Fred Schmidt, John Sullivan, Jeff Klapper, Howard Johns, and Tom Matecki.

District 7 District 8
Joe Livesay, director (931) 484-7502, ext. 143 joe.livesay@ttcc.edu

Uwe Aschemeier, director (786) 473-9540 uwe@miamidiver.com

Master chefs (from left) Paul Huffman, Samuel Scripnic, Marty Dominy, Jason West, and Richard Daffron were kept busy at the Chattanooga Sections 60th annual fish fry.

CHATTANOOGA
MAY 17 Activity: The Section held its 60th annual hush puppy and catfish fry fund-raising event at Alstom Power in Chattanooga,

Tenn. Dray Sweeton, a Grundy County High School welding student, was presented a $250 Section scholarship from Robin Dykes, education chair and a welding instructor. WELDING JOURNAL 73

Dray Sweeton (left) receives a welding scholarship from Robin Dykes, Chattanooga Section education chair.

District 9 officers and guests are shown at the annual conference in June.

NASHVILLE
APRIL 25 Speaker: D. Joshua Burgess , Northeast Tennessee Section chair Affiliation: University of Tennessee Topic: Welding metallurgy Activity: The Section conducted its scholarship awards presentations at World Testing in Mt. Juliet, Tenn. District 8 Director Joe Livesay presented the Section-sponsored $1000 Roy Petty Memorial Scholarship to Jordan West. Eleven other students received $500 scholarships.

District 9 Conference
JUNE 68 Activity: District 9 officers and guests met at Rips on the Lake in Madisonville, La., for a special event followed by the conference on June 8 at the Maritime Museum. Special guests at the conference included John Bruskotter, a past AWS president; John Bray and J. Jones, directors of District 18 and 17, respectively; and Mary Ruth Johnsen, AWS staff representative.

MOBILE NORTHEAST TENNESSEE


D. Joshua Burgess, District 8 deputy director, discussed welding metallurgy at the Nashville Section program. APRIL 9 Speaker: Nancy Cole, AWS president Affiliation: NCC Engineering Topic: Careers for women in welding Activity: D. Joshua Burgess received an award for his distinguished services as chairman. Paul Pipkin received the Section Meritorious Award and the Silver Member Certificate to recognize his 25 years of service to the Society. Chris Hayes and Don Combs received Section Meritorious Awards. Special guests included Zhili Feng, group leader at ORNL; Kurt Sickafus, head, University of Tennessee Materials Science Engineering Dept.; Tom Mustaleski, an AWS past president; and District 8 Director Joe Livesay. APRIL 29, 30 Activity: The Section supported three students, Eric Roblee, Steve Goulet, and Ronald Castleberry, to participate in the SkillsUSA regional welding competition held in Pensacola, Fla., and their trip to the national welding competition. MAY 16 Speaker: George Fairbanks, Dist. 9 director Affiliation: Fairbanks Inspection & Testing Services, LLC Topic: Inspection and repair welding of large castings in the sugar mill industry Activity: Incoming Chair Michael Zoghby presented Johnny Dedeaux an award for his services as chair. Michael Zoghby received the Section Meritorious Award, Jim Sullivan the Public Sector Educator Award, and Cleveland Rhodes Jr. received the District and Section CWI of the Year Awards. Ronald Castleberry received an autodarkening welding helmet as a reward for the welding student attending the most meetings during the year. The event was held at The Original Oyster House in Spanish Fort, Ala.

Jordan West (right) is shown with Joe Livesay, District 8 director, at the Nashville Section event.

District 9
ACADIANA

George Fairbanks Jr., director (225) 473-6362 ts@bellsouth.net MAY 28 Speaker: Wendell Dietz Affiliation: Miller Electric Mfg. Co. Topic: Welding aluminum Activity: The Section members and welding students convened at Acadiana Technical College welding lab in New Iberia, La. Following the presentation, attendees welded aluminum using the gas metal arc process.

Chris Hayes (left) and Don Combs received Meritorious Awards for their services at the Northeast Tennessee Section program. 74 AUGUST 2013

District 10

Robert E. Brenner, director (330) 484-3650 bobren28@yahoo.com

Attendees are shown at the Acadiana Section program in May.

Shown at the Drake Well Section meeting are (from left) Joseph Crate, Robert Fugate, Colin Young, Travis Crate, Dan Bubenhiem, Ward Kiser, Eric Speer, Nate McNett, and Rolf Laemmer.

Shown at the April Mobile Section event are (from left) Eric Roblee, Steve Goulet, and Ronald Castleberry.

Mobile Section Chair Johnny Dedeaux (left) is shown with incoming Chair Michael Zoghby at the May 16 program.

Paul Pipkin receives his Silver Member Certificate from Nancy Cole, AWS president, at the Northeast Tennessee Section program.

DRAKE WELL
MAY 14 Activity: The Section hosted a meeting at The Commons at Franklin, Pa., to discuss the recent District 10 conference and view the video of the ribbon-cutting at the AWS headquarters building. Attending were Travis Crate, Joseph Crate, Robert Fugate, Colin Young, Dan Bubenhiem, Ward Kiser, Eric Speer, Nate McNett, and Rolf Laemmer.

District 11
Robert P. Wilcox, director (734) 721-8272 rmwilcox@wowway.com

Shown at the Central Michigan Section event are (from left) Chair Roy Bailiff, Jenna Lone, and Jeff Grossman.

Jim Sullivan (left) and Cleveland Rhodes Jr. are shown at the May Mobile Section event. WELDING JOURNAL 75

Shown are the participants in the Detroit Section-sponsored high school welding competition.

District 13 conference attendees are shown at Grizzly Jacks Resort in June.

Shown at the Detroit Section past chairmens program are (from left) Mike Palko, Tom Sparschu, Dick DuCharme, John McKensie, Glen Knight, John Bohr, Bernie Bastian, Don Maatz, Mike Karagoulis, Jim Osborne, Amos Winsand, Ray Roberts, and Bob Wilcox, District 11 director.

Glen Knight coordinated the Detroit Section welding contest.

CENTRAL MICHIGAN
JUNE 11 Activity: Chair Roy Bailiff and Scholarship Chair Jeff Grossman presented a Section scholarship to welding student Jenna R. Lone in Lansing, Mich.

DETROIT
MAY 17 Activity: The Section, headed by Glen Knight, hosted a high school welding contest involving 41 students from nine area schools. The contest included a written exam and a welding skills project. Other awards included welding machines and

Shown at the Madison-Beloit Section event are (from left) Welding Instructor Mark Prosser, Mike Miller, Derrick Hintzman, Trevor Rolette, and Alex Carpenter. 76 AUGUST 2013

St. Louis Section members are shown during their tour of Quality Testing Services. various prizes. The top three contestants received scholarships in the amounts of $2500 to Brody Depa, $1500 to Michael Waszkiewicz, and $1000 to Daniel Dveweke. Additional awards included welding machines and other prizes. The event was held at Washtenaw Community College in Ann Arbor, Mich. JUNE 8 Activity: The Detroit Section held its annual past chairmens dinner and business meeting at Skyline Club in Southfield, Mich. Attending were Chair Mike Palko and past Chairs Tom Sparschu, Dick DuCharme, John McKensie, Glen Knight, John Bohr, Bernie Bastian, Don Maatz, Mike Karagoulis, Jim Osborne, Amos Winsand, Ray Roberts, and Bob Wilcox, District 11 director.

The Quality Testing Services presenters at the St. Louis Section tour are (from left) Andrew Dickenson, Brandon Murrie, Nate Hardy, Steve Stutz, Heather Jacobs, D. J. Prohaska, Melissa Rankin, Rick Kenloge, and Ken Koppen.

District 12
MADISON-BELOIT

Daniel J. Roland, director (715) 735-9341, ext. 6421 daniel.roland@us.ncantieri.com APRIL 20 Activity: The Section members participated in the SkillsUSA welding competitions held at NWTC in Green Bay, Wis.

The winning Nebraska Section golf team members are (from left) Chair Chris Beaty, Tom Pickrel, Paul Goodby, and Darren Stane.

District 13
John Willard, director (815) 954-4838 kustom_bilt@msn.com

District 14
ST. LOUIS

Robert L. Richwine, director (765) 378-5378 bobrichwine@aol.com MAY 9 Activity: The Section members toured Quality Testing Services in Maryland Heights, Mo. The presenters included Andrew Dickenson, Brandon Murrie, Nate Hardy, Steve Stutz, Heather Jacobs, D. J. Prohaska, Melissa Rankin, Rick Kenloge, and Ken Koppen.

District 15
David Lynnes, director (701) 365-0606 dave@learntoweld.com

District 13 Conference
JUNE 7 Activity: The Chicago Section hosted the District 13 annual conference at Grizzly Jacks Resort in Utica, Ill., conducted by District Director John Willard. The speaker was AWS staff representative Martica Ventura, director, operations, Education Services.

District 16
Dennis Wright, director (913) 782-0635 awscwi1@att.net

WELDING JOURNAL

77

The Central Arkansas Section members are shown during their tour of Welspun Tubular in Little Rock.

Alaska Section members are (from left) Willi Davidson, Creighton Moore, presenter Charles Engblom, Craig Soto, Peter Macksey, Stephen Foreman, Chair Rod London, Kelly Mann, Jeremy Calderon, Cole Mesick, Dennis Long, and Jack Simpson.

Don Schwemmer (far left) led the Idaho-Montana Section on a tour of AMET, Inc.

NEBRASKA
MAY 17 Activity: The Section held its golf outing at Eagle Hills Golf Course in Omaha, Neb. About $2000 was raised for the Sections scholarship fund. Taking the team trophy were Chair Chris Beaty (Metropolitan C.C.), Tom Pickrel (Matheson Tri-Gas), Paul Goodby (Olsson Associates), and Darren Stane (Hobart Brothers).

District 17
J. Jones, director (832) 506-5986 jjones6@lincolnelectric.com

CENTRAL ARKANSAS
MAY 21 Activity: The Section toured Welspun Tubular LLC in Little Rock, Ark., to study the manufacture of spiral-welded pipe using the HSAW process.

Officers are shown at the District 20 conference in June. 78 AUGUST 2013

Shown at the April Arizona Western College fair are (from left) Advisor Samuel Colton, President Adrian Castillo, and Wanda Reid.

Participants in the SkillsUSA welding contest hosted by the AWCIWT Student Chapter are shown in February.

District 18
HOUSTON

District 20 Conference
JUNE 7 Activity: The Idaho-Montana Section hosted the conference and the Wyoming Section hosted the luncheon at Hilton Garden Inn in Idaho Falls, Idaho. Rhenda Kenny, director, AWS Member Services, was the AWS staff representative.

John Bray, director (281) 997-7273 sales@afliatedmachinery.com MAY 15 Speaker: Curtis Dickinson, senior engineer Affiliation: University of Ultrasonics Topic: Inspecting welds using ultrasonic phased array technology Activity: Chair Justin Gordy greeted 145 attendees for the Sections last meeting of the year. Barney Burks and Gary Holbrook manned the sign-in desk.

IDAHO/MONTANA
JUNE 6 Activity: The Section toured the AMET, Inc., facility near Rexburg, Idaho. Don Schwemmer, CEO, conducted the program. Chair Paul Tremblay and Tevan Boersma displayed the banner for the newly rechartered BYU Student Chapter.

Nancy Carlson presented Paul Tremblay his chairman appreciation certificate.

District 19
ALASKA

Ken Johnson, director (425) 957-3553 kenneth.johnson@vigorshipyards.com

District 21

MAY 22 Speaker: Charles Engblom, trainer Affiliation: Ironworkers Local 751 Topic: Ironworkers apprentice program Activity: Charles Engblom was elected incoming chair. Following his talk, Engblom conducted the Section on a tour of Ironworkers Local 751 in Anchorage, Alaska.

Nanette Samanich, director (702) 429-5017 nan07@aol.com

AWCIWT Student Chapter


DECEMBER 19, 2012 Activity: The Arizona Western College participated in the Cuesta College Welding Technology Advisory Committee meeting. Discussed was the welding curriculum presented by Rob Thoresen and a presentation on the upcoming SkillsUSA events by Mike Fontes. FEBRUARY 22 Activity: The Arizona Western College Institute of Welding Technology Student Chapter hosted the Region I SkillsUSA welding contest for college and high school students in Yuma, Ariz. MARCH 25 Activity: The Student Chapter hosted the Arizona State SkillsUSA welding contest held at Phoenix Convention Center headed by Advisor Samuel Colton.

Brad Moe (left) is shown with Scott Stanley at the British Columbia Section event.

BRITISH COLUMBIA
MAY 29 Speaker: Scott Stanley, technical sales representative Affiliation: The Lincoln Electric Co. Topic: Recording welding procedures by connecting the machines to the Internet Activity: The program was held in Delta, B.C., for 25 attendees.

District 20

William A. Komlos, director (801) 560-2353 bkoz@arctechllc.com

Tevan Boersma (left) and Chair Paul Tremblay are shown at the Idaho/Montana Section program. WELDING JOURNAL 79

Shown in March at the Arizona State SkillsUSA welding contest are (from left) Advisor Samuel Colton, Daniel Herrera, Omar Macias, Adrian Castillo, Trisha Haswood, Christopher Smart, Ricardo Aldan, Manuel Robles, James Veldhuis, Larry Lebsock, and Jason Trepanier.

APRIL 11 Activity: Student Chapter Advisor Samuel Colton, President Adrian Castillo, and Wanda Reid, Pipeline Grant staff member, manned a table at the Arizona Western College Sustainablity Fair promoting welding as a career choice. MAY 1 Activity: The Student Chapter promoted welding as a career to three groups of middle school students as part of the Somerton School District 11 Career Day event. Participating were President Adrian Castello, Vice President Christopher Smart, Omar Marcias, Trisha Haswood, Manuel Robles, Larry Lebsock, and Wanda Reid, Pipeline Grant staff member.

APRIL 12 Activity: The California Central Coast Section promoted welding as a career for the 7th and 8th grade students at the Career Day program held at Judkins Middle School in Pismo Beach, Calif. APRIL 27 Activity: The California Central Coast Section, headed by Chair Stan Luis, participated in the Allan Hancock College high school welding competition. The barbecue lunch was provided by Praxair. The topscoring contestants included Eric Alvarez, Kasey Millsap, Jose Guzman, Connor Herrera, Jose Rodriguez, Devin Miller, Pedro Asuncion, Cole Cargill, Will Jevne, Cameron Wright, Victor Benitez, and Daniel Herrera. MAY 4 Activity: The California Central Coast Section participated in the Future Farmers of America seventh annual state welding competition held at Cresta College. Welding Instructor Rob Thoreson conducted the event. Other attractions included the Miller Electric and Lincoln Electric mobile welding trailers and the California Polytechnic tractor pulling team demonstration. The Section provided four AWS student memberships and four AWS welding jackets to the prizes.

District 22
Kerry E. Shatell, director (925) 866-5434 kesi@pge.com

International Section
GERMANY
CALENDAR Essen, Germany SEPT. 1117 66th IIW Annual Assembly www.iiw2013.com SEPT. 16, 17 Intl Conf. on Automation in Welding SEPT. 1621 2013 International Trade Fair Joining, Cutting, Surfacing SEPT. 1621 Young Welders Competitions Read the article on page 46 of this issue for more information.

