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Ve1
Vector Algebra
5 Lectures
Vector Algebra in 2-space and 3-space
Scalar Product (Dot Product)
Vector Product (Cross Product)
Scalar & Vector Triple Products
Differentiation of Vectors
Vector Geometry
Ve2
Vectors
● Definition:
scalar quantity determined only by its magnitude, e.g. speed;
vector quantity determined by its magnitude and direction,
directed line segment (arrow), e.g. velocity, force
a
● Magnitude:
a
a
length (Euclidean norm) of vector
denoted
unit vector
has length 1
● Equality of vectors:
b
a
b
a = b
a
vectors
and
are equal,
, if they have the
same magnitude and direction.
z
● Components of a vector:
Right-handed Cartesian co-ordinate system, xyz
Start point, P: (x 1 , y 1 , z 1 ) and end point Q: (x 2 , y 2 , z 2 )
Vector
a
= PQ = [a 1 , a 2 , a 3 ] = [x 2 -x 1 , y 2 -y 1 , z 2 -z 1 ]
y
x
Ve3
Vector coordinates
a = PQ = OQ - OP = [x 2 - x 1 , y 2 - y 1 , z 2 - z 1 ] = [a 1 , a 2 , a 3 ]
z
y
P (x 1 , y 1 , z 1 )
z
1
y
2
a
3
z
Q
(x 2 , y 2 , z 2 )
2
a
2
y
1
O
x
x
x
1
2
a
1
Ve4
● Length in terms of components:
y
(5,8)
2
2
2
a
= aaa++
4
1
2
3
2
2
34
+
=
5
● Position vector, r , of point A: (x, y, z), w.r.t origin (0, 0, 0)
(2,4)
3
r
= [ xyz,
,
]
x
● Theorem
Vectors as ordered triples of real numbers
Uniqueness of representation
Zero vector
0
= [0, 0, 0] has length 0 and no direction
Sum of two vectors,
a = [ aaa,
,
], and b = [ b , b , b ]
12
3
123
b
a
+=b
[ a + ba,
+ ba,
+ b ]
1
12
23
3
a + b
c.f. Resultant for forces
parallelogram law
a
Ve5
a
+=+
b
b
a
(
commutativity
)
()
u
+
v
+
w
=+
u
(
v w
+
)
=++
u v w associativity
(
)
a
+=+=
0
0
a
a
(
identity
)
a
+−
()
a
= 0
(
inverse
)
● Scalar Multiplication:
For scalar (real number), c, and vector,
a
= [a 1 , a 2 , a 3 ]
Product c
a
= [ca 1 , ca 2 , ca 3 ]
z 1 + z 2
y
z
2
● Properties:
z
1
c
(
a
+=
b
)
ca cb
+
x
(
c
+
k a
)
=+
ca ka
z 1 - z 2
c
()()
ka
=
ck a
=
cka
-z 2
subtraction
1
a
=
a
With these & properties for addition, we can prove:
00a =
, (−1) aa=−
Ve6
Commutative & Associative
a
a + b + c
b + a
b
b + c
a
a + b
b
a + b
c
b
O
a
a + b = b + a
a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c
Ve7
Vector inverse & Scalar Mult.
Scalar multiplication
a
a
a
a
- a
a
a
a + (- a) = 0
the zero vector
a + a + a + a + a = 5a
Ve8
Vector Space
● Unit vectors,
ijk, ,
mutually perpendicular (orthogonal) of length 1
ijk
===
[
100
,
,
],
[
010
,
,
],
[
001
,
,
]
a
=
[
a
,
a
,
a
]
=+
ai a j
+
ak
123
1
2
3
● Vector space:
3
R
set of all vectors form the real 3-D vector space
+ algebraic operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication
● Linear combination:
ca
+
ca
++
c a
1
()1
2
(2)
n
( n )
● Linear independence:
set of vectors
Ba
= {
,
a
,
,
a
}
are a linearly independent set
()
1
(
2
)
(
m
)
iff (if and only if) the only solution of
ca
+
ca
++
c a
= 0
1
()
1
2
(
2
)
m
(
m
)
(
cc
,
,
,
c
any scalars
)
is
c
==
c
=
c
= 0
;
otherwise linearly dependent
12
m
1
2
m
3
● Dimension and basis: Dimension of 3-D R
is 3, any such set B is a basis
Ve9
Linear Independence
k
z
y
j
a
b
c
i
Mutually perpendicular,
orthogonal unit vectors, {i, j, k}
x
These are linearly independent.
