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# 1

## Nuclear Force Nuclear Force

2
Nuclear Force Nuclear Force
What keeps the nucleus whole ?
H atom: Coulomb, EM force
Nucleus: protons have q > 0
neutrons have q = 0
so it cant be EM.
Gravitational ? Far too weak !!
36
10

e
F
g
F
3
Nuclear Force Nuclear Force
The nuclear force is very strong (the
nuclear potential is deep)
Short-range: proton scattering if
distance from nucleus is 2-3 fm, the
proton only sees the Coulomb (EM)
force.
The range of the nuclear force is < 2 fm
The strong nuclear force between
nucleons is ~ independent of charge
n n, n p, p p
The strong nuclear force is spin-
dependent (see deuteron).
Known as The Strong Force
Not all particles experience the Strong
Force e.g. electrons
4
Strength of nuclear force Strength of nuclear force
Imagine a nucleon moving inside a cubic
potential box of side length 5 fm.
L
( )
2
8
2 2 2 2
3
2
8
2 2
2
2
2
2
mL
h
z
n
y
n
x
n
D
E
mL
h n
m
p
E
L
nh h
p
n
L
+ +
=
= =
= =
=

5
The ground state has
1 = = =
z
n
y
n
x
n
MeV mL h E 25 8 3
2 2
=
cf electron in H atom 13.6 eV
6
Potential Potential
Spherical, square-well potential
V(r)
r
Very strong repulsion
7
Deuteron shows there is a strong, spin-
dependent force between the proton and
the neutron
Nuclear forces Nuclear forces
V(r)
r
35 MeV
2 fm
Neutron scattering off protons (or neutrons)
Very short-range force
Charge-independent
8
Proton-proton scattering
Nuclear forces Nuclear forces
V(r)
r
35 MeV
2 fm
Coulomb repulsion
Same as for n-n and n-p scattering
9
The Deuteron (d) The Deuteron (d)
Simplest nucleus with more
than one nucleon
1 proton + 1 neutron
Charge = +1, Mass ~ 2 u
m
p
= 1.007276 u
m
n
= 1.008665 u
m
p
+ m
n
= 2.015941 u
m
d
= 2.013553 u
n p d
m m m + <
The system is BOUND
10
Deuteron Deuteron
Binding Energy = ?
( )
MeV J
J
kg
u
u m
23 . 2 10 57 . 3
10 0 . 3 10 66 . 1 002388 . 0
10 66 . 1 002388 . 0
002388 . 0
013553 . 2 015941 . 2
13
2
8 27
27
= =
=
=
=
=

## Large energy indicates a strong attractive

force between the proton and the neutron
11
Deuteron Deuteron
Magnetic moment = +0.8574
N
Proton = +2.7928
N
Neutron = 1.9130
N
Spin
Magnetic moment
p n
N n p d
8798 . 0 + = =
12
Deuteron Deuteron
Nuclear spin (expt):
+
=1

I
l s s I
n p
r
r r
r
+ + =
0 =
n
l
= & 0 l
= & 2 l
= & 1 l
= & 1 l
Parity = +1
2 , 0
1 ) 1 (
=
+ = =
l
l

Options
13
Spin Spin- -dependence dependence
d = p + n
possibilities are
Experimentally, the deuteron
has only 1 bound state with
Therefore, the strong interaction
is spin-dependent !
2
1
=
p
S
2
1
=
n
S
n p d
S S S
r r r
+ =
( ) = 0
d
S ( ) = 1
d
S
1 =
d
S
14
Deuteron Deuteron
Magnetic moment
0 0 = =
orb
l
l = 0 state
N n p d
8798 . 0 = + =
r r r
N
8574 . 0
expt
=
d d s s
a a + =
04 . 0
96 . 0
2
2

d
s
a
a
l = 2 state
15
Deuteron Deuteron
Further evidence for admixture
of the l = 0 and l = 2 states.
Shows that the interaction
potential must have a non-
central (tensor) component.
0 = =
n p
Q Q
) 00288 . 0 ( 0 b Q
d

16
Deuteron Deuteron
Krane 4.1 & 4.2
17
Nucleon Nucleon- -nucleon scattering nucleon scattering
= & 0 l
Deuteron only one bound configuration
2 fm
n-n, n-p and p-p scattering shows
that the interaction potential is
Charge symmetric once you
correct for p-p Coulomb interaction
NOT electric charge ------ nucleon p or n
18
Interaction potential Interaction potential
) ( r V
C
) ( ) ( E E
First term
Central potential i.e. no , dependence
Second term
Add a term to account for the fact that
19
Interaction potential Interaction potential
)] 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( [
2
)] 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( [
] [
2
) ( ) (
2 2 1 1
2
2 1
2 2 1 1
2
1
2 2 1 1
2
1
2 1
2 1 2 2 1 1
2 1 2 1
2 1
+ + + =
+ + + =
=
+ + =
+ + =
+ =
s s s s S S s s
s s s s S S
s s s s S S s s
s s s s s s
s s s s S S
s s S
h r r
r r r r
r r
r r
r r r r r r
r r r r
r r
r r
r
Spin-dependent terms cannot be linear
in spin
The interaction between nucleons is
invariant under parity and time-reversal
t t r r &
r r
20
Interaction potential Interaction potential
4
)] 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 1 ( 1 [
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2 1
h h r r
= + + + = s s
Triplet state: S = 1 (2S+1) = 3
4
3
)] 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 0 ( 0 [
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2 1
h h r r
= + + + = s s
Singlet state: S = 0 (2S+1) = 1
) ( ) ( E E
21
Interaction potential Interaction potential
Third term: deuteron has a Quadrupole
Moment
NOT a pure l = 0 state a small
admixture of the l = 2 state
So, there is a non-central, Tensor
component
Take the spin as the reference direction
r s r s
r r r r
or
) ( ) ( or ) )( (
2 1 2 1
r s r s r s r s
r r r r r r r r