CALIFORNIA CENTRAL COAST


MARCH 15 Activity: The Section promoted welding at the eighth annual Career Day program held at Pioneer Valley High School in Santa Maria, Calif. MARCH 28 Activity: The California Central Coast Section promoted welding as a career at the Career Day program held at Fesler Jr. High School in Santa Maria, Calif., for about 100 attendees.

80

AUGUST 2013

Guide to AWS Services


American Welding Society 8669 NW 36th St., #130, Miami, FL 33166-6672 T: (800/305) 443-9353; F: (305) 443-7559 Staff phone extensions are shown in parentheses.
AWS PRESIDENT
Nancy C. Cole nccengr@yahoo.com NCC Engineering 2735 Robert Oliver Ave. Fernandina Beach, FL 32034

INTERNATIONAL SALES
Managing Director, Global Exposition Sales Joe Krall..jkrall@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(297) Corporate Director, International Sales Jeff P. Kamentz..jkamentz@aws.org . . . . . . .(233) Oversees international business activities involving certification, publication, and membership.

TECHNICAL SERVICES
Dept. information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(340) Managing Director Technical Services Development & Systems Andrew R. Davis.. adavis@aws.org . . . . . . .(466) International Standards Activities, American Council of the International Institute of Welding (IIW) Director, Technical Services Operations Annette Alonso.. aalonso@aws.org . . . . . . .(299) Associate Director, Technical Services Operations Alex Diaz.... adiaz@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(304) Welding Qualification, Sheet Metal Welding, Aircraft and Aerospace, Joining of Metals and Alloys Manager, Safety and Health Stephen P. Hedrick.. steveh@aws.org . . . . . .(305) Metric Practice, Safety and Health, Joining of Plastics and Composites, Welding Iron Castings, Personnel and Facilities Qualification Managing Engineer, Standards Brian McGrath .... bmcgrath@aws.org . . . . .(311) Structural Welding, Methods of Inspection, Mechanical Testing of Welds, Welding in Marine Construction, Piping and Tubing Senior Staff Engineer Rakesh Gupta.. gupta@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(301) Filler Metals and Allied Materials, International Filler Metals, UNS Numbers Assignment, Arc Welding and Cutting Processes Standards Program Managers Efram Abrams.. eabrams@aws.org . . . . . . . .(307) Thermal Spray, Automotive, Resistance Welding, Machinery and Equipment Stephen Borrero... sborrero@aws.org . . . . .(334) Brazing and Soldering, Brazing Filler Metals and Fluxes, Brazing Handbook, Soldering Handbook, Railroad Welding, Definitions and Symbols Chelsea Lewis.. clewis@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(215) Friction Welding, Oxyfuel Gas Welding and Cutting, High-Energy Beam Welding, Robotics Welding, Welding in Sanitary Applications, U.S. TAG for ISO/TC 44/SC8.

ADMINISTRATION
Executive Director Ray W. Shook.. rshook@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(210) Sr. Associate Executive Director Cassie R. Burrell.. cburrell@aws.org . . . . . .(253) Chief Financial Officer Gesana Villegas.. gvillegas@aws.org . . . . . .(252) Chief Marketing Officer Bill Fudale..bfudale@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . .(211) Chief Technology Officer Dennis Harwig..dharwig@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(213) Executive Assistant for Board Services Gricelda Manalich.. gricelda@aws.org . . . . .(294)

PUBLICATION SERVICES
Dept. information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(275) Managing Director Andrew Cullison.. cullison@aws.org . . . . . .(249)

Welding Journal Publisher Andrew Cullison.. cullison@aws.org . . . . . .(249)


Editor Mary Ruth Johnsen.. mjohnsen@aws.org . .(238) National Sales Director Rob Saltzstein.. salty@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . .(243) Society and Section News Editor Howard Woodward..woodward@aws.org . .(244)

Administrative Services
Managing Director Jim Lankford.. jiml@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . .(214) IT Network Director Armando Campana..acampana@aws.org . .(296) Director Hidail Nuez..hidail@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . .(287) Director of IT Operations Natalia Swain..nswain@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(245)

Welding Handbook Editor Annette OBrien.. aobrien@aws.org . . . . . . .(303)

MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS
Director Ross Hancock.. rhancock@aws.org . . . . . . .(226) Public Relations Manager Cindy Weihl..cweihl@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . .(416) Webmaster Jose Salgado..jsalgado@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(456) Section Web Editor Henry Chinea...hchinea@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(452)

Human Resources
Director, Compensation and Benefits Luisa Hernandez.. luisa@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(266) Director, Human Resources Dora A. Shade.. dshade@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(235)

International Institute of Welding


Senior Coordinator Sissibeth Lopez . . sissi@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(319) Liaison services with other national and international societies and standards organizations.

MEMBER SERVICES
Dept. information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(480) Sr. Associate Executive Director Cassie R. Burrell.. cburrell@aws.org . . . . . .(253) Director Rhenda A. Kenny... rhenda@aws.org . . . . . .(260) Serves as a liaison between Section members and AWS headquarters.

GOVERNMENT LIAISON SERVICES


Hugh K. Webster . . . . . . . . .hwebster@wc-b.com Webster, Chamberlain & Bean, Washington, D.C., (202) 785-9500; FAX (202) 835-0243. Monitors federal issues of importance to the industry.

CERTIFICATION SERVICES
Dept. information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(273) Managing Director John L. Gayler.. gayler@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(472) Oversees all certification activities including all international certification programs. Director, Certification Operations Terry Perez..tperez@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . .(470) Oversees application processing, renewals, and exam scoring. Director, Certification Programs Linda Henderson..lindah@aws.org . . . . . . .(298) Oversees the development of new certification programs, as well as AWS-Accredited Test Facilities, and AWS Certified Welding Fabricators.

CONVENTION and EXPOSITIONS


Director, Convention and Meeting Services Matthew Rubin.....mrubin@aws.org . . . . . . .(239)

ITSA International Thermal Spray Association


Senior Manager and Editor Kathy Dusa.kathydusa@thermalspray.org . . .(232)

Note: Official interpretations of AWS standards may be obtained only by sending a request in writing to Andrew R. Davis, managing director, Technical Services, adavis@aws.org. Oral opinions on AWS standards may be rendered, however, oral opinions do not constitute official or unofficial opinions or interpretations of AWS. In addition, oral opinions are informal and should not be used as a substitute for an official interpretation.

AWS FOUNDATION, Inc.


www.aws.org/w/a/foundation General Information (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 212, vpinsky@aws.org Chairman, Board of Trustees Gerald D. Uttrachi Executive Director, Foundation Sam Gentry.. sgentry@aws.org. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (331)

RWMA Resistance Welding Manufacturing Alliance


Management Specialist Keila DeMoraes....kdemoraes@aws.org . . . .(444)

WEMCO Association of Welding Manufacturers


Management Specialist Keila DeMoraes....kdemoraes@aws.org . . . .(444)

EDUCATION SERVICES
Director, Operations Martica Ventura.. mventura@aws.org . . . . . .(224) Director, Education Development David Hernandez.. dhernandez@aws.org . . .(219)

Brazing and Soldering Manufacturers Committee


Stephen Borrero..sborrero@aws.org . . . . . .(334)

Corporate Director, Workforce Development Monica Pfarr.. mpfarr@aws.org. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (461) The AWS Foundation is a not-for-profit corporation established to provide support for the educational and scientific endeavors of the American Welding Society. Promote the Foundations work with your financial support. For information, call Vicki Pinsky, (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 212; e-mail vpinsky@aws.org.

GAWDA Gases and Welding Distributors Association


Executive Director John Ospina.. jospina@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(462) Operations Manager Natasha Alexis.. nalexis@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(401)

AWS AWARDS, FELLOWS, COUNSELORS


Senior Manager Wendy S. Reeve.. wreeve@aws.org . . . . . . . .(293) Coordinates AWS awards, Fellow, Counselor nominees.

WELDING JOURNAL

83

PERSONNEL
TRUMPF Appoints CEO
TRUMPF, Inc., Farmington, Conn., has named Lars Gruenert president and CEO of the company. He succeeds Rolf Biekert who served for 25 years. Biekert leaves the company to lead Lars Gruenert Maintecx, an exclusive distributor of TRUMPF fabricating equipment in the Midwest. Gruenert previously was executive vice president of TRUMPF GmbH + Co. KG, and CFO of the Laser Technology/Electronics business division. dian sales staff, then relocated to Erie when he joined the International division. The company specializes in separation technologies, magnetic lift, metal detection, X-ray, and recycling equipment for the metalworking, mining, and other industries.

Darrell Milton

Phillip Krueger

Peter Losiniecki

Weldcote Metals Names VP


Weldcote Metals, Kings Mountain, N.C., has named Pete Gallagher executive vice president, responsible for sales, marketing, and expanding the business. Gallagher brings 30 years of experience in the gas and welding distribution business, most recently serving Pete Gallagher as vice president of sales and marketing at the Independent Welding Distributors Cooperative.

time while completing his engineering degree through a consortium program. Losiniecki, with 25 years experience, previously worked for CNA Financial Corp. as vice president of application development and IT strategic sourcing.

Hannah Elected MSCI Chair


Metals Service Center Institute (MSCI), Rolling Meadows, Ill., has named David H. Hannah chairman of the board. Hannah is chairman and CEO of Reliance Steel & Aluminum Co. Previously serving as a vice chairman, he succeeds Michael H. Hoffman of Kloeckner Metals who served as chairman for the last two years. Brian R. Hedges, president and CEO of Russel Metals, Inc., was named a new vice chair.

Direct Wire & Cable Names President


Direct Wire & Cable, Inc., Denver, Pa., has promoted Eric Laubach as president. With the company for more than 12 years, Laubach most recently served as vice president of sales and marketing.

Mazak Optonics Appoints Southwest Sales Manager


Mazak Optonics Corp., Elgin, Ill., a supplier of laser cutting systems, has appointed David Widlund regional sales manager for its southwest territory, including Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri, Arkansas, and Louisiana. Widlund has 12 years of experience in the sheet metal fabrication industry, includDavid Widlund ing laser production management and serving as a regional sales manager for the northwestern states.

Eriez Signs on Manager


Eriez, Erie, Pa., has transferred Darrell Milton from its metals recycling sales team to the newly created position of account development manager for the HydroFlow line. Milton has been with Eriez since 1991, first serving on the Cana-

Wagner Companies Fills Two Key Posts


Wagner Companies, Milwaukee, Wis., a supplier of metal products for architectural and industrial applications, has hired Phillip Krueger as a modeling engineer and Peter J. Losiniecki as manager of information systems. Krueger is working full

Joining Technologies Appoints General Manager


Joining Technologies, East Granby, Conn., a provider of precision fusion processes, laser and electron beam welding, and system design and integration, has appointed Matt Francoeur general manager. With the company since 2005, Francoeur most recently served as manager of engineering, inside sales, and production.
For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index continued on page 87

84

AUGUST 2013

PERSONNEL
continued from page 84

Wall Colmonoy Hires U.S. Manager and UK Director

pany temporarily as senior advisor to the board. Spiesshofer joined the executive committee in 2005, responsible for corporate development resulting in mergers and acquisitions.

PRODUCT & PRINT SPOTLIGHT


continued from page 32

Koike Aronson Names Engineering Director


Koike Aronson, Inc./Ransome, Arcade, N.Y., a supplier of metal cutting and positioning equipment for the metalworking industry, has named Kim Jackson director of engineering. Prior to joining the company, JackKim Jackson son headed multiple business units of Illinois Tool Works.

tion and updates on its latest technological developments. The Web site features a top ten list of the most commonly viewed technologies, allowing users to access their desired page quickly in a format designed for smartphones. The mobile Web site also offers videos and easy download of applications such as resistance welding troubleshooting and material weldability. Miyachi Europe
www.miyachieurope.com +49 (0) 89 839403-50

Marie Davies

Carlos Marin

Wall Colmonoy European Headquarters, Pontardawe Swansea, Wales, has appointed Marie Davies supply chain director for UK operations. Previously, Davies worked in supply chain roles with Morgan Crucible, Thales Group, and GlaxoSmithKline. Wall Colmonoy, Madison Heights, Mich., has hired Carlos Marin as manufacturing manager for its Alloy Products Group in Los Lunas, N.Mex. Marin is a Lean expert and a Six Sigma Black Belt. The company supplies surfacing and brazing products, castings, and engineered components for the aerospace, automotive, and other industrial sectors.

Blast Center Enhanced with Tool Changing Technology

Obituaries Roderick G. Rohrberg


Roderick G. Rohrberg, 87, died May 9 in Torrance, Calif. An AWS Life Member, he was a pioneer of orbital tube welding and the founder of Creative Pathways, Inc. He earned his degree in civil engineering from Iowa State University, then moved to California in 1951 to work for North American Aviation where he initiRoderick Rohrberg ated automated welding to eliminate leaks in rocket engines. He left the company in 1969 to start his own precision tubular welding operation in Torrance. He was granted 34 patents, most concerned with automatic welding. In 1967, he received the Airco Award and the Howard E. Adkins Memorial Instructor Award.

Laboratory Testing Makes Staff Change


Laboratory Testing, Inc., Hatfield, Pa., has promoted Marion Crooks to fill the newly created position of assistant manager of chemistry and metallography. With the company since 2001, Crooks most recently served as chemistry supervisor. The facility performs a wide range of servMarion Crooks ices, including corrosion, SEM studies, microhardness, and failure analyses.

Tomas Colasanto Sr.


Tomas Colasanto Sr., 86, died June 5. Active with the AWS New York Section, he was membership chair for more than 13 years. He served in the U.S. Navy on the USS Washington during WW II. In 1947, he founded Able Welding Co. in Brooklyn, N.Y., where he served as president until his death. Colasanto was active in civic affairs and an avid supporter of the New York police and fire departments.

ABB Names CEO


The board of ABB, Zurich, Switzerland, a supplier of power and automation technologies, has appointed Ulrich Spiesshofer CEO of its Discrete Automation and Motion division. He succeeds Joe Hogan who will continue to serve the com-

The tool-changing robotic blasting center is a seven-axis robotic grit-blast system that automatically changes between blasting tools to perform critical surface preparation work around the exterior of complex-shaped components, as well as recesses and interior surfaces of the parts. The multitasking machine incorporates a 6-axis Fanuc M-20iA robot mounted on a pedestal inside a 60 96-in. rotary table blasting cabinet. A custom-tailored suit of laminated fabric isolates the robotic nozzle manipulator from dust and media, yet allows the full motion range of the articulated robot arm. Designed to be loaded and unloaded by a human operator using a walkie talkie or separate machine-tending robot, it is capable of performing automated surface preparation work on a variety of components that previously may have required several specialpurpose blast cabinets. Guyson Corp.
www.guyson.com (518) 587-7894

WELDING JOURNAL

87

NEWS OF THE INDUSTRY


continued from page 16

Forsyth Tech, Winston-Salem, N.C., is adding overnight classes


for its welding certification program this fall due to demand, open jobs, and a waiting list. Community college officials say they will have classes from 11 p.m. to 4 a.m.

Borusan Mannesmann is turning to Siemens for expanding its


forms computed radiography with a Carestream Industrex HPX-1 digital system. operations in the United States. The company is building its new electric resistance welded pipe mill and heat-treatment plant to quench and temper oil country tubular goods in Baytown, Tex.

The United States Department of Labor with New Hampshire


and Vermont dignitaries recognized an additional four Hypertherm facilities as OSHA Voluntary Protection Program Star Worksites at a company-wide flag raising ceremony on June 5.

