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Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111 (2007) 6381

An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Loja and Zamora-Chinchipe, Ecuador


Vicente Tene a , Omar Malag on a, , Paola Vita Finzi b , Giovanni Vidari b , Chabaco Armijos a , Tom as Zaragoza a
b a Planta de Productos Naturales, Universidad T ecnica Particular de Loja, P.O. Box 11-01-608 Loja (Loja), Ecuador Dipartimento di Chimica Organica and Centro di Etnobiofarmacia, Universit` a degli Studi di Pavia, Viale Taramelli 10, 27100 (PV) Pavia, Italy

Received 2 January 2006; received in revised form 26 October 2006; accepted 27 October 2006 Available online 6 November 2006

Abstract This paper reports the results of an ethnobotanical survey on the uses of medicinal plants by inhabitants of two southern Ecuadorian provinces, namely, Loja and Zamora-Chinchipe. In this region, two surviving ethnic groups, the Saraguros and the Shuars, and the descendants of a now extinct culture, the Paltas, have been identied. The present study reports a total of 275 plant species, having 68 different therapeutical uses. 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Saraguro; Shuar; Palta; Ecuador

1. Introduction Since ancient times, several societies have resorted to nature, mainly to plants as medical and health sources. Today, a great percentage of the world population, in particular in developing countries, uses plants for facing primary needs of medical assistance. According to the WHO (Roy Chaudhury, 1992; WHO, 1993), 80% of the world population makes use of natural remedies and traditional medicines, and Ecuador is not an exception. At present, the countrys national sanitary system is malfunctioning and the difcult economical situation prevents a large part of the population from having access to common health practices. Nowadays, Ecuador located in Equatorial America is considered one of the countries possessing the highest biodiversity in the world (Jorgensen and Le on-Y anez, 1999), and where the local population maintains their ancestral traditions in the use of natural remedies (Naranjo and Escaleras, 1995). In fact, ca. 30% of the whole population belongs to different indigenous groups (Ben tez and Garc es, 1988), and ethnobotanical knowledge is still transmitted from generation to generation, especially by mouth.

Corresponding author. Tel.: +593 7 2583345; fax: +593 7 2583345. E-mail address: omalagon@utpl.edu.ec (O. Malag on).

This study was carried out in two southern provinces of Ecuador, namely Loja and Zamora-Chinchipe (Fig. 1). Loja is crossed by the Andean mountain range that gives rise to a very irregular topography and it is the cause of a difcult access. Altitudes vary between 700 and 3700 m above sea level. The province shows a considerable variety of climates within its boundaries. Actually, a tropical dry climate prevails in the west region, whereas the central region has a subtropical humid climate, and the eastern region is Andean temperate. Loja comprises a total area of 10.793 km2 and ca. 400,000 inhabitants. The province has abundant hydrographic resources, especially rivers, among which Puyango, Catamayo and Macar a, the most important, ow into the Pacic catchment basin. Another large river, the Zamora, ows, instead, into the Amazon basin. The province of Zamora-Chinchipe is located between the foothills of the Andes and Amazonian rainforests, and, like Loja, has an irregular topography. Zamora, Chinchipe and Nangaritza are the largest rivers, and all ow into the Amazon River. The vegetation is abundant, due to a temperate climate, which changes from humid to semi-humid. The province comprises a total area of 16.559 km2 and ca. 60,000 inhabitants. Ethnologically, Loja is characterized by an extensive crossbreeding, a remarkable acculturation of the native inhabitants, the maintenance of a Caucasian race, and the existence of a few aboriginal races, in particular located in the Canton Saraguro in

0378-8741/$ see front matter 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.10.032

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V. Tene et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111 (2007) 6381

Fig. 1. Regions where the present study has been carried out: provinces of Loja and Zamora. (a) Their location in Ecuador, (b, c) administrative departments of each province. For each department, the number of ethnobotanical interviews has been indicated. Source: Sistemas de Informaci on Geogr aca (SIG), Universidad T ecnica Particular de Loja.

the north of the province. The Saraguros form one of the best organized ethnical groups in Ecuador, having their own culture, language, and social habits. Although their origin is uncertain, they are generally considered to have been forced by the Incas to reach Ecuador from far away. The ethnical mobilization was, indeed, commonly practised by the great Inca Tupac Yupanqui, as a strategic means to secure the peace inside the Inca Empire. According to Uhle (1923), a small group of the Paltas, the

autochthonous inhabitants of the Loja region, were transferred to Bolivia and, at the same time, a certain number of inhabitants of the Bolivian High Plateau were relocated in the present region of Saraguro. The Saraguros language is the Runa Shimi (Kiwcha) which belongs to the Kiwcha nationality. These communities have conserved the majority of their lands for centuries; moreover, in the 20th century, they extended their territories to the province of Zamora-Chinchipe. At present, the Saraguros live

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on agriculture and cattle breeding, using ancestral techniques (Ben tez and Garc es, 1988). Except for the Saraguros, most of the Province is inhabited by mestizos and groups of farmers living in communities, who are considered the descendants of the Paltas, the ethnic group established in this area before the Incas domination and the Spanish arrival. As a matter of fact, the Paltas denomination is misleading, since this name was possibly a generic noun used by the Spaniards to indicate all the ethnic groups living in southern Ecuador (Jaramillo, 1955; Ben tez and Garc es, 1988). According to P erez (1979, 1984) the Palta culture was likely originated in east Ecuador, following the migration to those lands of the j baros, who are nowadays named Shuars. This hypothesis is, however, not yet completely conrmed by archaeological studies and another theory points even at the Mayan origin of this culture (Gallardo, 1960). Some legends and oral beliefs conrm a long standing tradition in the use of medicinal plants by the Paltas, and the same vegetal species have been used for centuries and are still used today (Gallardo, 1985). For example, the use of Cinchona spp. by the Paltas is very well documented. In fact, according to some chronicles, around the year 1640, Don Juan L opez de Ca nizares, an important leader of the city of Loja, was cured of paludism with this plant by a young native. Following his miraculous recovery, L opez informed the Countess of Chinch on about the way he had been cured of serious fevers; the news rapidly spread through the people and the great efcacy of the prodigious plant eventually led to its commercialization (Gupta, 1995; Anda, 2002). It is also worthy of mention that Marsdenia condurango, a plant very well known for the sedative and antineoplastic properties, was discovered in Loja (Gupta, 1995). The province of Zamora-Chinchipe is inhabited by the Shuars and, more recently, by peasants migrating from other Ecuadorian regions. The true origin of the Shuar culture is not known; according to some authors (Gallardo, 1968, 1973), they are the result of a fusion of an Amazonian group with another of Central American origin. The Shuars remained isolated for a long time, because of their habitat and their warrior fame. Even the Incas, led by Tupac Yupanqui, could not subdue them, nor could a Spanish expedition led by Hernando de Benavente in 1549. After continuous unsuccessful attempts, the Shuars were nally colonized in the 20th century, in consequence of the great interest in quinine, rubber and cinnamon extraction. Medicinal and hallucinogenic plants have traditionally been consumed by the inhabitants of these regions for centuries. The use of guayusa, matico, guabiduca, curarina, condurango is, even today, an important aspect of their cultural traditions and has been reported in the literature (Gallardo, 1968). In Ecuador there have been done several ethnobotanical studies; for example, Cer on and Montalvo (1998) published a book about the ethnobotanical aspects of the Huaroni in a specic zone of the north-east of Ecuador. Villacr es (1995) published a study on the bioactivity of Amazonian plants of the Province of Napo. Additionally, Iglesias (2002) published a book on cultural practices of the Quichua society of Napo. Furthermore, some other publications (Naranjo and Escaleras, 1995; Naranjo and Crespo, 1997) report different

