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SourceCoding

Whatissourcecoding?
Communicationsystemsaredesignedtotransmitthe
informationgeneratedbyasourcetosome
destination
Adigitalcommunicationsystemisdesignedto
transmitinformationindigitalform
Sourcecoding:theconversionofthesourceoutput
toadigitalform,performedbyasourceencoder,
whichproducesasequenceofbinarydigits
Designgoal:representasourcewiththefewestbits
suchthatbestrecoveryofthesourcefromthe
compresseddataispossible
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Source
Encoder
Information
Source
Channel
Encoder
Modulator
Channel
Noise
Source
Decoder
Received
Information
Channel
Decoder
Demodulator
Binaryinterface
Differentinformationsources
Discretesources
Asequenceofsymbolsfromaknowndiscretealphabet
Thealphabetcouldbe,e.g.,binarydigits,Englishletters
Analogsequencesources
Asequenceofreal/complexnumbers
Analogwaveformsources
Ananalogwaveform,e.g.,voicesignal,videowaveform
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Differentinformationsources
Sourcecodingforadiscretesource
Theinformationsourcecanbeuniquelyretrievedfromthe
encodedstringofbits
Uniquelydecodable
Losslesscoding
Sourcecodingforanalogsources
Someofquantizationisnecessary
Itintroducesdistortion
Lossycompression
Atradeoffbetweenthebitrateandthedistortion
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AGeneralDiagramforSourceCoding
Sampler
Input
waveform
Quantizer
Discrete
encoder
Binary
Channel
Analogfilter
Output
waveform
Tablelookup
Discrete
decoder
Binary
interface
Analog
sequence
Symbol
sequence
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Lossless
coding
Lossy
compression
APracticalExample:PCM
Pulsecodemodulation(PCM)
Digitalrepresentationofananalogsignal
ThestandardformfordigitalaudioandvariousBluray,DVDandCD
formats
Operation
Samplethemagnitudeoftheanalogsignalregularlyatuniform
intervals
Eachsampleisthenquantizedtothenearestvaluewithinarangeof
digitalsteps
ThePCMprocessiscommonlyimplementedonasingle
integratedcircuitgenerallyreferredtoasananalogtodigital
converter (ADC).
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PCM
Anexample:
Intelephony,astandardaudiosignalforasinglephonecallis
encodedas8,000analogsamplespersecond,of8bitseach,
givinga64kbit/sdigitalsignal
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Sampler
Input
waveform
Quantizer
Discrete
encoder
Binary
Channel
Analogfilter
Output
waveform
Tablelookup
Discrete
decoder
Binary
interface
Analog
sequence
Symbol
sequence
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Lossless
coding
DiscreteMemoryless Source(DMS)
Consideradiscreteinformationsourcewithanalphabet
ofM possibleletters,
1 2 M
Notnecessarilynumericalvalues,e.g.,{sunny,cloudy,rainy}
Probabilisticmodel
Discretememoryless source(DMS)
Theoutputsequenceisstatisticallyindependent
i.e.,thecurrentoutputletterisindependentofallpastand
futureoutputs
Essentially,itisasequenceofiid randomvariablesX

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P X = x
k
= p
k
, 1 k H
where p
k
M
k=1
= 1
InformationMeasureandCodewordLength
Entropy
AmeasureofuncertaintyorambiguityinX
AmeasureofinformationthatisacquiredbyknowledgeofX
Theaveragecodewordlength
wherel
]
isthelengthofthejth codeword
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E X = -p
x
log
2
p
x
xA
I

