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CITP Assessment 2 Information Search and Evaluation Cloud Computing The term Cloud Computing does not just

st revolve around a one-part concept, as it is a theoretical term. There are four kinds of cloud services that exist at this time (Abualkibash, Munther, Elleithy & Khaled 2012), which includes Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), Software as a Service (SaaS), and Hardware as a service (HaaS). Analysts and vendors define cloud computing narrowly as an updated version of Utility computing; basically virtual servers available over the Internet (Knorr & Gruman 2012). There are detrimental ethical issues that arise from cloud computing, particularly Privacy and Security issues. This is because the service provider has full access to all the data placed on the server, and could deliberately or accidently disclose it or use it for unauthorised purposes. Summary of Article 1 In this article, CLOUD COMPUTING SECURITY ISSUES by Ogigau-Neamtiu, Florin, there is a brief explanation of what Cloud computing is, stating how it has benefitted the IT profession. It has been conventional that IT managers found IT as difficult and quit costly and Cloud computing lead many to believe that IT would now be cheap and simple. In actuality Cloud computing has simplified some technical aspects of building computer systems, but there are still many challenges yet to be faced. However, later on in the article, it focuses on the ethical issues relating to Cloud Computing and particularly the main risks involved, such as Misunderstanding responsibilities, Data security and confidential issues, Lack of standards, Interoperability issues, Reliability breakdowns and Malicious insiders. Of the many issues listed within this article, it is stated that Data security and confidential issues are one of the biggest concerns people have in relation to cloud computing. Many problems arise: Who can create data, where the data is stored, who can access and modify data, what happens when data is deleted, how the back-up is done, how the data transfer occurs, etc (Florin 2012). Clearly, it is evident that users have no knowledge of what may eventuate from their data being placed there.

Summary of Article 2 Keith W. Millers article, Ethical Analysis in the Cloud, emphasises the importance of decision-making in IT professions, as some decisions include significant ethical considerations. It portrays a rather different perspective on Cloud computing as compared to the first one. It conveys the views of the different people in society, where utilitarians only see the consequences of Cloud computing, as compared to Deontologists (The science of duties), who view decisions that accomplish duties as better than decisions that didnt. This article demonstrates a more optimistic approach to these ethical issues involved with Cloud computing. The ethical issues that this article primarily focuses on are Security and Sustainability, but it shows the duties that the service providers have to its customers. So when people are using cloud it would be expected that the cloud providers are to secure the data; it should be promptly accessible when needed as well as be protected from unauthorised users. If consumers arent confident about security, the growth of cloud computing will be slowed (Miller 2010). It portrays how important ethical decisions are for Cloud computing as it is closely interdependent with the consumers and for its economic growth. This article emphasises how Cloud computing is not in favour to the providers perspective as it is an economic necessity, Evaluation of Articles 1 and 2 When giving a document an evaluation to determine its effectiveness, aspects such as Relevance, Reliability, Accuracy, Lack of Bias, Completeness and whether it is Up-to-Date are taken into account. In Florins Article CLOUD COMPUTIN SECURITY ISSUES, it is proven to be relevant, as it is relates to the criteria of being an IT ethical matter at hand. When deciding on whether an article is relevant or not, it is heavily impacted on its targeted audience. This article, however, would be more relevant and directed to the general public and academia. It would not be directed at industries, as IT professionals would already be aware of this predicament, thus making it redundant information for them and to their industry. Hence, it is relevant towards the general public and academia. Florin is an IT specialist from the

Regional Department of Defence Resources Management Studies; therefore he has credibility for the information he has to offer. This article is also a peered reviewed journal, meaning many like-minded professionals in the same or similar profession have reviewed this article, certifying its reliability. The accuracy of this information in this article is heavily supported by a myriad of 11 different referenced websites, demonstrating that Florin undertook in-depth research into writing this academic article, meaning that many websites had the same information, confirming its accuracy which; thus, makes it more trustworthy. In this Article it gives a fairly all rounded approach to the positive and negative aspects of the problem, making it less biased. In the beginning it states few positive aspects about cloud computing, claiming that it has simplified technical aspects of IT, proving that some critical analysis has been done. However, the article it still fairly biased towards the negative aspects of cloud computing. The articles interest is vested towards the ethical issues that arise. Being published at 2012, this article is very well up-to-date and the article covers many aspects of cloud computing and the ethical issues related to it rather well, giving it a good overview. Overall, Florins Article effectively critically analyses the ethical issues with cloud computing, however, it can be seen as more biased in the negative issues that arise. Millers Article, Ethical Analysis in the Cloud however, points out a differentiated view to Cloud computing, where he talks about how to handle the situation about security breaches. His article is more relevant towards industry and also to academia as well. Miller is Schewe Professor of Computer Science at the University of Illinois at Springfield. He is the editor in Chief of IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) Technology and Society and the fact that this article was peer reviewed illustrates the high credentials and reliability of his research. The accuracy of his information is deemed as highly reliable, as he has reference for his information, but not only that, he supports many of his claims using other highly regarded professionals in their respective fields, such as The philosopher John Rawls. What makes Millers analysis different to Florins is that he critically analyses both parties to the ethical issue, that is, the consumer and the provider. With this lack of Bias, it conveys how this article is

more objective, rather than subjective as he shows the utilitarian views and the deontologists views on this ethical issue. Not only that, he addresses this issue by producing awareness to encourage ethical policies to cloud computing. This article, however, was published in December 2010, which in an IT perspective, is counted as fairly old in a ever-growing society, meaning that the article isnt particularly up-to-date. Overall, the completeness of this article is also done rather well as it covers many aspects, however Florins article covers a lot more aspects revolving with cloud computing and with a lot of detail.

Article 1 - Florin Relevance More directed towards general public and academia, mostly general public

Article 2 - Miller More directed towards Industry and academia


Florins credentials: IT specialist and from Regional Department of Defence Resources proves his reliability Is Peer reviewed

Millers credentials: Miller is Schewe Professor of Computer Science at the University of Illinois at Springfield. He is the editor in Chief of IEEE Technology and Society Is Peer Reviewed


Information is heavily supported with an abundant amount of references No obvious errors or omissions, misquotations Sound methodology of data collected Overall more biased with Ethical issues, however there is some variation

Information only has one reference, but has many quotes to back up what hes saying No obvious errors or omissions, misquotations Sound methodology of data collected Was very critically analytical about the issue, show no signs of being biased. Viewed the Utilitarian and Deontologist views

Lack of Bias


Article covers all aspects of cloud computing Does it with much detailed

Many aspects covered, although Florins covered a larger variety


Was published 2012, so therefore it is well up-to-date

Published December 2010, therefore moderately up to date

(Word count excluding referencing and titles: 1369) Bibliography Reference List: Ogigau N. Florin 2012, Cloud Computing Security Issues, Journal of Defense Resources Management, vol. 3, pp. 141-148, viewed 9 April 2013, <>

Keith W. Miller 2010, Ethical Analysis in the Cloud, IT Professional Magazine, vol. 12, pp. 7-9, viewed 10 April 2013, <>

Mark D. Ryan 2011, Cloud Computing Privacy Concerns on Our Doorstep, Communications of the ACM, vol. 54, pp.36-38, viewed 31 March 2013, <>

Keith W. Miller, Jeffrey Voas 2010, Ethics and the Cloud, IT Professional Magazine, vol. 12, pp. 4-5, viewed 10 April 2013, <>