studies done on Ecuadorian medicinal plants, dealing with different aspects as ethnomedicine, anthropology, phytochemistry, etc. Despite the existence of a rich ethnic heritage in the region of our interest, only a few dedicated ethnobotanical studies have been published so far. Recently, Bej ar et al. (2002) and, Bussmann and Sharon (2006) independently, carried out a study in a few localities of the province of Loja, reporting the uses and growing sites of more than 200 medicinal plants. 2. Methodology The present research was done between September 2002 and December 2003, by carrying out an ethnobotanical survey (Vogel, 2000) with adult people, who live in the area under study and know and practice the use of medicinal plants. One thousand ve hundred ninety-three inhabitants were interviewed in the selected areas; 82% of the interviews were done in the Province of Loja and 18% in the Province of Zamora-Chinchipe. One hundred fteen interviews (7%) were given in the zone under the Saraguro inuence, and 196 (12%) were granted in the Shuar zone. The remaining 81% interviews were with farmers and peasants who, for the most part, are mestizos or Palta descendants in the region of Loja. Mestizos informants are aware of publication of these results, whereas Shuar and Saraguros informants were contacted through authorized representatives, with the possibility to perform more accurate studies for recovering, protecting and a sustainable use of their traditional knowledge. The collected data were processed and a preliminary list of medicinal plants, with their vernacular names, was made; growing places, therapeutical applications, parts used, plant development, forms of preparation, and dosages were also included. The data are shown in Table 1. With these results in hand, we then proceeded to the collection and identication of the different plant species. For every plant, a voucher specimen was collected, identied by the Herbarium Reinaldo Espinoza (Universidad Nacional de Loja), and deposited at the Herbarium of the Planta de Productos Naturales at the Universidad T ecnica Particular de Loja. The scientic nomenclature was recorded according to the Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador (Jorgensen and Le on-Y anez, 1999) and the additions published on Cinco a nos de adiciones a la ora del Ecuador (Ulloa Ulloa and Neill, 2005). 3. Results and discussion The ethnobotanical survey outlined in this paper gave us a complete picture about the natural remedies used by the inhabitants of the provinces of Loja and Zamora-Chinchipe in southern Ecuador. Two hundred seventy-ve different plants have been identied to which several medicinal properties are attributed; their therapeutical uses and forms of employment have also been recorded. Of the total number of plants, 152 are native, 57 are introduced, 5 are traditionally cultivated, and 8 are endemic to Loja or Zamora-Chinchipe, while information of the remaining 53 is incomplete in specialized publications (Jorgensen and Le on-Y anez, 1999). This long list of plants comprises species

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Table 1 Therapeutical applications of plants used in the traditional medicine of peoples of Loja and Zamora (Ecuador) No. 1 2 3 Scientic name Abutilon striatum Dicks. ex Lindl. Acacia macracantha Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. Acmella alba (LH er.) R.K. Jansen Acmella oppositifolia (Lam.) R.K. Jansen Adenostemma lavenia (L.) Kuntze Adiantum concinnum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. Adiantum poiretii Wikstr. Family Malvaceae Mimosaceae Asteraceae Herbarium voucher PPN-ma-002 PPN-mi-004 PPN-as-023 Vernacular name(s) Malva goma Faique Bot on amarillo Therapeutical applications Headache Conjunctivitis, kidney problems Tooth decay, hepatic pain, disinfectant, healing of wounds Hair tonic, analgesic, astringent, tooth decay Used in preparation of antiophidic serum Stomach pain, hepatic pain Asthma, diabetes, inuenza, pneumonia, kidney problems Internal inammation, kidney problems Stomach pain Hepatic pain Kidney problems, used as tonic Tonsillitis, astringent, headache, lacerations, dermatitis, rheumatism Fever, headache, diuretic Menstruation pain, pneumonia, inuenza, hepatic pain, kidney problems, fever, gastritis Hepatic pain, inuenza, kidney problems Kidney diseases Espanto Diuretic, kidney problems Internal inammation, cold, headache, stomach pain Espanto, rheumatism, postpartum bathe Menstruation pain, dermatitis, internal infections, kidney problems Parts used Flower Bark Leaf, ower Plant Plant state development Mature Mature Mature Fresh Fresh Fresh Preparation Aqueous infusion Decoction Aqueous infusion, mixed with other plants Aqueous infusion Juice Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Mode of use Drink Drink Drink, topical application Drink Drink, direct application Drink Drink

4 5 6 7

Asteraceae Asteraceae Pteridaceae Pteridaceae

PPN-as-004 PPN-as-027 PPN-pt-002 PPN-pt-001

Botoncillo Curarina Culantrillo Culantrillo

Flower Stem, leaf Leaf, ower Stem, leaf, ower Juice Leaf, ower Leaf Entire plant Leaf, bark

Mature Tender and mature Mature Mature and in oration Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh

V. Tene et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111 (2007) 6381

8 9 10 11 12

Agave americana L. Ageratum conyzoides L. Albizia sp. Durazz. Alcea rosea L. Alnus acuminata Kunth.

Agavaceae Asteraceae Mimosaceae Malvaceae Betulaceae

PPN-ag-001 PPN-as-010 PPN-mi-001 PPN-ma-001 PPN-be-001

M ejico Pedorrera Sekemur Malva Aliso

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh

Juice Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Pounded Pounded, and mixed in aqueous preparation of other plants Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion and decoction

Drink Drink Drink Topical application Topical application

13 14

Aloysia triphylla (LH er.) Britton Alternanthera porrigens var. piurensis (Standl.) Eliasson

Verbenaceae Amaranthaceae

PPN-ve-002 PPN-am-004

Cedr on Lancetilla grande

Leaf, ower Root, leaf, ower

Mature Tender and mature

Fresh and dried Fresh

Drink Drink

15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Alternanthera porrigens var. porrigens (Jacq.) Kuntze Alternanthera sp. Forssk. Alloplectus sp. Mart. Amaranthus cruentus L. Amaranthus hybridus L. Ambrosia arborescens Mill. Ambrosia artemisioides Meyen & Walpers ex Meyen

Amaranthaceae Amaranthaceae Gesneriaceae Amaranthaceae Amaranthaceae Asteraceae Asteraceae

PPN-am-006 PPN-am-005 PPN-gs-001 PPN-am-002 PPN-am-007 PPN-as-022 PPN-as-018

Lancetilla grande Lancetilla peque na Mangocua Ataco Bledo Marco Altamisa

Leaf, ower Root Leaf Stem, leaf Leaf, ower Leaf Stem

Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh

Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Directly used Decoction Aqueous infusion Decoction Decoction

Drink Drink Direct application Drink Drink Bathe Drink

22 23 24

Amicia glandulosa Kunth. Annona muricata L. Apium graveolens L.

Fabaceae Annonaceae Apiaceae

PPN-fa-006 PPN-an-001 PPN-ap-009

Orozus Guan abana Apio

Bronchitis, internal inammation, cough Rheumatism Antiacid, stomach pain, menstruation pain, diarrhoea, kidney problems Gangrene, hepatic pain, stomach pain Internal infections, antiparasite Stomach pain Internal inammation, stomach pain, hepatic pain, fever, internal infections, kidney problems, cough Diabetes, high cholesterol Lose weight, stomach pain, diabetes, diuretic, inuenza, and kidney problems Internal and external inammation, stomach pain, hepatic pain, fractures, gangrene, rheumatism Espanto, antimycotic, cold, rheumatism Headache, disinfectant, healing of wounds, rheumatism, liver, kidney problems Dermatitis, inuenza

Root Leaf Stem, leaf

Mature Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh

Aqueous infusion Heated Aqueous infusion

Drink Topical application Drink

25 26 27 28

Apium leptophyllum (Pers.) F. Muell. Argemone mexicana L. Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancr. Artemisia sodiroi Hieron.

Apiaceae Papaveraceae Apiaceae Asteraceae

PPN-ap-006 PPN-pv-001 PPN-ap-001 PPN-as-021

Culantrillo gateador Cardo santo Zanahoria blanca Ajenjo

Leaf Leaf Leaf Leaf

Tender Mature Mature Tender

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh

Juice Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion

Drink Drink Drink Drink V. Tene et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111 (2007) 6381

29 30

Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg Baccharis genistelloides (Lam.) Pers. Baccharis latifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.

Moraceae Asteraceae

PPN-mo-003 PPN-as-013

Fruto del pan Tres los

Leaf Stem, leaf

Mature Tender and mature Mature

Fresh Fresh

Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion

Drink Drink

31

Asteraceae

PPN-as-007

Chilca negra

Leaf

Fresh

Infusion and pounded

Drink, topical application

32

Baccharis obtusifolia Kunth.

Asteraceae

PPN-as-014

Chilca redonda Ayahuasca

Entire plant

Mature

Fresh

Pounded

33

Banisteriopsis caapi (Spruce ex Griseb.) C.V. Morton

Malpighiaceae

PPN-mp-001

Stem

Mature

Fresh

Decoction

Topical application and drink Drink, topical application

34

Barnadesia arborea Kunth.

Asteraceae

PPN-as-015

Clavelillo

Flower

Floration

Fresh

Pounded

35 36 37 38 39 40

Bauhinia tarapotensis Benth. Begonia scheri Schrank Bejaria aestuans L. Bejaria resinosa Mutis ex L.f. Bidens andicola Kunth. Bidens pilosa L.