= l
]
p
]
M
]=1
Symbolbysymbolencoding
x
]
c
]
= c
],1
, c
],2
, c
],I
]
VariablelengthSourceCoding
Uniquelydecodable
Instantaneouscodes withoutanydecodingdelay
Prefixfreecodes nocodewordisaprefixofanyothercodeword
Bothuniquelyandinstantaneouslydecodable
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Letter P CodeI CodeII CodeIII CodeIV
x
1
1/2 00 1 0 0
x
2
1/4 01 00 10 01
x
3
1/8 10 01 110 011
x
4
1/8 11 10 111 111
Notuniquely
decodable
Prefixfree
code
PrefixfreeCodes
Ifauniquelydecodablecodeexistswithacertainset
ofcodewordlengths,thenaprefixfreecodecan
easilybeconstructedwiththesamesetoflengths
Thedecodercandecodeeachcodewordofaprefix
freecodeimmediatelyonthearrivalofthelastbitin
thatcodeword,i.e.,instantaneouslydecodable
Givenaprobabilitydistributiononthesource
symbols,itiseasytoconstructaprefixfreecodeof
minimumexpectedlength
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Kraftinequalityforprefixfreecodes
Theorem:Everyprefixfreecodeforanalphabet
1 2 M
withcodewordlength
]
satisfiesthe
following
Conversely,ifthisconditionissatisfied,thenaprefix
freecodewithlength
]
exists.
Note:justbecauseacodehaslengthsthatsatisfythis
condition,itdoesnotfollowthatthecodeisprefixfree,or
evenuniquelydecodable
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2
-I
]
M
]=1
1
ProofofKraftInequality
Theproofisbasedonbase2expansions
Base2expansion. y
1
y
2
y
I
= y
m
2
-m I
m=1
e.g.,.011represents1/4+1/8
Thebase2expansion. y
1
y
2
y
I
coverstheinterval
y
m
2
-m I
m=1
, y
m
2
-m I
m=1
+ 2
-I
. Thisintervalhassize2
-I
and
includesallnumberswhosebase2expansionsstartwith. y
1
y
2
y
I
Anycodewordoflengthl isrepresentedbyarationalnumberinthe
interval[0,1)andcoversanintervalofsize2
-I
Theprooffollowsfromthisrepresentation.
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Minimum forPrefixfreeCodes
Wewanttominimizetheexpectedlengthsubjectto
theKraftinequality
Theexpectedcodewordlengthisrelatedtotheoutput
rateoftheencoder
Entropyboundsforprefixfreecodes
LetI

mn
betheminimumexpectedcodewordlengthover
alltheprefixfreecodesforagiveDMS.Then
I

mn
= E X ifandonlyiseachprobabilityp
]
isaninteger
powerof2.
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E X I

mn
< E X + 1 bit/symbol
LagrangeMultiplierSolutionfor
Theproblemoffinding
mn
canbeformulatedas
Wecangetanonintegersolutionofl
]
byusingaLagrange
multiplier
Settingthederivativewithrespecttoeachl
]
equalto0
Wherel
]
= log
2
p
]
I

mn
nonintcgcr isalowerboundofI

mn
l
]
isnotaninteger
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I

mn
= min

2
-l
]
M
]=1
<1

l
]
p
]
M
]=1
l
]
p
]
M
]=1
+ 2
-I
]
M
]=1
I

mn
nonintcgcr = -p
]
log
2
p
]
= E X
Upperboundof
Choosethecodeword lengthstobel
]
= -log
2
p
]
Then
Fromthelefthandside,theKraftinequalityissatisfied
Fromtherighthandside
So
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HuffmansAlgorithm
Theexpectedcodewordlengthminimizationproblemisan
integeroptimizationproblem,whichingeneralisquite
difficult
Surprisingly,DavidHuffmanproposedaverysimpleand
straightforwardalgorithmforconstructingoptimalprefixfree
codes
Huffmandevelopedthealgorithmin1950asatermpaperinRobert
Fanos informationtheoryclassatMIT
isoptimalinthesensethatthecodewords satisfytheprefixcondition
andtheaverageblocklengthisaminimum.
Applications:JPEG,MP3,etc
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HuffmansAlgorithm
Propertiesofoptimalcodes
1. Optimalcodeshavethepropertythatifp

> p
]
,thenl

l
]
2. Optimalprefixfreecodeshavethepropertythattheassociatedcode
treeisfull
3. Optimalprefixfreecodeshavethepropertythat,foreachofthe
longestcodewords inthecode,thesiblingofthatcodeword is
anotherlongestcodeword
4. LetXbearandomsymbolwithapmf satisfyingp
1
p
2
p
M
.
ThereisanoptimalprefixfreecodeforXinwhichthecodewords for
M1andMaresiblingsandhavemaximallengthwithinthecode
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Example1
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p
1
p
2
p
7
Example2
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LempelZivUniversalDataCompression
Huffmancoding
Weneedtoknowthesourcestatistics
Itisnotoptimalwhenthepmf areunknown,not
identicallydistributed,ornotindependent
LempelZivalgorithm
Belongstotheclassofuniversalsourcecodingalgorithms
Doesnotneedtoknowthesourcestatistics
LZ77,usesstringmatchingonaslidingwindow
LZ78,usesanadaptivedictionary
Applications:UNIXcompress,GIF,TIFF,PDF,etc
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LZ78
Dictionarybasedcompression
Codeword output
Anindexreferringtothelongestmatchingdictionaryentry
+Thefirstnonmatchingsymbol
Alsoaddthenewstringtothedictionary
Foranewsymbolnotinthedictionary,thecodeword is0+thissymbol
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Example:
FixedtovariablelengthSourceCoding
Previously,wediscussedsymbolbysymbolcoding
Wecandobetterbyencodingblocksofsourcesymbols,i.e.,
encodingasupersymbol
Theorem [Prefixfreesourcecodingtheorem]
Foranydiscretememoryless sourcewithentropyH[X],and
anyintegern 1, thereexistsaprefixfreeencodingof
sourcentuplesforwhichtheexpectedcodewordlengthper
sourcesymbol
Furthermore,noprefixfreeencodingoffixedlengthsource
blocksofanylengthnresultsinanexpectedcodewordlength
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I

