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Population (millions)..............................................................................................................7.

9
GDP (US$ billions)...............................................................................................................246.8
GDP per capita, PPP$..................................................................................................... 32,212.0
Income group...........................................................................................................High income
Region.....................................................................................Northern Africa and Western Asia

Score (0100)
or value (hard data) Rank

Global Innovation Index (out of 142).................................. 56.0 14


Innovation Output Sub-Index...................................................................................52.1 9
Innovation Input Sub-Index......................................................................................59.8 19
Innovation Efficiency Ratio.........................................................................................0.9 38
Global Innovation Index 2012 (based on GII 2012 framework).................................56.0 17

1 Institutions.....................................................65.7 56
1.1
1.1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3

Political environment...........................................................................57.6 62
Political stability*....................................................................................34.3 126
Government effectiveness*.............................................................71.4 26
Press freedom*.........................................................................................67.0 90

1.2
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3

Regulatory environment...................................................................70.1 52
Regulatory quality*...............................................................................84.8 20
Rule of law*................................................................................................73.6 32
Cost of redundancy dismissal, salary weeks.........................27.4 122

1.3
1.3.1
1.3.2
1.3.3

Business environment.........................................................................69.5 50
Ease of starting a business*.............................................................88.2 45
Ease of resolving insolvency*.........................................................49.2 43
Ease of paying taxes*...........................................................................71.2 61

Human capital & research...........................59.5 8

2.1 Education....................................................................................................60.5 46
2.1.1 Current expenditure on education, % GNI...............................5.7 27
2.1.2 Public expenditure/pupil, % GDP/cap......................................19.3 59
2.1.3 School life expectancy, years..........................................................15.7 25
2.1.4 PISA scales in reading, maths, & science..............................458.6 38
2.1.5 Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary..........................................................9.8 23
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4

Tertiary education..................................................................................42.5 36
Tertiary enrolment, % gross.............................................................62.5 30
Graduates in science & engineering, %.....................................n/a n/a
Tertiary inbound mobility, %.............................................................n/a n/a
Gross tertiary outbound enrolment, %.......................................2.4 41

2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3

Research & development (R&D)...................................................75.5 3


l
Researchers, headcounts/mn pop................................................n/a n/a
Gross expenditure on R&D, % GDP................................................4.4 1
l
QS university ranking, average score top 3*.........................51.1 21

3 Infrastructure................................................49.4 23
3.1
Information & communication technologies (ICTs).........74.6 10
3.1.1 ICT access*..................................................................................................73.4 24
3.1.2 ICT use*........................................................................................................50.7 24
3.1.3 Governments online service*........................................................85.0 15
3.1.4 E-participation*.......................................................................................89.5 7
l
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.4

General infrastructure..........................................................................37.3 37
Electricity output, kWh/cap...................................................... 7,677.1 25
Electricity consumption, kWh/cap....................................... 6,829.6 25
Logistics performance*......................................................................60.3 31
Gross capital formation, % GDP....................................................19.9 93

3.3
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3

Ecological sustainability.....................................................................36.4 44
GDP/unit of energy use, 2000 PPP$/kg oil eq........................8.5 27
Environmental performance*........................................................54.6 59
ISO 14001 environmental certificates/bn PPP$ GDP.........2.0 42

Market sophistication..................................69.8 13

4.1 Credit..............................................................................................................65.9 21
4.1.1 Ease of getting credit*........................................................................87.5 12
4.1.2 Domestic credit to private sector, % GDP..............................95.1 34
4.1.3 Microfinance gross loans, % GDP..................................................n/a n/a

4.2 Investment.................................................................................................62.3 11
l
4.2.1 Ease of protecting investors*..........................................................86.7 6
4.2.2 Market capitalization, % GDP.........................................................59.7 28
4.2.3 Total value of stocks traded, % GDP...........................................48.3 22
4.2.4 Venture capital deals/tr PPP$ GDP.................................................0.4 1
l
4.3
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3

Trade & competition............................................................................81.1 29