Caesalpiniaceae Begoniaceae Ericaceae Ericaceae Asteraceae Asteraceae

PPN-ce-001 PPN-bn-001 PPN-er-001 PPN-er-002 PPN-as-005 PPN-as-002

Pata de vaca Begonia Payamo Payama Nachi Guichingue

41 42 43

Bixa orellana L. Boehmeria ramiora Jacq. Bomarea setacea (Ruiz & Pav.) Herb.

Bixaceae Urticaceae Alstroemeriaceae

PPN-bi-001 PPN-ur-003 PPN-at-001

Achiote Hierba de la guanchaca Hierba del diablo

Diarrhoea Stomach pain Arthritis Arthritis, kidney pain, relaxant, hearth problems Headache, sunstroke Stomach pain, menstruation pain, scurvy, inuenza, prostate disturbances, pneumonia Tonic, bronchitis, arthritis Dermatitis Espanto

Leaf Leaf Leaf Flower Entire plant Leaf, ower

Mature Mature Mature Floration Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh

Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Juice Aqueous infusion

Topical application by rubbing Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink

Leaf Stem, leaf Leaf

Mature Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh

Aqueous infusion Juice Aqueous infusion

Drink Topical application Drink 67

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Table 1 (Continued ) No. 44 Scientic name Borago ofcinalis L. Family Boraginaceae Herbarium voucher PPN-bo-001 Vernacular name(s) Borraja Therapeutical applications Hepatic pain, menstruation pain, conjunctivitis, burnings, kidney pain, inuenza, headache Espanto Stomach pain Sedative Stomach pain, hepatic pain Disinfectant, bone fractures, antimycotic, rheumatism, kidney Blood purication, cancer, menstruation pain, espanto Espanto, relaxant, diarrhoea, parasite, hepatic pain, kidney pain, headache Insecticide, dermatitis Dermatitis Hair tonic, high blood pressure, rheumatism Fever, gangrene, gastritis, high blood pressure, internal infections, relaxant, rheumatism Antiinamatory, espanto, pneumonia, kidney pain Relaxant, stomach pain Inuenza, pneumonia, cough Rheumatism Internal inammation, kidney pain Hepatic pain, kidney pain Inuenza, internal infections, blood purication, kidney problems Blood purication, psicomotor development Parts used Leaf, ower Plant Plant state development Mature Fresh Preparation Aqueous infusion Mode of use Drink

45 46 47 48 49

Borreria laevis (Lam.) Griseb. Brachyotum sp. (A. DC.) Triana Brassica napus L. Briza monandra (Hack.) Pilg. Brugmansia candida Pers.

Rubiaceae Melastomataceae Brassicaceae Poaceae Solanaceae

PPN-ru-001 PPN-me-001 PPN-br-003 PPN-po-003 PPN-so-011

Monte de la ara na Quilliyuyo Yuyo Atalpa micuna Guando

Leaf Leaf Leaf Stem and leaf Flower

Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh

Pounded Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Juice

Topical application Drink Drink Drink Bathe affected part, drink Drink Drink

V. Tene et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111 (2007) 6381

50 51

Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken Buddleja americana L.

Crassulaceae Buddlejaceae

PPN-cr-002 PPN-bd-001

Monte del aire Salvia

Stem, leaf Leaf

Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh

Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion

52 53 54 55

Bursera graveolens (Kunth.) Triana & Planch. Calceolaria tripartita Ruiz & Pav. Callisia gracilis (Kunth.) D.R. Hunt Callisia repens (Jacq.) L.

Burseraceae Scrophulariaceae Commelinaceae Commelinaceae

PPN-bu-001 PPN-sc-002 PPN-co-003 PPN-co-001

Palo santo Hierba del sapo Calcha Calcha

Leaf, bark Leaf, ower Leaf, ower Leaf

Mature Mature Tender and mature Mature, tender

Dried Fresh Fresh Fresh

Burning, aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion

Burning/drink Drink Drink Drink

56 57 58 59 60 61 62

Campyloneurum sp. C. Presl Canna indica L. Cardamine bonariensis Pers. Cavendishia bractetata (Ruiz & Pav. ex J.St.-Hil.) Hoerold Ceiba samauma (Mart.) K. Schum. Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sarg. Centaurium erythraea Rafn.

Polypodiaceae Cannaceae Brassicaceae Ericaceae Bombacaceae Ulmaceae Gentianaceae

PPN-pp-001 PPN-cn-001 PPN-br-005 PPN-er-003 PPN-bm-001 PPN-ul-001 PPN-gn-001

Calaguala Achira negra Berro negro Zalapa Seibo Tsachik Canchalagua

Entire plant Flower Leaf Leaf Stem Leaf, ower Stem, leaf

Mature Floration Mature Mature Tender and mature Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh

Aqueous infusion Juice Decoction Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion

Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink

63

Cestrum peruvianum Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.

Solanaceae

PPN-so-001

Sauco

Leaf

Mature

Fresh

Infusion and pounded

Direct application/ drink

64

Cestrum racemosum Ruiz & Pav.

Solanaceae

PPN-so-010

Sauco negro

65

Cestrum sendtnerianum C. Martius

Solanaceae

PPN-so-003

Sauco negro

66 67 68 69

Cestrum tomentosum L. f. Cinchona ofcinalis L. Citrus limonum Risso. Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck

Solanaceae Rubiaceae Rutaceae Rutaceae

PPN-so-008 PPN-ru-002 PPN-rt-002 PPN-rt-003

Sa uco lanudo Cinchona Lim on Naranja agria

Tooth decay, headache, stomach pain, fever, gastritis, inuenza, high blood pressure, internal and external infections, relaxant, cold Purgative, head pain, stomach pain, fever, gangrene, inuenza, internal infections, rheumatism, cough Inuenza Stomach pain, fever, malaria, antimycotic Relaxant Hair tonic, cold, kidney

Entire plant

Mature

Fresh

Aqueos infusion

Drink, direct application by rubbing

Leaf, ower

Mature

Fresh

Aqueous infusion

Drink

Leaf, ower Bark, leaf Leaf Fruit

Floration Tender and mature Tender Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh

Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Juice Pounded/juice

70 71 72 73

Clethra revoluta (Ruiz & Pav.) Spreng. Clinopodium taxifolium (Kunth.) Harley Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist Costus comosus (Jacq.) Roscoe Crassula sp. L. Crotalaria sp. L. Croton mutisianus Kunth.

Clethraceae Lamiaceae Asteraceae Costaceae

PPN-cl-001 PPN-la-002 PPN-as-036 PPN-cs-001

Almisque Poleo de castilla Contrahierba Ca na

Tonsillitis, asthma, dermatitis Espanto, internal inammation, malaria, cough Stomach pain, hepatic pain, cough Headache, hepatic pains, diabetes, diuretic, inuenza, kidney problems Ear infections Cancer, stomach pain, hepatic pain Internal and external inammation, disinfectant, healing of wounds, gastritis Hepatic pain, dermatitis, disinfectant, healing of wounds, diuretic Tonsillitis, antiacid, stomach pain, diabetes, fever, gastritis Antiparasite, hair tonic

Stem, leaf, ower Stem, leaf Flower Stem

Mature Mature Mature Mature and oration Floration Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh

Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Decoction

Drink Drink, topical application Drink Direct application by rubbing/drink Drink, topical application Drink Drink Drink

V. Tene et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111 (2007) 6381

74 75 76

Crassulaceae Fabaceae Euphorbiaceae

PPN-cr-005 PPN-fa-001 PPN-eu-004

Siempre viva Fenogreco Sangre de drago Sangre de drago Moshquera Zambo

Root Leaf Latex

Fresh Fresh Fresh

Decoction Aqueous infusion Mixed with water

Drink Drink Drink, topical application Drink, topical application Drink Ingestion, topical application Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink

77

Croton lechleri M ull. Arg.

Euphorbiaceae

PPN-eu-003

Latex

Mature

Fresh

Directly used

78 79

Croton wagneri M ull. Arg. Cucurbita cifolia Bouch e

Euphorbiaceae Cucurbitaceae

PPN-eu-001 PPN-cu-001

Leaf Seed

Floration Mature

Fresh Fresh

Aqueous infusion Pounded

80 81 82 83 84 85 86

Cucurbita sp. L. Cuphea racemosa (L. f.) Spreng. Cupressus lusitanica Mill. Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf Cynanchum sp. L. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Cyperus sp. L.