The Center for Labor & Community Research, Chicago, Ill., a


managing partner of the Chicago Manufacturing Renaissance Council, is changing its name to Manufacturing Renaissance.

Florida Atlantic Universitys Society of Automotive Engineers


(SAE) racing team ranked eighth in the acceleration test among more than 100 participants at the 2013 Formula SAE held at the Michigan International Speedway.

CGW-Camel Grinding Wheels, Niles, Ill., a manufacturer and


supplier of abrasive systems for the industrial market, has acquired Pacific Abrasive Supply Co., Buena Park, Calif.

CMW Attachments, Summerville, S.C., has secured a contract


to manufacture and deliver large excavator buckets to Buckeye Minerals for gold mining operations in Fairbanks, Alaska. Each was built with flux cored and submerged arc welding.

ThyssenKrupp Aerospace North America has entered a threeyear contract extension with Cessna Aircraft Co. to remain its provider of aluminum sheet products and supply chain services.

Previously doing business as American Tank & Fabricating Co.,


Cleveland, Ohio, the steel and alloy fabrication provider has announced a name change to AT&F.

Matheson, Basking Ridge, N.J., plans to build a new, largecapacity air separation unit to supply oxygen, nitrogen, and argon in Mesa, Ariz. The plant is expected to be on stream during the third quarter of 2014.

The Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., is set to unveil


Laser U, a new way for laser professionals of all levels to access its presentations. Visit www.lia.org/education/laseru.

Direct Wire & Cable, Inc., has opened its new wire mill with
the renovated building covering 85,000 sq ft and will produce its own welding cable; relocated its home office in Denver, Pa.; and added warehouse locations in Houston, Tex., Reno, Nev., Portland, Ore., and Chicago, Ill. INTEG Courses. Courses in NDE disciplines to meet certifications to Canadian General Standards Board or Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. The Canadian Welding Bureau; (800) 844-6790; www.cwbgroup.org. Laser Safety Online Courses. Courses include Medical Laser Safety Officer, Laser Safety Training for Physicians, Industrial Laser Safety, and Laser Safety in Educational Institutions. Laser Institute of America; (800) 345-3737; www.laserinstitute.org. Laser Safety Training Courses. Courses based on ANSI Z136.1, Safe Use of Lasers, Orlando, Fla., or customers site. Laser Institute of America; (800) 345-3737; www.laserinstitute.org. Laser Vision Seminars. Two-day classes, offered monthly and on request, include tutorials and practical training. Presented at Servo-Robot, Inc., St. Bruno, QC, Canada. For schedule, cost, and availability, send your request to info@servorobot.com. Machine Safeguarding Seminars. Rockford Systems, Inc.; (800) 922-7533; visit www.rockfordsystems.com. Machining and Grinding Courses. TechSolve, www.TechSolve.org. NACE Intl Training and Certification Courses. National Assoc. of Corrosion Engineers; (281) 228-6223; www.nace.org. NDE and CWI/CWE Courses and Exams. Allentown, Pa., and customers locations. Welder Training and Testing Institute, (800) 223-9884; www.wtti.edu.

Lincoln Electric Holdings, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, recently announced the U.S. Acting Secretary of Commerce, Rebecca Blank, has presented the company with the Presidents E Award for Exports at a ceremony in Washington, D.C.

COMING EVENTS
continued from page 58

Essentials of Safety Seminars. Two- and four-day courses held at locations nationwide to address federal and California OSHA safety regulations. American Safety Training, Inc.; (800) 8968867; www.trainosha.com. Gas Detection Made Easy Courses. Online and classroom courses for managing a gas monitoring program from gas detection to confined-space safety. Industrial Scientific Corp.; (800) 3383287; www.indsci.com. GE Inspection Academy Courses. Online e-courses, on-site and week-long classroom programs in the major industrial nondestructive evaluation techniques. www.geinspectionacademy.com. Hellier Nondestructive Examination Courses. For schedules and locations, call toll-free (888) 282-3887; www.hellierndt.com. Inspection Courses on ultrasonic, eddy current, radiography, dye penetrant, magnetic particle, and visual at Levels 13. Meet SNTTC-1A and NAS-410 requirements. TEST NDT, LLC, (714) 2551500; www.testndt.com. Hypertherm Cutting Institute Online. Includes video tutorials, interactive e-learning courses, discussion forums, and blogs. Visit www.hyperthermcuttinginstitute.com. 88 AUGUST 2013

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WELDING JOURNAL 91

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Alliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32, 90 www.aws.org/rwma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353, ext. 444 Schaefer Ventilation Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 www.schaeferfan.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 779-3267 Select Arc, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IFC www.select-arc.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(937) 295-5215 Sellstrom Mfg. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 www.sellstrom.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 323-7402 Sumner Manufacturing Co., Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 www.sumner.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(888) 999-6910 Superflash Compressed Gas Equipment/IBEDA Inc. . . . . . . . . . .36 www.oxyfuelsafety.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(888) 327-7306 Tianjin Leigong Welding Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 www.hardfacing.en.alibaba.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+86-13752201959 Triangle Engineering, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 www.trieng.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(781) 878-1500 TRUMPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 www.us.trumpf.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .web contact only Weld Aid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 www.weldaid.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 935-3243 Weld Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 www.weldengineering.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(508) 842-2224 WEMCO/An Association of Welding Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . .64 www.aws.org/wemco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353, ext. 444 IFC = Inside Front Cover IBC = Inside Back Cover OBC = Outside Back Cover Visit the AWS Interactive Ad Index: www.aws.org/ad-index

92

AUGUST 2013

SUPPLEMENT TO THE WELDING JOURNAL, AUGUST 2013 Sponsored by the American Welding Society and the Welding Research Council

Microstructure and Wear Properties of Fe-2 wt-% Cr-X wt-% W-0.67 wt-% C Hardfacing Layer
Electrodes with different additions of tungsten were evaluated to determine the effect on hardness and wear resistance
BY J. YANG, Y. YANG, Y. ZHOU, X. QI, Y. GAO, X. REN, AND Q. YANG
(Refs. 15, 16), and high-chromium cast iron (Refs. 17, 18), a novel electrode was developed, by which no cracking occurred on the surface of the workpieces when they were preheated and reheated after hardfacing. Subsequently, the effect of W additive on the microstructure and wear resistance of the high-carbon steel hardfacing surface layer was researched, and the corresponding mechanism was analyzed, which can supply a theoretical foundation for improving the wear resistance of the hardfacing surface layer of highcarbon steel.

ABSTRACT
Electrodes with different W additives for hardfacing the workpieces of high-carbon alloy steel were developed. The microstructure was observed by optical microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The phase structure was determined by X-ray diffraction. The hardness and wear resistance, respectively, of the hardfacing surface layer were measured. The relative curve between mass fraction of each phase and temperature was calculated by Thermo-Calc. The results show that, the microstructure of the hardfacing surface layer without W additive consists of -Fe, -Fe, M7C3, and M23C6 carbides. However, MC carbide initiates in the hardfacing surface layer and its amount increases with the increase of W additive, while that of M7C3 decreases. With the increase of W additive, the hardness and wear resistance of the hardfacing surface layer both increase, and they are the largest when the W additive is 4 wt-%. The C content of the martensite matrix decreases gradually with the increase of W additive. Moreover, only elements C and W exist in MC carbide. With the increase of W content in the hardfacing surface layer, the starting precipitation temperature and the largest mass fraction of MC both increase. However, those of M7C3 both decrease.

Experimental Procedure
Experimental Materials

Introduction
Workpieces manufactured with highcarbon alloy steel, such as roller and die components, are widely applied in industrial production (Refs. 13). After being in service for a period of time, the workpieces fail because of excessive wear (Refs. 4, 5). The shape and size of the failed workpieces can be restored by means of remanufacturing technologies, in which hardface welding (hardfacing) is one of the most effective methods (Refs. 69). Development of high-carbon alloy steel is characterized by the increase of Cr content so as to improve the strength and hardenability of the steel (Ref. 10). In reJ. YANG, Y. YANG, Y. ZHOU, X. QI, and Q. YANG (qxyang@ysu.edu.cn) are with State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, China. Y. GAO is with School of Material Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China. X. REN is with School of Engineering, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.

cent years, in order to improve its wear resistance, alloy elements W and Mo were added (Refs. 1113). However, related research indicated that because of the high C content, cracks usually initiate on the surface of the workpieces manufactured with the high-carbon alloy steel after hardfacing, even if they were preheated and reheated after hardfacing (Ref. 8). So, the wide application of hardfacing technology for restoring and remanufacturing the high-carbon alloy steel workpieces is restricted. Moreover, the effects of alloy elements W and Mo are seldom reported. Therefore, on the basis of research into the microstructure of medium carbon steel (Ref. 14), medium-high carbon steel

An electrode for hardfacing high-carbon steel was manufactured. The core of the electrode was made of H08A low-carbon steel, whose composition is listed in Table 1. The outer coating was composed of ferrosilicon, ferrochrome, ferromanganese, and ferrotungsten (W additive). In order to analyze the effect of W additive on microstructure and property of the hardfacing surface layer, the mass fractions of the ferrotungsten added into the outer coating were 0, 2, 4, and 6 wt-%, respectively.
Experimental Methods

KEYWORDS
Fe-Cr-W-C Alloy Hardfacing Microstructure Wear Resistance Carbides

Base metals for the welding surface were prepared from Q235 low-carbon steel plates, and three layers were welded onto each specimen. The process was shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). A schematic diagram of the welding pattern and welding parameters used in this work appear in Fig. 1 and Table 2, respectively. In order to analyze the effect of the W additive on the properties of the hardfacing surface layer, its macrohardness was measured using a HR-105A Rockwell hardness tester with a load of 150 kg for

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WELDING RESEARCH

Fig. 1 Welding technology schematic diagram.

WELDING RESEARCH

Fig. 2 The abrasive belt-type wear testing machine. A Photograph; B schematic.

Fig. 3 XRD patterns of the hardfacing surface layers with different W additives.

10 s. Subsequently, a wear resistance test was carried out on an abrasive belt-type wear testing machine, in which SiC of 80 mesh was selected as the abrasive material and the wear velocity of the abrasive belt was 1.8 104 mm min1. The abrasive belt wear testing machine and a schematic diagram are shown in Fig. 2. An electronic balance with an accuracy of 0.1 mg was used to weigh the mass loss of the layer per 30 min. After the wear test, the worn surface morphology was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) of type KYKY-2800. The microstructure of the hardfacing surface layer, which was etched with 4% nitric acid alcohol after being metallographically polished, was characterized by an Axiovert 200 MAT optical microscope (OM) and a Hitachi S4800 field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). The phase structure was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) of type D/max-2500/PC. The relative curve between mass fraction of each phase and temperature was calculated by thermodynamics software Thermo-Calc. 226-s AUGUST 2013, VOL. 92

Experimental Results
Influence of W Additive on the PhaseStructure of the Hardfacing Surface Layer

6 wt-% W additive, the amount of M7C3 decreases and that of MC increases continually in the hardfacing surface layer.
Influence of W Additive on the Microstructure of the Hardfacing Surface Layer

Figure 3 illustrates XRD analysis results of the hardfacing surface layers with different W additives. As shown, without the W additive, the phase microstructure consists of -Fe, -Fe, M23C6, and M7C3 carbides. When the W additive is 2 wt-%, besides -Fe, -Fe, M23C6, and M7C3 carbides, MC carbide initiates in the hardfacing surface layer. By quantitative analysis, the content of retained austenite decreases from 15.8 to 6.4%. When the W additive is 4 wt-%, the -Fe disappears absolutely. Meanwhile, the amount of M7C3 decreases and that of MC increases. With

The microstructures of the hardfacing surface layers with different W additives are shown in Fig. 4. Without W additive, the microstructure consists of black needle martensite (normal martensite) and white reticular martensite (high-C alloy martensite), in which the latter with highcarbon content and alloy elements precipitate on the crystal boundary. When the W additive is 2 wt-%, the high-carbon alloy martensite becomes intermittent. With

Table 1 Chemical Composition of H08A (wt-%) Element Content C 0.10 Mn 0.300.50 Si 0.03 Cr 0.2 Ni 0.03 S 0.03 P 0.03

4 wt-% W additive, the high-C alloy martensite refines obviously. When the W additive is 6 wt-%, the high-C alloy martensite further refines and dissolves in the matrix. Figure 5 indicates the vertical morphologies of the hardfacing surface layers with different W additives. From it, because of the favorable welding process, binding modes between the matrix metal and the hardfacing metal with different W additives are all the typical metallurgical ones. The effect of W additives on the weldability is inconspicuous.
Influence of W Additive on the Hardness of the Hardfacing Surface Layer

Fig. 4 Microstructures of the hardfacing surface layers with different W additives. A 0 wt-%; B 2 wt-%; C 4 wt-%; D 6 wt-%.

Influence of W Additive on the Wear Resistance of the Hardfacing Surface Layer

The wear loss curves of the hardfacing surface layers with different W additives are shown in Fig. 7. As shown, the weight loss of the hardfacing surface layer without W additive is the largest. With 2 wt-% W additive, the wear resistance improves significantly and there is an obvious reduction in wear weight loss. When the W additive reaches 4 wt-%, wear resistance of the hardfacing surface layer is the highest. However, with further increase of W, the wear weight loss increases sharply. Figure 8 illustrates the wear morphologies of the hardfacing surface layers with different W additives. As seen in Fig. 8A, without W additive, surface scratches are both wide and deep. With the increase of W, surface scratches are shallow and narrow. When the W is 4 wt-%, the scratches are the shallowest, as shown in Fig. 8C. With further increase of W, surface scratches are deep and broad, as shown in Fig. 8D.

Fig. 5 Vertical morphologies of the hardfacing surface layers with different W additives. A 0 wt%; B 2 wt-%; C 4 wt-%; D 6 wt-%.

Wear Resistance-Enhanced Mechanism of the Hardfacing Layer with W Additive


Characteristics on MC Carbide in the Hardfacing Surface Layer

Table 2 Welding Parameters Welding Current 140150 A Welding Voltage 2426 V Welding Speed 1.11.7 mm/s Overlap of Welding Tracks 50%

From the above results, with the increase of W, the wear resistance of the hardfacing surface layer increases. Meanwhile, the amount of MC carbide increases while that of high-carbon alloy martensite WELDING JOURNAL 227-s

WELDING RESEARCH

The hardness of the hardfacing surface layers with different W additives are shown in Fig. 6. The hardness without W additive is 61.5 HRC. With the increase of W additive, the hardness increases gradually. When the W additive is 4 wt-%, the hardness is the largest at 66.0 HRC. With further increase of W, the hardness decreases instead, and it is 64.9 HRC with 6 wt-% W additive.

Fig. 6 Hardness of surface layer with different W additives.

