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International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) - volume4Issue4 April 2013

New Vision of the Computer Operating System


Syed Khasim
Associate Professor, Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Dr.Samuel George Institute of Engineering & Technology Markapur, India

Abstract The operating system is a vital component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs are normally requiring an operating system to function. Normally an operating system installs in the system hard disk through CD-ROM/DVD-ROMs. Some times it is infected by the virus and arise the problems to user. This is the common way process. In this paper we explore the new vision of the computer operating system. That is operating system stores in a single chip and attached to mother board. We want to another operating system; just fix another operating system chip on the mother board its enough. This type of technology is most useful to the user, because they have not much more of knowledge about operating system installation process and not infected the virus to computer system. In this manner secondary memory devices are used to store the application programs data only. Keywords operating system, mother board, new vision, chip, virus, Technology.

Step-3. Central processing unit is available, CPU pins are reset. If CPU is not available display the error message about CPU. Step-4. After CPU pins are reset, CPU jumps to address of Basic Input Output System (BIOS). Step-5. If BIOS is available, BIOS program is executed. If BIOS is not available display the error message about BIOS. Step-6. If BIOS program is executed, checks the Random Access Memory (RAM). RAM is available, jumps to Master Boot Record (MBR). If RAM is not available, produce the beep sound continuously. Step-7. Primary boot loader runs from MBR and jumps to secondary boot loader. Step-8. Secondary boot loader loads the operating system in the RAM. Step-9. Finally display the operating system desktop. II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 1. Power-On Self-Test (POST): It routines which run immediately after many digital electronic devices are powered on. Possibly the most usually known usage pertains to computing devices like are Personal Digital Assistant, personal computers, networking devices such as routers, switches, intrusion detection systems and other monitoring devices. POST includes routines to set a preliminary value for internal and output signals and to execute internal tests, as determined by the device manufacturer. These initial conditions are also referred to as the device's state. They may be stored in firmware or included as hardware, either as part of the design itself, or they may be part of semiconductor substrate either by virtue of being part of a device mask, or after being burned into a device such as a programmable logic array (PLA). POST protects the bootstrapped code from being interrupted by faulty hardware. Diagnostic information provided by a device [5].

I. INTRODUCTION Basically any computer has mainly three types of units. They are 1.Input unit 2.Central processing unit 3.Output unit. Input unit worked as to input the data to central processing unit through input devices like keyboard, mouse, scanner, etc. Central processing unit is worked as to process the input data and finally gives the output data. Central processing unit had Arithmetic logical unit, control unit and memory unit. Output unit worked as to give the final output data to user through output devices like monitor and printer. Data is displayed on the monitor is called Soft copy and data printed on the paper is called hard copy. In this context total computer peripheral devices are connected to the Mother board or Main board. Mother board has mainly Processor, BIOS, ROM, RAM, PCI, HDD, FDD slots etc. These total devices are controlled by the Operating System. Every computer turn on the power button to the appearance of the login screen there are more than hundred peripherals that are initialized and thousand lines of code is executed during the process is called booting [1]. Booting process is explained below. Step-1. When turn on the power, power on self test is supply the power to all the components. Step-2. After power on self test is completed, search for the central processing unit (CPU).

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International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) - volume4Issue4 April 2013
2. Central Processing Unit (C.P.U): In the 1970 the fundamental inventions by Federico Faggin [2]. It is the hardware within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system.
Turn on the Power

A CPU could be contained within a single silicon chip and pins are reset and registers are set to specific value. 3. Basic Input Output System (BIOS): The term Basic Input/Output System was invented by Gary Kildall. The BIOS begins its POST when the CPU is reset. The first memory location the CPU tries to execute is known as the reset vector. In the case of a hard reboot, the north bridge will direct this code fetch request to the BIOS located on the system flash memory. For a warm boot, the BIOS will be located in the proper place in RAM and the north bridge will direct the reset vector call to the RAM. The BIOS software is built into the PC, and is the first software run by a PC when powered on. The fundamental purposes of the BIOS are to initialize and test the system hardware components, and to load an operating system or other program from a mass memory device. The BIOS provides a regular way for application programs and operating systems to interact with the keyboard, display, and other input/output devices. Variations in the system hardware are hidden by the BIOS from programs that use BIOS services instead of directly accessing the hardware. BIOS software is stored on a non-volatile ROM chip on the motherboard. It is specifically designed to work with each particular model of computer and interfacing with various devices [4]. 3.1 BIOS Components

POST (Power on Self Test)