Cucurbitaceae Lythraceae Cupressaceae Poaceae Asclepiadaceae Poaceae Cyperaceae

PPN-cu-002 PPN-ly-001 PPN-cp-001 PPN-po-001 PPN-al-001 PPN-po-002 PPN-cy-001

Sampu Hierba del toro Cipr e Hierbaluisa Cola de caballo Grama dulce D ctamo real

Antiparasite Urinary tract infections Dermatitis Gastritis, relaxant, stomach pain, diarrhoea Kidney problems Hepatic pain, kidney problems Dermatitis, diarrhoea, kidney problems

Latex Leaf Leaf Leaf Stem Root, stem, leaf Stem and leaf

Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Tender

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh

Mixed with water Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Decoction Aqueous infusion

69

70

Table 1 (Continued ) No. 87 88 Scientic name Cyphomandra betacea (Cav.) Sendtn Chenopodium album L. Family Solanaceae Chenopodiaceae Herbarium voucher PPN-so-014 PPN-ch-002 Vernacular name(s) Tomate de rbol a Palitaria Therapeutical applications Tonsillitis, high cholesterol, stomach pain Analgesic, anti-inammatory, antiparasite, strokes, internal infection Antiparasite, analgesic, lacerations, internal inammation, stomach pain Allergy, internal infections, malaria Internal infections, hepatic pain, stomach pain Disinfectant, healing of wounds, kidney problems Healing of wounds Menstruation pain, stomach pain, psychomotor development Blood purication Internal inammation Cancer Hepatic pain, kidney problems Kidney problems Kidney problems Inuenza, fever, conjunctivitis Antiparasite, diuretic, kidney problems Diuretic, kidney problems, stomach pain Antiacid, high cholesterol, diuretic, gastritis, inuenza, prostate disturbances, pneumonia, rheumatism, kidney problems Stomach pain, hearth problems, inuenza Menstruation pain, inuenza, pneumonia, cough Parts used Fruit Leaf Plant Plant state development Mature Mature Fresh Fresh Preparation Juice Aqueous infusion Mode of use Drink Drink and direct application Drink

89

Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Chuquiraga jussieui J. F. Gmel. Daucus montanus Humb. & Bonpl. ex Spreng. Desmodium molliculum (Kunth.) DC. Desmodium sp. Desv. Desmodium tortuosum (Sw.) DC. Dicliptera sp. Juss. Dodonea viscosa Jacq. Echeveria quitensis (Kunth.) Lindl. Elleanthus aurantiacus (Lindl.) Rchb. f. Epidendrum mbriatum Kunth. Epidendrum jamiesonis Rchb. f. Epidendrum sp. L. Equisetum bogotense Kunth.

Chenopodiaceae

PPN-ch-001

Paico

Seed, leaf

Mature

Fresh

Juice

90 91 92 93 94

Asteraceae Apiaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae

PPN-as-001 PPN-ap-005 PPN-fa-011 PPN-fa-007 PPN-fa-015

Chuquiragua Cominillo San Antonio Hierba de Infante San Antonio

Entire plant Stem, leaf, ower Entire plant Leaf Leaf, stem

Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh

Decoction Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Boiled Aqueous infusion

Drink Drink Drink Direct application Drink V. Tene et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111 (2007) 6381

95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102

Acanthaceae Sapindaceae Crassulaceae Orchidaceae Orchidaceae Orchidaceae Orchidaceae Equisetaceae

PPN-ac-001 PPN-sa-002 PPN-cr-001 PPN-or-003 PPN-or-001 PPN-or-002 PPN-or-004 PPN-eq-001

Chinchiman Chamana Condorcol Guabiduca silvestre Flor de cristo Flor de Cristo Esp ritu de mujer Cola de caballo Cola de caballo Nispero

Leaf Leaf Leaf Leaf Leaf, ower Leaf Leaf, ower Entire plant with other ingredients Entire plant Leaf, ower

Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh

Juice Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion

Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink Bathe, drink Drink

103 104

Equisetum giganteum L. Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.

Equisetaceae Rosaceae

PPN-eq-002 PPN-ro-006

Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh

Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion

Drink Drink

105 106

Erodium cicutarium (L.) L H er. ex Aiton Erodium moschatum (L.) LH er. ex Aiton

Geraniaceae Geraniaceae

PPN-ge-002 PPN-ge-007

Aujilla Aujilla

Stem, leaf Leaf

Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh

Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion

Drink Drink

107 108 109

Eryngium humile Cav. Eryngium sp. L. Erythrina edulis Triana ex Micheli

Apiaceae Apiaceae Fabaceae

PPN-ap-008 PPN-ap-002 PPN-fa-003

Achiote del monte Recaida Guato

Relaxant, arthritis Hair tonic, headache, inuenza High blood pressure, headache, lacerations, disinfectant, healing of wounds Cough Hair tonic Bronchitis, menstruation pain, sedative Internal inammation Cystitis, strokes, fractured bones Cancer, conjunctivitis, gastritis, nursing, relaxant Tonsillitis, disinfectant, healing of wounds Relaxant, analgesic, high blood pressure Antiacid, high blood pressure, relaxant, postpartum Disinfectant, healing of wounds Disinfectant, healing of wounds, kidney problems, diuretic Relaxant Hair tonic, bronchitis, hepatic pain, inuenza, cough Yellow fever, hepatic pain Fever, internal inammation, kidney pain Arthritis, strokes, rheumatism Diarrhoea Disinfectant, healing of wounds Hepatic pain Inuenza Allergy, espanto, dermatitis, relaxant Stomach pain Arthritis, external inammation

Leaf Leaf Bark

Mature Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh

Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion

Drink Drink Drink, topical application

110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120

Euphorbia laurifolia Juss. Euphorbia laurifolia Juss. Ficus carica L. Ficus maxima Mill. Ficus subandina Dugand Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fragaria vesca L. Fuchsia canescens Benth. Fuchsia hybrida Hort. ex Siebert. & Voss Fuchsia hypoleuca I. M. Johnst. Fuchsia magellanica Lam.

Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Moraceae Moraceae Moraceae Apiaceae Rosaceae Onagraceae Onagraceae Onagraceae Onagraceae

PPN-eu-002 PPN-fa-002 PPN-mo-002 PPN-mo-005 PPN-mo-004 PPN-ap-004 PPN-ro-003 PPN-on-001 PPN-on-005 PPN-on-009 PPN-on-004

Pinch u Porotillo Higo Higueron Mata palo Hinojo Uvilla Pena pena Pena pena Pena pena Pena pena

Leaf, latex Bark Leaf Leaf Latex Leaf, ower Leaf, ower Leaf, ower Leaf Leaf, ower Leaf

Mature Mature Tender and mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh

Aqueous infusion Pounded Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Pounded Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Decoction Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion

Drink Bathe Drink Drink Topical application Drink Drink, topical application Drink Drink Drink, topical application Drink, topical application Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink, topical application Drink Drink Direct application by rubbing Drink Bathe 71

V. Tene et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111 (2007) 6381

121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130

Fuchsia sp. L. Gaiadendron punctatum (Ruiz & Pav.) G. Don Galinsoga caracasana (DC) Sch. Bip. Galinsoga parviora Cav. Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng.) Harms Gamochaeta americana (Mill.) Wedd Guarea kunthiana A. Juss. Guarea sp. Allam. ex L. Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. Gynoxys verrucosa Wedd.

Onagraceae Loranthaceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Phytolaccaceae Asteraceae Meliaceae Meliaceae Sterculiaceae Asteraceae

PPN-on-006 PPN-lo-001 PPN-as-003 PPN-as-029 PPN-ph-001 PPN-as-030 PPN-ml-002 PPN-ml-001 PPN-st-002 PPN-as-011

Pena pena Violeta de campo Pacunga blanca Pacunga amarilla Palo de ajo Lechuguilla Tapirk Samik Gu azimo Guangalo

Leaf, ower Leaf, ower Entire plant Entire plant Bark Leaf, ower Leaf Leaf Fruit Entire plant

Mature Floration Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh

Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Decoction Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Decoction

131 132

Hedyosmum anisodorum Todzia Heliconia sp.