Fig. 7 Wear loss of the hardfacing surface layer with different W additives.

decreases. So the wear resistance is related closely with MC carbide and high-carbon alloy martensite. Therefore, the MC carbide and high-carbon alloy martensite with different W additives were investigated in this work. Figure 9 illustrates FESEM of the hardfacing surface layers with different W additives. With the increase of W, the strip high-carbon alloy martensite, which distributes on the crystal boundary, refines gradually, and nearly disappears completely when the W additive is 6 wt-%. Meanwhile, with the increase of W, a few small granular particles appear in the hardfacing surface layer. Figure 10 is the line energy spectrum of the granular particle in the hardfacing surface layer with the 2 wt-% W. Combined with Fig. 3, it can be inferred that the granular particle is MC carbide.
Influence of W additive on the Carbides of the Hardfacing Surface Layer

WELDING RESEARCH

In order to analyze the influence of W additive on the carbides of the hardfacing surface layers during welding solidification process, the hardfacing surface layers with four W additives were taken and their chemical compositions are listed in Table 3. The relation curves between mole fractions of alloy elements and temperature in MC, M7C3, and M23C6 carbides, which were calculated by Thermo-Calc software, and are shown in Fig. 11. From Fig. 11A, it can be seen that only C and W exist in the MC carbide. While in the M7C3 and M23C6 carbides, there is mainly Fe and Cr, which are shown in Fig.11B and C. It illustrates that the W content mainly affects the MC carbide instead of M7C3 and M23C6 carbides. The curves between mass fraction of each phase and temperature in the hardfacing surface layers with different W contents are shown in Fig. 12. Without W

Fig. 8 Wear morphologies of the hardfacing surface layer with different W additives. A 0 wt-%; B 2 wt-%; C 4 wt-%; D 6 wt-%.

Table 3 Chemical Compositions of the Hardfacing Surface Layers (wt-%) C 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 Cr 2.05 2.05 2.05 2.05 W 0 0.58 1.46 1.74 Si 0.614 0.614 0.614 0.614 Mn 0.565 0.565 0.565 0.565 Fe Bal Bal Bal Bal

content, no MC carbide precipitates from the hardfacing surface layer. With the increase of W content, MC carbide initiates gradually, and the beginning precipitation temperature of MC carbide change is not obvious. However, the maximum amount

of MC carbide clearly increases 4.2% when the W content is 1.74 wt-%. Meanwhile, the beginning precipitation temperature of M7C3 decreases from 778 to 695C and the maximum amount decreases from 9.4 to 6.3 wt-%.

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Influence of W Additive on the Martensite of the Hardfacing Surface Layer

Fig. 9 FESEM of the hardfacing surface layers with different W additives. A 0 wt-%; B 2 wt%; C 4 wt-%; D 6 wt-%.

Conclusions
1) The microstructure of the hardfacing surface layer without W additive consists of -Fe, -Fe, M7C3, and M23C6 carbides. With the increase of W additive, MC carbide initiates gradually, and the amount of MC increases while that of M7C3 and -Fe decreases. 2) Hardness and wear resistance of the hardfacing surface layers both increase with the increase of W additive, which are greatest when W additive is 4 wt-%. 3) Only the elements C and W exist in MC carbide. With the increase of W content in the hardfacing surface layer, the starting precipitation temperature and the mass fraction maximum of MC both increase. However, those of M7C3 both decrease. 4) With the increase of W additive, the C content in the martensite of the hardfacing surface layer decreases gradually, from 3.76 to 2.73 wt-%.

Fig. 10 Line energy spectrum of the granular particle in the hardfacing surface layer.

Table 4 EDS of the Martensite in the Hardfacing Surface Layers with Different W Additives (wt-%) W Additive 0 wt-% 2 wt-% 4 wt-% 6 wt-% C 3.76 3.57 3.04 2.73 Si 0.89 0.89 1.01 0.72 Cr 2.30 2.03 2.49 2.15 Mn 0.69 0.71 0.76 0.57 Fe 92.36 91.84 91.40 91.13 W 0.96 1.29 2.79

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WELDING RESEARCH

Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results of the martensite in the hardfacing surface layers with different W additives are listed in Table 4. With the increase of W additive, the C content in the martensite of the hardfacing surface layer decreases gradually, from 3.76 to 2.73 wt-%. The reason is that, with the W increases, the amount of MC carbide increases, so the C content in the martensite is reduced. As previously mentioned, with the increase of W, the amount of MC carbide clearly increases while the content of C in the martensite decreases gradually. Therefore, the wear resistance change tendency of the hardfacing surface layer with different W additives can be explained as follows: The amount of MC carbide, which can be the wear-resisting phase (Refs. 19, 20) of the hardfacing surface layer, increases with the increase of W. Without W, the microstructure is mainly martensite without MC carbide, so the weight loss of the hardfacing surface layer is largest during the wear process. With the increase of W, MC carbide initiates in the hardfacing surface layer and hard wear-resistant phase increases, so its weight loss decreases. When the W additive is 4%, MC carbide exists largely in the hardfacing surface layer, and its wear resistance is the greatest. With a further increase of W to 6 wt-%, although the amount of MC carbide increases continually, the C content in martensite matrix decreases, which cannot support the wear-resisting phase of MC carbide favorably, so the wear resistance of the hardfacing surface layer decreases again.

References
1. Ashok, K. S., and Karabi, D. 2008. Microstructure and abrasive wear study of (Ti,W) C-reinforced high-manganese austenitic steel matrix composite. Materials Letters 62(24): 39473950. 2. Dennis, W. H., and William, V. G. 2008. Crystallography and metallography of carbides in high-alloy steels. Materials Characterization 59(7): 825841. 3. Khodir, S. A., Morisada. Y., Ueji. R., and Fujii, H. 2012. Microstructures and mechanical properties evolution during friction stir welding of SK4 high-carbon steel alloy. Materials Science and Engineering A 558(15): 572578. 4. Pellizzari, M., Molinari, A., and Straffelini, G. 2005. Tribological behaviour of hot rolling rolls. Wear 259(712): 12811289. 5. Yang, K., Yu, S. F., Li, Y. B., and Li, C. J. 2008. Effect of carbonitride precipitates on the abrasive wear behaviour of hardfacing alloy. Applied Surface Science 254(16): 50235027. 6. Zhou, Y. F., Yang, Y. L., Yang, J., Hao, F. F., Li, D., Ren, X. J., and Yang, Q. X. 2012. Effect of Ti additive on (Cr, Fe)7C3 carbide in arc surfacing layer and its refined mechanism. Applied Surface Science 258(17): 66536659. 7. Mirjana, F., and Endre, R. 2011. Strain hardening of austenite in FeCrCV alloys under repeated impact. Wear 270(11-12): 800805. 8. NAVA, J. C. 2009. Cost-effective thermal spray coatings for the boiler industry. Welding Journal 88(7): 3841. 9. Buchanan, V. E., McCartney, D. G., and Shipway, P. H. 2008. A comparison of the abrasive wear behaviour of iron-chromium based hardfaced coatings deposited by SMAW and electric arc spraying. Wear 264(7-8): 542549. 10. Ghaziof, S., Raeissi, K., and Golozar, M. A. 2010. Improving the corrosion performance of CrC amorphous coatings on steel substrate by modifying the steel surface preparation. Surface and Coatings Technology 205(7): 21742183. 11. Zhang, B. S., Yi, Y. J., Zhang, W., Liang, C. H., and Su, D. S. 2011. Electron microscopy investigation of the microstructure of unsupported NiMoW sulfide. Materials Characterization 62(7): 684690. 12. Ivanova, G. V., Shchegoleva, N. N., Serikov, V. V., Kleinerman, N. M., and Belozerov. E. V. 2011. Structure of a W-enriched phase in FeCoCrWGa alloys. Journal of Alloys and Compounds 509(5): 18091814. 13. Fu, X. L., Ge, H. L., Xing, Q. K., and Peng, Z. J. 2011. Effect of W ion doping on magnetic and dielectric properties of NiZn ferrites by one-step synthesis. Materials Science and Engineering B 176(12): 926931. 14. Ramana, P. V., Reddy, G. M., Mohandas, T., and Gupta, A. V. S. S. K. S. 2010. Microstructure and residual stress distribution of similar and dissimilar electron beam welds Maraging steel to medium alloy medium carbon steel. Materials & Design 31(2): 749760. 15. Oh, Y. S., Son, I. H., Jung, K. H., Kim, D. K., Lee, D. L., and Im, Y. T. 2011. Effect of initial microstructure on mechanical properties in warm caliber rolling of high-carbon steel. Materials Science and Engineering: A 528(18): 58335839. 16. Nayak, S. S., Anumolu, R., Misra, R. D. K., Kim, K. H., and Lee, D. L. 2008. Mi-

Fig. 11 Relation curves between mole fractions of alloy elements and temperature. A MC; B M7C3; C M23C6 carbides.

WELDING RESEARCH

Fig. 12 Curves between mass fraction of each phase and temperature in the hardfacing surface layers with different W contents. A 0 wt-%; B 2 wt-%; C 4 wt-%; D 6 wt-%.

crostructurehardness relationship in quenched and partitioned medium-carbon and high-carbon steels containing silicon. Materials Science and Engineering A 498(1-2): 442456. 17. Menon, R., and Wallin, J. 2008. Specialty cored wires for wear and corrosion applications. Welding Journal 87(2): 3136. 18. Menon, R. 2002. Recent advances in cored wires for hardfacing. Welding Journal 81(11): 5358. 19. Niu, L. B., Xu, Y. H., and Wang, X. G. 2010. Fabrication of WC/Fe composite coating by centrifugal casting plus in-situ synthesis techniques. Surface and Coatings Technology 205(2): 551556. 20. Tong, X., Li, F. H., Kuang, M., Ma, W. Y., Chen, X. H., and Liu, M. 2012. Effects of WC particle size on the wear resistance of laser surface alloyed medium-carbon steel. Applied Surface Science 258(7): 32143220.

Change of Address? Moving? Make sure delivery of your Welding Journal is not interrupted. Contact Maria Trujillo in the Membership Department with your new address information (800) 443-9353, ext. 204; mtrujillo@aws.org.

230-s AUGUST 2013, VOL. 92

Shunting Effect in Resistance Spot Welding Steels Part 2: Theoretical Analysis


Minimum weld spacing can be quantitatively predicted based on the process parameters and welding schedules
BY Y. B. LI, B. WANG, Q. SHEN, M. LOU, AND H. ZHANG

KEYWORDS
Critical Weld Spacing Shunting Resistance Spot Welding Model Development

ABSTRACT
Shunting is a phenomenon difficult to avoid in production welding, and it is of practical interest to quantitatively determine the minimum weld spacing. However, the large number of factors involved in shunting make it difficult to isolate their influence, let alone obtain a quantitative understanding of their effects. In this study, the shunting process was understood through an analysis of the electrical resistances along the welding and shunting paths. An analytical model was derived based on the equivalence of the joule heat generated in welding and that was needed to create the weldment. The constants in the model were determined through experiments. Using the experimental results from a previous study, specific models were derived for several gauges of mild and dual-phase steels of various surface conditions. The models were then used to study the effects of process parameters on the minimum weld spacing needed to create certain sizes of shunted welds. The critical or minimum weld spacing was then plotted as a function of several variables. The effects of several process variables such as electrode force, welding time, shunt weld size, and sheet thickness on shunting were clearly demonstrated. Such relationships are crucial in understanding the effects of process variables on shunting, and can be used in quantitative determination of minimum weld spacing to avoid the adverse effect of shunting and put as many welds as possible onto a structure.

Fig. 1 Schematic of shunting in resistance spot welding.

Introduction
Shunting in resistance spot welding is the diversion of the welding current from the weld to be made to a nearby existing weld (Ref. 1). If a significant proportion of welding current flows through the previously made weld, the heat generated may not be sufficient for making a weld of designated size. In general, shunting may have significant influence on weld quality when making more than one weld on a workpiece, which is common in sheet

The limitations of empirical investigations are apparent. First of all, it is difficult to identify or isolate the influence of any individual variable as there are a large number of variables involved and extensive interactions exist among them in shunting. All of the welding parameters, i.e., welding current, time, and electrode force, and material properties such as bulk resistivity and surface conditions impact shunting to a more significant and complex extent than they do in making a single spot weld. In addition, other factors of a more random nature such as electrode wear, electrode alignment, and workpiece fitup may also affect the shunting process. Considering all these effects would make an experiment

Y. B. LI, Q. SHEN, and M. LOU are with Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China. B. WANG is with Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, China. H. ZHANG (hozhang@eng.utoledo.edu) is with University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio.

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metal manufacture and repair. Quantitatively predicting the critical weld spacing to avoid significant reduction in weld size due to shunting has practical significance (Ref. 1). The distribution of welding current in shunting is illustrated in Fig. 1. The proportion of the diverted current is determined by the relative electrical resistance values in the shunting and welding paths. Therefore, determination and control of relative resistance in welding are of ultimate importance. Helped by the advances in numerical simulation techniques, efforts have been made to analyze the effect of shunting on weld nugget growth (Refs. 24), with some implication on the critical weld spacing. However, the highly variable and dynamic nature of electrical and thermal processes in welding makes it difficult to quantitatively understand the effect of shunting either by analytical analysis or numerical modeling. Because of a serious lack of material properties, especially as functions of temperature, a numerical modeling of the resistance spot welding process generally relies on idealized material behaviors and process setup. As a result, numerical predictions are more qualitative than quantitative, and empirical studies such as the ones by Howe (Ref. 5) and Wang et al. (Ref. 6) have been dominant in shunting study.

Fig. 2 Cross-sectional views of the shunt and shunted welds made on 2mm bare mild steel, with 8-mm weld spacing. The shunted welds were made with a PVC plastic film placed on the faying interface. The welding parameters were welding current = 6 kA, welding time = 500 ms, and electrode force = 2.8 kN.

matrix too complex to handle. As revealed in the work by Wang et al. (Ref. 6), many material and processing factors such as the electrode force affect shunting, and their effects also strongly depend on the values of other variables: increasing the electrode force reduces shunting when the weld spacing is large, while it actually promotes shunting when the weld spacing is small when welding thin sheets. The large number of variables and their complicated interactions also make it difficult to obtain an accurate account of the influence of an individual factor through experiments alone. On the other hand, theoretical analysis is difficult considering the number of variables involved and the limited knowledge on the material properties governing the physical processes during welding, especially their dependence on temperature, which makes shunting a very dynamic process. In this study, an analytical model was developed based on the understanding of the physical processes involved in shunting, and the numerical values of the coefficients in the model were derived from the experimental results obtained in a previous study (Ref. 6).

Fig. 3 Schematic of loading on half of the sheet stack-up approximated as a cantilever beam, with one end fixed by the shunt weld.