Can be written in terms of
2 1 2 1
& ) )( ( s s r s r s
r r r r r r

22
Interaction potential Interaction potential
Write Tensor term as:
)
`

=
2 1
2
2 1
12
) )( ( 3
) ( ) ( s s
r
r s r s
r C S r C
r r
r r r r
Vanishes for Singlet state
Therefore, the interaction potential can
be written as:
)
`

+
+
2 1
2
2 1
2 1
) )( ( 3
) (
) ( ) (
s s
r
r s r s
r C
s s r B r A
r r
r r r r
r r
2 1
s s
r r
=
23
Nuclear STRONG force Nuclear STRONG force
Particle exchange Particle exchange
Yukawa (1935, Nobel 1949)
Analogy with EM and covalent
bonding (e.g. H
2
molecule).
EM
t-dependent changes in q
1
distribution t-dep changes in E
field i.e EM radiation light
photons

2
2
1
=
> =
>
t c
f
t hf E
t E h
E q
r

1
E q F
r r
2 2
=
24
Nuclear STRONG force Nuclear STRONG force
Particle exchange Particle exchange
EM : 2 charges swap virtual photons
Range of interaction:
m = 0 so no restriction on
R
Yukawa the nuclear strong force
has a finite range 2 fm
Assume nucleons exchange a
particle with m 0

2
= = t c R
25
Nuclear STRONG force Nuclear STRONG force
Particle exchange Particle exchange
MeV J mc
kg
Rc
m
mc
R
t c R
mc E
100 10 6 . 1
10 75 . 1
10 3 10 2
10 05 . 1
11 2
28
8 15
34
2
= =
=

= <
<
<

h
h
Estimate the mass of the exchange particle
26
Nuclear STRONG force Nuclear STRONG force
Particle exchange Particle exchange
s
t
J MeV mc
mc
t
24
19 6
34
19 6 2
2
10 5
10 6 . 1 10 140
10 05 . 1
10 6 . 1 10 140 140

= =

h
A nucleon continually emits and absorbs
virtual mesons
hence VIRTUAL
27
Nuclear STRONG force Nuclear STRONG force
Particle exchange Particle exchange
Yukawa calculated the lifetime of
this exchange particle whose mass is
of order 100 MeV/c
2
lifetime ~ 1 s
Particle referred to as a meson
(middle mass is intermediate
between electron and proton)
1936 Anderson & Neddermeyer
discovered the Muon (cosmic rays)
Mu-meson (wrong !)
s

2 . 2 ~
) 207 ( / 106 ) ( ) (
2
e
m c MeV m m = =
+

28
Nuclear STRONG force Nuclear STRONG force
Particle exchange Particle exchange
Yukawas meson lifetime calculation
had an error factor of 100 too big !
lifetime ~ 10 ns
Muons are not attracted strongly to
nucleus !
Muon can spend time inside nucleus
without being absorbed
Muon has so muon
exchange between nucleons wont
conserve angular momentum
We now know that the muon is
elementary its NOT a Meson
(later).
2
1
= s
29
Nuclear STRONG force Nuclear STRONG force
Particle exchange Particle exchange
1947 Powell et al. discovery of
Pions (pi-mesons)
1950 Moyer et al.
Pions have so pion
exchange between nucleons will
conserve angular momentum
0 = s
) 274 ( / 140 ) ( ) (
2
e
m c MeV m m = =
+

ns 26 ~

) 264 ( / 135 ) (
2
e
o
m c MeV m =
30
Nuclear STRONG force Nuclear STRONG force
Particle exchange Particle exchange
Pion exchange mechanisms
Nucleons swap identities in about
50% of the events
Pion exchange could also provide an
explanation for the magnetic
moment of the uncharged neutron
p n n p
n p p n
p p n n
o o
+ +
+ +
+ +
+ +

+ p n
Both charged
31
Yukawa Yukawa potential potential
Consider the electrostatic potential
around a point charge
Laplace
Solution is
This describes a force mediated by
massless particles - photons
r
e
0
4
=
0
2
=
32
Yukawa Yukawa potential potential
Particles with mass
Klein-Gordan equation (1926)
Important in QED photons m = 0
Classical wave equation
2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( mc pc E + =
t
i E

h h i p
) , (
) , ( 1
) , (
2
2
2
2
2
t r
mc
t
t r
c
t r

\
|
=

h
2
2
2
2
) , ( 1
) , (
t
t r
c
t r

33
Yukawa Yukawa potential potential
Now consider pions in a static,
time-independent case:
Spherical symmetry
0

m
2
2
2
2
2
)] ( [ 1 ) ( 1
) (
dr
r r d
r dr
r d
r
dr
d
r
r

=
|

\
|

=
r
e
g r
R r /
) (

=
0 ) (
2
2
=
|
|

\
|
)
`

r
mc
h
)] ( [
)] ( [
2
2
2
r r
mc
dr
r r d

)
`

h
34
Yukawa Yukawa potential potential
g is a constant (coupling strength)
R is the range of the force
r
e
g r
R r /
) (

=
fm
mc
R 4 . 1 = =
h
35
Summary Summary
Very strong, short-range force
between nucleons
Strongly repulsive at very short
separations
Strong force is spin-dependent
and charge symmetric
Interaction potential between
nucleons comprises central and
non-central (tensor) components
Yukawa model views the inter-
nucleon force in terms of the
exchange of pions (-mesons)
(Later well revisit this idea in
The Standard Model, quarks and
gluons).