E X + 1n
I

< E X
FixedlengthtofixedlengthSourceCoding
Onemaindisadvantageoffixedtovariablelength
codesisthatbitsleavetheencoderatavariablerate
Iftheincomingsymbolshaveafixedrate,theencodedbits
mustbequeuedandthereisapositiveprobabilityforthe
queuetooverflow
Analternativepointofviewistoconsiderfixed
lengthtofixedlength codes
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AsymptoticEquipartition Property(AEP)
AEP:ifX
1
, X
2
, areiid ~p(x),then
Thetypicalsetforanye > u isdefinedas
Alltypicalsequenceshaveroughlythesameprobability
2
-nH(X)
Fornsufficientlylarge,P x, x
2
, , x
n
I
s
> 1 - e
Itcanbeprovedthat
Soroughlythenumberoftypicalsequencesis2
nH(X)
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-
1
n
log p X
1
, X
2
, , X
n
E(X) inprobability
I
s
= x, x
2
, , x
n
: -
1
n
log p X
1
, X
2
, , X
n
- E(X) < e
1 -o 2
n H X -s
< I
s
< 2
n H X +s
ProveinHW ProveinHW
AsymptoticEquipartition Property(AEP)
Roughlyspeaking,theAEPsays
Givenaverylongstringofn iid discreterandomsymbols
X
1
,,X
n
,thereexistsatypicalsetofsamplestrings(x
1
,,
x
n
)whoseaggregateprobabilityisalmost1.
Thereareroughly2
nH|X]
typicalstringsoflengthn,and
eachhasaprobabilityroughlyequalto2
-nH|X]
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SourceCodingTheorem
Wecanprovideacodewordonlyforeachtypicalsequence
Ifthesequenceisnotatypicalsequence,thenasource
codingfailureisdeclared
Thisprobabilitycanbemadearbitrarilysmallbychoosingn
largeenough
LosslessSourceCodingTheorem
LetX denoteaDMSwithentropyH(X).Thereexistsalossless
sourcecodeforthissourceatanyrateR ifR>H(X).There
existsnolosslesscodeforthissourceatrateslessthanH(X).
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Sampler
Input
waveform
Quantizer
Discrete
encoder
Binary
Channel
Analogfilter
Output
waveform
Tablelookup
Discrete
decoder
Binary
interface
Analog
sequence
Symbol
sequence
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Lossy
quantization
LossyDataCompression
Forcontinuousamplitudeanalogsequences
Losslesscompressionisimpossible
Lossycompressionthroughscalarorvectorquantization
Quantization
Usesafinitenumberoflevelstorepresenteach
continuousamplitudesymbol
Introducesdistortion,alossofsignalfidelity
ThenwemayuseHuffmancodingtoimprovethe
efficiency
Tradeoff betweenbitrateanddistortion!
Minimizebitrateforagivendistortion
Minimizedistortionforagivenrate
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DistortionMeasure
Definedistortionassomedistancemetricbetweentheactual
signalsamples x
k
andthequantizedvalues x
k
,denoted
byJ x
k
, x
k
Acommonlyuseddistortionmeasureisthesquarederrorfunction
Thedistortionbetweenasequenceofn samplesx
n
andthe
correspondingn quantizedvaluesx
n
istheaverageoverthen
sourceoutputsamples
Itsexpectedvalueis
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J x
k
, x
k
= x
k
-x
k
2
J x
n
, x
n
=
1
n
J x
k
, x
k
n
k=1
= E J X
n
, X