Modeling of the Shunting Process


As resistance spot welding is basically a joule heating process, an understanding of shunting can be achieved through an analysis of the electrical resistances involved in the process. A common welding mode in industrial applications, constant current welding mode was assumed in the model development. For simplicity only the nearest neighboring weld was considered, and the influence of all other welds was assumed negligible. The electrical process of shunting is readily represented by flowing electric current through a simple electric circuit, identical to that in Fig. 2 in Ref. 6, consisting of several resistors based on the effects of various portions of the sheet stack-up on heat generation and electric current flow, which can be derived from the schematic in Fig. 1. First, the contact resistance at the electrode-sheet interface could be significant in affecting the welding process. However, it can be assumed identical for the weld being made (the shunted weld) and its shunt weld and, therefore, its effect can be ignored for simplicity and it can be excluded in the study of the shunting effect. As a result, the number of resistances needed to be considered in developing the shunting model is reduced, and they can be classified according to their contributions to welding and shunting, along their respective paths. The electrical resistance to the shunting current IS, in the path through the previously made weld (shunt weld) can be assumed to be dominated by bulk resistance, and approximated as 2L
bulk

shunted welds (marked as Weld Spacing in Fig. 1), and are constants used to specify the ends of the shunting path between the shunt weld and the indentation impression mark. These two constants would assume a value of 0.5 if the shunting current flew directly from the edge of the indentation mark to the edge of the shunt weld, which is the shortest path as can be seen in Fig. 1. The metallography in Fig. 2 of welds made on a 2.0-mm mild steel sheet with 8-mm weld spacing from an experimental study of shunting (Ref. 6) shows they should be slightly smaller than 0.5. From the figure it can be seen that the outlines of the heataffected zones (HAZ) of the shunted welds are asymmetric, indicating uneven heating during welding. The HAZ of a shunted weld has upper and lower left corners extending to the electrode contact surfaces, which are different from those on the right side, indicating possible concentrated electric current passing through these areas. Similar phenomenon has been observed in other shunting welds in experiments (Ref. 6). Consider the upper left corner of the HAZ in the first shunted weld (the second in the sequence) in Fig. 2. As the darkened area near the electrode surface is located inside the edge of the indentation mark, it is reasonable to assume that the shunting current path starts from this place, not the indentation edge. For the same reason the center of the shunting path is assumed passing through a point inside the shunt weld, not on its edge. Considering the possible shunting path revealed by this figure, the vertical projection of the shunting path should also be slightly smaller than 2t as exhibited in Fig. 1. Because of this, t instead of t, where is smaller than unity should be used for calculating L, i.e., L2 = (Spacing d0 dI)2 + (t)2 The average cross-sectional area of the shunting path, AS, can be assumed to be proportional to the average of the projected areas of the shunt weld and the electrode indentation onto the shunting path, i.e., 11 1 1 A sin = d 2 + d 2 sin 1 d 2 + d 2 S 0 I 0 I 24 4 8 where is as shown in Fig. 1. As sint/L, the bulk resistance of the shunting path is

WELDING RESEARCH

bS

where L2 = D2 + t2, and the dimensions are illustrated in Fig. 1. D is the horizontal projection of the shunting current path L. Its value can be assumed as Spacing d0 dI where Spacing is the distance between the centers of the shunt and 232-s AUGUST 2013, VOL. 92

bS

L2
bulk

2 d 0 + d I2 t

bulk

(Spacing d

2 d 0 + d I2 t

) + ( t )
2

The influence of other possible factors on RbS can be assumed unchanged during shunting, and lumped into a constant CbS for quantifying the bulk resistance of the shunting path

bS

=C

bS bulk

(Spacing d

2 d 0 + d I2 t

) + ( t )
2

(1)

As the original faying interface is eliminated in the shunt weld, the contact resistance in the shunting path can be assumed to be zero. The bulk resistance of the welding path can be derived in a similar manner as RbS:

bW

2t
bulk

the left by the shunt weld when the shunted weld is being made as shown in Fig. 3, the actual force at the faying interface, Fappl, is different from the applied electrode force, Felectrode, because of the resistance of the top sheet to bending. This is similar to an analysis of expulsion in resistance welding by estimating the net force exerted by the electrodes at the faying interface (Ref. 7). Approximating the top (or bottom) sheet as a cantilever beam allows for an estimate of the force at the faying interface that is responsible for affecting the contact resistance when making the shunted weld. Through an analogy to the maximum deflection under a concentrated loading as formulated in any fundamental structural analysis such as Ref. 8, the following relation can be derived for the configuration in Fig. 3:

bW

The cross-sectional area of the welding path can be approximated by the average of the contact area at the faying interface (or the projected area of the shunted weld), and that at the electrode-sheet interface 11 2 1 2 = d + d 24 I 4

appl

=F

electrode

t3

(Spacing 0.5d )
0

bW

The coefficient represents the influence of the sheet width and material strength. Therefore, the contact resistance at the faying interface along the welding path can be expressed as

cW

cW 1 bulk

cW 2 cont

bW

=C

bW

t
bulk

d 2 +d 2 I

(2)

electrode

t3

(3)
3

(Spacing 0.5d )
0

The contact resistance at the faying interface in the welding path can be assumed to stem from a cylinder of a mixture, hereafter called contact cylinder, of the bulk metal and the substances/contaminants on the surfaces. This cylinder has a height of lo and cross-sectional area of AW, which is a function of the applied electrode force. The contact resistance is affected by the electrode force squeezing the weld stack-up, and such effect is reflected by the deformation of this contact cylinder, approximated as y/appl lo. A base metal with a high yield stress, y, resists the deformation and reduction of electrical resistance; a large electrode force generates a large applied stress at the faying interface, appl, and reduces contact resistance. Therefore, the contact resistance at the faying interface, RcW, based on the aforementioned discussion, can be assumed

Considering the electric circuit consisting of the shunting and welding paths, the shunting current IS can be related to the overRbw + Rcw all current in loop, II , in the form of ISthe = secondary (4) RbS + RbW + RcW From this equation it can be seen that a large resistance of the shunting path reduces the value of shunting current and, therefore, the shunting effect. The welding current is expressed in a similar way as

I W =

RbS

Rbs I + RbW + RcW

(5)

cW

= C

cW 1 bulk

+C

cW 2 cont

appl

The constants CcW1 and CcW2 can be regarded as the weighting factors of the contributions from the bulk and surface resistances in the contact cylinder. They contain the effects of surface contaminants, other surface characteristics such as roughness and coating, and the contact cylinder height. The net force exerted on the faying interface at the shunted weld, resulting from the applied electrode force, is Fappl = applAW, and the contact resistance can therefore, be expressed as = C

The dependence of the shunted weld on the shunt weld size, welding time, current, and electrode force, in addition to the sheet thickness and strength, can be derived by considering the equivalence of heat needed for making the shunted weldment and the heat generated through joule heating along the welding path. The shunted weldment can be divided into two parts, and different amounts of heat are needed to create them. One is the weld nugget. It can be approximated by an ellipsoid with a volume 4 1 d 3 d d = d 3 2 2 3

( )

cW

cW 1 bulk

+C

cW 2 cont

)F

appl

The net force at the faying interface, Fappl, is usually smaller than the electrode force. Although it is difficult to accurately calculate its value, it can be estimated through a structural analysis of the forces acting on the welding stack-up. By considering the top sheet as a cantilever beam fixed on

where is a constant, representing the ratio of the height of the ellipsoid nugget to its diameter. On the other hand, the joule heat is also consumed to generate the HAZ, the volume of which can be approximated by the difference between a cylinder of size

d (2t ) 4

1 2 = td 2

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And RbW can be written as the following, with a constant CbW for the effect of all other fixed variables

= C

+C

and that of the nugget. Therefore, the total heat needed for the shunted weldment is approximately 1 1 3 td 2 1 d 3 = c d 3 + c td 2 c d c + h n n h 3 3 2 In the above expression, the coefficients on the left-hand side represent the unit heats needed for making the nugget and the HAZ, and they can be lumped up as on the right-hand side for convenience. The heat needed comes from resistance heating, and using Equation 5 the joule heat can be expressed as

I2 W

(R

bW

+R

cW

=I

R +R +R bS bW cW

bS

2 R +R bW cW W

Here W is the welding time and I is the total welding current used when making the shunted weld. Equating the joule heat to that needed for making the weld produces the relationship between the shunted weld size and the welding parameters, material properties, and premade shunt weld size:
t C + C +C cW 2 cont cW 1 bulk bW bulk d 2 + d 2 I y t3 F electrode 3 Spacing 0.5d 0

model make accurate analytical calculation of the constants irrelevant. The constants in Equation 6, however, can be determined and the equation explicitly expressed using the experimental results such as those obtained in Ref. 6. Before fitting the equation using the experimental observations, a simplification is necessary on the constants of Equation 6. First, both and can be chosen as 0.495, so the shunting current path extends just slightly into the electrode impression mark and the shunt weld, as illustrated in Fig. 1. Similarly, can be taken as 0.95. As the accurate bulk and contact resistivity values are generally difficult to obtain, their effects can be better represented by lumped coefficients, determined through curve fitting using experimental results that are categorized according to the surface conditions. Standard curve fitting procedures such as those provided by commercial software packages can be used in the calculation. Equation 6 can be simplified, by consolidating the coefficients, as
2 2 0.95t + Spacing 0.495d 0.495d 0 I c 2 3 d 0 + d I2 t 2 2 +d 2 t2 c1 d 3 + c2 td 2 d 0 c c t I 6 y 5 +c +c4 4 2 2 d +d c t3 I 7 F electrode Spacing 0.5d 0 2 3

( ) (

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c d 3 + c td 2 = I 2
n h

= I 2

2 2 2 d + t Spacing d 0 I C bS bulk 2 2 d0 + d I t 2 2 + t Spacing d d t 0 I C +C bW bulk bS bulk 2 d 2 +d 2 + d 2 t d I I 0 y + C + C cW 1 bulk cW 2 cont 3 t F electrode 3 Spacing 0.5d 0

) ( )

c t c 6 y 5 + 2 2 d d c t3 + I 7 F electrode Spacing 0.5d 0

0.95t

( ) + (Spacing 0.495d
2

0.495d 3

2 2

(7 )

) ( )

(6)

Although Equation 6 is derived using several assumptions and simplifications, it outlines the fundamental relationship among the variables when welding with a shunt weld. Welding spacing, as an important welding process parameter, can be determined using this relation. In addition, it provides a quantitative guidance for selecting welding parameters in order to achieve quality welds under restraints of weld spacing, as often seen in engineering design of welding. The constants in Equation 6 have to be determined through carefully planned experiments for practical use.

Examples
The model shown in Equation 6 relates the shunted weld to the shunt weld and other process variables. However, the material properties and process parameters are not sufficient, even if they are available, to determine the constants in the model. The influence of the unavoidable random factors as well as the large number of assumptions and simplifications made when deriving the

The constants in Equation 7, c1, c2, c3, c4, c5, c6, and c7, can be determined through experiments with sufficient replications and as many combinations of variables as possible. They are clearly material dependent, and the surface condition plays an important role in affecting the values of these constants. It should be noted that although the model shown in the equation is generic, a fitted model developed for a specific material system should be limited to that material in the ranges of the relevant material properties. To illustrate the procedure of determining the constants and the use of the model in understanding shunting, the experimental observations in a previous study (Ref. 6) were used to obtain the explicit models for the material systems studied. The experiments include two types of materials: mild steel (MS) and dual-phase steel (DP) of several gauges. Several types of surface conditions were used, including bare steel surface, pure zinc-coated or hotdipped galvanized (HDG) surface, plastic insertion of a thin polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film, and their combinations. Because of the overwhelming influence of the contact resistance the experimental data were classified into four groups according to the surface conditions at the faying interface for the shunted welds: bare steel surface (MS), zinc-coated (HDG) surface, bare steel (MS) + plastic insert, and zinc-coated (HDG) + plastic insert. The values of these four types of contact resistances are expected to be very different, in addition to being unknown. Therefore, they were treated separately to avoid complications and inaccuracy in quantifying the shunting relations using Equation 7. The constants in the equation were determined through curve fitting using Mathematica8 (Ref. 9) for each of the four types of surface conditions. A fixed size of electrode indentation, dI, taken

234-s AUGUST 2013, VOL. 92

Table 1 Constants of Equation 7 for the Materials with the Four Types of Surface Conditions Tested in the Experiments Mild steel (bare) c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7 1.22239 109 3.08145 1017 378747.0 158244.0 0.893066 0.892577 0.999269 Mild steel (bare) + plastic insert 8.93766 1014 2.68256 109 492327.0 329371.0 0.0868412 0.0868538 1.00023 DP steel (HDG) 2.37641 109 1.73576 1012 240506.0 169569.0 0.0916093 0.0918372 1.00044 DP steel (HDG) + plastic insert 3.32993 109 4.75207 1015 526676.0 23620.0 3100.98 2.927 772.487

Effect of Sheet Thickness

Figure 4 shows the required weld spacing to achieve a certain sized shunted weld goes up with sheet thickness. As expected, a large weld spacing is necessary in order to have a shunted weld of size close to that of the shunt weld. For 0.5-mm bare mild steels, an increment of little more than 1 mm is needed when the shunted weld size goes from 70 to 85%, and then 100% of that of the shunt weld, as seen in Fig. 4A. Such an increment is more than 3 mm for the 3-mm sheets. A greater increase in weld spacing is necessary when a plastic film was inserted in the faying interface. The plastic insertion clearly raises the contact resistance and, therefore, the electrical resistance along the welding path, amplifying the shunting effect. However, this effect is thickness dependent. For thin sheets, a larger weld space is necessary for the bare steels than for those with a plastic insert, and the latter overtake the former when the sheet thickness goes beyond the range of 1.51.7 mm. In general, shunting is more sensitive to sheet thickness when the plastic insert is used, implying that the contact resistance along the welding path plays a decisive role in shunting. A sizeable difference exists between these two types of interfaces for thick sheets as well. For instance, the 3-mm sheet with plastic insert needs a weld spacing of 45 mm, 12 mm larger than that without the plastic insert. Similar to that observed in the MS, the weld spacing goes up with sheet thickness for both zinc-coated and zinc-coated + plas-

Fig. 4 Effect of sheet thickness on weld spacing: A Of the mild steel with d0 = 4.8 mm, I = 6 kA, y = 205 MPa, F = 2.3 kN, = 350 ms; B of the HDG DP steel with d0 = 5.9 mm, I = 8 kA, y = 665 MPa, F = 4.0 kN, = 500 ms.

tic insert when welding DP steels Fig. 4B. The effect of plastic insert in HDG DP steels is not as significant as in the MS. This could be the result of a nullified influence of the zinc coating by the plastic film.
Effect of Welding Time

In Fig. 5, the shunt weld size was fixed at 4.8 mm for a 1.5-mm MS. It shows that increasing welding time is an effective means of minimizing the effect of shunting as it puts more heat into a weld and reduces the weld spacing needed. When welding time is short, the time to melt the interface takes a significant proportion of the entire welding time. The electric current diverted by the shunt weld results in a large percentage of heat loss, and a large weld spacing is necessary in order to avoid shunting. With a long welding time, however, it takes a small fraction of the total time for the contact resistance to disappear when the interface melts, and more current and heat are distributed to the shunted weld as a result. This effect is more profound when the plastic insert is used at the faying interface. The diversion of electric current from the welding path into the shunting path is magnified by the plastic in-

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as 5.0 mm from the experiments, was used in the curve fitting. In curve fitting, the physical meaning of the constants should not be sacrificed for the closeness of numerical fitting. For instance, a negative c7 produces a better numerical fitting than a positive one. However, it makes no physical sense according to the analysis in the previous sections on the cantilever beam as demonstrated in Fig. 3. In the present study, certain conditions were imposed on such coefficients in order to preserve their physical meaning. The constants determined for the four types of surface conditions are listed in Table 1. The values of the constants in the table vary in drastic ranges. The main reason is that the units of the variables in Equation 7 were not made consistent, for the convenience of practical welding. For instance, the unit of sheet thickness in the equation is millimeter while that of the yield strength of material is MPa. This can be observed by comparing the coefficients c3 and c6, while the former is for the dimensions, with a large value, and the latter corresponds to pressure with a much smaller value. The accuracy of the models in Table 1 was verified by comparing the two sides of Equation 7. Very small differences between the values of the two sides were obtained for all the sets of experimental observations and, therefore, the models were considered valid. The fitted models shown in Table 1 can be used to study the influence of various parameters. As weld spacing is the most important parameter in weld design, it was expressed in this study as a function of other variables. The weld spacing needed to obtain a shunted weld of certain size was expressed as a percentage of the shunt weld size, in order to meet the requirements of weld quality, mainly in terms of weld size, in practice.

sert when welding time is short, and less heat is directed to the shunted weld, resulting in a larger weld spacing necessary than in a bare steel. When the welding time is long, however, the increased contact resistance from the plastic insert actually works to the benefit of reducing weld spacing because more heat is generated at the shunted weld compared with the case of bare steel. This explains that the weld spacing needed for welding with the plastic insert is significantly smaller than that without the plastic insert.
Effect of Electrode Force

Comparing Fig. 6A with Fig. 5, it can be seen that the influence of electrode force on weld spacing is similar to that of welding time. A large electrode force reduces the contact resistance in the welding path, as can be seen from Equation 3. Therefore, a small weld spacing is allowed with large electrode forces. Figure 6 also shows the electrode force has a smaller effect when the plastic insert was used at the faying interface. This is related to the way the plastic-inserted interface evolves during welding. Under a large

WELDING RESEARCH

Fig. 6 Effect of electrode force on weld spacing: A Of the mild steel with d0 = 4.8 mm, I = 6 kA, y = 205 MPa, t = 1.5 mm, = 350 ms; B of the DP steel with d0 = 5.9 mm, I = 8 kA, y = 665 MPa, t = 1.2 mm, = 500 ms.