Chloranthaceae Heliconiaceae

PPN-ct-001 PPN-he-001

Guayusa del monte Chiguango

Leaf Stem, leaf, ower

Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh

Aqueous infusion Decoction

72

Table 1 (Continued ) No. 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 Scientic name Hypochaeris sessiliora Kunth. Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit. Hyptis sidifolia (L H er.) Briq. Hyptis sp. Jacq. Ilex guayusa Loes. Impatiens balsamina L. Inga acreana Harms Iresine herbstii Hook. Iresine sp. P. Browne Iris germanica L. Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don Jatropha curcas L. Juglans neotropica Diels Justicia pectoralis Jacq. Lavatera assurgentiora Kellogg Lavatera sp. L. Lepechinia mutica (Benth.) Epling Lepidium chichicara Desv. Lepidium thurberi Wooton Family Asteraceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Aquifoliaceae Asteraceae Mimosaceae Amaranthaceae Amaranthaceae Iridaceae Bignoniaceae Euphorbiaceae Juglandaceae Acanthaceae Malvaceae Malvaceae Lamiaceae Brassicaceae Brassicaceae Herbarium voucher PPN-as-040 PPN-la-013 PPN-la-003 PPN-la-001 PPN-aq-001 PPN-as-041 PPN-mi-002 PPN-am-001 PPN-am-003 PPN-ir-001 PPN-bg-002 PPN-eu-005 PPN-ju-001 PPN-ac-003 PPN-ma-004 PPN-ma-007 PPN-la-005 PPN-br-004 PPN-br-001 Vernacular name(s) Chicoria Pambapoleo Tipo Mastrando Guayusa Chabela Zamique Escancel Tigrecillo Lirio Arabisco n Pi no Nogal Moradilla blanca Amapola Menta Casa casa Alpa Chichira Chichira Therapeutical applications Stomach pain, hepatic pain, kidney pains Stomach pain, espanto Stomach pain, malaria, cough Psicomotor development, diarrhoea, espanto Gastritis, relaxant, increase womans fertility Internal infections Rheumatism, malaria Fever, relaxant, kidney Headache Conjunctivitis Antiparasite, dermatitis Herpes, antiparasite Rheumathism, hepatic pain Menstruation pain, diuretic, cold, cough Bronchitis, asthma, catarrh, rheumatism Diarrhoea, stomach pain Espanto Purgative Sedative, postpartum, kidney problems, bladder, internal inammation Ear infections Kidney problems Hepatic pain, diuretic, kidney problems Fever Espanto, postpartum Hangover Tonic Stomach pain Internal infections, cold, rheumatism, purgative Relaxant, stomach pain, hepatic pain Cancer Parts used Leaf Leaf Leaf Leaf Leaf Leaf, ower Stem, leaf Flower Seed Flower Entire plant Leaf, seed Leaf Leaf Leaf, seed Leaf Leaf Leaf Leaf Plant Plant state development Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Dried Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Preparation Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Decoction Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Decoction Decoction Aqueous infusion Decoction Pounded Decoction Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Decoction Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Mode of use Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink Eye washing Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink, topical application Drink Drink Drink Drink

V. Tene et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111 (2007) 6381

152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162

Lilium candidum L. Linum usitatissimun L. Ludwigia peruviana (L.) H. Hara Lupinus mutabilis Sweet Lycopersicon hirsutum Dunal Lycopodiella pendulina (Hook) B. Ollg. Macleania rupestris (Kunth.) A.C. Sm. Malachra alceifolia Jacq. Mansoa sp. DC. Margyricarpus pinnatus (Lam.) Kuntze Marsdenia condurango Rchb. f.

Liliaceae Linaceae Onagraceae Fabaceae Solanaceae Lycopodiaceae Ericaceae Malvaceae Bignoniaceae Rosaceae Asclepiadaceae

PPN-ll-001 PPN-li-001 PPN-on-003 PPN-fa-008 PPN-so-005 PPN-lc-001 PPN-er-005 PPN-ma-006 PPN-bg-001 PPN-ro-004 PPN-al-002

Azucena Linaza Mejorana Chocho Chichira Cordoncillo Joyapa Malva Ajocaipe Nigua Condurango

Root Seed Leaf Leaf Stem Leaf Leaf Leaf Leaf Flower Bark, leaf

Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Floration Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh and dried

Aqueous infusion Decoction Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Directly used Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Decoction Decoction

Drink, topical application Drink Drink Drink Topical application Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink

163

164 165 166

Matricaria ricutita L. or Matricaria chamomilla L. or Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert Melilotus indica (L.) All. Melissa ofcinalis L. Mentha spicata L.

Asteraceae

PPN-as-016

Manzanilla

Stomach pain

Stem, leaf, ower

Tender and mature

Fresh

Aqueous infusion

Drink

Fabaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae

PPN-fa-004 PPN-la-004 PPN-la-020

Alfallla Toronjil Menta

Disinfectant, external infections Relaxant, insomnia Stomach pain, relaxant, haemorrhage, earache, inuenza Stomach pain Stomach pain Scurvy Antiparasite, hepatic pain, stomach pain Inuenza, malaria, cough Inuenza, menstruation pain Tonic Tonic, gastritis Espanto, rheumatism, stomach pain Stomach pain, hepatic pain, dermatitis, disinfectant, healing of wounds, kidney problems, allergy, cancer, gastritis, rheumatism, internal and external infections Internal infections Infections Hepatic pain, pneumonia, blood purication, kidney Stomach pain

Entire plant Stem, leaf Leaf

Mature Tender and mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh

Decoction Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion, decoction, juice Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion and decoction Aqueous infusion

Bathe affected part Drink Drink

167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176

Mentha piperita L. Mentha pulegium L. Miconia sp. Ruiz & Pav. Mikania sp. Willd. Minthostachys mollis (Kunth.) Griseb. Muehlenbeckia tamnifolia (Kunth.) Meisn. Myrcia sp. DC. ex Guill. Myrcianthes rhopaloides (Kunth.) McVaugh Myrica pubescens Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. Myroxylon balsamum (L.) Harms

Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Melastomataceae Asteraceae Lamiaceae Polygonaceae Myrtaceae Myrtaceae Myricaceae Fabaceae

PPN-la-006 PPN-la-015 PPN-me-002 PPN-as-009 PPN-la-009 PPN-pl-003 PPN-my-004 PPN-my-005 PPN-mr-001 PPN-fa-012

Hierbabuena Menta Miconia Chapongo Poleo del inca Anguyuyo Array an arom atico Array an Laurel Chaquino

Leaf Leaf Leaf Stem, leaf Entire plant Leaf Root, stem, leaf Leaf, bark Stem, leaf Bark

Tender and mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Dried Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh

Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink, bathe Drink, topical application

V. Tene et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111 (2007) 6381

177 178 179 180

Nasa loxensis (Kunth.) Weigend Nasa olmosiana (Gilg ex J.F. Macbr.) Weigend Nasturtium ofcinale R. Br. Neonelsonia acuminata (Benth.) J.M.Coult. & Rose ex Drude Nicotiana tabacum L.

Loasaceae Loasaceae Brassicaceae Apiaceae

PPN-ls-002 PPN-ls-001 PPN-br-002 PPN-ap-007

Ortiga del monte Ortiga de le on Berro Zanahoria blanca Chamico

Root Root Stem, leaf Leaf

Mature Mature Tender and mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh

Decoction Decoction Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion

Drink Drink Drink Drink

181

Solanaceae

PPN-so-009

Allergy, strokes, rheumatism

Leaf

Mature

Fresh

Pounded

182 183

Niphidium crassifolium (L.) Lellinger Ocimum basilicum L.