Any three non-zero vectors {a, b, c} where
two (say a, b) are coplanar but NOT colinear,
and the third, c, which is not in the same
plane, are linearly independent.
f
e
Three vectors {e, f, g} in the same
plane are linearly dependent.
g
Ve10
Scalar Product (Dot Product)
● Definition:
a •=
b
a
b
cos
γ
,
if
a
0
,
b
0
a •=
b
0
,
if
a
=
00
or
b
=
.
● Dot product in components:
a •=b
a b
+ a b
+ a b
,
where a =
[
a
,
a
,
a
],
b =
[
b
,
b
,
b
]
11
2
2
33
1
2
3
1
2
3
a
a
angle γ , 0 ≤ γπ≤
a
γγγγ
γγγγ
γγγγ
b
b
a • b = 0
b
a • b < 0
a • b > 0
● Orthogonal vectors:
a is orthogonal to b if ab•
= 0
● Theorem (orthogonality):
scalar product of two non-zero vectors is zero iff vectors are perpendicular
Ve11
Properties of Scalar Product
● Length and angle:
a b
a b
a
=•
aa ;
cos
γ
=
=
,
for non
zero vectors
a b
,
a
b
aabb
● General Properties:
[
qa + qb
]
•= c
qa c qb c
•+
,
(Linearity)
12
1
2
ab •=• ba ,
(Symmetry)
aa •≥
0
,
and
aa •=
00 iff a =
,
(Positive
definiteness)
(
a
+
b
)
•=•+• c ac bc
,
(Distributivity)
a b
ab , (Schwarz inequality)
ab +≤
a
+
b
,
(Triangle inequality)
2
2
2
2
ab
+
+− ab
= 2 (
aa
+
b
),
(Parallelogram equality)
Ve12
Dot Product by components
● Definition:
a b
•=
ab
cos
γ
,
if
a
0
,
b
0
ab
•=
0
,
if
a
=
00
or
b
=
.
● Dot product in components:
a •=b
ab + ab + ab
,
where
a = a
[
,
a
,
a
],
b = b
[
,
b
,
b
]
11
2
2
33
1
2
3
1
2
3
● Linear combination of orthogonal unit vectors:
ijk
===
[
100
,
,
],
[
010
,
,
],
[
001 , ,
]
a
=
[
a
,
a
,
a
]
=+ ai a j
+
a k
;
b
=
[
b
,
b
,
b
]
=+
bi b j bk
+
12
3
1
2
3
123
1
2
3
a •= b
(
ai + a j
+
a k
)( •
bi b j bk
+
+
)
12
3
12
3
=
aabi i abi j
•+
+
abi k
11
12
13
i
• i = 1 ,
etc.
+ abj i ab j j
•+
+
ab j k
21
22
23
ij
•=
0 ,
i
j
,
etc.
+ abk i abk j
•+
+
abk k
31
32
33
=
ab
++
ab
ab
11
2
2
33
Ve13
Angle between vectors
2
2
2
2
a •= a
aa .
.cos 0 =
a
=
aaa ,
+
+
1
2
3
2
2
so that
a
=
a
1 2 ++
a
a
where
a
= [
aaa
,
,
]
2
3
123
Scalar product example: Find the angle between two vectors
a = 2 i + 2 jk−= [22,
,
− 1]
and
b = 6 i − 3 j + 2 k = [6,
− 32,
]
a b
262
×
+
×−
(
3
)()
+−
1
×
2
4
a b
•=
ab .
.cos
θ
,
so that
cos
θ
=
=
=
a
.
b
3
×
7
21
4
o
Hence,
θ
==
arccos(
)
arccos( .
0 1905
)
=
1 379
.