Fig. 5 Dependence of weld spacing on welding time for the mild steel with d0 = 4.8 mm, I = 6 kA, y = 205 MPa, F = 2.3 kN, t = 1.5 mm.

electrode force, a certain amount of (molten) plastic is sealed by the electrode force exerted at the faying interface, and this amount doesnt change much with increasing electrode force. As a result, the contact resistance is largely determined by the entrapped polymer, and the electrode force, which is the dominant factor on steels without plastic insert, is less effective in creating an intimate contact between the two sheets. Therefore, with the existence of plastic film at the interface, the electrode force has a lesser effect compared with that of a bare interface. It is interesting to see that in the DP steels, the dependence of weld spacing on electrode force shows similar trends in the HDG and HDG + plastic insert specimens. With a loose requirement of the shunted weld reaching 70% of the shunt weld in size, the plastic insert makes negligible difference. When making larger shunted welds, however, the difference in weld spacing between those of the original HDG and plastic-inserted HDG faying interfaces goes up, yet the difference is virtually a constant. Therefore, the influence of electrode force on weld spacing is similar with these two types of contact interfaces. This appears related to the zinc coating. The existence of pure zinc on the surface reduces the contact resistance, while inserting a plastic film at the faying interface does the opposite. Increasing the electrode force squeezes some of the molten zinc out of the contact area to its periphery. But this part of the zinc still contributes to conducting electric current along the welding path, as it accumulates along the periphery of the contact area, forming a ring of molten zinc. Therefore, increasing the electrode force has a smaller effect on changing the contact resistance, resulting in a smaller decrease in weld spacing as shown in Fig. 6B than observed in the uncoated mild steels in Fig. 6A. The increased joule heating, along with a

corresponding decrease in weld spacing, results from a decrease in contact resistance and an increase in welding current when increasing the electrode force on the original zinc-coated interface. A similar process could occur in the plastic-inserted stack-up. The larger contact resistance with the plastic insert generates more heat compared to the one of original surfaces, and results in smaller weld spacing when making similar sized welds.
Effects of Other Factors

As several DP steels of different grades were used in the experiment, the yield strength can be regarded as a variable. The weld spacing requirements as functions of yield strength from 300 to 900 MPa are plotted in Fig. 7. Similar to the dependence of weld spacing on other variables in the HDG DP steels, the yield strength of the sheet material has a smooth effect on the weld spacing. Increasing the yield strength results in an increase in weld spacing at a fixed electrode force, as a sheet with a large yield strength is less compliant and a small intimate contact is produced at the faying interface. However, such an intimate contact has a smaller impact on the overall contact resistance in HDG steels, as the molten zinc can easily fill the root opening at the faying interface. A larger rise in weld spacing should be expected when welding bare steels. The horizontal projected length and, therefore, that of the shunting path decrease when the shunt weld size increases as seen in Fig. 1. The actual shunting path and, therefore, the shunting effect change along with the shunt weld even with fixed weld spacing. Figure 8 shows the dependence of weld spacing on the shunt weld size in order to achieve a certain sized shunted weld. As expected, weld spacing increases with the shunt weld size, and for the same sized shunt weld a larger shunted weld requires a larger weld spacing. The combined effect of the electrode force and welding time on weld spacing can be presented using a contour plot as shown

236-s AUGUST 2013, VOL. 92

Fig. 7 Effect of sheet yield strength on weld spacing in HDG steels. d0 = 5.9 mm, I = 8 kA, F = 4.0 kN, t = 1.2 mm, = 500 ms.

Fig. 9 Contour plot of weld spacing vs. electrode force and welding time for a bare mild steel. d0 = 4.8 mm, y = 205 MPa, I = 6 kA, t = 1.5 mm, and the shunted weld size is identical to that of the shunt weld.

Fig. 8 Effect of shunt weld size on weld spacing in bare MS steels. y = 205 MPa, I = 6 kA, F = 2.3 kN, t = 1.5 mm, = 350 ms.

When a plastic film was inserted into the faying interface when making the shunted weld, the effects of electrode force and welding time on the required weld spacing were different from those observed in welding bare steels. In Fig. 10, a long welding time reduces the weld spacing, which is similar to what was observed in Fig. 5, while the weld spacing is fairly insensitive to the electrode force. This observation is consistent with that in Fig. 6A, where increasing electrode force is no longer effective in reducing weld spacing when the electrode force reaches a certain level. The largest weld spacing appears at the corner of maximal electrode force and minimal welding time. The different roles the electrode force plays in welding bare and plastic insertion-filled faying interfaces are the result of the containment of the plastic film in the contact area by the electrode force, as discussed in the previous section on the effect of electrode force. As the plastic insertion represents an extreme of contaminated sheet surfaces that is not normally encountered in practice, the trend, rather than the value, of the weld spacing shown in the figure is more important. Many of the surface contaminates such as grease, etc., may disappear under the intensive heating in resistance spot welding and, therefore, their influence on weld spacing is more suitably represented by Fig. 9 than Fig. 10.

Fig. 10 Contour plot of weld spacing vs. electrode force and welding time for a bare mild steel with a plastic insert at the faying interface: d0 = 4.8 mm, y = 205 MPa, I = 6 kA, t = 1.5 mm, and the shunted weld size is identical to that of the shunt weld.

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in Fig. 9. For this bare steel, both the electrode force and welding time reduce the weld spacing needed to produce a weld of the same size as the shunt weld. Increasing either electrode force or welding time individually can shorten the weld spacing from approximately 32 to 26 mm, and simultaneously raising these two welding parameters to 3.0 kN and 500 ms, respectively, may render an identical-sized weld to the shunted one with a weld spacing of only 21 mm.

Weld Spacing Requirements

In welding design, it is often necessary to determine the weld spacing as a function of sheet thickness. In Fig. 11, the weld spacing needed for different gauges of MS and zinc-coated DP steels is plotted, in order to create a shunted weld of the same size as the shunt weld. Note that different welding parameters are used for predicting the weld spacing in these two types of materials, based on the actual values obtained from the experiments. For the ease of use in welding practice step functions were created. It shows that the weld spacing required for welding the MS is larger than that for the DP steel, largely due to the difference in the surface resistance between the steels used in the experiments. The MS steel was uncoated in fabricated condition, while the DP steels were hot-dip coated with zinc. A faying interface covered by pure zinc has significantly lower electrical resistance than that of a bare steel. As a result, the current in the shunting path takes a smaller portion than in a bare steel stackup. Therefore, the weld spacing required to avoid shunting in the coated steel is smaller than in the bare steel. This effect is offset slightly, though, by the yield strength of the DP steels, because a steel of higher yield strength usually requires a larger weld spacing as it takes more electrode force to create an intimate contact at the faying interface. For a fixed electrode force, a large weld spacing is required when the material is strong, as seen in Fig. 7.

tems in the range of experiment. Extrapolation is not recommended, especially in the cases of large variation in contact resistance.
Acknowledgment

Author B. Wang gratefully acknowledges the financial support from Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of P.R. China (Project No. LQ12E05006).
References 1. Tumuluru, M. D., Zhang, H., and Matteson, R. 2011. Procedure development and practice considerations for resistance welding. ASM Handbook on Welding (Volume 6). Materials Park, Ohio: ASM International. 2. Chang, H. S. 1990. A study on the shunt effect in resistance spot welding. Welding Journal 69(8): 308-s to 317-s. 3. Tsai, C. L., Dai, W. L., Dickinson, D. W., and Papritan, J. C. 1991. Analysis and development of a real-time control methodology in resistance spot welding. Welding Journal 70(12): 339-s to 351-s. 4. Browne, D. J., Chandler, H. W., Evans, J. T., James, P. S., Wen, J., and Newton, C. J. 1995. Computer simulation of resistance spot welding in aluminum (Part 2). Welding Journal 74(12): 417-s to 422-s. 5. Howe, P. 1994. Spot weld spacing effect on weld button size. Proceedings of Sheet Metal Welding Conference VI, Paper C03. AWS Detroit Section. 6. Wang, B., Lou, M., Shen, Q., Li, Y. B., and Zhang, H. 2013. Shunting effect in resistance spot welding steels Part 1: Experimental study. Welding Journal 92(6): 182-s to 189-s. 7. Zhang, H., and Senkara, J. 2012. Resistance Welding: Fundamentals and Applications. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group, 2nd edition, Boca Raton, London, New York. 8. Gere, J. M., and Timoshenko, S. P. 1997. Mechanics of Materials, PWS Publishing Co. 9. Mathematica 8, Wolfram Research, Inc., v. 8.0.1.0, Copyright 19882011.

Fig. 11 Weld spacing as a function of sheet thickness. The shunted weld is assumed to have an equal size to the shunt weld. For the MS, d0 = 4.8 mm, y = 205 MPa, and the welding parameters are I = 6 kA, = 350 ms, and F = 2.3 kN; and for the hot-dipped DP steels, d0 = 5.9 mm, y = 665 MPa, and the welding parameters are I = 8 kA, = 500 ms, and F = 4.0 kN.

Summary

WELDING RESEARCH

In this study, the shunting process was analyzed and an analytical model was produced. Using the models for several material systems developed by fitting the experimental observations, the influences of several factors on the minimum weld spacing were explicitly and quantitatively expressed. The important findings are summarized as follows: 1. The analytical model fits well with the experimental results on all four types of drastically different surface conditions for the mild and dual-phase steels of various gauges; 2. For all the factors considered, without exception, a large weld spacing is always needed in order to make a large shunted weld; 3. In general, the required minimum weld spacing goes up with the sheet thickness, and a high contact resistance at the faying interface amplifies this dependence; 4. The effect of electrode force is accurately accounted for in the analytical model by considering the net force at the faying interface. In general, it reduces the weld spacing required. However, its effect on weld spacing is affected by other factors, such as the surface condition; 5. Welding time is effective in reducing weld spacing, and an excessive contact resistance such as generated by inserting a plastic film at the faying interface may help in minimizing the weld spacing by generating more heat at the shunted weld; 6. The models also allow for an understanding of the effect of sheet yield strength. A sheet of high yield strength requires a large weld spacing because of its high resistance to deformation under an electrode force; 7. The size of the shunt weld directly affects shunting as it dictates the shunting path; 8. Contact resistance plays a dominant role in shunting, and zinc-coated surfaces generally behave significantly different than bare steels; 9. The models also reveal the complex interactions among the process parameters in affecting shunting. For instance, the electrode force and welding time interact with the surface contact resistance in affecting shunting. Such an interaction is prevalent in shunting. Through a carefully planned experiment, this analytical model can be used to describe the influence of process parameters on shunting in resistance spot welding a specific material. The conclusions derived, however, are only applicable to the material sys238-s AUGUST 2013, VOL. 92

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Three-Dimensional Simulation of Underwater Welding and Investigation of Effective Parameters


The three-dimensional finite difference method was used to obtain temperature profiles, thermal history curves, and cooling times for single-pass underwater wet weldments
BY P. GHADIMI, H. GHASSEMI, M. GHASSABZADEH, AND Z. KIAEI

ABSTRACT
The results of three-dimensional numerical simulation of wet underwater welding in thin steel plates were studied. Temperature profile, thermal history curves as well as cooling time for single-pass underwater wet weldments were obtained by solving the appropriate heat transfer equations using the three-dimensional finite difference method. The model was validated using experimental data for the air welding process. The effect of the parameters such as material, surrounding fluid, convective heat coefficient (hc), arc heat model, and the method of heat losses from the plate were investigated through modeling and analyzing ten different case studies. The obtained results indicate that the type of surrounding fluid has a significant role in the temperature variations during welding and consequently cooling time is much lower in underwater welding compared with welding in air. The effect of material type could not be distinguished, obviously because of the rapid cooling in wet welding. The analysis using the Tsai model for hc in comparison with constant values indicates the Tsai model can predict hc successfully, when its value is 10006000 W/m2K. The method of arc heat estimation is important when the temperature distribution in short vertical distances from the weld interface is considered and, at other positions, there is no difference between the two used arc heat estimations. The results show that the convective heat transfer is more effective than radiation in temperature calculations; therefore the radiation can be neglected.

Introduction
Ship salvage, harbor clearance, wreck removal, underwater pipelines, and conveyer equipment repair oftentimes require extensive underwater cutting and welding. Beginning in the mid-1930s, with the substitution of welding for lesser quality mechanical methods of joining, the overall cost and time spent on the job could be reduced considerably (Refs. 13). Underwater welding processes are classified as dry or wet based on their exposure to the ambient environment. Processes that are physically protected from the surrounding water are classified
P. GHADIMI (pghadimi@aut.ac.ir) and H. GHASSEMI are associate professors, and M. GHASSABZADEH is a PhD student, Dept. of Marine Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran. Z. KIAEI is a PhD student, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

as dry, whereas in wet welding, the weld is directly exposed to the underwater environment (Ref. 4). Because of its lower costs, faster and more flexible operation, wet underwater welding offers more advantages than dry underwater welding (Refs. 2, 4). The term underwater welding as used in this paper refers to the wet welding technique where no mechanical barrier separates the welding arc from the surrounding water.

KEYWORDS
Underwater Welding Wet Welding Finite Difference Three-Dimensional Modeling Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)

While shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) are both used for wet welding, SMAW is the most used process in wet applications (Refs. 1, 5, 6). Shielded metal arc welding offers the benefits of low cost and process simplicity, and has a considerable history of offshore application. However, for the joining of materials at depths exceeding 100 m, GTAW is often selected because of the quality of the welds produced (Ref. 5). Underwater SMAW is somewhat similar to SMAW performed in air (Ref. 7). In the SMAW process, heating with an electric arc is established between an electrode and the base plate while in wet SMAW, the arc is in the water between the electrode and the surface being welded (Refs. 1, 4, 7). In the case of gas tungsten arc welding, the arc is drawn between a water-cooled nonconsumable tungsten electrode and the plate. An inert gas shield is provided to protect the weld metal from the atmosphere, and filler metal may be added to the weld pool as required. Ignition of the arc is obtained by means of a high-frequency discharge across the root opening, since it is not advisable to strike an arc on the plate with the tungsten electrode. Normally, the inert gas shield used for welding aluminum and steel in countries like Great Britain is argon. Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is, in effect, an extension of GTAW in which the electrode in this process is a consumable metal wire (Ref. 8). There are two major drawbacks during underwater welding: 1) rapid cooling of weld metal and heat-affected zone (HAZ) in comparison to welding in air, and 2) susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement. In fact, the water acts as a large heat sink and draws off the heat of the electrode so that weld defects induced by the accelerated cooling usually appear in the HAZ in underwater welds. Also, since underwater welding induces an arc atmosphere that is high in water vapor content and in dissoWELDING JOURNAL 239-s

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Fig. 1 Schematic of weld piece and thermocouple locations (Ref. 17).