Polypodiaceae Lamiaceae

PPN-pp-002 PPN-la-017

Calaguala Albahaca

Hepatic pain, kidney pain Stomach pain, fever, gastritis, inuenza, high blood pressure, internal infections, relaxant

Root Leaf

Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh

Aqueous infusion Decoction

Direct application by rubbing Drink Drink

73

74

Table 1 (Continued ) No. 184 185 186 187 Scientic name Oenothera pubescens Willd. ex Spreng. Oenothera rosea L H er. ex Aiton Oenothera sp. L. Oreocallis grandiora (Lam.) R. Br. Oreopanax andreanus Marchal Oreopanax ecuadorensis Seem Oreopanax sp. Decne. & Planch. Otholobium mexicanum (L. f.) J.W. Grimes Otholobium pubescens (Poir.) Grim. Oxalis corniculata L. Oxalis peduncularis Kunth. Passiora ligularis Juss. Family Onagraceae Onagraceae Onagraceae Proteaceae Herbarium voucher PPN-on-002 PPN-on-011 PPN-on-010 PPN-pe-001 Vernacular name(s) Shullo amarillo Shullo amarillo Shullo blanco Cucharillo Therapeutical applications Hepatic pain Hepatic pain, kidney problems Kidney Headache, hepatic pains, diabetes, fever, kidney problems, cough Disinfectant, healing of wounds, dermatitis Headache Internal and external infections, healing of wounds, dermatitis Stomach pain Stomach pain, diarrhoea, hepatic pain Diarrhoea Fever, scurvy External and internal inammation, hepatic pain, high cholesterol, scurvy, high blood pressure Conjunctivitis Internal and external inammation, healing of wounds, stomach pain Inuenza Hair tonic, inuenza Headache, stomach pain, hepatic pain, espanto, nervous anxiety, kidney problems, earache Espanto Headache Inuenza, bronchitis, stomach pain, menstruation pain, diabetes, hair tonic, rheumatism Parts used Entire plant Leaf Leaf Leaf, bark, ower Leaf Leaf Leaf Plant Plant state development Mature Mature Mature Mature Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Preparation Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Decoction Aqueous infusion Mode of use Drink Drink Drink Drink

188 189 190

Araliaceae Araliaceae Araliaceae

PPN-ar-003 PPN-ar-001 PPN-ar-002

Pumamaki Pumamaki Pumamaki

Mature Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh

Decoction Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion, decoction Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Pounded

Bathe affected part Drink Drink and topical application Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink and topical application Bathe affected part/drink Drink, bathe

V. Tene et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111 (2007) 6381

191 192 193 194 195

Fabaceae Fabaceae Oxalidaceae Oxalidaceae Passioraceae

PPN-fa-005 PPN-ve-003 PPN-ox-001 PPN-ox-002 PPN-pa-001

Teculen Culen Chulquillo Chulco Granadilla

Leaf, ower Root, leaf, bark Leaf Leaf, ower Leaf, ower

Mature Mature Tender Mature Floration

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh

196 197

Pelargonium graveolens LH er. ex Ait Pelargonium odoratissimum (L.) LH er. Pelargonium zonale (L.) LH er. Pentacalia sp. Cass. Peperomia congona Sodiro

Geraniaceae Geraniaceae

PPN-ge-004 PPN-ge-001

Rosas blancas Malva olorosa

Flower Leaf

Floration Mature

Fresh Fresh

Decoction Aqueous infusion and decoction Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion

198 199 200

Geraniaceae Asteraceae Piperaceae

PPN-ge-006 PPN-as-012 PPN-pi-003

Malva Bejuco Congona

Flower Root, stem, leaf Stem, leaf

Floration Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh

Drink Drink, topical application Drink

201 202 203

Peperomia galioides Kunth. Pernettya prostrata (Cav.) DC. Persea americana Mill.

Piperaceae Ericaceae Lauraceae

PPN-pi-004 PPN-er-004 PPN-lu-001

Congona blanca Motil on Aguacate

Leaf Leaf Leaf, fruit

Mature Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh

Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion, decoction

Drink Drink Bathe, drink

204 205 206 207 208 209 210

Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A.W. Hill Phyla sp. Physalis peruviana L. Phytolacca americana L. Phytolacca dioica L. Piper aduncum L. Piper barbatum Kunth.

Apiaceae Verbenaceae Solanaceae Phytolaccaceae Phytolaccaceae Piperaceae Piperaceae

PPN-ap-003 PPN-ve-003 PPN-so-013 PPN-ph-003 PPN-ph-002 PPN-pi-006 PPN-pi-005

Perejil Monte dulce Uvilla Atugsara Humilla Matico Cordoncillo

211 212 213 214 215 216 217

Piper bogotense C. DC. Piper crassinervium Kunth. Piper ecuadorense Sodiro Plantago major L. Podocarpus sprucei Parl. Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx. Portulaca oleracea L.

Piperaceae Piperaceae Piperaceae Plantaginaceae Podocarpaceae Polygonaceae Portulacaceae

PPN-pi-001 PPN-pi-002 PPN-pi-007 PPN-pn-001 PPN-pd-001 PPN-pl-001 PPN-pr-001

Sacha guando Guabiduca Matico del monte Llant en Romerillo Soliman Verdolaga

Disinfectant, healing of wounds Espanto Disinfectant, healing of wounds Stomach pain, hepatic pain Diarrhoea, high blood pressure Disinfectant, gastritis, inuenza, rheumatism, cough Headache, stomach pain, dermatitis, disinfectant, treatment of wounds Hepatic pain Diabetes, gastritis, prostate problems Hangover, disinfectant, healing of wounds Hepatic pain, insomnia Malaria Fractures, lacerations Internal inammation, gastritis, internal infections, relaxant, kidney Cancer, disinfectant, healing of wounds Scurvy, disinfectant, healing of wounds Diarrhoea Disinfectant, healing of wounds Relaxant, rheumatism Conjunctivitis, relaxant Espanto, headache, stomach pain, anaemia, internal infections Menstruation pain, disinfectant and healing of wounds Lacerations, hepatic pain Lacerations Postpartum, gangrene, external infections Internal inammations, espanto Espanto Antiparasite, espanto, kidney pain

Entire plant Leaf Flower Leaf, ower Leaf Leaf, ower Whole

Mature Mature Floration Mature Mature Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh and dried Fresh

Decoction and juice Aqueous infusion Decoction Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Decoction Infusion and pounded

Drink, topical application Drink Bathe Drink Drink Topical application Drink, topical application Drink Drink V. Tene et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111 (2007) 6381 Drink Drink Drink Topical application Drink

Leaf Stem, leaf Leaf Root, stem, leaf, ower Leaf Leaf Leaf

Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh

Aqueous infusion Decoction Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Directly used Aqueous infusion

218 219 220 221 222 223 224

Prestonia mollis Kunth. Prosopis juliora (Sw.) DC. Psidium guajava L. Psidium guineense Sw. Puya eryngioides Andr e Rosa centifolia L. Rosmarinus ofcinalis L.

Apocynaceae Mimosaceae Myrtaceae Myrtaceae Bromeliaceae Rosaceae Lamiaceae

PPN-ao-001 PPN-mi-003 PPN-my-002 PPN-my-001 PPN-bl-001 PPN-ro-001 PPN-la-010

Bejuco del c ancer Algarrobo Guayaba Guayabilla Achupalla Rosa de castilla Romero

Root, stem, leaf Leaf, seed Leaf Leaf Leaf Flower Leaf

Mature Mature Mature Tender Mature Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh or dried Fresh

Aqueous infusion Decoction Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Decoction Decoction

Drink, topical application Drink, topical application Drink Drink Drink Bathe affected part Bathe/drink

225

Rubus glaucus Benth.

Rosaceae

PPN-ro-007

Mora de castilla Mora silvestre Mora Lengua de vaca Sachagula Ruda Santa Mar a

Leaf

Mature

Aqueous infusion

226 227 228 229 230 231

Rubus robustus C. Presl Rubus urticifolius Poir. Rumex crispus L. Rumex obtusifolius L. Ruta graveolens L. Salvia hirta Kunth.

Rosaceae Rosaceae Polygonaceae Polygonaceae Rutaceae Lamiaceae

PPN-ro-002 PPN-ro-005 PPN-pl-004 PPN-pl-002 PPN-rt-001 PPN-la-008

Leaf Leaf, ower Leaf Leaf Stem, leaf, ower Leaf, ower

Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh or dried Fresh or dried Fresh Fresh

Decoction Aqueous infusion Decoction Juice Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion

Drink, application by rubbing Drink Drink Bathe/drink Drink Drink Drink 75

76

Table 1 (Continued ) No. 232 233 234 235 236 237 Scientic name Salvia scutellarioides Kunth. Salvia sp. L. Salvia tiliifolia Vahl Sambucus nigra L. Saurauia bullosa Wawra Scoparia dulcis L. Family Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Caprifoliaceae Actinidiaceae Scrophulariaceae Herbarium voucher PPN-la-014 PPN-la-012 PPN-la-007 PPN-ca-001 PPN-ai-001 PPN-sc-001 Vernacular name(s) Guangalo negro Monte del susto Santa Mar a Sauco tilo Chupana Teatina Therapeutical applications Espanto Hepatic pain Headache, espanto, relaxant Inuenza, headache, fever, cold, kidney pain, cough Scurvy Used in preparation of antiophidic serum, dermatitis, disinfectant, healing of wounds, rheumatism Rheumatism, postpartum, cough Erisipela (dermatitis) Gastritis, disinfectant, healing of wounds Strokes, diabetes, fractured bones, rheumatism, kidney problems Antiacid Disinfectant, healing of wounds Fractures Internal inammation, headache, after getting drunk effects, stomach pain, hepatic pain, hematoma, dermatitis, fever, inuenza, internal infections, pneumonia, cold, kidney problems Stomach pain Headache Internal infections Insecticide, antimicotic Relaxant, antiacid Disinfectant, fractures, gastritis, relaxant Espanto Menstruation pain Parts used Entire plant Stem, leaf Leaf Leaf, ower Leaf Entire plant Plant Plant state development Mature Mature Mature Floration Mature Mature Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Preparation Directly used Aqueous infusion Directly used Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Mode of use Direct application Drink Direct application Drink Drink Drink, topical application

V. Tene et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111 (2007) 6381

238 239 240 241

Schinus molle L. Serjania sp. Mill. Sida rhombifolia L. Siparuna eggersii Hieron.