)
21
Ve14
Distance between points
Scalar Product example: Find the distance between the points (1, 1, 1) and (7, 3, 4)
P: (1, 1, 1)
PQ
Q: (7, 3, 4)
origin O
(0, 0, 0)
The vector joining points P and Q is PQ = OQ - OP = (7, 3, 4) - (1, 1, 1) = (6, 2, 3)
222
The length of PQ
=
(
623
,
,
)
is
PQ
=
PQ PQ
=
6
++=
2
3
7
See later (Vector geometry) for application to distance of a plane from the origin.
Ve15
Applications of Scalar Product
● Work done by a force as scalar product:
Work done,
W =
(
p
cos
α
)
d
=
pd
cos
α
=•
p d
force, p
αααα
d
displacement,
● Component of a force in a given direction:
Weight, a = [0, − 5000]
Find
− p
,
(force in rope holding car)
Slope, β= 25°
y
u
== p ˆ
[sin
γ
,
cos
γ
]
=
[
0 . 906
,
0 . 423
]
Angle, γ = 90°− β = 65°
pa
= (
cos
γ
) u
unit vector, u = pˆ
− p
p
p
= (
a
cos
γ
)
u
=• au
γ
x
c
=− [ ,
0
5000
]
[
0 . 906
,
0 . 423
]
=
2115
[
lb
]
β
a

Ve16

● Concept of component or projection:
projection,
pa
, of vector
a b
p =
a
cos
γ
=
b
a
a
b
γγγγ
γγγγ
1442443
P=0
P>0
● Orthonormal basis:
ˆ
Basis,
B
= {ˆ,
abc ˆ},
,
For any vector,
v , v
ˆ
1
Note that e.g.
l
= va • ˆ, etc .
1
Standard basis
= ijk
{,
,
}
b ≠ 0
(
)
a
b
b
γγγγ
1442443
P<0
ˆ
ˆ,
for some
l
,
l
,
l
2
3
123

Projection (component) of a vector

in the direction of

set of mutually orthogonal unit vectors

=++ la lb lc

Ve17
Introduction to Vector Geometry
Orthogonal straight lines in the plane:
y
P:(1, 3)
Find line L 1 through point P, perpendicular to line L 2
Write
L ax + ay
:
=
c
,
as
a
•= r
c
,
L 2 : x - 2y + 2=0
11
2
with
a
=≠ a a
[
,
]
0
,
and
r
=
[
xy
,
]
1
2
L
1
L* 1
*
Now,
L ax ay
:
+
==•0
a
r
,
11
2
x
so that
a
is perpendicular to
r
r
a
(x, y)
Hence, a is a normal vector to L 1
A
normal to
L
is
b
=
[
12
,
],
so that
ab •=
a
2
a
=
0
2
12
e.g.
a
=
[
21 ,
],
then
L
:
2
xyc +=
passing through
P
: (
13 ,
)
1
so
that
c
=
5
,
and
L
:
25 xy +=
1
Ve18
Vector Geometry - 2
Normal vector to a plane:
n
Find a unit vector perpendicular to the plane:
4x + 2y + 4z = -7
For any plane :
a
•=
r
ax ay az
+
+
=
c ,
123
p
where
a
=≠=
[
a a
,
,
a
]
0
,
and
r
[
xyz
,
,
]
123
r
γγγγ
1
Unit vector in the direction of a is, n =
a = a ˆ
a
Whence, dividing
ar
=
c
by
a
obtains :
c
nr
•=
p
,
where
p
=
=
r
cos
γ =
distance of plane from origin
a
7
a
=
[
424
,
,
],
c
=−
7
,
a
=
36
=
6 na
,
=
1
=
[
2 ],
1
,
2
p
=−
.
3 ,
6
3
3
6
Ve19
Vector Product (Cross Product)
● Definition of vector product:
v
a
b ,
with magnitude
v
=
ab
sin
γ
where
a
=
[
aa a
,
,
],
b
=
[
bbb
,
,
],
and angle
γ
between
a
and
b
12
3
123
Direction of
v
=
ab
×
,
in this order, form a right
is perpendicular to both
a
and
b
,
such that
abv
,
,
,
handed triple.
e.g. standard basis vectors
ijk,
,
form a right − handed triple in this order
● Vector product in components:
v
=×= a b [, vvv ,
]
v = ab×
123
i
jk
b
v
=×=
a
b
ab
sin γ
v =
aaa
;
123
γγγγ
bbb
= area of parallelogram
123
a
so
that v
,
=
a b
a b
,
v
=−
(
a b
a b
),
v
=
a b
a b
.