Applied tariff rate, weighted mean, %.........................................3.5 59
Non-agricultural mkt access weighted tariff, %.....................0.4 46
Intensity of local competition.....................................................65.2 66

Business sophistication...............................54.6 5
l

5.1
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3
5.1.4
5.1.5
5.1.6

Knowledge workers..............................................................................69.9 11
Knowledge-intensive employment, %.....................................31.5 28
Firms offering formal training, % firms.......................................n/a n/a
R&D performed by business, % GDP............................................3.5 1
l
R&D financed by business, %.........................................................39.0 41
GMAT mean score...............................................................................486.3 89
GMAT test takers/mn pop. 2034......................................... 1,461.6 3
l

5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.2.5

Innovation linkages..............................................................................67.6 2
l
University/industry research collaboration.........................73.2 8
State of cluster development......................................................52.6 35
R&D financed by abroad, %.............................................................42.8 6
JVstrategic alliance deals/tr PPP$ GDP.....................................0.1 9
Patent families filed in 3+ offices/bn PPP$ GDP...................3.7 9

5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4

Knowledge absorption.......................................................................26.3 73
Royalty & license fees payments, % service imports..........5.4 25
High-tech imports less re-imports, %.......................................11.4 35
Comm., computer & info. services imports, %........................1.5 115
FDI net inflows, % GDP..........................................................................4.7 48

Knowledge & technology outputs............56.0 3


l

6.1
6.1.1
6.1.2
6.1.3
6.1.4
6.1.5

Knowledge creation.............................................................................51.9 11
Domestic resident patent ap/bn PPP$ GDP............................5.7 29
PCT resident patent ap/bn PPP$ GDP.........................................5.6 11
Domestic res utility model ap/bn PPP$ GDP.........................n/a n/a
Scientific & technical articles/bn PPP$ GDP..........................46.6 10
Citable documents H index..........................................................393.0 15

6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.2.4
6.2.5

Knowledge impact................................................................................50.6 20
Growth rate of PPP$ GDP/worker, %............................................1.5 70
New businesses/th pop. 1564........................................................4.5 26
Computer software spending, % GDP.........................................0.3 38
ISO 9001 quality certificates/bn PPP$ GDP...........................31.7 11
High- & medium-high-tech manufactures, %.....................57.2 4
l

6.3
6.3.1
6.3.2
6.3.3
6.3.4

Knowledge diffusion............................................................................63.6 2
l
Royalty & license fees receipts, % service exports...............4.0 17
High-tech exports less re-exports, %........................................17.2 11
Comm., computer & info. services exports, %.....................37.3 1
l
FDI net outflows, % GDP......................................................................1.4 43

Creative outputs...........................................48.2 23

7.1
7.1.1
7.1.2
7.1.3
7.1.4

Intangible assets.....................................................................................39.1 88
Domestic res trademark reg/bn PPP$ GDP...........................14.2 74
Madrid trademark registrations/bn PPP$ GDP.......................0.6 36
ICT & business model creation...................................................71.8 20
ICT & organizational model creation.......................................66.2 20

7.2
7.2.1
7.2.2
7.2.3
7.2.4
7.2.5

Creative goods & services.................................................................49.2 21


Audio-visual & related services exports, %..............................n/a n/a
National feature films/mn pop. 1569........................................5.3 30
Paid-for dailies, circulation, % pop. 1569..............................14.5 37
Printing & publishing manufactures, %......................................2.6 27
Creative goods exports, %...................................................................2.5 30

7.3
7.3.1
7.3.2
7.3.3
7.3.4

Online creativity......................................................................................65.6 16
Generic top-level domains (TLDs)/th pop. 1569.............30.7 25
Country-code TLDs/th pop. 1569.............................................53.1 32
Wikipedia monthly edits/mn pop. 1569..................... 14,159.1 4
l
Video uploads on YouTube/pop. 1569..................................96.4 3
l

Note: l indicates a strength; a weakness; * an index; a survey question.

I: Country/Economy Profiles

Key indicators

191

THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2013

Israel