n
=
1
n
E J X
k
, X
`
k
n
k=1
= E J X, X
`
RateDistortionFunction
RatedistortionfunctionR(D)
I X; X
`
isthemutualinformationbetweenX and X
`
R(D) istheminimumratethatisrequiredtorepresentthe
outputX withadistortionlessthanorequaltoD
RateR(D) decreasesasD increases
Sourcecodingwithafidelitycriterion
Amemoryless sourceX canbeencodedatrateRfora
distortionnotexceedingD ifR>R(D).Conversely,foranycode
withrateR<R(D) thedistortionexceedsD.
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R = min
L d X,X
`
<
I X; X
`
GaussianSourcewithSquaredErrorDistortion
ForcontinuousamplitudeGaussiansource(with
variance
2
),theratedistortionfunctionisknown
Noinformationneedbetransmittedwhen > o
2
Gaussianisupperboundtoallothersources thatis
Gaussianrequiresmaximumrateamongallothersources
Thedistortionratefunction
Themeansquareerrordistortiondecreasesattherateof
6dB/bit
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R
g
= _
1
2
log
o
2

, u o
2
u, > o
2

g
R = 2
-2R
o
2
BinarySourcewithHammingDistortion
Considerabinarysourcewithp = P X = 1 = 1 -P X = u ,
withentropydenotedasE
b
p
Fromlosslesssourcecodingtheorem,itcanbecompressedatanyrate
R thatsatisfiesR > E X = E
b
p ,andcanberecoveredperfectly
IfR < E
b
p ,errorswilloccur
Hammingdistortion
TheaveragedistortionisE J X, X
`
= P X = X
`
= P
c
,i.e.,the
averageofHammingdistortionistheerrorprobabilityin
reconstructionofthesource
Theratedistortionfunction
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J x, x = _
1, x = x
u, x = x
R = _
E
b
p - E
b
, u min p, 1 -p
u, otbcrwisc
I
1
, I
2
,,withlosslessdiscrete
sourceencoding
Encodedsequence,I
1
, I
2
,
WithanalphabetofsizeM
Quantization
Scalarquantization:eachanalogRVisquantizedindependently
Vectorquantization:theanalogsequenceissegmentedinto
blocksofnRVseach,theneachntupleisquantizedasaunit
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Inputsequence,u
1
, u
2
,
AnalogRVs,withpdf
0
u
Quantizer
Discrete
encoder
Binary
Channel
Outputsequence,u

1
, u

2
, Tablelookup
Discrete
decoder
Binary
interface
Example1
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Example2
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ScalarQuantization
Ascalarquantizer partitionsthesetofrealnumbersintoM
subsetsR
1
, , R
M
,calledquantizationregions
EachregionR
]
isrepresentedbyarepresentationpointo
]
Whenthesourceproducesanumberu R
]
,thatnumberis
quantizedintothepointo
]
Q:givenM,chooseregionsandrepresentationpointsto
minimizethemeansquarederror
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ScalarQuantizer
Choiceofintervalsforgivenrepresentationpoints
Givenanyu,thesquarederrortoo
]
is u -o
]
2
Itisminimizedbyrepresentingubytheclosesto
]
Thustheboundaryb
]
lieshalfwaybetweeno
]
ando
]+1
Choiceofrepresentationpointsforgivenintervals
Chooseo
]
tominimize
o
]
mustbetheconditionalmeanofUconditionalonu R
]
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HSE = E u -I(u)
2
= _
0
(u) u - o
]
2
Ju
R
]
M
]=1
TheLloydMaxAlgorithm
Remark
TheMSEdecreasesforeachexecutionofstep(2)and(3)
MSEisnonnegative,itapproachessomelimit
However,thealgorithmmightreachalocalminimumofMSE
Thealgorithmalsoworksforvectorquantization
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Sampler
Input
waveform
Quantizer
Discrete
encoder
Binary
Channel
Analogfilter
Output
waveform
Tablelookup
Discrete
decoder
Binary
interface
Analog
sequence
Symbol
sequence
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Sampling
AnalogDataCompression
Thegeneralapproach
Expandthewaveformintoanorthogonalexpansion
Quantizethecoefficientsinthatexpansion
Usediscretesourcecodingonthequantizer output
Example:PCM
Soquantizationanddiscretesourcecodingserveasouter
layers
Example
Instandardtelephony,thevoiceisfilteredto4kHzandthensampled
at8000samplespersecond.Eachsampleisthenquantizedtooneof
256possiblelevels,representedby8bits.Thusthevoicesignalis
representedasa64kilobit/second(kb/s)sequence.
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FiniteEnergySignals
Weassumefiniteenergysignals,i.e.,L
2
functions
Finiteenergysignalsareappropriateformodelingboth
sourcewaveformsandchannelwaveforms
Theyenjoysimplicityandgeneralityofmathematical
properties
E.g.,everyL
2
timelimitedwaveformhasaFourierseries,everyL
2
waveformhasaFourierintegral
canbetreatedessentiallyasvectors
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s t s
1
, s
2
,
OrthogonalExpansion
Orthogonalexpansionforafiniteenergysignals t
where
and
1
t ,
2
t , formsanorthonormalbasisofL
2
and
e.g.,Fourierseries
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s t = s
k