Display the error about CPU

No

CPU is available

Yes
CPU pins are reset are registers are set to specific value

CPU jump to address of BIOS

No
Display the error about BIOS Check BIOS is available

Yes No
Produce the beep sound continuously Check RAM is available

The BIOS may contain components such as the Memory Reference Code (MRC), which is responsible for handling memory timings and related hardware settings. The MRC is a fundamental component in the design of some computers, and is one of the most important aspects of the BIOS for motherboard. It is the part of a motherboards firmware that determines how the computer's memory (RAM) will be read and written, and adjusts memory timing algorithms correctly for the effects of any modifications set by the user or computer hardware. The MRC is responsible for initializing the memory as part of the POST process at power-on. It supports in the MRC for all fully validated memory configurations. For non-validated configurations, a system designer should work with their BIOS vendor to produce a working MRC solution. The MRC in the system BIOS needs to know the specification of the attached system memory. Most of this info should be contained in the onboard Serial Presence Detect (SPD). With this in mind care needs to be taken when programming the appropriate values into the SPD the part of a memory module that contains its operating requirements and

Yes
Jumps to MBR (Master Boot Record)

Primary Boot loader runs from MBR and jumps to secondary boot loader

Secondary boot loader loads Operating System in the RAM

Display the Operating System Desktop

Fig 1. Flow chart of existing booting process

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International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) - volume4Issue4 April 2013
specification. A system designer should work with their memory and BIOS vendors to implement a suitable SPD programming. The MRC is part of reference BIOS code, which relates to memory initialization in the BIOS. It includes information about memory settings, frequency, timing, driving and detailed operations of the memory controller. The MRC is written in a C-language code, which can be edited and compiled by board makers. It provides a space to develop advanced features, and the ability to tune memory. We try to look into Memory Reference Code to try to understand its behaviour. Sometimes, there are some remarks inside the source code, while on other occasions, and we just try to change the arguments to see what effect it has. If we take the time to understand the MRC then we can get more out of it. If we put in more effort than our competitors, we can find more information. The MRC usually only provides support for industry-standard memory configurations. 3.2 BIOS Boot Process When the processor is reset, it loads its program counter with a fixed address near the top of the 1 megabyte real-mode address space. The BIOS ROM chips are located in memory so that this starting address is within the BIOS. A jump instruction then directs the processor to start executing code in the BIOS. If the system has just been powered up ("cold boot"), the full power-on self-test (POST) is run. If the reset button was pressed ("warm boot"), a special flag value is detected in memory and the BIOS does not run the POST. This saves the time otherwise used to test all memory. The power-on self-test tests, identifies, and initializes system devices such as the CPU, RAM, interrupt and DMA controllers and other parts of the chipset, video display card, keyboard, hard disk drive, optical disc drive and other basic hardware. The BIOS then locates boot loader software held on a storage device designated as a 'boot device', such as a hard disk, a floppy disk, or a CD/DVD, and loads and executes that software, giving it control of the PC. This process is known as booting, which is short for "bootstrapping". The BIOS selects candidate boot devices using information collected by POST and configuration information from EEPROM, CMOS RAM or, in the earliest PCs, DIP switches. Option ROMs may also influence or supplant the boot process defined by the motherboard BIOS ROM. The BIOS checks each device in order to see if it is bootable. For a disk drive or a device that logically emulates a disk drive, such as a USB Flash drive or perhaps a tape drive, to perform this check the BIOS attempts to load the first sector (boot sector) from the disk to address 7C00 hexadecimal, and checks for the boot sector signature 0x55 0xAA in the last two bytes of the sector. If the sector cannot be read (due to a missing or blank disk, or due to a hardware failure), or if the sector does not end with the boot signature, the BIOS considers the disk unbootable and proceeds to check the next device. Another device such as a network adapter attempts booting by a procedure that is defined by its option ROM (or the equivalent integrated into the motherboard BIOS ROM). The BIOS proceeds to test each device sequentially until a bootable device is found. At which time the BIOS transfers control to the loaded sector with a jump instruction to its first byte at address 7C00 hexadecimal. A boot sector or boot block is a region of a hard disk, floppy disk, optical disc, or other data storage device that contains machine code to be loaded into random-access memory (RAM) by a computer system's built-in firmware. The purpose of a boot sector is to allow the boot process of a computer to load a program (usually, but not necessarily, an operating system) stored on the same storage device. The location and size of the boot sector (perhaps corresponding to a logical disk sector) is specified by the design of the computing platform [4]. 4. Random Access Memory (RAM): RAM volatile memory. It is made with consist of ICs (Integrated Chips). A randomaccess device allows stored data to be accessed quickly in any random order. The three main forms of modern RAM are static RAM (SRAM), dynamic RAM (DRAM) and phasechange memory (PRAM). In SRAM, a bit of data is stored using the state of a flip-flop. This form of RAM is more expensive to produce, but is generally faster and requires less power than DRAM and, in modern computers, is often used as cache memory for the CPU. DRAM stores a bit of data using a transistor and capacitor pair, which together comprise a memory cell. The capacitor holds a high or low charge 1 or 0, respectively, and the transistor acts as a switch that lets the control circuitry on the chip read the capacitor's state of charge or changes it. As this form of memory is less expensive to produce than static RAM, it is the predominant form of computer memory used in modern computers. Both static and dynamic RAMs are considered volatile, as their state is lost or reset when power is removed from the system. By contrast, read-only memory (ROM) stores data by permanently enabling or disabling selected transistors, such that the memory cannot be altered. Writeable variants of ROM such as EEPROM and flash memory share properties of both ROM and RAM, enabling data to persist without power and to be updated without requiring special equipment [6]. 5. Master Boot Record: RAM is available after search for Master Boot Record. It is a special type of boot sector at the very beginning of partitioned computer mass storage devices like Hard disk or Floppy disk. A Master Boot Record (MBR) is the first sector of a data storage device that has been partitioned. The MBR sector may contain code to locate the active partition and invoke its Volume Boot Record. A Volume Boot Record (VBR) is the first sector of a data storage device that has not been partitioned, or the first sector

