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6b.

Reacting masses, concentration of solution and volumetric titration calculations NOT using the mole concept BUT see also

Basic acid-alkali titration questions using moles far more appropriate!

Advanced Level acid-alkali volumetric titration calculations Concentration of a solution For quantitative chemistry, it is important to know the concentration of solutions and be able to do calculations based on experimental results for chemical analysis.

The concentration of a solution is often measured in grams per decimetre cubed so the units are expressed as gdm , or g/dm , which was g/litre!). concentration = mass / volume (c = m / V) concentration in gdm , mass in g, volume in dm
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Its really important remember that 1 dm = 1000 cm or 1000 ml and cm /1000 = dm


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rearrangements of the formula using the triangle to help gives mass = concentration x volume (m = c x V) and volume = mass / concentration (V = m / c) In the example questions I have used the shorthand formulae c = m / V, m = c x V and V = m / c and RFM as an abbreviation of relative formula mass or molecular mass, and other shorthands:sf means numbers rounded to 2/3/4 significant figures and dp means round to 2/3/4 decimal places

Example 6b.1 (a) What is the concentration of a salt solution if you dissolve 10g of sodium chloride in 250 cm of water? 250 cm is equal to 250/1000 = 0.25dm
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therefore the concentration c = m / V = 10/0.25 = 40 g/dm (40g/litre in old units, still in common use!)

(b) What mass of the salt is required to make 200 cm of concentration 15g/dm ?

V = 200/1000 = 0.2 dm

m = c x V = 15 x 0.2 = 3.0 g (c) If you were given 8.0 g of salt, what volume of water, in dm and cm , should you dissolve it in, to give a salt solution of concentration of 5g/dm ? V = m / c = 8 / 5 = 1.6 dm
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V = 1.6 x 1000 = 1600 cm

Examples 6b.2, 3 & 4 Quantitative calculations involving titrations The next three examples are more complicated and involve using reacting mass ratio calculations which have been covered in detail in section 6a. Reacting mass ratio chemical calculations (not using moles)

Example 6b.2 0.5g of sodium chloride was dissolved in water and you are given a silver nitrate solution of concentration 30g/dm . When you mix the two solutions you get a white precipitate of silver chloride.
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Given the equation and the RFMs calculated from the atomic masses Na = 23, Cl = 35.5, Ag = 107.8, O = 16, N = 14 sodium chloride NaCl(aq) (a) RFM 58.5 + + silver nitrate AgNO3(aq) 169.8
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===> ===>

silver chloride AgCl(s) (143.3)

+ +

sodium nitrate NaNO3(aq) (85) (not needed)

Using an accurate burette, precisely what volume (in cm ) of the silver nitrate solution must be added to the sodium chloride solution in order to precipitate the maximum amount of silver chloride without wasting a drop of quite a costly solution! Three steps to the calculation:- (a) calculate the relative formula masses of the reactants, (b) the mass of silver nitrate reacting and (c) the volume of silver nitrate needed. (b) From the equation calculate the mass of silver nitrate that reacts with 0.5 g of sodium chloride. According to the symbol equation one RFM or 'molecule' of sodium chloride reacts with one RFM or 'molecule' of silver nitrate. NaCl 58.5 0.5g : : : AgNO3 169.8 xg

Solving the ratio gives x = 0.5 x 169.8 / 58.5 = 1.451g of silver nitrate (b) From your answer to (a) calculate the volume of silver nitrate needed. V = m / c = 1.451 / 30 = 0.0484 dm
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V = 1000 x 0.0484 = 48.4 cm

Example 6b.3 The reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide is hydrochloric acid HCl(aq) RFM = 36.5 + + sodium hydroxide NaOH(aq) RFM = 40 ===> ===> sodium chloride NaCl(aq) + + water H2O(l)

According to the symbol equation one RFM or 'molecule' of hydrochloric acid reacts with one RFM or 'molecule' of sodium hydroxide. (The atomic masses involved are H = 1, Cl = 35.5, Na = 23 and O = 16, check the RFM for yourself) Therefore from the relative formula masses (RFMs) 36.5g of HCl reacts with 40g of sodium hydroxide. You are given a solution of hydrochloric acid of 7.3 g/dm (of HCl). 25.0 cm of sodium hydroxide solution was pipetted into a conical flask. On titration with the acid solution using a burette and suitable indicator, it was found that 14.6 cm of the acid solution was required to completely neutralise the alkaline sodium hydroxide. Calculate the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution in g/dm via the stages outlined below (a) The mass of hydrochloric acid reacting.
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V = 14.6 cm /1000 = 0.0146 dm

m = c x V = 7.3 x 0.0146 = 0.1066 g HCl (b) Calculate the mass of NaOH that reacts with 0.1066 g of HCl HCl 36.5 0.1066g : : : NaOH 40 xg

