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# 1

## Nuclear Force Nuclear Force

2
Nuclear Force Nuclear Force
What keeps the nucleus whole ?
H atom: Coulomb, EM force
Nucleus: protons have q > 0
neutrons have q = 0
so it cant be EM.
Gravitational ? Far too weak !!
36
10

e
F
g
F
3
Nuclear Force Nuclear Force
The nuclear force is very strong (the
nuclear potential is deep)
Short-range: proton scattering if
distance from nucleus is 2-3 fm, the
proton only sees the Coulomb (EM)
force.
The range of the nuclear force is < 2 fm
The strong nuclear force between
nucleons is ~ independent of charge
n n, n p, p p
The strong nuclear force is spin-
dependent (see deuteron).
Known as The Strong Force
Not all particles experience the Strong
Force e.g. electrons
4
Strength of nuclear force Strength of nuclear force
Imagine a nucleon moving inside a cubic
potential box of side length 5 fm.
L
( )
2
8
2 2 2 2
3
2
8
2 2
2
2
2
2
mL
h
z
n
y
n
x
n
D
E
mL
h n
m
p
E
L
nh h
p
n
L
+ +
=
= =
= =
=

5
The ground state has
1 = = =
z
n
y
n
x
n
MeV mL h E 25 8 3
2 2
=
cf electron in H atom 13.6 eV
6
Potential Potential
Spherical, square-well potential
V(r)
r
Very strong repulsion
7
Deuteron shows there is a strong, spin-
dependent force between the proton and
the neutron
Nuclear forces Nuclear forces
V(r)
r
35 MeV
2 fm
Neutron scattering off protons (or neutrons)
Very short-range force
Charge-independent
8
Proton-proton scattering
Nuclear forces Nuclear forces
V(r)
r
35 MeV
2 fm
Coulomb repulsion
Same as for n-n and n-p scattering
9
The Deuteron (d) The Deuteron (d)
Simplest nucleus with more
than one nucleon
1 proton + 1 neutron
Charge = +1, Mass ~ 2 u
m
p
= 1.007276 u
m
n
= 1.008665 u
m
p
+ m
n
= 2.015941 u
m
d
= 2.013553 u
n p d
m m m + <
The system is BOUND
10
Deuteron Deuteron
Binding Energy = ?
( )
MeV J
J
kg
u
u m
23 . 2 10 57 . 3
10 0 . 3 10 66 . 1 002388 . 0
10 66 . 1 002388 . 0
002388 . 0
013553 . 2 015941 . 2
13
2
8 27
27
= =
=
=
=
=

## Large energy indicates a strong attractive

force between the proton and the neutron
11
Deuteron Deuteron
Magnetic moment = +0.8574
N
Proton = +2.7928
N
Neutron = 1.9130
N
Spin
Magnetic moment
p n
N n p d
8798 . 0 + = =
12
Deuteron Deuteron
Nuclear spin (expt):
+
=1

I
l s s I
n p
r
r r
r
+ + =
0 =
n
l
= & 0 l
= & 2 l
= & 1 l
= & 1 l
Parity = +1
2 , 0
1 ) 1 (
=
+ = =
l
l

Options
13
Spin Spin- -dependence dependence
d = p + n
possibilities are
Experimentally, the deuteron
has only 1 bound state with
Therefore, the strong interaction
is spin-dependent !
2
1
=
p
S
2
1
=
n
S
n p d
S S S
r r r
+ =
( ) = 0
d
S ( ) = 1
d
S
1 =
d
S
14
Deuteron Deuteron
Magnetic moment
0 0 = =
orb
l
l = 0 state
N n p d
8798 . 0 = + =
r r r
N
8574 . 0
expt
=
d d s s
a a + =
04 . 0
96 . 0
2
2

d
s
a
a
l = 2 state
15
Deuteron Deuteron
of the l = 0 and l = 2 states.
Shows that the interaction
potential must have a non-
central (tensor) component.
0 = =
n p
Q Q
) 00288 . 0 ( 0 b Q
d

16
Deuteron Deuteron
Krane 4.1 & 4.2
17
Nucleon Nucleon- -nucleon scattering nucleon scattering
= & 0 l
Deuteron only one bound configuration
2 fm
n-n, n-p and p-p scattering shows
that the interaction potential is
Charge symmetric once you
correct for p-p Coulomb interaction
NOT electric charge ------ nucleon p or n
18
Interaction potential Interaction potential
) ( r V
C
) ( ) ( E E
First term
Central potential i.e. no , dependence
Second term
Add a term to account for the fact that
19
Interaction potential Interaction potential
)] 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( [
2
)] 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( [
] [
2
) ( ) (
2 2 1 1
2
2 1
2 2 1 1
2
1
2 2 1 1
2
1
2 1
2 1 2 2 1 1
2 1 2 1
2 1
+ + + =
+ + + =
=
+ + =
+ + =
+ =
s s s s S S s s
s s s s S S
s s s s S S s s
s s s s s s
s s s s S S
s s S
h r r
r r r r
r r
r r
r r r r r r
r r r r
r r
r r
r
Spin-dependent terms cannot be linear
in spin
The interaction between nucleons is
invariant under parity and time-reversal
t t r r &
r r
20
Interaction potential Interaction potential
4
)] 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 1 ( 1 [
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2 1
h h r r
= + + + = s s
Triplet state: S = 1 (2S+1) = 3
4
3
)] 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 0 ( 0 [
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2 1
h h r r
= + + + = s s
Singlet state: S = 0 (2S+1) = 1
) ( ) ( E E
21
Interaction potential Interaction potential
Third term: deuteron has a Quadrupole
Moment
NOT a pure l = 0 state a small
admixture of the l = 2 state
So, there is a non-central, Tensor
component
Take the spin as the reference direction
r s r s
r r r r
or
) ( ) ( or ) )( (
2 1 2 1
r s r s r s r s
r r r r r r r r