Fig. 2 Illustration of temperature measurement positions on the weldment plate.

ciated oxygen and hydrogen, the susceptibility to hydrogen-assisted cold cracking becomes especially critical (Refs. 1, 6, 7, 9). Despite these shortfalls, underwater welds of good strength that are acceptable for salvage work are possible (Ref. 1). The rapid cooling phenomenon may cause porosity and possible loss of strength between the patch and the hull, because the gas cannot escape from the molten pool of metal due to the sudden cooling by the surrounding water (Ref. 1). Numerical simulation of the temperature distribution during the welding process can be used to improve wet underwater welding (Ref. 2). An important step toward resolving any kind of deformation and stress problem in the welding applications is the determination of the most appropriate resolution of the temperature distribution. Over the years, many different scientific approaches to the solution of this problem were developed. Among them are (Ref. 3) 1. A whole series of analytical models, from the simplest 1-D solutions to complicated 3-D models taking into account the 3-D heat source distribution and heat losses from workpiece surfaces; 2. Finite difference method (FDM); 3. Finite element analysis (FEA); 4. Finite volume method (FVM). In the early years, analytical expressions have been used to describe the thermal history of weldments made in air. This approach has been improved by the development of finite difference models that rely on fewer simplifying assumptions and, for single-pass GTA weldments made in

air, a very accurate thermal history can be derived. Some years later, FEA was introduced as another numerical method for solving the welding heat transfer problems. In some recent research, FVM has also been used as the numerical scheme. Much research has been conducted about the temperature field of conventional welding in air, but there has been limited research about underwater welding. Here, some underwater examples using each of the numerical methods are reviewed. In 1984, Oreper and Szekely examined the stationary, axisymmetric GTAW process with a moving boundary by using the finite difference method (Ref. 10). Fukuoka and Fukui (Ref. 11) compared the cooling processes of underwater welding by gas shielded arc welding with conditions involving welding in air using experimental technique and numerical approach with three-dimensional FDM. In 1997, Dill (Ref. 7) studied the thermal history calculations and cooling rates for single-pass underwater weldments by solving the heat transfer equations using the three-dimensional Crank-Nicholson finite difference method. He applied the Adams approach and Tsai and Masubuchis semiempirical correlation in his model to obtain the weldment temperature time trend during welding process for an underwater case in comparison with air surroundings. In a number of works, the numerical calculations of the temperature field and the stress distribution in a thick plate welded underwater have been performed at subsequent time steps by means of FEA (Ref. 12). For instance, in 1994, Hamann

and Mahrenholtz (Ref. 13) developed a new welding model for the plasmaGMAW underwater welding technique. They solved the temperature problem using FEA and compared their numerical and experimental data to investigate the influence of surface heat transfer on the temperature distribution during wet underwater welding. In 2007, Xiwen et al. (Ref. 14) simulated a three-dimensional temperature field of a plate weldment in underwater welding. They analyzed the influence of several factors that affect the temperature fields of underwater welding using FEA applied by ANSYS software. The finite volume method is the least used numerical method in underwater welding. Isikilar and Girgin, in 2011 (Ref. 15), developed a numerical model for transient three-dimensional conduction heat transfer in an underwater welding process on a thick rectangular plate. The numerical scheme was based on a FVM model including convection, radiation, and boiling surface thermal boundary conditions. On the other hand, the FDM numerical solution has some advantages in comparison with FEA, including the following (Refs. 3, 7, 16): The FDM is easily understandable physically (the variables are temperature, time, geometry, and material properties; in contrast to some mathematical functions involved in the FEA solution). FDM is simple to formulate and requires less computational work to arrive at a solution. Unlike FEA, the accuracy of FDM can

WELDING RESEARCH

Table 1 Experimental Characteristics of the Validation Case (Ref. 17) Surrounding Medium Air Plate Thickness (mm) 3 Left Plate Right Plate Locations of the Thermocouples from Weld Line (mm) A 3 B 18 C 23

St37

St37

240-s AUGUST 2013, VOL. 92

Fig. 3 Temperature history. Comparison between finite difference results and experimental data (Ref. 17) at points with different distances from the weld interface: A Point A, 3 mm; B point B, 18 mm; C point C, 23 mm.

R = K
x

R = K
y

x T y T z

R = K
z

(2)

be examined by order of truncation error in the Taylor series expansion. The FDM is easy to apply for solution of engineering problems involving simple geometry. It is always possible to reduce the size of the uniform mesh steps encountered in FDM to account approximately for the curved geometrical parts. Based on the extensive review made by the authors over the widespread research on welding simulation by FDM, the underwater welding process simulation by this method and the study of the effective parameters are not well known. In the present work, a finite difference model that predicts the time-temperature history of the underwater wet weldments made on two different types of steel will be developed. The welding process in this work is a GTAW type in

Methodology
Thermal Model

The specific form of the energy equation generalized for the three-dimensional modeling, utilizing the stationary coordinate and unsteady heat conduction to analyze the heat transfer, is developed as
R x R y R z + + x y z = C T x , y , z ,t t + Q x , y , z ,t

where Q [Wm3] is the volumetric heat generation, Kx, Ky, and Kz are the directional heat conduction coefficients, [kgm3] is the density of conducting material, and C[Jkg1K1] is the constant pressure heat capacity. Here, no heat generation occurs and thermal conductivity is an isotropic property that is the same in all directions. In the case of welding applications, the initial condition is usually isothermal, i.e., T(x,y,z,0) = T0 = const. The overall governing boundary condition is expressed as T
x

N +K
x s c

T
y

y
r

N +K
y

T
z

+ q +q +q =0

(3)

)
(1)

where N is the directional cosine of the boundaries, and qs, qc, and qr are the heat transferred due to the arc heat source, and the convective and radiative heat losses from the solid body, respectively.

Table 2 Welding Parameters (Ref. 17) Welding Voltage (V) 14.6 Welding Current (I) 101 Welding Speed (mm/s) 1.8 Arc Efficiency Shielding Gas (Ar) (L/min) 10 Heat Input (k Jmm) 0.409

50%

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which the electrode is nonconsumable and there is no melting heat consideration in the calculation process. This scheme uses the fusion zone boundary condition for the solution of the resulting nonlinear partial differential equation. Heat transfer to the surrounding water is accounted for using the model of Tsai et al., which was described earlier in this section.

Fig. 4 Maximum temperature values along the following: A The vertical line; B the parallel line relative to the weld interface.

WELDING RESEARCH

Fig. 5 Thermal history of a point in the following: A Parallel direction; B vertical direction to the welding trajectory.

Finite Difference Method

The weld pool in this model is moved incrementally through the coordinate system at the defined weld speed, using the results of each previous step as the initial condition to the next. Based on the three-point finite differences, the second-order derivative terms of the left side of Equation 1 at arbitrary node with position of i, j, k in x, y, z direction and in time step n, discrete are as follows: 2T x 2 2T y 2 2T z 2 )
n

T t

)n

i , j ,k

T n+1 T n
i , j ,k

i , j ,k

(5)

The coefficient matrix and constant column matrix in the internal domain for the three-dimensional problem are defined as

where t is the time space. By using Equations 4 and 5, the temperature for a typical internal node is obtained as

0 0
1 2 1

0
3

0 0 0

0
1 2

T n+1 = .T n
i , j ,k

Tn

i +1 , j ,k

2T n

i , j ,k
2

+T n

i 1 , j ,k

i , j ,k

(x )
Tn i , j +1 ,k

+ T n +T n 1 i +1 , j ,k i 1 , j ,k + T n +T n 2 i , j +1 ,k i , j 1 ,k +T n (6) + T n i , j ,k 1 3 i , j ,k +1
i , j ,k

0 0 0

A= 0
2 1

B= 0
0 0 0 (10)

0 0 0
1

0
1

0 0

)n
i , j ,k

2T n i , j ,k

+T n i , j 1 ,k

=
1

t x
2

, =
2

t y
2 2

, =
3 3

t z 2

, (7)

( )
y

=1 2 + +

{1

Tn

i , j ,k +1

2T n

i , j ,k
2

+T n

i , j ,k 1

i , j ,k

(z )

(4)

where is the thermal diffusivity, defined as = k/C (8)

For the boundary nodes, Equation 3 is discretized using backward or forward difference formula proportional to the position of the node, similar to discretization of the right side of Equation 1.
Model Validation

In this equation, the x, y, and z are the distances between the consecutive nodes in x, y, z direction. On the other hand, the first-order derivative term of the right side of Equation 1 at arbitrary node and time step n, based on the forward difference formula discretes, is as follows:

An explicit finite difference scheme was chosen for the solution to this model, which can be generally defined as {T}n+1=[A].{T}n+[B] (9)

Computer codes should be carefully validated before being used to predict the welding process in underwater situations. For this purpose, the validity of the current numerical code has been checked and compared against the published data reported by Attarha and Sattari-Far (Ref. 17). They carried out GTAW experiments in the air for joints comprised of 200 200 3-mm

242-s AUGUST 2013, VOL. 92

Fig. 6 Comparison of the resulting thermal history curves for the following points: A 1; B 10; C 12; D 22.

plates made of ST37 carbon steel thin plate and also developed a 3D finite element simulation for prediction of the temperature distributions and histories that displayed good accordance with their experimental measurements. In the present study, to validate the FDM results, data from one of their experiments was chosen to be simulated by the current code. The experiment specifications are summarized in Table 1. Figure 1 shows the thermocouple locations. The voltage (V), current (I), and travel speed () of the weld passes in each joint are given in Table 2. A temperature-dependent combined convection coefficient has been used to

model the cooling condition. Table 3 presents the temperature-dependent convection coefficients for the welding process in air.
Underwater Welding

Table 3 Temperature-Dependent Combined Convection Coefficient Model (Ref. 18) h (W/m2K) 1.85 9.079 18.5 52.6 T T0(K) 56 278 556 2778

The welding of two metal plates with an equal size of 50 100 2 mm in (x,y,z) coordinates was studied at underwater welding conditions. Steels used in shipbuilding must meet the specified minimum yield strength values. They must be resistant to the initiation of brittle fracture and also to fatigue. One effective method for preventing underbead cracking is to at-

tempt to prevent excessive/hard martensite formation. This method involves controlling the carbon equivalent (CE) of the base metal and the electrode. To prevent underbead cracking, a base plate with a

Table 4 Thermo-physical Properties of Mild Steel and AISI Type 304 Stainless Steel Used in the Simulation (Refs. 17, 19) Temperature (C)

0 14.6 462 7900

100 15.1 496 7880

200 16.1 512 7830

300 17.9 525 7790

400 18.0 540 7550

600 20.8 577 7660

800 23.9 604 7560

1200 32.2 676 7370

1300 33.7 692 7320

1500 120 700 7320

AISI 304

k (J/mK) Cp(J/kgK) (kg/m3)

Mild Steel

Temperature (C) k (w/mK) Cp (J/kgK) (kg/m3)

0 51.9 486 7700

100 50.7 486

200 48.2 515

300 45.6 548

400 41.9 586

500 38.1 649

600 33.9 708

700 30.1 770

800 24.7 624

1000 26.8 548

1200 29.7 548

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Fig. 7 Local temperatures in the vertical direction: A After 20 s; B after 40 s.

lower CE can be used or, alternatively, steel base plates with carbon contents of less than 0.1 wt-% can be welded (Ref. 6). The steels for the commercial ships are subdivided into two strength classes: normal strength and higher strength. In this work, two materials have been investigated: 1) AISI Type 304 stainless steel, which is a higher-strength steel, and 2) mild steel. The material properties are presented in Table 4. In underwater welding, the arc heat source term in Equation 3, as well as the convective and radiation heats, are different from weldments produced in air. In air welding, the heat losses from the molten surface outside the heat input circle are basically due to radiation. Heat losses from the surface, which is at some distance from the arc, are due to natural convection. However, in underwater welding, very fast cooling in the weldment is usually experienced. According to the observation of the high-speed cinematography, heat losses during underwater welding are mainly due to the heat conduction that transports heat from the plate surface into the moving water environment whose motion is created by the rising of the gas bubble column in the arc area. No boiling phe-

nomena are observed anywhere except in the arc bubble zone. Accordingly, the heat loss mechanism is basically dependent on the water flow field, which is a function of gas formed in the arc and its flow rate (Ref. 20). In the case of an underwater weld, the heat loss through the surface of a welded plate becomes significant when the heat transfer coefficient increases by a factor of 100 over that which is experienced in the air (Ref. 7). Unfortunately, heat transfer from the surface of a hot welded plate to the surrounding water is very complex, in which case either the proposed relations are very complicated (Refs. 14, 21) or the convection coefficient is assumed constant (Refs. 22, 23). Most of these relations calculate a local convection coefficient that needs to be averaged using an appropriate averaging equation. However, Tsai et al. have suggested the use of a semiempirical correlation for the average heat transfer coefficient, based on their observation of bubble dynamics in the vicinity of the arc (Refs. 3, 7). The semi-empirical correlation developed by Tsai and Masubuchi (Ref. 20) is generally used to define the average surface heat transfer coefficient of the underwater weldments as:

h= 675(Ts Tw)1/4

(11)

where Ts is the temperature of the plate surface and Tw is the temperature of the surrounding water. To simplify the calculation, the overall heat transmission coefficient can also be chosen as constant value, as reported in the literature for the underwater weld (Refs. 24, 25). For the radiation heat transfer term, the net radiation heat loss rate can be expressed as qr = (T4h T4c)Ac (12)

WELDING RESEARCH

where Th is the hot body absolute temperature (K), Tc is the cold surroundings absolute temperature (K), and Ac is the area of the object (m2). The epsilon () coefficient is equal to 0.85 for the weathered stainless steel in water (Ref. 26), which is used in the present calculations. The heat input distribution of the arc has a Gaussian distribution on the top face of the workpiece. The general equation is (Ref. 21)

Table 5 The Studied Cases and Their Applied Parameters in the Underwater Welding Computational Model Case No. Arc Heat Input Material Epsilon Radiation 0.85 085 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0 0 0.85 hConv. (W/m2K) Tsai Tsai Tsai 0 400 1000 6000 Tsai 0 h(T) Surrounding Fluid Water Water Water Water Water Water Water Water Water Air Studied Parameter Reference case Material Arc Heat Heat Loss Convection Convection Convection Heat Loss Heat Loss Surrounding Fluid

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Qexp Qexp Q1/2 Qexp Qexp Qexp Qexp Qexp Qexp Qexp

304L mild 304L 304L 304L 304L 304L 304L 304L 304L

244-s AUGUST 2013, VOL. 92

Fig. 8 Temperature distributions along the vertical direction for four different hc values: A t = 10 s; B t = 20 s; C t = 30 s; D t = 40 s.