1
23
32
2
13
31
3
12
21
Ve20
Area of parallelogram
b
|b|sinθθθθ
θθθθ
a
|b|cosθθθθ
|a ×××× b| = |a|.|b|.sinθθθθ = area of parallelogram formed by vectors a and b.
Ve21
Cross Product Example
Find
a
×
b and b a
×
when
a
= 2
i
− 3
jk
= [2,
− 3,
−1]
and
bi
=+ 4
j
− 2
k
= [14,
,
− 2]
i
jk
ijk
= ij
(
64
+
)(
−+
41
)(
+
k
83
+
)
v
=
[,
ννν
,
]
=×=
ab
aaa
=
231
123
1
2
3
= 10
10
ij
++
3
11
k
= [
,
3
,
11
]
bbb
14
2
123
where,
v
=
ab
ab
=
10
,
v
=−
(
ab
a
bb
)
= 3,
v
=−= 11.
ab
ab
1
23
32
2
13
3
1
3
12
2
1
i
jk
ijk
=
ijk
(
−−
46
)(
−+
14
)(
+
−−
38
)
µ
=
[,
µµµ
,
]
=×=
b
a
bbb
=
14
2
123
1
2
3
=−
10
ij − 3
11
k
=
[
10
,
3
,
11
]
aaa
231
123
where,
µ
=
ba
ba
=−
10 ,
µ
= −
(
bba
ba
)
=−3, µ
=
ba
ba
=−11.
1
23
32
2
13
31
3
12
21
so that ab×
=− ba×
Ve22
Properties of Vector Products
● Properties:
(
la b
×
)
=
l a
(
×
b
)
a
(
lb
),
for every scalar
l
a
×+=×+×
(
bc
)
(
ab
)
(
ac
),
(
ab
+×=×+×
)
c
)(
ac
)(
bc
),
(
ba
×
)
=−
(
ab
×
),
(anticommutative)
a
××≠××
(
bc
)
(
ab
)
c
,
(not associative, in general)
● Proofs (using determinants):
i
jk
a
a
a
a
a 1 a
2
3
1
3
2
Note that, a
×=
b
aaa
= i
− j
+ k
123
b
b
b
b
b 1 b
2
3
1
3
2
bbb
123
Ve23
Cross Product properties applied
Example : simplify ( ab+×−)
( ab )
Using distributivity laws with respect to (w.r.t.) addition, namely :
a bc
×+=×+×
(
)
(
ab
)
(
ac
)
and
(
a
+×=×+×
b
)
c
)
(
ac
)
(
b
c
)
and anticommutativity law :
ab
×
=−
(
ba
×
)
(
ab
+
)(
×
ab
)
a
()
a
b
b
()
ab
=×−×+×−×
aaabbabb
=−×−
0
abab
×
0
=−
2
(
ab
×
)
=
2
(
ba
×
)
Ve24
Cross Product in Trigonometry
B
Law of sines for triangles
c
a
A
b
C
abc
+
+
=
0
,
since clearly,
ab
+
=−
c
Cross product multiply (on the left) by both
a
and
b
lhs
=×+×
aaabac abac
+×=×+×=
rhs
=×=
a
0
0
lhs
=×+×+×=×+×=
babbbc babc
rhs
=×=
b
0
0
so ab
×
=−
(
ac
×
)
=
b
×
c
,
or a
×
b
=
b
×
c
=
c
×
a
Hence,
a × bb
=
bc
×=×
ca
So that
ab
sin
C
=
bc
sin
A
=
ca
sin
B
,
where
a
=== , ,
a
b
b
c
c
sin
A
sin
B
sin C
or
=
=
which is the law of sines for triangles.
a
b
c
Ve25
Applications of Vector Products
● Moment of a force (1):
L
moment vector
mp
of force
Q
is
p
mrp
=
×
,
where
r
is vector from
Q
to any
r
γγγγ
Q
A
point
A
on line
Lm ≠ 0
.
If
,
direction
d
is that of axis of rotation of
p
Q .
m
=
pd =
p
(
r
sinγ )
● Moment of a force (2):
Find moment of force about centre of wheel
i
jk
y
p
= 1000
mrp
=
×
=
0
15
.