Anacardiaceae Sapindaceae Malvaceae Monimiaceae

PPN-aa-001 PPN-sa-001 PPN-ma-003 PPN-mn-001

Molle Bejuco de la erisipela Pichana Monte del oso

Leaf, fruit Stem, leaf Root Leaf

Mature Mature Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh

Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Pounded, infusion

Topical application Drink Drink Topical application, drink Drink Drink, topical application Topical application Drink

242 243 244 245

Siparuna muricata (Ruiz & Pav.) A. DC. Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp.) H. Rob Solanum albidum Dunal Solanum americanum Mill.

Monimiaceae Asteraceae Solanaceae Solanaceae

PPN-mn-002 PPN-as-038 PPN-so-006 PPN-so-007

Limoncillo J cama Hoja de oso Morti no

Stem, leaf Root Leaf Stem, leaf, ower

Mature Mature Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh

Aqueous infusion Juice Directly used Aqueous infusion

246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253

Solanum sisymbrifolium Lam. Solanum sp. L. Sonchus oleraceus L. Sorocea trophoides W.C. Burger Stachytarpheta straminea Moldenke Symphytum ofcinale L. Tagetes erecta L. Tagetes lifolia Lag.

Solanaceae Solanaceae Asteraceae Moraceae Verbenaceae Boraginaceae Asteraceae Asteraceae

PPN-so-004 PPN-so-002 PPN-as-037 PPN-mo-001 PPN-ve-004 PPN-bo-002 PPN-as-019 PPN-as-008

Uvilla Nara Cerraja Yamila Rabo de rat on Consuelda Ayarrosa Sacha an s

Leaf Leaf Leaf Leaf, ower Stem, leaf Leaf Leaf Stem, leaf

Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh

Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Pounded or decoction Aqueous infusion Directly used Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion

Drink Drink Drink Topical application Drink Drink, topical application Drink, direct application Drink

254 255 256 257

Tagetes terniora Kunth. Tamarindus indica L. Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch. Bip. Taraxacum ofcinale Weber

Asteraceae Caesalpiniaceae Asteraceae Asteraceae

PPN-as-006 PPN-ce-002 PPN-as-031 PPN-as-020

Sacha ruda Tamarindo Santa Mar a Diente de le on

Antimycotic, disinfectant, healing of wounds, espanto Stomach pain, hepatic pain Espanto, parasites Hepatic pain, disinfectant, healing of wounds, blood purication, kidney problems Cataract Fever Gastritis, internal infections, relaxant Internal inammation, stomach pain, hepatic pain, fever, internal infections, kidney problems, cough Cancer, internal inammation, kidney problems Hepatic pain Internal inammation Hangover, circulation problems, kidney problems Sedative, hepatic pain Hair tonic, parasites, headache, stomach pain, hepatic pain, menstruation pain, strokes, dermatitis, disinfectant, treatment of wounds, high cholesterol, scurvy, espanto, inuenza, internal infections, partum, blood purication, kidney problems Used in preparation of antiophidic serum Headache Fever, inuenza Bronchitis, stomach pain, fever, inuenza, pneumonia, cough Relaxant, hearth problems, headache Internal inammation Diuretic, blood purication, relaxant Stomach pain, dermatitis

Root, leaf Fruit Leaf Leaf

Mature Mature Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh

Decoction Aqueous infusion Juice Decoction

Bathe affected part Drink Drink Drink

258 259 260 261

Tibouchina laxa (Desr.) Cogn. Tradescantia sp. L. Tradescantia zebrina Hort. ex Bosse Triumfetta althaeoides Lam.

Melastomataceae Commelinaceae Commelinaceae Tiliaceae

PPN-me-003 PPN-co-002 PPN-co-004 PPN-ti-001

Garra del diablo Calchar on Calcio Abrojo, Cadillo

Leaf Stem Leaf, ower Root, leaf, stem, ower

Floration Mature Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh

Decoction, Juice Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion

Topical application Drink Drink Drink V. Tene et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111 (2007) 6381

262

Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Roem.& Schult) DC. Urena lobata L. Urera caracasana (Jacq.) Griseb. Urtica urens L. Valeriana microphylla Kunth. Verbena litoralis Kunth.

Rubiaceae

PPN-ru-003

U na de gato

Bark

Mature

Fresh and dried Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh and dried

Decoction

Drink

263 264 265 266 267

Malvaceae Urticaceae Urticaceae Valerianaceae Verbenaceae

PPN-ma-005 PPN-ur-002 PPN-ur-004 PPN-va-001 PPN-ve-001

Cosa cosilla Ortiga Ortiga Valeriana Verbena

Leaf Root, stem, leaf Root, leaf Root Entire plant with other ingredients

Mature Mature Mature Mature Mature

Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion

Drink Drink Drink Drink Drink

268 269 270 271

Vernonanthura patens (Kunth.) H. Rob Vicia faba L. Viola arguta Will. ex Roem. & Schult. Viola odorata L.

Asteraceae Fabaceae Violaceae Violaceae

PPN-as-032 PPN-fa-014 PPN-vi-002 PPN-vi-001

Aritaco Haba Violeta de campo Violeta

Leaf Flower Flower Flower, leaf

Mature Mature Floration Floration

Fresh Fresh Fresh Fresh

Decoction Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion

Drink Drink Drink Drink

272 273 274 275

Viola tricolor L. Waltheria ovata Cav. Xanthium spinosum L. Zea mays L.

Violaceae Sterculiaceae Asteraceae Poaceae

PPN-vi-003 PPN-st-001 PPN-as-039 PPN-po-004

Pensamiento Chicharr on Casha marucha Ma z

Leaf Root Leaf Flower

Mature Mature Mature Mature

Fresh Fresh Fresh Dried

Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Aqueous infusion Decoction

Drink Drink Drink Drink, topical application

77

78

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still unknown from a phytochemical point of view, as well as others very well known from long ago like, for example, Cinchona spp., Marsdenia condurango, and Ilex guayusa. Cinchona spp. is used locally for treating stomach pain, fever, malaria, and mycosis. This use and others are conrmed by literature, mainly for treating malaria and fever (Gurib-Fakim, 2006). According to bibliographic fonts (Kinsley-Scott and Norton, 2003), Cinchona spp. has also dermatologic uses, specically in the treatment of lupus erythematosus. Marsdenia condurango is used in the zone against cancer. A Japanese patent conrm this medical use (Mizuno et al., 1981). Ilex guayusa is used in case of gastritis, as relaxant and is useful for helping woman fertility. A study describes the use, in Ecuadorian and Peruvian Amazon, of a decoction of guayusa leaves with a high content of caffeine as a morning stimulant (Lewis et al., 1991). Also the hallucinogenic plant Banisteriopsis caapi (ayahuasca) (Naranjo, 1979) is still highly appreciated in the local medicine, in particular for the treatment of headache, as disinfectant, cicatrizing, and in case of rheumatism, liver, and kidney problems. According to the information collected, the mostly used plants are Solanum americanum (Morti no; 4%), Viola odorata (Violeta; 3%), Triumfetta althaeoides (Abrojo, Cadillo; 2%), Artemisia sodiroii (Ajenjo; 2%), and Cestrum sendtenerianum (Sauco negro; 2%). Solanum americanum is used and highly appreciated by local inhabitants for treating a large number of diseases, ranging from inammation and headache to hangover, stomach pain, hepatic pain, haematoma, dermatitis, fever, inuenza, infections, pneumonia, cold, and kidney problems. Outside Ecuador, this plant is used in Guatemala for the cure of dermatophytosis (C aceres et al., 1991); the leaves and steams are employed in Honduras for curing anaemia, dental aches and infections (Lentz et al., 1998); in traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba it is used in herbal mixtures having a wide-ranging pattern of applications (Hern andez and Volpato, 2004), and the activity of leaves extracts for the treatment of protozoal infections was studied in detail (C aceres et al., 1998). The owers and leaves of Viola odorata are used by local inhabitants as remedies for bronchitis, stomach pain, fever, inuenza, pneumonia, and cough. This plant has worldwide applications, according to different authors: in Italy and Bulgaria, it is used against cough (Leporatti and Ivancheva, 2003); in the Caribbean area, it is used as expectorant (Halberstein, 2005); while in the inland Marches, Italy, it is considered a remedy for skin diseases (Pieroni et al., 2004), and in Israel it is extensively consumed as a natural medicine (Lev, 2006). Roots, leaves, stem and owers of Triumfetta althaeoides are used, by inhabitants of Loja and Zamora, for curing inammations, stomach pain, hepatic pain, fever, infections, kidney problems, and cough by local inhabitants. The Tacana, an Amazonian Bolivian ethnic group, uses the roots of this plant for kidney pain (Bourdy et al., 2000). Leaves of Artemisia sodiroii are employed in the zone under study as a remedy against inammations, stomach pain, hepatic pain, fever, infections, kidney problems, and cough. No results, either of ethnopharmacological uses or phytochemical studies,