Solving the ratio x = 0.1066 x 40/36.5 = 0.1168 g (c) Calculate the concentration of NaOH V = 25 cm3/1000 = 0.025 dm3 c = 0.1168/0.025 = 4.67 g/dm (2dp, 3sf) Now it is possible to titrate the acid solution with the alkali solution (or vice versa) to obtain an unknown concentration of one of the solutions. One concentration must be known and the two volumes (acid and alkali) which react together exactly i.e. no excess of either reactant solution. How to do this is described in Section 12. acid-alkali titrations
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Example 6b.4 Citric acid is the most common acid in citrus fruits and can be estimated by titration with sodium hydroxide. citric acid + sodium hydroxide ===> sodium citrate + water

+ (aq)

3NaOH(aq)

===> (aq)

H2O(l)

RFM = 40 RFM = 192 but reacting mass is for C6H8O7 3 x 40 = 120 You are a given of sodium hydroxide with a concentration of 12.0 g/dm . 10 cm of squeezed lemon juice was pipetted into a flask. Using a burette and suitable indicator the lemon juice required a titration volume of 35.5 cm of the sodium hydroxide solution to completely neutralise it.
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Assuming all the acidity is due to citric acid, calculate the concentration of citric acid in the lemon juice. (a) What mass of sodium hydroxide reacted with the lemon juice? V = 35.5 cm /1000 = 0.0355 dm
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m = c x V = 12.0 x 0.0355 = 0.426g NaOH (b) What mass of citric acid reacted with the 0.426 g of sodium hydroxide? C6H8O7 192 xg : : : 3NaOH 3 x 40 = 120 0.426 g

Solving the ratio x = 0.426 x 192/120 = 0.6816 g C6H8O7 (c) Calculate the concentration of citric acid in the lemon juice? V = 10 cm3/1000 = 0.01 dm3 c = m / V = 0.6816/0.01 = 68.2 g/dm C6H8O7
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See also section 11. for molarity calculations and

Section 12. volumetric titration questions using moles

QUESTIONS answers at the end so you can selectively printout the questions and return for the answers! Question 6b.1: A potassium sulfate solution A has a concentration of 6.5g/dm o o o o (a) What mass of potassium sulfate is present in 25cm of solution A? (b) What volume of solution A, in cm , contains 3.0g of potassium sulphate? (c) What mass of the salt is required to make 250 cm of a solution B so it contains 3.75 g/dm of potassium sulfate? (d) If 12.5g of potassium sulphate was dissolved in 1500 cm3 of water to make up solution C, what is the concentration of the salt? Question 6b.2: Nitric acid - sodium hydroxide titration o o o o o o o The reaction equation for the neutralisation of nitric acid by sodium hydroxide to form sodium nitrate is HNO3(aq) + NaOH(aq) ===> NaNO3(aq) + H2O(l) (a) Calculate the relative formula masses of nitric acid, sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate Atomic masses: H = 1, N = 14, O = 16, Na = 23
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25.0 cm of a nitric acid solution was pipetted into a conical flask and titrated with a sodium hydroxide solution of concentration 5.0g/dm . If it took 16.8 cm of the alkali to neutralise the acid, calculate the following (b) The mass of sodium hydroxide that reacted with the nitric acid. (c) Calculate the mass of nitric acid that reacted with the sodium hydroxide. (d) What was the concentration of the nitric acid in g/dm ?
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(e) If the resulting neutral solution was carefully evaporated to dryness, what mass of sodium nitrate salt crystals would be left as a residue?

Question 6b.3: Limewater analysis o o o o o o o The symbol equation for the neutralisation reaction between calcium hydroxide solution (limewater) and hydrochloric acid to form calcium chloride and water is Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2HCl(aq) ===> CaCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l) 50 cm of a limewater solution was completely neutralised by 9.7 cm of a hydrochloric acid solution. If the concentration of the hydrochloric acid was 3.65 g HCl/dm calculate the concentration of calcium hydroxide in the water by the following method. (a) calculate the relative formula masses of the reactants. Atomic masses: Ca = 40, O = 16, H = 1, Cl = 35.5
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(b) What mass of hydrochloric acid (as HCl) reacted with the limewater? (c) What mass of calcium hydroxide reacted with the hydrochloric acid? (d) What is the concentration of calcium hydroxide in g/dm ?
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Question 6b.4: Sulfuric acid - potassium hydroxide reaction to make potassium sulfate o o o o o The neutralisation reaction between sulphuric acid and potassium hydroxide is H2SO4(aq) + 2KOH(aq) ===> K2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) A solution of potassium hydroxide contained 100g/dm . A solution of sulfuric acid contained 120g/dm . What volume in cm , of the sulfuric acid solution, is required to neutralise 250 cm of the potassium hydroxide solution? o Atomic masses: H = 1, S = 32, O = 16, K = 39
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ANSWERS Question 6b.1: A potassium sulfate solution has a concentration of 6.5g/dm o