0
=−
1299
k
=
[,,
0 0
1299
]
30°
x
r
866
500
0
1.5
where,
r
=
[
0 1 5 0
,
.
,
],
p
=
[
1000
cos
30 1000
°°
,
sin
30
,
0
]
moment points in the negative-z direction
Ve26
Velocity of a Rigid Body
Velocity of a rotating body:
w
v
Rotating body described by vector
w
d
P
z
with direction along axis of rotation, such that
ωωωω
rotation appears clockwise looking from
r
γγγγ
initial point of
w
to its terminal point, and
y
O
magnitude the angular speed,
ω
,
of rotation.
x
v
=
ω
d
=
wr (
sin
γ
) =×
w
r
whence, vwr
=
×
r
= [
xyz
,
,
],
w
= ω
k
direction of
v
is tangential to rotation
Ve27
Scalar Triple Product
● Definition of scalar triple product:
For vectors,
a
==
[
aa a
,
,
],
b
[
bbb
,
,
],
and
c
=
[
cc c
,
,
]
12
3
123
123
Scalar triple product is,
(
abc
)
=•
a
(
b
×
c
)
i
jk
aaa
123
( abc )
=•
a ( b
×
c )
=•
a
bbb
=
bbb
123
123
ccc
ccc
123
123
● Properties of scalar triple product:
(
ka b c
)
=
k a bc
(
),
for any scalar
k
(
abc
)
=•
a
(
b
×
c
)
=•
c
(
a
×
b
)
=•
b
(
c
×
a
)
=−
a
(
cb
×
)
=−
c
(
ba
×
)
=−
b
(
ac
×
)
Ve28
Applications of Scalar Triple Product
● Geometric interpretation:
b × c
The absolute value of the scalar triple
product is the volume of the parallelopiped
a
with
abc, ,
as edge vectors.
h
ββββ
c
(
abc
)
=•
a
(
b
×
c
)
=
a
b
×
c
cos
β
= hb c
×
b
● Test for linear independence of three vectors:
Three vectors form a linearly independent set iff (if and only if) their
scalar triple product is not zero.
This property arises directly from the interpretation of the scalar triple
product as a volume.
Ve29
Vector Triple Product
Useful formulas for repeated products:
2
a
×=
b
(
aa bb
)(
)
(
ab
)
b
××
(
c
d
)(
=•
b dc
)
−•
(
b cd
)
(
a ×××
b
)
(
c
d
)
=
(
ab dc
)
(
a b cd
)
(
a ×•×
b
)
(
c
d
)
=•
(
ac bd
)(
•−•
)
(
)(
)
Note that vector
vb
(
cd
×
)
is perpendicular to
c
×
d
so that
v
lies in the plane of
cd ,
and
so that
v
is of the form
v
=
lc md ,
+
similarly for
w
=×××
(
ab
)
(
cd
),
where
w
is of the form
w
=+
lc md
=
l a
+
m b
1
12
2
Ve30
Vector Differentiation
● Definition of vector derivative:
A vector function
v
( t )
is said to be differentiable at a point t if the
following limit exists:
vt
(
+
t
)
vt
()
v ′ ( t ) =
Lim
t
∆ t → 0
In terms of components w.r.t. a Cartesian coordinate system,
v
( t )
is
differentiable at
t
iff (if and only if) its three components are
differentiable at
t, and the derivative,
v
′( t )
is obtained by
differentiating each component separately.
vt′( ) = [ vt′′′( ), vt( ), vt( )]
123
● Properties of vector derivative:
(
cv
)
′ =
cv
,
(
u
+
v
) ′ =
u
′ +
v ′
(
uv
)
′ =
u
′ •+• v uv ′
()
uv
×
′ =
u
′ ×+× vuv ′
(note that order must be observed!)