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International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) - volume4Issue4 April 2013
of an individual partition on a data storage device that has been partitioned [3]. It may contain code to load and invoke an operating system or other standalone program installed on that device or within that partition [7]. 6. Operating System (O.S): Master boot record is available after search the operating system files and store into the random access memory. This memory is volatile memory means temporarily memory. When the power is off, automatically operating system files are erased in this random access memory. Operating system loads in to the RAM, then after specific time automatically desktop is displayed on the screen. It is interface between the user and computer and controlled the all devices. The operating system is a main component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs usually require an operating system to function. Mainly operating system have Kernel program. It is interface between operating system and hardware. Kernel program is the core program in every operating system. Operating system functions are execute the programs, interrupts, memory management, virtual memory, multi tasking, disk access and file system, device drivers, networking and security [8]. Historical achievements in operating systems are Batch programming in 1955, Symmetric multi processing in 1961, Multi programming in 1967, Virtual memory in 1969, Multi tasking in 1970, Micro kernel in 1986 [9]. The operating system fundamental ideas are Open Shop for the idea of operating systems, Batch Processing for Tape batching First-in first-out scheduling, Multiprogramming for Processor multiplexing ,Indivisible operations, Demand paging, Input/output spooling, Priority scheduling and Remote job entry, Timesharing for Simultaneous user interaction Online systems, Concurrent Programming for Hierarchical systems, Extensible kernels, Parallel programming concepts, Secure parallel languages, Personal Computing for Graphic user interfaces, Distributed Systems for Remote servers [10]. III. CONTRIBUTION In the existing booting process sequence is power on self test; BIOS activate, search for RAM availability, load the operating system files in random access memory and finally display the desktop screen. In the proposed booting process sequence is power on self test; BIOS activate, search for RAM availability, search for the operating system chip, load the operating system files in random access memory and finally display the desktop screen. Only difference is total operating system files are store in a single chip and attached to the motherboard. In this type of way operating system is not infected by the virus, because operating system files are stored permanently in a single chip.
Display the error about CPU Turn on the Power

POST (Power on Self Test)

No

CPU is available

Yes
CPU pins are reset are registers are set to specific value

CPU jump to address of BIOS

Display the error about BIOS

No

Check BIOS is available

Yes
Produce the beep sound continuously

No

Check RAM is available

Yes
Display the error about Operating System

No

Check O.S. Chip available

Yes
Load Operating System in the RAM

Display the Operating System Desktop

Fig 2. Flow chart of proposed booting process

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International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) - volume4Issue4 April 2013
IV. CONCLUSION The proposed structure of the operating system is very useful to the user. It is located in the chip and not infected by the virus. This type of chip is worked as very fast. Normally operating system is installed by the user. It is very difficult to the unknown of hardware knowledge of users. But the proposed structure of operating system is very useful to the every user. In this manner piracy software will not be used by the user. And decrease the booting time process. In this proposed structure of operating system have mainly disadvantage is any newly operating system is coming to the market, then that new operating system chip is buy every time. REFERENCES
[1] http://www.engineersgarage.com/tutorials/how-computer-pcboots-up [2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_processing_unit [3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Booting [4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BIOS [5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power-on_self-test [6] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Random-access_memory [7] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_boot_record [8] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operating_system [9] Qurat-ul-Ain Malik, M. Aqeel Iqbal, Nauman Khan and Hamza Khan and Haider Ali, Modern Trends Used In Operating Systems for High Speed Computing Applications in International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering, Vol. 02, No. 05, 2010, 1514-1523. [10] P. Brinch Hansen, The evolution of operating systems. In Classic Operating Systems: From Batch Processing to Distributed Systems, 2000, Springer-Verlag, New York.

Syed Khasim received the Masters degree M.C.A from Madurai Kamaraj University. He received Master of Philosophy M.Phil in Computer Science from Periyar University. He received M.Tech Information Technology from Karnataka State Open University. He is working as an Associate Professor in Department of Computer Science & Engineering in Dr.Samuel George Institute of Engineering & Technology, Markapur, A.P, India. He is a member of IAENG, IACSIT, CSTA, UACEE, SDIWC. His research interests are Software Engineering, Database Management Systems, and Computer Networks.

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