Q = qo o e

d 2 r r2
0

2 rdr

(13)

where Q is the total heat input into the workpiece, qo is the volumetric energy generation rate, ro is the radius of the heat input distribution, and d is the exponential factor. By solving Equation 13, an estimation for the arc heat source is expressed as (Ref. 27)

where rb is the radius of welding conical shape, is the electrode linear velocity, I is the current magnitude, V is the potential difference, and is the electrical arc efficiency. A rougher estimation for the arc heat source relation is

Q=

A A
v

2 A

( )
r

(15)

q = q x , y ,t
s

3VI

r2
b

3 exp y vt r2 b

+ x 2

(14)

where Av, Ai, Ar, and a are the arc voltage, arc current, arc radius (approximately equal to electrode radius), and arc efficiency, respectively. The effects of the heated parameters including the material type, surrounding fluid, arc heat input model, convective heat transfer relation, and the mesh structure are studied in ten different simulated cases. All of the investigated cases and their govern-

ing conditions are summarized in Table 5. In all parametric investigations, there is a common trial case, i.e., all the effective parameters are identical. This case is named as a reference case, presented as the first case in Table 5. Other assumed parameters are listed in Table 6. The temperature distributions within the weldment were measured continuously throughout the welding process considering 22 points where temperature was calculated by the developed simulation code. The positions of these points are shown in the XY plane in Fig. 2. Points numbered 1 to 11 are at the surface of the plate along a line parallel to the weld interface (i.e., along the Y direction) and points numbered 12 to 22 are in the middle thickness of the plate, vertically located to the weld interface (i.e., along the X direction).

Table 6 The Assumed Model Parameters Initial Temp (K) 298

(W/m2K4) 5.6697E8 0.53

I(A) 200

Voltage (V) 23

rb(m) 2.5 10-3

Speed (m/s)
2.5 10-3

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Fig. 9 Thermal history curves for various hc values used in the simulation, at the following points: A 2; B 10; C 13; D 18.

Results and Discussion


Welding Thermal Analysis in Air

Underwater Thermal Analysis Material Selection

In Fig. 3, the finite difference simulation results for the weldment temperature history at points with different distances from the weld interface are compared with the experimental findings by Attarha and Sattari-Far (Ref. 17), as described in the model validation section. As can be observed, the calculated results conform well with the experimental results and the rate of the temperature changes has a similar trend as in the experimental case in all three studied points. Consequently, the model can be used to simulate and predict the wet underwater welding heat transfer phenomenon in subsequent steps in this work.

As shown in Table 5, the simulated cases 1 and 2 illustrate the effect of the material type in underwater welding. The maximum temperature of the plate during welding has been calculated and is shown in Fig. 4A, B. As evidenced in these figures, the maximum temperatures along the vertical line to the welding path are similar for both mild steel and 304 stainless steel. It is the high convective heat loss in water welding media that causes the rapid cooling, and consequently the difference between two metals could not be distinguished. This effect is also presented in the parallel line, but because of the electrode motion, a small difference can be

seen between the two materials. The rapid cooling in water does cause a significant difference between the cooling times for Type 304 stainless steel and mild steel, and as a result, the obtained cooling time is 43.42 s for Type 304 stainless steel and 43.74 s for mild steel. The temperature history of two points, 10 and 17, are drawn in plots 5A and 5B, respectively. It is observed that the thermal histories at a point along the parallel direction to the weld interface are the same for the two studied steels, where the curve is material dependent for the points on the vertical line to the welding path.
The Effect of the Surrounding Fluid

Table 7 The Weldment Cooling Times for Various Values of hc Case No. Case 1 Case 5 Case 6 Case 7 hc (W/m K) Tsai equation 400 1000 6000
2

Cooling Time (s) 43.42 57.46 46.76 41.10

To study the effect of the surrounding fluid on the weldment, case 10 was carried out in air in comparison with case 1 in water, where the other parameters were considered to be the same. The thermal history for the first and end points on the vertical and parallel lines to the welding path are shown in plots 6AD. As observed in these plots, the temperatures of all points are higher for the air case in comparison to the water case. As shown in plot 6D, it is observed that the thermal curve of point 22 in the plate far from the weld interface, is a constant line when the

246-s AUGUST 2013, VOL. 92

Fig. 10 Percentage of the temperature difference between Cases 1 and 3: A Along the vertical; B along the parallel lines to the welding path.

plate is in the water. Therefore, the type of surrounding fluid type affects the welding process and the resulting temperatures, significantly. This effect is because of the much greater convective heat transfer coefficient (hc) of water in comparison with the air, hence a rapid cooling phenomenon and lower temperatures occur during underwater welding. In a fluid such as water that has a large hc value, a thermal history trend results only for points on the weld interface or near it, because the convective heat transfer is much greater than the arc heat source at far distances from the weld path. The local maximum temperatures in the vertical direction are shown in Fig. 7A, B after 20 s and 40 s in the air and water fluids. It is observed that after 40 s, the plate in water has completely cooled, while the plate in air has not yet cooled. The calculated overall cooling times are much different as the cooling time for air is 1163.7 s, compared to the water case, which is equal to 43.4 s. This effect is also due to the much different values of hc in air and water.
The Effect of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient

The Effect of the Arc Heat Estimation

The effect of hc value was investigated through case studies 1 and 57. In case 1, the Tsai estimation is used to predict the hc value. The hc value is assumed constant and equal to 400, 1000, and 6000 W/m2K in cases 5, 6, and 7, respectively. Figure 8 shows the temperature profile in the vertical direction after several time intervals. It is observed that the resulting plots are almost similar when the Tsai estimation is used or hc is set at 6000 W/m2K. Also, for the hc values ranging from 400 to 1000 W/m2K, the plots are almost similar to each other. It is seen that the Tsai model is an approximate formulation for the hc and can be used properly when the hc is between 1000 and 6000 and is closer to the 6000 W/m2K. The ultimate cooling times

It was previously explained that a precise solution for the arc heat model is an exponential form of Equation 11 that is applied in the current study for modeling the underwater welding process. To investigate the effect of the type of arc heat model used in the simulation method, a simpler but less precise model as the exponential form is used in Case 3, as described in Equation 15. The maximum temperatures along the lines vertically and parallel to the weld interface are calculated, where Case 1 is assumed as the reference case and case 3 is compared against it. The error percentages of the absolute temperatures resulting from solving Case 3, relative to Case 1, are reported in Fig. 10. In the short distances along the vertical direction to the welding path, there is a distinct difference between the resulting temperatures from the two models. In the meantime, there is no considerable difference between the two arc heat models in the parallel direction to the weld interface, except for the first point. Therefore, Q1/2 model could not be as accurate as the Qexp model in the HAZ or the local temperature calculations specially in the vertical direction. However, if an overall and not local re-

The effect of convection and radiation heat transfer terms and their contributions to the energy model are studied through Cases 1, 4, 8, and 9. In these case studies, temperature history curves are obtained for points 3, 9, and 15 on the plate shown in Fig. 11. In Case 1, both convection and radiation terms are considered in the model. The value of hc is assumed to be zero in Case 4, but radiation heat loss is the former. Case 8 includes the convection term while radiation is assumed negligible and, finally, both heat loss terms are set at zero in Case 9. The cooling times and final temperatures of the plate for all considered situations are reported in Table 8. Notice that the cooling times for Cases 1 and 8 are almost the same and are the lowest. This observation shows that although the radiation is removed in case 8, but it has no significant role in the cooling time and the thermal history curve. The convection is more effective and much greater than the radiation in temperature calculations and the radiation term is negligible in the heat transfer model. When both convection and radiation terms are withdrawn from the energy equation, the plate could not be cooled to that of the surrounding temperature and all the points become isothermal at 457 K after 524 s. This situation is due to the fact there is no way for the plate to cool.

Conclusion
A three-dimensional heat transfer model was developed to study underwater welding of thin steel plates. The exponential estimation for the arc heat formulation was used in the modeling procedure. WELDING JOURNAL 247-s

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for the plate are summarized in Table 7. The thermal history curves at points 2, 10, 13, and 18 are presented in plots 9A D. It can be concluded that the maximum achieved temperature for points 2, 10, and 13 are similar and are in the range of 44004900 K. However, the maximum temperature reached for point 18 is 518 K, which is much lower than the other three studied points. It seems that, because point 18 is far from the weld interface in comparison to the other three points, the heat loss by convection acts stronger than the arc heat source and thus this point cannot reach greater maximum temperatures.

sult or thermal history is desired, there is no particular difference between either of these models.
The Effect of Heat Transfer Type

in the underwater welding because of the rapid cooling phenomenon. The effect of the fluid was studied by comparing the thermal histories and the temperature distribution in the water and air environments. The results showed that the fluid type has a considerable effect in the welding process, and as a reFig. 11 Thermal history curves for different heat loss types: A At point sult, the plate is 3; B at point 9; C at point 15. cooled much more rapidly in water in comparison with the air. The efficacy Tsais and Masubuchis semi-empirical coranalysis of hc was performed via four case relation, defining the surface heat transfer solutions using the Tsai model and three coefficient of the underwater weldments, constant values of hc in the energy equawas used to determine the heat loss through tion. The obtained results demonstrated the surface of the welded plate. The explicit that the Tsai model can predict hc successform of the finite difference method (FDM) fully when its value is between 1000 and was used to solve the energy equation. The 6000 W/m2K, especially when it is closer to computed results were compared against 6000 W/m2K. The arc heat estimation was the experimental data to ensure that the investigated using a simpler estimation modeling and solution method are reliable. noted by Q1/2 in comparison with the exThe effect of the modeling parameters inponential form. It was concluded that, cluding the material type, the type of the when the temperature distribution in surrounding fluid, the convective heat short vertical distances from the weld intransfer coefficient (hc) value, the arc heat terface is considered, the Q1/2 model is not model, and how heat is lost from the plate as precise as the Qexp model, while there were investigated through ten case is no difference between the two used arc studies. heat estimations at the other positions. Two steel type characteristics were The analysis of the curves resulted from used to study the material effect in wet four different situations considering welding. However, it seems the material and/or ignoring the convection/radiation effect could not be distinguished obviously C

terms was also carried out. It was shown that the convective heat transfer is more effective in temperature calculations compared with radiation, hence the radiation can be considered negligible in the energy equation.
References 1. U.S. Navy Underwater Cutting & Welding Manual. 2002. Department of the Navy, Naval Sea Systems Command. 2. Hamann, R., Mahrenholtz O., and Bartzsch J. 1992. Temperature distribution of wet underwater welding. Second International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference. San Francisco, Calif. 3. Pilipenko, A. 2001. Computer simulation of residual stress and distortion of thick plates in multi-electrode submerged arc welding their mitigation techniques. Norwegian University of Science and Technology. PhD thesis, 228. 4. Keenan, P. J. 1993. Thermal insulation of wet shielded metal arc welds. Materials Science and Engineering and Ocean Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. MS thesis, p. 80. 5. Richardson, I. M., Woodward, N. J., and Billingham, J. 2002. Deepwater welding for installation and repair A viable technology? Twelfth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Kitakyushu, Japan. 6. Sheakley, B. J. 2000. Effect of water depth on the underwater wet welding of ferritic steels using austenitic Ni-based alloy electrodes. Naval Postgraduate School, MS thesis, p. 52. 7. Dill, J. F. 1997. Model for estimation of thermal history produced by a single pass underwater wet weld. Naval Postgraduate School. MS thesis, p. 63. 8. Eyres, D. J., and Bruce, G. J. 2012. Ship Construction, Chapter 9: Welding and cutting processes used in shipbuilding, Butterworth-

WELDING RESEARCH

Table 8 The Weldment Cooling Times for the Various Values of hc Case No. Case 1 Case 4 Case 8 Case 9 hc (W/m2K) Tsai equation 0 Tsai equation 0 (Epsilon) 0.85 0.85 0 0 Cooling Time (s) 43.42 1537.96 43.58 524.19 Final Temperature (k) 298 298 298 457

248-s AUGUST 2013, VOL. 92

Heinemann, pp. 7596. 9. Murzin, V. V., and Russo, V. L. 1994. Manual underwater welding structures of steel with higher strength. Welding International 1994 40(1): 912. 10. Oreper, G. M., and Szekely, J. 1984. Heat and fluid-flow phenomena in weld pools. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 147: 5379. 11. Fukuoka, T., and Fukui, S. 1994. Analysis for cooling process of underwater welding Comparison with welding in air. Bulletin of the M.E.S.J., Vo1. 22, No. 2. 12. Ronda, J., Mahrenholtz, O., and Hamann, R. 1992. Thermomechanical simulation of underwater welding processes. Applied Mechanics Vol. 62, pp. 1527. 13. Hamann, R., and Mahrenholtz, O. 1994. On the influence of the surface heat transfer coefficient on wet underwater welds. Fourth (1994) International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Osaka, Japan. 14. Xiwen, L., Guorong, W., Yonghua, S., and Jiguang, Z. 2007. Finite element simulation of three-dimensional temperature field in underwater welding. China Welding 16(2): 5965.

15. Isikilar, Y. V., and Girgin, I. 2011. Numerical modeling of underwater welding. Journal of Naval Science and Engineering 7(2): 1129. 16. Moneer, H. A., Mudar A. A., and Laith S. A. 2011. Finite difference simulation of low carbon steel manual arc welding. Thermal Science 15(1)2 07214. 17. Attarha, M. J., and Sattari-Far, I., 2011. Study on welding temperature distribution in thin welded plates through experimental measurements and finite element simulation. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 211, pp. 688694. 18. Salonitis, K., Stournaras, A., Tsoukantas, G., Stavropoulus, P., and Chryssolouirs, G. 2007. A theoretical and experimental investigation on limitations of pulsed laser drilling. J. Mater. Process. Technol. Vol. 183, pp. 96103. 19. Yilbas, B. S., Arif, A. F. M., and Abdul Aleem, B. J. 2010. Laser welding of low carbon steel and thermal stress analysis. Optics & Laser Technology, Vol. 42, pp. 760768. 20. Tsai, C. L., and Masubuchi, K., 1979. Mechanisms of rapid cooling in underwater welding. Applied Ocean Research 1(2): 99110.

21. Isiklar, Y. V. 1998. A numerical study of heat transfer behavior in welding. Naval Postgraduate School, MS thesis, p. 125. 22. Totten, G. E., and Howes, M. A. 1997. Steel Heat Treatment Handbook, New York, N.Y. 23. Hewitt, G. F., Shires G. L., and Polezjaev, Y. V. 1997. International Encyclopedia of Heat and Mass Transfer. New York, N.Y. 24. Overall heat transfer coefficients for some common fluids and heat exchanger surfaces. 2011. Retrieved August, 2011, from www.EngineeringToolBox.com/overall-heattransfer-coefficients-d_284. html. 25. Overall heat transfer coefficient. 2011. Retrieved August 1, 2011, from www.tlv.com/global/ti/steam-theory. 26. Emissivity coefficients of some common materials. 2011. Retrieved August 1, 2011, from www.engineeringtoolbox.com/emissivity-coeffcients-d_447. html. 27. Pavelic, V., Tanbakuchi, R., Uyehara, O. A., and Myers, P. S. 1969. Experimental and computed temperature histories in gas tungsten arc welding of thin plates. Welding Journal 48(7): 295-s to 305-s.

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