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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND ISSN 0976

6464(Print), ISSN 0976 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), IAEME


ISSN 0976 6464(Print) ISSN 0976 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August, 2013, pp. 61-67 IAEME: Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8896 (Calculated by GISI)



Pradnya K. Dhamal1, Prof. Virendra V. Shete2, Prof. S.B.Somani3 Department of ENTC, MIT College of engineering, Pune-411038, Maharashtra, India

ABSTRACT Nowadays there are various methods to guide people at various places in a best way possible to facilitate information exchanges between visitors and guiders. Various museums, historical places, educational institutions provide physical surroundings for visiting people to get the knowledge and get entertained. With the improvement of science and technology, the touring services are improving continuously, which have went through phases like pamphlets; traditional audio guide; smart mobile multimedia guides. This device is designed and fabricated as a GUIDE which will guide the visitors by giving the information about various places in a campus as well as inside a building. It will guide the visitors in the form of text, audio as well as pictures .Low cost, easy access, portability are the main features of the device. Keywords: localization techniques, RFID, GPS, PDA, triangulation



Localization can be divided into two categories, depending on the way the users location is determined: direct and indirect (i.e., by proxy). Direct localization methods produce an absolute coordinate tuple to identify visitor location. Such methods include GPS, Wi-Fi triangulation and mobile phone network triangulation. With indirect localization, localization is inferred via active or passive elements whose position is known to the system. When the user interacts with these elements the system can infer that the user is near the elements position in the environment. IrDA, RFID, Bluetooth, bar-coding as well as image recognition can be identified as indirect localization methods. It is also possible to avoid automated localization and rely on the user to indicate the location. This can be accomplished by tapping on a map, on an exhibit icon or even by simply typing in an exhibit code. Limitations on human resources, difficulties in organising qualified people as a guide lead us to design a smart guide which will give the information in pictorial, text, as well as audio format.

International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), IAEME



A sotto voce [2] which provides information to the individuals as well as facilitates social interaction between them .But it supports only audio data. In [3] they provide navigation aids based both on maps and direction giving. In order to involve a group in the decision making process of navigation they use a mobile device with a small projector. Current devices use GPS technology [5] to navigate visitors, but can be used only in outdoors. So, it can not be an alternative to our device. Hence, we have developed this smart guide to operate in indoor as well as outdoor easily. Table 1 consists of a comparison between our smart guide and current guiding devices. TABLE I COMPARISON BETWEEN CURRENT DEVICES AND OUR DEVICE Current Devices Cost Upgradable Multifunctionality User friendly High Yes No* Yes Our Device Low No Yes** Yes

*Only vocal output; **Vocal, pictorial, and text output As it can be seen in Table 1, multi-functionality, i.e. being able to provide the visitors of a place with pictorial, vocal and text information regarding an object, as well as low cost of fabrication are the two main advantages of our smart guide compared to current devices. Advantages of this guide are summarized as follows: 1. It gives the output in Pictorial, vocal, as well as text formats. So, it helps in enhancing visitors interest regarding an object or a place. 2. Capability to easily turn off and on. 3. As recording of an audio clip is done by manager, he is able to offer versatility of a language. 4. Device is portable as well as minimizes noise since we can connect headphones whenever silence zones are there. 5. It overcomes human guides limitations as they can become restless after some time and skip some of useful information, so that visitor would not get proper learning.



All the parts employed to fabricate this guide, are presented in this section. A. LPC 2138 LPC 2138 are the microcontrollers based on ARM7 TDMI-S CPU. They are widely used in portable applications. They are 16/32-bit ARM7TDMI-S microcontroller in a tiny LQFP64 package, 8/16/32 kB of on-chip static RAM and 32/64/512 kB of on-chip Flash program memory, 128 bit wide interface/accelerator enables high speed 60 MHz operation,

International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), IAEME

In-System/In-Application Programming (ISP/IAP) via on-chip boot-loader software. Single Flash sector or full chip erase in 400 ms and programming of 256 bytes in 1 millisecond. B. Memory Secure Digital (SD) is a non-volatile memory card format developed for use in portable devices such as our guide device. It will store the data related to various places. C. Graphical LCD LCD is used to display the information as well as pictures related to objects and places. The model RG128643 YFHLYB-D is used. To display text as well as pictures both of them are converted to array using LCD assistant bitmap converter which will produce text file from bitmap images so that we can copy this data array from text file into our program. D. Charger This charger is used to charge the battery which provides the power to whole circuit. E. GPS receiver This is the receiver which will give position in terms of longitude and latitude of various places. We are using GPS 1100 smart antenna. They are the mini size, high performance and have low power consumption. It is having 12 parallel satellite-tracking channels for fast acquisition and reacquisition, Provide superior navigation performance in urban canyon and foliage environments, Support NMEA0183 v3.01 data protocol, has built-in patch antenna, also backup battery is supported. We have connected GPS receiver through UART with the ARM 7. For comparing the stored and received co-ordinates we are using GPRMC string from the GPS data. GPRMC (Recommended minimum specification) string is having the format: $GPRMC,093931,A,3536.5987,N,13944.8905,E,000.0,090.7,241203,,,A*76, where 1. Sentence ID: $GPRMC 2. UTC of position fix*1: 093931 3. Status: A (data valid) 4. Latitude: 3536.5987 5. North/South: N 6. Longitude: 13944.8905 7. East/West: E 8. Speed over ground: 000.0 9. Course over ground: 090.7 degrees 10. Date: 200313 11. Mode Indicator: A (autonomous) 12. Checksum: 76 From above data, we need latitude and longitude for location defining. So that whenever user goes at particular place the received co-ordinates from satellite will be compared with already stored co- ordinates and user will be given relative information about that place. F. MAX232 This is RS232 to TTL convertor as Microcontroller understands only TTL input. A MAX 232 is used for the interfacing our system with the GPS. The Communication between GPS and the system is serial communication through UART.