have been found in the literature for Artemisia sodiroii. Essential oils and extracts from leaves of genus Artemisia have been studied in detail from a pharmacological point of view, and the results have been reported in many papers (Hatimi et al., 2001; Kordali et al., 2006; Lee et al., 2003). Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Artemisia annua L., is an effective drug against malaria (Bar-Zeev and White, 2006) and is under early research and testing for treatment of cancer (White et al., 2006). From leaves and owers of Cestrum sendtenerianum are prepared aqueous infusions that are utilized as purgative, in case of headache, stomach pain, fever, gangrene, inuenza, infections, rheumatism, and cough. Bibliographical information about ethnobotanical use of this species is not reported in literature; nevertheless, a phytochemical study of this plant revealed the presence of steroidal saponins, and one of these compounds showed a weak cytotoxic activity on HL-60 human promyelocytic leukaemia cells (Haraguchi et al., 2000). The plant families mostly used by inhabitants are Asteraceae (33), Lamiaceae (16), Solanaceae (13), Fabaceae (12), Onagraceae (9) and Apiaceae (9). Table 2 shows their pharmacological uses. Plants of the family Asteraceae are habitually used as disinfectant (4) and wound healing (4), and for curing stomach pain (8), espanto (6), hepatic pain (6), kidney problems (5), infections (4), inuenza (4), and different fevers like malaria or yellow fevers (4). As a comparison, some Mexican Asteraceae are mainly used as an internal remedy for atulence and stomach aches, to cleanse wounds, as analgesic, anti-inammatory, anti-diarrhoea, against fevers, for treating kidney ailments and skin eruptions (Heinrich et al., 1998). Lamiaceae plants are often used locally against stomach pain (7), espanto (7), as relaxant (4), in case of cough (3), headache (3), malaria (3), and inuenza (3). The use of plants of this family in infusions, as digestives or teas, is frequently reported in the literature, conrming the local use for treating stomach pain and as relaxant (Pardo de Santayana et al., 2005). Several plants of Asteraceae and Lamiaceae families are used for treating espanto, a typical ill-dened Andean pathology, in which psychosomatic problems, originating from phobic factors, produce profound biological and psychological weakness (De Feo, 2003). Plants of the family Solanaceae are generally employed in treatment of stomach pain (5), headache (4), inuenza (4), rheumatism (4), fever (3), and infections (3). A study performed in the Bolivian Chaco, reports the use of some species of the family Solanaceae for treating headache, fever, dermatophytosis and diarrhoea (Bourdy et al., 2004), these pharmacological uses are correlated to our ndings. In addition, Solanaceae plants are extensively known and used for their hallucinogenic properties (Carlini, 2003). The plants of the family Fabaceae reported in this study are mostly used in case of stomach pain (5), hepatic pain (3), and as disinfectant (3) and wound healing (4). Some plants of Fabaceae family are used in south Brazil as anti-inammatory, antimicrobial, for washing wounds, and for treatment of urinary tract infections (Coelho de Souza et al., 2004).

V. Tene et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111 (2007) 6381 Table 2 Therapeutical applications of the major plant families used in the traditional medicine of peoples of Loja and Zamora (Ecuador) Traditional use After getting drunk effects Allergy Anaemia Analgesic Antiacid Antimycotic Antiophidic Antiparasite Arthritis Astringent Blood purication Bone fractures Bronchitis Cancer Cold Conjunctivitis Cough Dermatitis Diabetes Diarrhoea Disinfectant Diuretic Earache Espanto Fever Fractures Gangrene Gastritis Haemorrhage Hair tonic Headache Healing Hematoma Hepatic pain Hepatic pain High blood pressure High cholesterol Infections Inammation Inuenza Insomnia Kidney problems Lacerations Lose weight Malaria Menstruation pain Nursing Pneumonia Pospartum bathe Prostate Psicomotor development Relaxant Rheumatism Scurvy Stomach pain Stroke Sunstroke Tonsillitis Tooth decay Yellow fever Asteraceae 0 2 0 1 0 2 2 2 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 2 3 1 1 4 2 0 6 2 1 1 0 0 2 1 4 0 2 6 0 0 4 3 4 0 5 0 1 1 3 0 1 1 1 0 2 3 1 8 0 1 0 2 1 Apiaceae 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 Fabaceae 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 1 0 1 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 2 4 0 0 3 1 0 2 1 0 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 Lamiaceae 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 0 0 1 7 1 0 0 1 1 0 3 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 1 3 1 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 Onagraceae 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

79

Solanaceae 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 2 0 2 1 0 0 2 0 0 1 3 0 1 1 0 0 4 1 1 0 1 1 1 3 1 4 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 4 0 5 1 0 1 1 0

80

V. Tene et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111 (2007) 6381

Fig. 2. Therapeutical uses of the plants reported in this paper.

Plants of family Onagraceae are usually utilized in case of kidney problems (4), hepatic pains (3), and as relaxant (3). In one study carried out in Peru, an Onagracea plant, Oenothera multicaulis R. & P., used as antiseptic and for washing wounds, showed an interesting antifungal and antibacterial activity (Rojas et al., 2003). The plants of the family Apiaceae used in the region under study are mainly employed for treating stomach pain (5). Infusions of some species of Apiaceae are often used as digestive teas in Spain (Pardo de Santayana et al., 2005). In total, 68 different therapeutical uses have been recorded for the cited plants, including the treatment of kidney problems (11%), stomach ache (10%), inuenza (7%), hepatic pain (5%); disinfectant and wound healing properties (4%) have also been indicated (Fig. 2). An aqueous infusion is the more general way of administration; topical applications and decoctions are also common. Leaves (32%) are the vegetal parts most frequently selected, followed by a combination of stems and leaves (14%), and owers (12%). Almost half of the plants (49.5%) are used in maturity, followed by in oration (19%) and in tender states (14%). 4. Conclusions The use of herbs for illness treatments is still needed by populations that, because of the high costs, have a difcult access to western medicines and, therefore, usually resort to their own traditional remedies. On the other hand, integrated forms of modern and traditional medicines are often practiced by several doctors nowadays. Loja and Zamora-Chinchipe are two south-

ern Ecuadorian provinces with an abundant biodiversity and a rich ethnobotanical tradition; this favourable combination gave rise to a largely practiced folk medicine comprising more than 200 local plants, which have been identied botanically. The diseases cured with plants are, of course, strictly related to the health situation of the local communities. Kidney and stomach infections, headache and inuenza are the most common ailments for which natural remedies are used. Nevertheless, other less widespread diseases like cancer, diabetes or other diseases are also cured with different plant extracts. In these days, conservation of the traditional knowledge is greatly menaced by a lot of external factors related to the modernization of the region. It is, therefore, urgent to save the cultural heritage of the natives, by conrming the therapeutical uses of the plants with scientic criteria and fostering the phytochemical research on species containing potentially active principles. In this context, more detailed studies about the use of medicinal plants by the Saraguro and Shuar communities are currently being carried out by our research group, and the biological activity of the most promising plants reported in this study is being evaluated. Acknowledgements This study was carried out with the nancial support of the project FUNDACYT PFN-0133 and UTPL. The authors thank the Economics School of the Universidad T ecnica Particular de Loja, the entire personnel of the Planta de Productos Naturales for their help in this investigation, and the personnel of CETTIA for the facilities given to this project.

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