k
t

k=1
s
k
= _ s t
k
t

-
Jt
_
k
t
]
t

-
Jt = _
u, k = ]
1, k = ]
_ s t
2
Jt = s
k
2

k=1
FourierSeries
Consideratimelimitedcomplexfunctionu(t)in[T/2,T/2]
ItsFourierseriesisgivenby
where
Thus,awaveformcanberegardedasavector
Itcanbeusedforsamplinginthefrequencydomain
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SamplingTheorem
Considerafrequencylimitedcomplexfunctionu(t)in[W,W]
Samplingtheorem
where
Thus,awaveformcanberegardedasavector
Itcanbeusedforsamplinginthetimedomain
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SubspaceApproximation
Wemaytakealimitednumberofsamples
Willthisbeagoodapproximation?
Givenanorthonormalbasis
1
t ,
2
t ,
ForanarbitraryL
2
functionf(t),theexpression
hasaminimum,for
andtheminimumequals
Moreover
where
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FiniteEnergySignalsandMSE
Fromorthogonalexpansion
Supposethesecoefficientss
k
arequantizedass
k
,andthese
quantizedcoefficientsareusedtorecoverthesourcesignal,
denotedass t ,thenwehave
Thedistortion,measuredastheenergyinthedifference
betweenthesourcewaveformandthereconstructed
waveform,isproportionaltothesquaredquantizationerrorin
thequantizedcoefficients
ThisexplainsthewidespreaduseoftheMSE
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_ s t
2
Jt = s
k
2

k=1
_ s t -s t
2
Jt = s
k
- s
k
2

k=1
Segmentinginthetimedomain
Frequencydomainsampling
SegmentthewaveformintosegmentsofdurationT,andthen
expandeachsegmentinaFourierseries
Considerasegmentcenteredaroundsomearbitrarytime,
i.e.,expandfrom -I2 to +I2,theFourierseriesis
where
IfthebandwidthislimitedtobeB,thenweroughlyneed2BT real
numberstorepresentthissegment
Mostvoicecompressionalgorithmsusesuchanapproach,
usuallybreakingthevoicewaveforminto20mssegments.
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s t = s
k
c
2n]kt1
k
, - I2 t + I2
s
k
=
1
I
_ s t
+12
-12
c
-2n]kt1
Jt
Segmentinginthefrequencydomain
Timedomainsampling
SegmentthewaveforminfrequencyofbandwidthB and
samplingeachfrequencyband
Considerasegmentcenteredaroundsomearbitrary
frequency,i.e.,expandfrom -B to +B,withthe
samplingintervalI = 12B,followingthesamplingtheorem
IfthetimeintervalislimitedtobeT,thenweroughlyneed2BT real
numberstorepresentthissegment
Bothc
2n]kt1
iect
t-
1
andsinc
t
1
-k c
2n] t-k1
are
orthogonalexpansions
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s t = s kI sinc
t
I
- k c
2n] t-k1
k
DegreesofFreedom
Frompreviousdiscussion,weseethatthosedifferent
expansionsrequireroughly2BT realnumbersforthe
approximatespecificationofawaveformessentiallylimitedto
timeT andfrequencybandB
Thisnumber,2BT,iscalleddegreesoffreedom
Thisisanimportantruleofthumbusedbycommunication
engineers
Forsourcecoding,thisrepresentsthenumberofcoefficientsweneed
tospecifyinordertorecoverthesourcewaveform
Forchannelcodingthatwewilldiscusslater,itmeansthiswaveform
cancarrythisamountofsymbols
Note:ourdiscussionisbasedonsomevagueidea.Amore
precisewayisthroughtheprolate spheroidalwaveforms
expansion
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Summary
Discretesourcecoding
Losslesscompression
Lossycompression
Quantization
Sampling
Readingassignment
Ch24ofGallager
Section6.16.4ofProakis
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