International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), IAEME

G. Keypad Keypad is used for up, down movement of text on LCD screen. We are using 4*1 keypad for this. The pins of keypad are used for following functions, Pin 1: Scroll up Pin 2: Scroll down Pin 3: Exit Pin 4: NA H. Audio amplifier It is used to listen audio information at the visitor end. We have used LM 386 power amplifier for this purpose. I. RFID reader RFID reader will read the tags which are attached to objects and the information about that object will be displayed. We are using Micro RWD H4001 Wiegand output version. It supports both the 26 and 36 bit output protocols but we are using 26 bit. The Wiegand protocol (26 bit mode) itself is made up of a leading even parity bit (for b0 - b11), 24 bits of data (from transponder data) and a trailing odd parity bit (for b12- b23). For example:H4001 tag data (Hex): 04 60 22 12 75 Wiegand 26 bit sequence:E (b0 --------- b11) (b12 -------- b23) O E (0 4 6 0 2 2 ) O 1 0000 0100 0110 0000 0010 0010 1 Where E is EVEN parity bit for bit 0 to 11 and O is ODD parity bit for bits 12 to 23. Based on above descriptions, Fig. 1 shows the block diagram of the hardware design.



Voltage regulator

To main circuit in Fig.2 Fig.1 Block Diagram of Hardware Design 1


Graphical LCD



Audio amplifier

GPS receiver

RFID reader


Fig.2 Block Diagram of Hardware Design 2


International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), IAEME



Following are the various softwares used for designing smart guide device: A. ORCAD The schematic diagram forms main input document for preparation of the layout. For this purpose the software for PCB design, ORCAD was used. B. Proteus By using this software PCB layout is done. C. Keil C It is leading software development platform. It integrates all tools including C compiler, assembler, linker/locator, HEX file generator. D. Flash Magic Flash magic can control the entry into ISP mode of some microcontroller devices by using the COM port handshaking signals to control the device. We have used it for downloading our program into the board. V. TESTING AND RESULTS

The implemented smart guide is successfully tested for both indoor and outdoor locations. GPS testing is done by connecting it to the COM port of PC as shown in figure 1 .Output strings were observed on hyperterminal of PC. Unless we get the active GPRMC string; we have to go on receiving the signal.

Fig.3 GPS testing set up

Fig.4 Data Strings obtained at hyperterminal of PC


International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), IAEME

Below are some snapshots of working hardware.

Fig.5 Working hardware To evaluate the performance of the implemented smart guide, it is necessary to divide it in two parts: the GPS and the RFID system. But it is important to know that both systems runs simultaneously, i.e., in outdoor where GPS is present, the system is always scanning for RFID signals, and in indoor locations, where GPS signal is weak, it keeps trying to obtain a fix on the current position. GPS is very reliable source for location identification and so is the RFID, so our guide works pretty well in outdoor as well as indoor .But the resolution of a GPS is of great concern if a visitor wants to visit nearer outdoor locations. VI. CONCLUSION and FUTURE WORK

In this work we designed a smart guide for educational sectors such as colleges, science exhibitions, institutes etc. The device is capable of providing a visitor with vocal, text and pictorial information so as to get betterment of learning and tour experience. As a future scope we can incorporate two way communication that is user can ask the queries to the manager of a place .Its low price, easy access, to be used by all range of ages, are main features that distinguish our smart guide from all current devices. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] Yo-Ping Huang and Shan-Shan Wang, "RFID- Bases Guide Give Museum Visitors More Freedom", IEEE IT Professional, Vol. 13, and Issue: 2, pp. 25 - 29, March-April 2011 P.M. Aoki et aI., "Sotto Voce: Exploring the Interplay of Conversation and Mobile Audio Spaces", Proc. ACM Conf On Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp.431-438, April 2002 Alan J. Wecker, Tsvika Kutlik, "Group Navigation with Handheld Mobile Museum Guides", 15th Museums and the Web conference, April 6-9, 2011


International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), IAEME


I. Satoh, "Design and Implementation of Context-Aware Museum Guide Agents', IEICE Trans. Information and Systems, vol. E93D, no.4. 2010, pp. 789-799 [5] Carlos Delgado-Mata and Romiro Velaquez, Robert J Pooley, Ruth Aylett and Judy Roberston, "MPISTE: A Mobile, Personalized, Interactive Story Telling Environment", IEEE Electronics, Robotics and Automotive Mechanics Conference, CERMA 2010, pp. 243-248, Sept-Oct., 2010 [6] Takashi Okuma, Masakatsu Kourogi, Nobuchika Sakata and Takeshi Kurata, "A Pilot User Study on 3D Museum Guide with Route Recommendation Using a Sustainable Positioning System", IEEE International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems, pp.749-753, Seoul, Korea, Oct 2007 [7] G.Ghiani et aI.,"UbiCicero: A Location-Aware, Multi Device Museum Guide", Interacting with Computers, vo1.21, no.4, 2009, pp.288-303 [8] Gurudatt Kulkarni, Rani Waghmare, Nikita Chavan and Sandhya Mandhare, Security in RFID Technology, International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 337 - 343, ISSN Print: 0976 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 6375. [9] Deepeshnamdev, Monika Mehra, Prerna Sahariya, Rajeshwaree Parashar and Shikha Singhal, Navigation System by Using GIS and GPS, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 232 - 243, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 6472. [10] Seema vora, Prof.Mukesh Tiwari and Prof.Jaikaran Singh, GSM Based Remote Monitoring of Waste Gas at Locally Monitored Gui with the Implementation of Modbus Protocol and Location Identification through GPS, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 52 - 59, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499.