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(a) What mass of potassium sulfate is present in 25cm of the solution? 25cm = 25/1000 = 0.025 dm m=cxV mass = 6.5 x 0.025 = 0.1625 g
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(b) What volume of solution, in cm , contains 3.0g of potassium sulphate? V = m / c = 3.0 / 6.5 = 0.462 dm (to 3 sf) V = 1000 x 0.462 = 462 cm
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(c) What mass of the salt is required to make 250 cm of a solution B so it contains 3.75 g/dm of potassium sulfate? volume = 250/1000 = 0.25 dm
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m = c x V = 3.75 x 0.25 = 0.9375 g


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(d) If 12.5g of potassium sulphate was dissolved in 1500 cm of water to make up solution C, what is the concentration of the salt? V = 1500 cm /1000 = 1.5 dm

c = m / V = 12.5/1.5 = 8.33 g/dm

Question 6b.2: Nitric acid - sodium hydroxide titration o (a) nitric acid HNO3(aq) RFM 63
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+ +

sodium hydroxide NaOH(aq) 40

===> ===>

sodium nitrate NaNO3(aq) 85

+ +

water 2H2O(l) -

25.0 cm of a nitric acid solution was pipetted into a conical flask and titrated with a sodium hydroxide solution of concentration 5.0g/dm . If it took 16.8 cm of the alkali to neutralise the acid, calculate the following
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(b) The mass of sodium hydroxide that reacted with the nitric acid. V = 16.8 cm /1000 = 0.0168 dm
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m = c x V = 5.0 x 0.0168 = 0.084g NaOH

(c) Calculate the mass of nitric acid that reacted with the sodium hydroxide.

HNO3 63 xg o o

: : :

NaOH 40 0.084 g

Solving the ratio: x = 0.084 x 63/40 = 0.1323 g HNO3


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(d) What was the concentration of the nitric acid in g/dm ? V = 25.0 cm /1000 = 0.025 dm
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c = m / V = 0.1323 / 0.025 = 5.29 g/dm (3sf, 2dp)

(e) If the resulting neutral solution was carefully evaporated to dryness, what mass of sodium nitrate salt crystals would be left as a residue?

NaOH 40 0.084 g

: : :

NaNO3 85 xg

Solving the ratio: x = 0.084 x 85/40 = 0.1785 g NaNO3 You can also use HNO3 instead of NaOH i.e. 63 : 85, it doesn't matter which you use.

Question 6b.3: Limewater analysis o The symbol equation for the neutralisation reaction between calcium hydroxide solution (limewater) and
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hydrochloric acid to form calcium chloride and water is o o o 50 cm of a limewater solution was completely neutralised by 9.7 cm of a hydrochloric acid solution. If the concentration of the hydrochloric acid was 3.65 g HCl/dm calculate the concentration of calcium hydroxide in the water by the following method. (a) Calculate the relative formula masses of the reactants.
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calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2(aq) RFM 74

+ +

hydrochloric acid 2HCl(aq) 36.5

===> ===>

calcium chloride CaCl2(aq) -

+ +

water 2H2O(l)

(b) What mass of hydrochloric acid (as HCl) reacted with the limewater? V = 9.7 cm /1000 = 0.0097 dm
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m = c x V = 3.65 x 0.0097 = 0.0354 g HCl

(c) What mass of calcium hydroxide reacted with the hydrochloric acid?

Ca(OH)2 74 xg

: : :

2HCl 2 x 36.5 = 73 0.0354 g

Solving the ratio: x = 0.0354 x 74/73 = 0.03588 g Ca(OH)2

(d) What is the concentration of calcium hydroxide in g/dm ? V = 50 cm /1000 = 0.05 dm


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c = m / V = 0.03588/0.05 = 0.718 g/dm Ca(OH)2

Question 6b.4: Sulfuric acid - potassium hydroxide reaction to make potassium sulfate o o o o H2SO4(aq) + 2KOH(aq) ===> K2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) Potassium hydroxide contained 100g/dm and sulfuric acid contained 120g/dm . What volume in cm , of the sulfuric acid solution, is required to neutralise 250 cm of the potassium hydroxide solution? To calculate mass of KOH o V = 250 cm3/1000 = 0.25 dm
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m = c x V = 100 x 0.25 = 25g of KOH

To calculate mass of H2SO4 needed

H2SO4 98 xg

: : :

2KOH 2 x 56 = 112 25 g

Solving the ratio: x = 25 x 98/112 = 21.875 g H2SO4 o To calculate the volume of sulphuric acid needed. V = m / c = 21.875/120 = 0.1823 dm
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0.1823 x 1000 = 182 cm (3sf, nearest cm )