(
uvw
)
′ =
(
u vw
)
+
(
uv w
)
+
(
uvw ′
)
Ve31
Further Vector Geometry
● Direction Cosines:
z
aijk=−36 + 2
a
e.g. Find the angles made by
with
the standard basis vectors (i.e. the coordinate axes)
γγγγ
ββββ
e.g.
a •=
i
3
=
ai
cos
α
=
a
cos
ααα
=
7
cos
,
cos
=
αααα
3 7
y
Similarly,
cos
β
=−
6
,
cos
γ
=
x
7
2 7
Direction cosines of
a
are
( ,
lmn =
,
)
(cos
αβγ
,
cos
,
cos
)
=−
(
3
,
,
)
7
6 7
2 7
a
a
a
1
23
2
22
In general,
l =
,
m
==
,
n
;
where
a
=
[ a , aaa
,
];
and
l
+
m
+= 1.
n
1
2
3
a
a
a
L
● Vector equation of a line:
P
n
OA = a = [ a , a , a ]
If
A is any fixed point on the line L,
123
A
P
is an arbitrary point on line L,
OP = r = [ x , y, z ]
r
and
n
a
is any vector parallel to the line L,
so that
AP = λ n
then equation of line is:
r
=+a
λ n, (sin ce OP = OA + AP )
O
Ve32
Algebraic equation equivalent
Vector equation of a line:
ra
=
+
λ
n
where
a
= [
aaa , ,
] is position vector of a point on line,
123
and
n
= [
nnn , ,
] is a vector parallel to the line,
123
and
λ
is an arbitrary scalar.
L
P
n
[ xyz,
,
]
=
[ a ,
a ,
a ]
+
λ
[ n ,
n ,
n ]
123
123
A
x
a
y
a
z
a
1
2
3
whence,
=
=
=
λ
r
a
n 1 n
n
2
3
O
Ve33
Vector Geometry continued
● Vector equation of a plane:
n
a
= [ aaa,
,
]
P
If A is any fixed point on the plane P,
123
Q
Q
is an arbitrary point on plane P,
r
= [ xyz,
,
]
A
and
n
is a vector perpendicular to the plane P,
r
a
so that
AQ • n = 0
then the equation of plane is:
( ra−
) •=n
0
O
● Equation from three points in the plane:
n
Q
b
B
If A, B, C are any three non-collinear points
in
the plane P, and Q is an arbitrary point on plane,
A c
C
P
r
= [ xyz,
,
]
ncb= ×
then
is a normal
to the
a
r
plane and the equation of plane is:
(
ra
−•×
)
(
cb
)
= 0
where, a
===
OA b
,
AB c
,
AC
O
Ve34
Algebraic equation equivalents
Vector equation of a plane:
(
r
a
)
•= 0
n
,
where
r
=
[
xyz
,
,
]
and
a
=
[
a
,
a
,
a
]
123
a
is any fixed point in the plane, and
n
is a vector normal to plane.
[
xaya , − , za
−•
]
[
nn ,
,
n
]
= 0
1
2
3
123
nx a
(
−+
)(
ny a
−+
)(
nz a
−= 0
)
1
12
23
3
nx n y nz
+
+
=
(
na
+
na
+
na
)
=•= n a constant
1
2
3
11
2
2
33
Equation from three points in the plane:
(
ra
−•×
)
(
cb
)
= 0
,
where,
a
is a fixed point in the plane,
and
b c
,
are any two non - parallel vectors in the plane.
nx n y nz
+
+
=
(
na
+
na
+
na
)
=•=
n a
constant
1
2
3
11
2
2
33
as above, where
ncb
=
×
which is a vector normal to the plane.
Ve35
Curves and Surfaces
● Vector equation of a sphere:
c
=
constant
cr
,
=+
c ar a
,
= c
c
A
2
2
2
2
P
whence,
(
xa
)(
+−
ya
)(
+−
za
)
=
c
1
2
3
a
r
● Curves and surfaces:
A curve is the path traced by a point P, the coordinates of
which depend on just one parameter, t, say.
So x = x(t), y = y(t), z = z(t).
e.g. Circular helix: x = a.cost, y = a.sint, z = t
O
Straight line:
x = a + t.l, y = b + t.m, z = c + t.n
A surface is the region explored by a point P if its
coordinates depend on two parameters, u and v, say.
Then x = x(u, v), y = y(u, v), z = z(u, v).
e.g. a sphere with radius c, with its centre at the origin is
given by the equations:
x = c.cosu.sinv, y = c.sinu.sinv, z = c.cosv