Can be written in terms of
2 1 2 1
& ) )( ( s s r s r s
r r r r r r

22
Interaction potential Interaction potential
Write Tensor term as:
)
`

=
2 1
2
2 1
12
) )( ( 3
) ( ) ( s s
r
r s r s
r C S r C
r r
r r r r
Vanishes for Singlet state
Therefore, the interaction potential can
be written as:
)
`

+
+
2 1
2
2 1
2 1
) )( ( 3
) (
) ( ) (
s s
r
r s r s
r C
s s r B r A
r r
r r r r
r r
2 1
s s
r r
=
23
Nuclear STRONG force Nuclear STRONG force
Particle exchange Particle exchange
Yukawa (1935, Nobel 1949)
Analogy with EM and covalent
bonding (e.g. H
2
molecule).
EM
t-dependent changes in q
1
distribution t-dep changes in E
photons

2
2
1
=
> =
>
t c
f
t hf E
t E h
E q
r

1
E q F
r r
2 2
=
24
Nuclear STRONG force Nuclear STRONG force
Particle exchange Particle exchange
EM : 2 charges swap virtual photons
Range of interaction:
m = 0 so no restriction on
R
Yukawa the nuclear strong force
has a finite range 2 fm
Assume nucleons exchange a
particle with m 0

2
= = t c R
25
Nuclear STRONG force Nuclear STRONG force
Particle exchange Particle exchange
MeV J mc
kg
Rc
m
mc
R
t c R
mc E
100 10 6 . 1
10 75 . 1
10 3 10 2
10 05 . 1
11 2
28
8 15
34
2
= =
=

= <
<
<

h
h
Estimate the mass of the exchange particle
26
Nuclear STRONG force Nuclear STRONG force
Particle exchange Particle exchange
s
t
J MeV mc
mc
t
24
19 6
34
19 6 2
2
10 5
10 6 . 1 10 140
10 05 . 1
10 6 . 1 10 140 140

= =

h
A nucleon continually emits and absorbs
virtual mesons
hence VIRTUAL
27
Nuclear STRONG force Nuclear STRONG force
Particle exchange Particle exchange
this exchange particle whose mass is
of order 100 MeV/c
2
Particle referred to as a meson
(middle mass is intermediate
between electron and proton)
1936 Anderson & Neddermeyer
discovered the Muon (cosmic rays)
Mu-meson (wrong !)
s

2 . 2 ~
) 207 ( / 106 ) ( ) (
2
e
m c MeV m m = =
+

28
Nuclear STRONG force Nuclear STRONG force
Particle exchange Particle exchange
had an error factor of 100 too big !
Muons are not attracted strongly to
nucleus !
Muon can spend time inside nucleus
without being absorbed
Muon has so muon
exchange between nucleons wont
conserve angular momentum
We now know that the muon is
elementary its NOT a Meson
(later).
2
1
= s
29
Nuclear STRONG force Nuclear STRONG force
Particle exchange Particle exchange
1947 Powell et al. discovery of
Pions (pi-mesons)
1950 Moyer et al.
Pions have so pion
exchange between nucleons will
conserve angular momentum
0 = s
) 274 ( / 140 ) ( ) (
2
e
m c MeV m m = =
+

ns 26 ~

) 264 ( / 135 ) (
2
e
o
m c MeV m =
30
Nuclear STRONG force Nuclear STRONG force
Particle exchange Particle exchange
Pion exchange mechanisms
50% of the events
Pion exchange could also provide an
explanation for the magnetic
moment of the uncharged neutron
p n n p
n p p n
p p n n
o o
+ +
+ +
+ +
+ +

+ p n
Both charged
31
Yukawa Yukawa potential potential
Consider the electrostatic potential
around a point charge
Laplace
Solution is
This describes a force mediated by
massless particles - photons
r
e
0
4
=
0
2
=
32
Yukawa Yukawa potential potential
Particles with mass
Klein-Gordan equation (1926)
Important in QED photons m = 0
Classical wave equation
2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( mc pc E + =
t
i E

h h i p
) , (
) , ( 1
) , (
2
2
2
2
2
t r
mc
t
t r
c
t r

\
|
=

h
2
2
2
2
) , ( 1
) , (
t
t r
c
t r

33
Yukawa Yukawa potential potential
Now consider pions in a static,
time-independent case:
Spherical symmetry
0

m
2
2
2
2
2
)] ( [ 1 ) ( 1
) (
dr
r r d
r dr
r d
r
dr
d
r
r

=
|

\
|

=
r
e
g r
R r /
) (

=
0 ) (
2
2
=
|
|

\
|
)
`

r
mc
h
)] ( [
)] ( [
2
2
2
r r
mc
dr
r r d

)
`

h
34
Yukawa Yukawa potential potential
g is a constant (coupling strength)
R is the range of the force
r
e
g r
R r /
) (

=
fm
mc
R 4 . 1 = =
h
35
Summary Summary
Very strong, short-range force
between nucleons
Strongly repulsive at very short
separations
Strong force is spin-dependent
and charge symmetric
Interaction potential between
nucleons comprises central and
non-central (tensor) components
Yukawa model views the inter-
nucleon force in terms of the
exchange of pions (-mesons)
(Later well revisit this idea in
The Standard Model, quarks and
gluons).